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ARCO NORTE REGIONAL TOURISM DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK

PHASE 1 CONTEXT AND CONCEPT REPORT.

THE TEAM: ARCO NORTE RESORT MASTER PLANNING CONSORTIUM:

ARCHITECTS URBAN DESIGN AND TOWN PLANNING

Pattichides and Partners


Holm Jordaan Group
Architecture and Design
PO Box 1852
PO Box 1672
Groenkloof 0040,
0075, Brooklyn Square 0027,
Tel : (012) 460-3226
Tel: (012) 346-0440
Fax : (012) 346-4168
Fax: (012) 346-0441
ENGINEERING DISCIPLINES ENVIRONMENTAL SPECIALISTS

Aurecon South Africa (Pty) Ltd Strategic Enviromental Focus


PO Box 905 PO Box 74785
0145 Pretoria Lynnwood Ridge
Tel : (012) 427-2000 Tel : (012) 349-1307
Fax : (012) 427-2387 Fax : (012) 349-1229
URBAN ECONOMIST QUANTUTY SURVEYORS

Demacon Davis Langdon


PO Box 95530 PO Box 11374
Waterkloof 0001 0028, Hatfield,
Tel : (012) 460-7009 Tel : (012) 460-5100
Fax : (012) 346-5883 Fax : (012) 460-5677
ARCO NORTE REGIONAL TOURISM DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK
PHASE 1 CONTEXT AND CONCEPT REPORT.
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SECTION A

CONTENTS

SECTION A:

1. Introduction And Background


2. Methodology
3. Inventory Of Exisisting Studies & Reports
4. The Institutional Framework / Reporting Structure
5. Project Liason Structure & Consultation
6. Report Structure

Section B: Context Analsis

1. The Study Area: Mozambique


1.1 The Study Area For Arco Norte Tourism Framework
2. Natural Environment
2.1 The Climate
2.2 Vegetation
2.2 Nature Areas In The National Context
2.3 Protected Areas Of Northern Mozambique
2.4 Agricultural Potential
3 Infrastructure And Built Environment
3.1 Settlements And Land Use
3.2 Architectural Context Of Northern Mozambique
3.3 Development Corridors
3.4 Air Linkage
3.5 Ports
3.6 Road Linkage
3.7 Rail Linkage
3.8 Power Stations And Supply
3.9 Water And Sanitation
4 Social Environment
4.3 National Demographics
10.5 Poverty
10.6 Employment
10.7 Health
5 Economic
5.1 Economic Linkages With Surrounding Countries And Main Trading Partners
5.2 Main Resources And Areas
5.3 Main Areas Of Economic Activity
5.4 Regional Development Nodes
5.5 Regional And Sub-Regional Development Drivers
5.6 Broad Market Potential
6 Instututional Environment
6.1 National And Provincial Planning Legislation
6.2 Tourism Government Bodies And Structure
6.2 Tourism Development Company Law, Regulations And Powers
6.4 Strategic Plan For The Development Of Tourism In Mozambique (2004- 2013)
7. Tourism Environment
7.1 Tourism Markets
7.2 Tourism Products
8. Synthesis
8.1 Tourism As A System
8.2 Demand For Tourism Products
8.3 Supply Of Tourism Services And Facilities
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8.4 Tourism Linkages

9. Opportunities & Constraints


9.1 Opportunities Can Be Summarized As:
9.2 Constraints Can Be Summarized As:
9.3 Key Success Factors In Support Of The Positioning
9.4 Summary Of Opportunities At Various Tourist Destinations

Section C Development Framework

1. Development Conept
2. Delopment Framework

Section D: Implementation And Management Framework

1. Guidelines For Development


2 Programmes, Policies And Projects

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SECTION A

SECTION A: INTRODUCTION

1. INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND

The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) through Nathan Associates Incorporated provided tech-
nical assistance to the Ministry of Tourism of the Republic of Mozambique (MITUR) for the
development of Mater Plans for three potential tourism investment areas in Northern Mozambique. The
Master Plans form part of the implementation of Mozambique’s national tourism policy for the three most northern prov-
inces of Mozambique, namely Cabo Delgado, Nampula and Niassa.

The Master Plans follows a project funded by USAID that was completed in 2008 by John Robinson Planning and Design,
Conceptual Land Use Planning & Design, a Framework for Tourism Development in Northern Mozambique. That project
identified Potential Tourism Investment Areas (PIA) in each of the three Northern provinces with tourism opportunities,
conceptual land uses and projects for implementation.

The Potential Tourism Investment Areas (PIA) that were indentified in that project was:
Cabo Delgado Province - The Pemba Bay and 14 km stretch of coastline to Murrebue in the Mecufi District and Ilha do Ibo
(The Querimbas).
Nampula Province - The Cabaceiras i.e. 5km Lumbo-Sangule beachfront, including the old town of Lumbo with substantial
stock of abandoned buildings.
Niassa Province - Metangula Lakeshore (Metangula District) and Lichinga City (Municipality of Lichinga).

This project aims to provide Integrated Tourism Master Plans for the Potential Tourism Investment Areas.

The goal is to position Northern Mozambique as a world class; sustainable tourism destination based on the regions
unique historic, cultural and natural resources. Specifically, the project seeks to enhance competitiveness, sustain economic
growth by creating an industry friendly policy environment and transforming tourism into a major sector that:

Attracts large private investments and partnerships;


Stimulates tourism related businesses and agricultural transformation;
Creates increased opportunities for employment;
Contributes significantly to enrichment and empowerment of destination communities; and Preserves the environment.

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2. METHODOLOGY

The methodology for Phase 1 involved an analysis of the context to determine the key issues, opportunities and con-
straints. There after a Regional Framework was developed giving direction for the formulation of Development Frame-
works for each of the provincial tourism destination nodes. Phase 1 concluded with development guidelines for the
Regional Framework as well as the Provincial Destination Frameworks.

The context was researched through literature studies, three consecutive site visits involving various specialist investiga-
tions, sample collections and surveys. Satellite imagery was obtained for the various study areas and later supplemented
with georeferenced aerial imagery and contour data. The result was accurate environmental data that forms the basis for
sustainable development proposals

Every affected community was consulted in a social survey to determine needs and issues to ensure involvement in the
development process.
The context and development of concepts were presented in workshops with various officials during the course of Phase
1 and valuable feedback were received which lead important adjustments.

Fig A001: Methodology Phase 1 Development framework

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A Phase 2 Master Plan site In Pemba was selected and used to test guidelines in order to draft pre-feasibility criteria for
the selection of Master plan sites.

After the approval and completion of Phase 1, Master Plans for a number of tourism nodes within each Provincial Tourism
Destination will be prepared. These Master Plans will consists of a development plan with projects, programmes and policy
implications. A pilot project in each province will be selected for detail development proposals and business plans.

Fig A002: Methodology Phase 2

3. INVENTORY OF EXISISTING STUDIES & REPORTS

• Strategic Plan for the Development of Tourism in Mozambique (2004-2013)

• Cabo Delgado Preliminary Integrated Tourism Development Plan, 2007, Gerorge Wahington University and Nathan
Associates Inc.

• Cabo Delgado Assessment Report: Attractions and Services, 2007

• Mike Fabricius in June 2006, MARKETING STRATEGY AND ACTION PROGRAMME FOR NORTHERN MOZAM-
BIQUE

• Solimar International, 2008 Geotourism Needs Assessment

• Geotoursim Map Guide

• Value Chain Analysis and Recommendations for Northern Mozambique, 2007

• Plan for the Development of Tourism in Niassa Province (2005-2015)


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4. THE INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK / REPORTING STRUCTURE

Fig A003: Institutional Framework Reporting Structure

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5 COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT

Fig A004: Comunity Engagement. F Asalo

INTEGRATED STAKEHOLDER ENGAGEMENT

Stakeholder Engagement is a fundamental process which promotes honesty in governance, identifying needs, constraints
and opportunities for effective implementation of the Arco Norte Tourism Master Plan process. This process has provided
the local communities with the following opportunities:-

• Opportunity to raise their issues, concerns and suggestions regarding the Arco Norte Tourism Master Plan;
• Opportunity to interact on a one-on-one basis with the Project team;
• Ensure that affected communities are integrated into the Arco Norte Tourism Master Plan;
• Opportunity to Identify possible Socio-Economic benefits for the surrounding communities;
• Raise maximum awareness of the project to the communities; and

The Stakeholder list is categorized in terms of different interest groups to facilitate the required extent of the stakeholder
identification exercise.

STAKEHOLDER CATEGORIES INCLUDE:

• Provincial Authorities and Local Authorities;


• Residence Association/s;
• Adjacent Landowners;
• Non-governmental Organizations;
• Community Based Organizations;
• Communities and Community Leaders;
• Developers; and
• Service Providers

Prior to the commencement of the community meetings, two focus group meetings with Local Authorities and Commu-
nity Leaders were held. The objective of the meetings was to have an understanding of communities needs from the local
service provider perspective, to know about their cultural and religious practices and most of all to get permission to
meet with communities.

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6. REPORT STRUCTURE

The full spectrum of the tourism environment was investigated in order to contextualize the Master Plan sites in terms of
the planning environment on a number of planning levels. The level and intensity of detail increase with each planning level
to facilitate implementation and to provide appropriate contextual information to structure and plan long term sustainable
projects.
The planning levels that form the structure of this FRAMEWORK include:
National and Northern Mozambique Tourism Region
Provincial Tourism Destinations
Tourism Node Plans Areas within each Provincial Tourism Destination
Site Development Plans for three selected pilot tourism projects (one in each province).
The following diagram serves to illustrate the different planning levels.

Fig A005: Planning Levels.

SECTION B: CONTEXT ANALYSIS

The following planning environments were analysed to understand the existing context of the study area for the Northern
Region The Natural Environment

The Built Environment


The social Environment
The Economic Environment
The Institutional Environment
The Tourism Environment

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Fig B001: Map of Mozambique.

1. THE STUDY AREA: MOZAMBIQUE

Mozambique is situated on the Indian Ocean coast of Southern Africa. It is bordered by South Africa to the south, Tanzania
to the north and has inland borders with Malawi, Zambia, Zimbabwe and Swaziland. The country has a coastline of 2800km,
with an area of 799 380km² and is roughly two thirds the size of South Africa.
It has a population of approximately 20 million people and is expected to exceed 30 million by 2020. The population has
grown by more than 50% in the 20 years since independence.

Mozambique has 10 provinces that can be grouped into the following three regions:
• Northern Mozambique (Cabo Delgado, Nampula and Niassa provinces).
• Central Mozambique (Manica, Sofala, Tete and Zambézia provinces).
• Southern Mozambique (Gaza, Inhambane and Maputo provinces)

Approximately 60% of the population live in rural areas and the most densely populated provinces are Zambezia, Nampula
and Maputo.
The capital city is Maputo (population approximately 1000 000) in the most southern province, which is the economic hub
of the country. Other main towns includes Beira (400 000), Nampula (300 000), Chimoio (170 000), Nacala (160 000) and
Quelimane (150 000).
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1.1 THE STUDY AREA FOR ARCO NORTE TOURISM FRAMEWORK

The focus of this tourism study is on the northern region of the country including the provinces of Cabo Delgado, Nam-
pula and Niassa. The provinces form an arch over the central region and therefore the name Arco Norte.

Fig B002: Map of Mozambique. Fig B003: Map ofthe 3 Northern Provinces.

2. NATURAL ENVIRONMENT

Mozambique is a vast country and stretches out along the Indian Ocean (over 2.800 km of coastline). It is particularly
vulnerable to natural disasters (floods, droughts, cyclones, etc.) due to its climate and maritime front where a number of
rivers flow, including the Zambezi.
The country is bounded on the north by Tanzania; on the east by the Mozambique Channel of the Indian Ocean; on the
south and southwest by South Africa and Swaziland; and on the west by Zimbabwe, Zambia, and Malawi. It occupies a total
area of 801 590 km2 between latitudes 10° 27´ and 26° 52´ S and longitudes 30° 12´ and 40° 51´ E.
2.1 THE CLIMATE

According to the FAO (2009), the climate in Mozambique is described as Sub-tropical in the Southern region and fully
tropical in the Central and Northern region. The eco-region of Mozambique is characterized by mild temperatures, with
most of the rain falling in the warm austral summer months. A high-pressure system dominates over the southern African
plateau for much of the year, and northeast and southeast airstreams from the Indian Ocean bring rain to the area during
the months of October to March. The eco-region experiences annual rainfall of 800-1400 mm per annum. Mean maximum
temperatures range between 20’C and 35’C, with mean minimum temperatures averaging 18°C (WWF, 2001)

SIGNIFICANCE FOR TOURISM IN THE ARCO NORTE

Tourist can enjoy hot sunshine days in summer and mild to warm sunshine filled days during the winter months. This
makes northern Mozambique an all year tourist destination.

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2.2 ECOLOGY

Biological diversity, or biodiversity, refers to the diversity of life on earth at all levels of biological organization, including at
the genetic, species and ecosystem level, and the relationships between these levels. As biological diversity does not follow
jurisdictional boundaries, classification of conservation planning units in the form of ecoregions are therefore necessary at
a global scale. According to the World Wildlife Fund (WWF, 2009), an ecoregion is defined as a large area of land or water
that contains a geographically distinct assemblage of natural communities that:

(a) share a large majority of their species and ecological dynamics;


(b) share similar environmental conditions, and;
(c) interact ecologically in ways that are critical for their long-term persistence.

At present, 867 terrestrial ecoregions, 426 freshwater ecoregions and 232 coast and shelf marine ecoregions are recog-
nized at a global scale by the WWF.

2.2.1 TERRESTRIAL BIODIVERSITY

The following ecoregions are recognised at a global scale by WWF for Mozambique.

2.2.2.1 EAST AFRICAN MANGROVES

The East African Mangrove ecoregion encompass mangrove areas found in Mozambique, Tanzania, Kenya, and Somalia, with
the dominant climatic influences being the seasonal wind patterns, associated with the Northeast monsoon and the South-
east monsoon, which blow towards the mainland from the northeast and southeast, respectively, at different times of year
and which affect the movement of the major coastal currents. This mangrove ecoregion includes the two largest stands
of mangrove on the East African coast (Zambezi and Rufiji Delta systems). These two sites, in addition to many smaller
mangrove areas located along the eastern coast of Africa, are of greatest importance for migratory birds, sea turtles, small
remnant populations of dugong, as well as being vital in their role as nursery areas for marine fauna, particularly shrimps
(WWF, 2010).

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Fig B004: East African Mangroves.

Terrestrial ecoregions associated with the provinces of Niassa, Nampula and Cabo Delgado. The Map provides an indica-
tion of the terrestrial ecoregions associated with Mozambique. Of the 867 terrestrial ecoregions identified at a global level
by Olson et al (2001), 13 were determined to be associated with Mozambique, while five were determined to be associ-
ated with the provinces of Niassa, Nampula and Cabo Delgado within the northern regions of Mozambique. These include
the East African Mangrove, the Eastern Miombo Woodland, the Southern Zanzibar-Inhambane Coastal Forest Mosaic, the
Zambezian and Mopane Woodlands and the Zambezian Flooded Grassland ecoregions.

2.2.2.2 EASTERN MIOMBO WOODLAND

The Eastern Miombo Woodland ecoregion consists of a relatively unbroken area covering the interior regions of south-
eastern Tanzania and the northern half of Mozambique, with a few patches extending into southeastern Malawi. The overall
faunal diversity of this ecoregion is moderate, but generally lower than its neighboring miombo ecoregions. Floral biodiver-
sity within this ecoregion is generally thought to be well preserved as a result of the movement of people out of the rural
areas to the coastal and urban areas as a result of the conflict which took place in the area. However, these figures may
reflect insufficient surveys, especially in northern Mozambique. True species richness could be significantly higher than pres-
ently estimated (WWF, 2010).

2.2.2.3 SOUTHERN ZANZIBAR-INHAMBANE COASTAL FOREST MOSAIC

The Southern Zanzibar-Inhambane Coastal Forest Mosaic ecoregion forms the southern extension of the Northern
Zanzibar-Inhambane Coastal Forests Mosaic ecoregion. This ecoregion, extending south of the Lukuledi River (Tanzania)
down to nearly the mouth of the Limpopo River (Mozambique), supports a mosaic of dry forest, savanna, woodland and

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swamps, and falls under the influence of the Madagascar rainshadow, resulting in the area receiving typically lower rainfall
than the Northern Zanzibar-Inhambane Coastal Forests Mosaic ecoregion. This ecoregion is typified by a high density of
endemic species in the northern portion (southern Tanzania) followed by an almost complete lack of data in the central
portion (northern and central Mozambique). The southern portion (in Mozambique) is again characterized by narrowly
endemic species. The ecoregion is very poorly known due to the prolonged civil war in Mozambique, and the status of the
biodiversity of the habitats of the ecoregion, particularly in northern Mozambique, are largely unknown. As a result, the
Southern Zanzibar-Inhambane Coastal Forest Mosaic ecoregion is a priority area for further biological investigation and for
the establishment of new protected areas (WWF, 2010).

2.2.2.4 ZAMBEZIAN AND MOPANE WOODLANDS

Zambezian and Mopane Woodlands are widespread throughout the lower-lying areas in the eastern half of southern Af-
rica, and are characterized by the dominance of the tree Colophospermum mopane (the Mopane Tree) which is the sole
canopy species throughout much of its range. The ecoregion is composed of portions of three of White’s (1983) vegeta-
tion mapping units falling within the Zambezian regional center of endemism, namely the mopane woodlands and scrub
woodlands, the north Zambezian undifferentiated woodland and wooded grassland, and the south Zambezian undifferenti-
ated woodland and scrub woodland. The flora of the Zambezian and Mopane Woodlands ecoregion is not characterized
by high species diversity throughout its range, although White’s (1983) two Zambezian woodland types mapped within this
ecoregion are considered floristically rich. Furthermore, this ecoregion is one of the most important areas for vertebrate
diversity in southern Africa, particularly for mammals. The biota and associated natural processes remain largely intact as a
result of the extensive and well-maintained system of national parks and reserves in the ecoregion (WWF, 2010).

2.2.2.5 ZAMBEZIAN FLOODED GRASSLAND

Embedded predominantly within miombo and mopane woodlands, the Zambezian Flooded Grasslands form a discontinu-
ous ecoregion distributed between northern Botswana in the south, to northern Tanzania. This ecoregion comprises the
Kilombero Valley, Moyowosi / Malagarasi system and the Ugalla River in Tanzania, the Okavango Delta in Botswana, Lake
Chilwa in Malawi, the Barotse Floodplain, the Kafue Flats, Busanga and Lukanga Swamps, Lake Mweru, Mweru Marsh and
Bangwuelu / Luapala / Chambezi system in Zambia and a number of smaller floodplains and wetlands. Floristically, this
ecoregion falls within the Zambezian Phytochorion, the largest of White’s (1983) centers of plant endemism within Africa.
Faunally, there are generally few endemic species in this ecoregion, but there are high levels of species richness (WWF,
2009).

2.2.2. AQUATIC BIODIVERSITY


2.2.2.1 FRESHWATER ECO REGIONS

The following freshwater eco-regions occur in the Northern Region.

COASTAL EAST AFRICA

The Coastal East Africa freshwater ecoregion is situated along the eastern coasts of Tanzania and Mozambique, and ex-
tends from the Wami River basin southwards to the Luala River basin directly above the Lower Zambezi Basin. The ecore-
gion includes the lakes of Chilwa and Chiuta, the Ruaha/Rufiji, Ruvuma, and Lúrio Rivers, as well as other smaller coastal
basins. The ecoregion includes Lakes Chilwa and Chiuta, the Ruaha/Rufiji, Ruvuma, and Lúrio Rivers, as well as other smaller
coastal basins. Approximately thirty percent of the 100-odd described fish species found within the Coastal East African
freshwater ecoregion are endemic, while over 60 frog species are known from the mountainous region of Tanzania alone.
The lowland coastal forests also support important dragonfly assemblages. Nevertheless, the Coastal East African freshwa-
ter ecoregion is considered to be poor with regards to the level of taxonomic exploration (FEOW, 2009).

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LAKE NIASSA

Lake Malawi is the southern-most lake of the Rift Valley and is bordered by the countries of Malawi, Mozambique and
Tanzania, and is the ninth-largest lake in the world, having a surface area of approximately 30,000 sq km. A large number of
rivers (>200) flow into Lake Malawi, many of which are short and only flow in the rainy season. The Shire River which links
Lake Malawi and Lake Malombe, shows long term and seasonal variability. Richness of fish taxa is exceedingly high in this
ecoregion, with the number of identified fish species within the lake is considered to be greater than 800, and an estimated
3,000 recognisable fish taxa (species and populations) are suggested to be found in the lake. Furthermore, the degree of
endemicity associated with lake is considerable, with 99% of the more than 800 cichlid species, over 70% of the 17 clariid
species, and many of the lacustrine invertebrates being endemic. In addition to the high number of fish species associated
with the ecoregion, approximately 200 mammal, 650 bird, over 30 freshwater mollusc and over 5,500 plant species are
know from the ecoregion (FEOW, 2009). The level of taxonomic exploration of the Lake Malawi ecoregion is considered
to be fair.

Fig B006: Freshwater Eco regions Fig B007: Marine Eco regions

FRESHWATER ECOREGIONS:

Of the 426 freshwater ecoregions presently identified at a global level, eight were identified to fall within Mozambique
while only two were identified to fall within the provinces of Niassa, Nampula and Cabo Delgado within the northern
regions of Mozambique (Abell et al, 2008). These included the Coastal East Africa freshwater ecoregion and the Lake
Malawi ecoregion.

2.2.2.2 MARINE ECO REGIONS

According to Spalding et al (2007), three of the 232 coast and shelf marine ecoregion recognized at a global scale are
associated with Mozambique, whereas only two are associated with the northern provinces of Mozambique, namely Bight
of Sofala / Swamp Coast and East African Coral Coast marine ecoregions.
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SIGNIFICANCE FOR TOURISM IN THE ARCO NORTE


MARINE ECO REGIONS

BIGHT OF SOFALA / SWAMP COAST


The Bight of Sofala / Swamp Forest marine ecoregion extends from the Mogincual District in Nampula Province to Baza-
ruto Island. No further descriptions of this ecoregion were available at the time of writing.

EAST AFRICAN CORAL COAST


The East African Coral Coast marine ecoregion extends from Tanzania south to within the vicinity of the Mogincual Dis-
trict in Nampula Province. No further descriptions of this ecoregion were available at the time of writing.

2.3 PARKS AND RESERVES

Mozambique is internationally recognized for a good number of its ecological features due to its unique species biodi-
versity. This ranges from nature reserves, wilderness areas, national parks, marine and littoral areas to an internationally
protected wetland under the Ramsar convention.

On a National level, Mozambique has six national parks, of one of these are within the Arco Norte region. They are:-

Baninhe National Park – Gaza Province


Bazaruto National Park – Inhambane Province
Gorongosa National Park – Sofala Province
Limpopo National Park – Gaza Province
Quirimbas National Park – Cabo Delgado Province
Zinave National Park

The following are the National reserves of Mozambique:-

Gilé National Reserve - Zambézia (2,100 km²)


Maputo Special Reserve - Maputo(700 km²)
Marromeu Buffalo Reserve - Sofala (1,500 km²)
Niassa National Reserve - Niassa (42,200 km²)
Pomene National Reserve - Inhambane (200 km²)
Chimanimani National Reserve - Manica (6400 km²)

Futi Corridor.
Maputo Protection Area (Marine)

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TRANS FRONTIER PARKS

Fig B008: Trans Frontier Parks source : Peace Parks Foundation web page.

Peace Parks Foundation is a non-profit organisation that facilitates the establishment of trans frontier conservation areas.

The Southern African Development Community(SADC) Protocol on Wildlife Conservation and Law Enforcement of 1999
defines a TFCA as “the area or component of a large ecological region that straddles the boundaries of two or more
countries, encompassing one or more protected areas as well as multiple resource use areas”. The Protocol commits the
SADC Member States to promote the conservation of shared wildlife resources through the establishment of transfron-
tier conservation areas.
Transfrontier Conservation Areas (TFCAs) play an important role in the establishment of a stronger co-operation relation-
ship. TFCAs can play an important role in speeding up tourism conservation areas development in Mozambique. Limpopo
National Park ( Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe).

• Lubombo Conservancy-Goba (Mozambique/Swaziland)


• Usuthu- Tembe-Futi (Swaziland/South Africa/ Mozambique).
• Pota do Oura-Kosi Bay (Mozambique/ South Africa)

The Niassa-Selous Park in the north is in a conceptual phase

THE GREATER RUVUMA WILDERNESS RESERVE

Mozambique’s largest protected land area covering 42,200 square kilometers is the Niassa Game Reserve located in
Northern Mozambique. It contains the greatest concentration of wild life in Mozambique. Further up north (trans-bound-
ary) in Southern Tanzania is the Selous Game Reserve, which covers 47,000 km² making it the largest protected area in
Africa (Hahn, 2004). The collective trans-boundary linkage between the Selous and Niassa Game reserves in Tanzania and
Mozambique respectively which follows the course of River Ruvuma is known as Selous-Niassa / Greater Ruvuma Reserve.

In 2007, the Regional Administrations and local Governments of Mtwara and Ruvuma of Tanzania and the Provincial Gov-

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ernments of Cabo Delgado and Niassa of Mozambique signed a MoU on cross-border cooperation to promote regional
economic growth, development, the traditions of good neighbourliness and a peaceful environment. Thus, cross-border
conservation was officially recognised and identified as one of the key areas for cooperation to promote tourism develop-
ment through Environmental conservation between the two countries.

Fig B009: The Greater Ruvuma Wilderness Reserve Fig B010: Trans-boundary Linkage of the Corridor

TRANS-BOUNDARY LINKAGE OF THE CORRIDOR

The Selous – Niassa Wildlife Corridor provides a significant biological link between the two reserves (countries) and con-
sequently for the Miombo woodland eco-system, thus conserving one of the largest elephant ranges in the world.
The corridor linkage between both countries has a size of approximately 10,000 km². Starting at the most southern border
of Selous Game Reserve the corridor extends over 160 km south until reaching Ruvuma River, the border of the Niassa
Reserve in Mozambique, where it has a width of 176 km following the river’s course.

UNIQUE ECOSYSTEM OF THE WILDLIFE CORRIDOR

Several studies conducted by various International organizations suggest the presence of man-eating lions in the southern
(Niassa, Mozambique) side of the corridor, particularly in the Tunduru district (Hahn, 2004). Lions are numerous in the
Northern (Selous) region of the corridor, while leopards are common in the entire corridor. Other species of wildlife in
the entire corridor are Elephant, Buffalo, Eland, Greater Kudu, Sable Antelope, Hippo, Lichtenstein, Hartebeest, Common
Waterbuck, Bushbuck, Common Duiker, Southern Reedbuck, Wildebeest, Zebra, Impala, Klippspringer, Warthog, Bush pig.

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THE INTERNATIONAL CULTURAL HERITAGE OF SELOUS-NIASSA RESERVE

The Swahili word for the Selous-Niassa reserve is known as “Ushoroba”. Popular belief in this region suggests that the
history of the reserve is linked to Northern Mozambique culture. Up to date a few cultural historical sites exists, which in-
clude an old smelting site with remains of slag on Angecha Island in Ruvuma River, Nandanga Battlefields dating from World
War I and Matawali Cave at Chingoli Table Mountain, a hide out during the Maji Maji War -1905/07 (GTZ, 2004).

TOURISM POTENTIAL OF THE RUVUMA RESERVE


A great potential for trans-boundary tourism development that integrates nature with cultural African experience
exists within the Greater Ruvuma corridors. In recent years, there has been a higher demand for nature based tourism.
Studies show that with increased biodiversity (e.g. increase in number of bird species) tourist demonstrated increasing
willingness to visit a protected area independently of all other factors (Naidoo and Adamowicz, 2003).
Potential that exist for tourism development within the reserve includes:-

• Nature based tourism in Northern Mozambique in combination with economic development while maintaining
biodiversity.
• The exploiting the multi-cultural visitor experience in combination with varying biodiversity along the 178km
border between Selous in Tanzania and Niassa in Mozambique.

TOURISM CONSTRAINTS OF THE RUVUMA RESERVE

Despite its huge potential and being the largest game reserve corridor in Africa, studies carried out suggests that little or
no footprint exists for tourism. This could either be due to inland inaccessibility from both the North (Tanzania) and the
south (Mozambique).

Some of the constraints that currently exist for maximizing ecotourism opportunities within thereserve include the fol-
lowing:-

• Poor transportation infrastructure from inland Mozambique making accessibility difficult for prospective tourists.
• Resident population and conflict between man and nature.
• The challenge to manage external human interference in order to maintain the elevated levels
un-spoilt biodiversity.

SIGNIFICANCE FOR TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN ARCO NORTE:

There are strong tourism linkages between Mozambique and its neighbouring countries through the Peace Parks that
could be exploited to promote regional integration of tourism development. However, TFCAs are not an end result, and
greater focus must be placed on their role in the tourism landscape, with emphasis on the linkages between the TFCAs
and the coast (bush-beach linkages) in order to maximize impact and create a platform for investment attraction and
growth.
The proposed Niassa-Selous Park could create great regional tourism opportunities with Arco Norte benefiting from the
established tourism sector and trade in Tanzania.

2. PROTECTED AREAS OF NORTHERN MOZAMBIQUE

Northern Mozambique has three protected areas namely:

• Niassa Reserve
• Quirimbas National Park and
• Manda Wilderness

The map indicates protected areas, areas of endemism, hunting buffer areas, and hunting camps.

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Fig B011: PROTECTED AREAS OF NORTHERN MOZAMBIQUE

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2.1 NIASSA RESERVE

Fig B012: NIASSA RESERVE

Niassa National Reserve (NNR) is located in northern Mozambique on the border with Tanzania. It is one of the largest
protected areas in Africa (42 000 km²) and is considered to be one of the “Last of the Wild” and most undeveloped places
in Africa. Despite decades of war and neglect with only recent rehabilitation (2000), this extensive wilderness has survived
largely intact (black rhino have disappeared).
The protected area supports the largest concentrations of wildlife remaining in Mozambique including viable populations of
the African lion, African wild dog, leopard and spotted hyaena. In addition these populations are linked to carnivore popula-
tions to the north in Tanzania (Selous Game Reserve) through the Selous – Niassa Wildlife Corridor.

Rock art in the area shows that Niassa has always supported a human population and today more than 30 000 local resi-
dents live inside the protected area spread across 40 villages. Shifting subsistence agriculture is the primary land use and
main economic activity. Cattle are absent due to tsetse fly, the vector for the disease trypanosomiasis, but smaller livestock,
primarily goats and chickens, and domestic dogs are present in the larger villages.

The Niassa Carnivore Project (NCP) has been working in NNR since 2003 in close collaboration with SRN (The Society
for the Development of the Niassa Reserve - the Management Authority of NNR), Niassa communities and tourism opera-

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tors. Through the work of the Niassa carnivore project, a population of more than 350 African wild dogs and 800-1000
lions have been identified in Niassa Reserve. As a result both lions and African wild dogs have been identified as a priority
for research and conservation by SRN (the Management Authority of the Reserve). In addition NNR has been identified
regionally as a priority for both lion and African wild dog conservation in eastern and southern Africa. The lion population
is believed to be one of only five lion populations left in Africa that is currently increasing, with Niassa

National Reserve a priority area for lion conservation while the Selous-Niassa trans-frontier wild dog population is the
second largest wild dog population remaining in Africa. In addition, Niassa Reserve provides the core and source of largely
unprotected lion and African wild dog populations extending from the east coast of Mozambique at Pemba to the western
boundary with Malawi at Lake Niassa and extending 100 km southwards.

Fig B013: Source: http://www.predatorconservation.com/niassa.htm

Despite the huge potential there is no investment in eco-tourism in the Reserve. Various initiatives for safari camps have
been explored but due to various reasons no permanent operators have settled in the Reserve yet. The Serena Group has
also pursued interest but without a final outcome yet. Hunting is currently the only revenue generating activity in the
Reserve. The area is vast and the operators operate almost isolated with very little control over their activities.

Many of the problems of Reserva de Niassa have a legal nature. Problems include:

- Legal status of a ‘Reserve’ versus ‘National Park’ - what activities are and are not allowed
- Import of cars, arms
- Distribution of Hunting Quota over the country and within the Reserve over the Hunting Blocks
- CITES regulations. Government does not conform to CITES regulations. Mozambique might be banned if not
urgently treated.
- Classification of roads in the Reserve (negative environmental impact of major roads going through the Reserve).

To date there are a number of community based schemes being developed including sustainable harvest of honey, problem
animal control measures, economic distribution of revenues earned by the reserve, limited health and medical facilities,
employment and training within the reserve creating posts for some 70 rangers, scouts and ancillary staff in the campsites.
(Summary Strategic Plan for Tourism Development Prepared by Irene Visser for Nathan Associates – January/February
2005).

There is huge potential to link existing tourism industry of Tanzania with the Niassa Reserve, provided proper facilities
and control over the resource has been established. The tourism authorities of Tanzania have indicated their willingness to

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cooperate but they have a huge resistance against the current hunting practices in the reserve. This is an urgent matter to
be addressed on a policy level.

2.2 QUIRIMBAS NATIONAL PARK

Up until 2002 Cabo Delgado province where Qurimbas region is located had been the scene of numerous conflicts stem-
ming from the use of natural resources. Local fishermen had to face competition while fish resources were dwindling and
farmers’ fields were damaged by elephants. The region’s 55 000 inhabitants mobilized to tackle these problems and defined
a protected development framework. In 2002, thanks to support from local NGOs and WWF, they managed to obtain
national park status for Quirimbas.

In June 2002, the council of ministers of the government of Mozambique approved the declaration of the Quirimbas ar-
chipelago as a national park in response to a request from local communities and other stakeholders who live within and
around the archipelago. Quirimbas Park covers 7 500 km² which include 20% of marine areas and around eleven islands.
It houses great biodiversity: numerous endemic plants, remarkable terrestrial wildlife (elephants, leopards, lions) and a rich
marine ecosystem (leatherback turtles, coral, dugongs, dolphins, sharks and birds).

Fig B013: QUIRIMBAS NATIONAL PARK

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2.3 MANDA WILDERNESS

Located in the area of Cobue on the shores of Lake Niassa, Manda Wilderness is comprised of Nkwichi Lodge, a luxury
tourist complex in a 650 hectares concession which includes 4 kilometres of pristine shoreline and a 150,000 hectare
community-owned conservation area (not formally registered yet). Within this area, there are eight beaches, many rocky
outcrops and untouched Brachistegia / Miombo woodland. The investors first signed an agreement with the local commu-
nity in 1998 and received its final tourism and land license in 2003.

Fig B014: Manda Wilderness

SIGNIFICANCE FOR TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN ARCO NORTE:

The key element of success is to ensure that the natural resources that make up the biodiversity are preserved, but at
the same time opportunities for tourism development be identified through accessibility and low impact tourism develop-
ment. Tourism has the advantage of being non-consumptive in many respects but it has the potential to continuously yield
revenue. Being predominantly rural, Northern Mozambique is faced with a lot of Environmental Management issues. Some
of these issues identified during site investigations are:-

• Poor sanitation (beach defecation)


• Poor water quality
• Saline water being pumped from bore holes
• Illegal waste dumping
• Uncontrolled development within ecologically sensitive areas
• Environmental Impact Assessment are not being carried out for listed developments
• Poor community liaison with local authorities

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2.4 AGRICULTURAL POTENTIAL

In general, Mozambique has high potential for agricultural development and food security. Studies show that only 12.5%
currently in use. It has irrigation potential of 3.3 million ha with only about 50 000 ha under irrigation, mostly sugarcane. It
is almost self-sufficient in maize but the Internal marketing of the grain is affected by poor infrastructure.

Fig B014: Agricultural Potential

With Northern Mozambique being a predominantly rural region, site visits and interviews with farmers indicate that
most households will depend on agricultural activities for food and economic income generation. With the eastern re-
gion bounded by the Indian Ocean, coastal and artisan fishing both for food and sales to tourist and visitors are common.
Across northern Mozambique, farmers are dispersed over such large distances and produce so little surplus that it hardly
justifies the effort and expense of getting that surplus to a market. Farmers indicated that lack of seeds, storage facility,
and transport infrastructure were some of the factors that made farming more subsistence than income generation. The
farming system coupled with the length of growing periods that takes place in each locality also determines the agricultural
capabilities of the Northern region.

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TOURISM AND AGRICULTURE IN NORTHERN MOZAMBIQUE:

The relationship between tourism and agriculture in Northern Mozambique is very important to both the local communi-
ties and the tourism resorts. In the coastal region of Cabo Delgado and Nampula where tourism development is rapidly
growing, tourism offers an alternative source of income to coastal artisanal fishing by the local communities. This concen-
tration on fishing as opposed to arable land agriculture has the potential of taking focus away from agricultural farming and
thereby increasing fishing. For the local communities, the reliance on ‘perceived tourists’ preference’ in fishing could result
in a reduction in other types of agricultural production. This situation could result in malnourishment.

TOURISM AND AGRICULTURE IN NAMPULA AND CABO DELGADO PROVINCES

The Indian Ocean east coast makes communities livelihood in these regions to be based on artisanal
fishing. Artisanal fishing is also supplemented by crop production, sometimes in multi-storied tree crop gardens with root
crops under coconuts, fruit trees and cashews, plus some animal production. Artisanal fishing includes sea fishing from
boats, seine net fishing from beaches, setting of nets and traps along estuaries and in shallow lagoons, and catching of crus-
taceans in mangrove swamps. Poultry and goats are the main domestic animals. Off-farm opportunities are connected with
tourist resorts along the beaches and with large tree crop estates (FAO, 2004). The over reliance on the consumption of
sea-food and naturally growing fruit could result in un-balanced nutrition. This poor agricultural development also affects
resorts who are forced to import food that could be otherwise have been grown within the local region.

TOURISM AND AGRICULTURE IN NIASSA PROVINCE

The root crop farming system makes up approximately 75% of the farming system in Niassa, whilst maize mixed farming
system makes up the remaining. The prevalence of this farming system is probably due to the large forest reserve in the
Northern Mozambique. Rainfall pattern in this area is bimodal or nearly continuous; therefore, risk of crop failure is low.
While there is huge market prospect for demand of root crops, challenges such as inaccessibility and poor transport and
poor farming technologies may reduce economic gains from these farming systems. Game farming is far more common
than cattle farming in this region.

Agricultural opportunities of Tourism in Northern Mozambique

• Northern Mozambique has tremendous agricultural potential that could be beneficial to tourism development

Agricultural Constraints of Tourism in Northern Mozambique

• Agriculture is still being treated as a substance activity for household consumption rather than a profitable
business to support the growing tourism industry.
• Small farms require input subsidy to improve the much needed seed quality.
• In the root crop region of Niassa province, uncontrolled illegal wildlife hunting of protected species is a problem.
• Lack of monitoring of food supply imports b the tourism industry has become an acceptable alternative to
promoting local food production
• Improved transportation accessibility in Northern Mozambique will connect small farmers who are situated
inland to majority of the tourist resorts situated on the coast.
• The huge focus on coastal tourism in Northern Mozambique by tourism developers could result in an over
dependence on non agricultural economic gains (resort/hotel employment, fishing, souvenir sales etc)
and subsequently a reduction in agricultural production.

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Fig B015: Regional Length of growing period

Fig B016: Permanent Crop and Arable Land

Northern Mozambique, particularly the Northern border section of the Niassa Province and the North-Western part of
Cabo Delgado generally has a sparse to
nil population of bovines. However, the wild-life population of game animals in this region is quite rich.

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Fig B017: Land Cover of Mozambique Fig B018: Bovines- Cattle, Sheep, Goat and Buffalo
Animals per km²
zero
<1
1-5
5-10
Water / no data

Developed
Irrigated Cropland
Cropland/ Grassland
Cropland/ Woodland
Grassland
Deciduous Broadleaf
Forest
Evergreen Needleleaf
Forest
Mixed Forest

3 INFRASTRUCTURE AND BUILT ENVIRONMENT


3.1 SETTLEMENTS AND LAND USE

Fig B020: SETTLEMENTS AND LAND USE


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• Pemba in Cabo Delgado Province, has an international airport with flights to from nearby African countries.
• Ibo Island to the northeast being an ancient Arabic and Portuguese trading post and soon to be a World Heritage
Site.
• Nampula in Nampula Province is the largest town in the north of the country, but with little of interest to the
traveller.
• Nacala in Nampula Province with the third largest commercial harbour in the country and the industrial hub of
the Arco Norte. It is currently of little interest to the tourist.
• Ilha de Mozambique also in Nampula Province was the capital of the country under Portuguese rule until
1806, which is a World Heritage Site.
• Lichinga - a temperate town with an international airport, is the capital of Niassa Province. It currently holds
little attractions for tourist but is used as a base for exploration of the rest of the province.
• Cuamba in Niassa Province, mostly used as a transport hub, as it is on the railway line from Nacala Port to Malawi
• Metangula – a small town on the shores of Lake Malawi (Lake Niassa) in Niassa Province, the administrative centre
for the Lake District.

3.1.1 URBAN HIERARCHY

Settlements takes shape and form in a spesific hierarchy based on their size, number of people and functions. High-order
functions are specialised functions and are found only in settlements that are high in the hierarchy, for example, a university
or the main branch of a bank. Low-order functions are not specialised functions and are found in settlements low in the
hierarchy as well as in settlements at the top of the hierarchy, for example, a corner café or agency of a bank.

Location: as primary criterion requires that a node should enjoy good accessibility and linkages to other nodes and target
service areas.
Population: the existing population numbers and prospects for future growth are important as service delivery should
reach as many people as possible.
Infrastructure: the existing level of physical and social services as a means to facilitate further development is important.
Economic considerations: the current level of economic activity and future growth prospects should sustain development .

No clear hierarchy of settlements for the Arco Norte has been defined but in terms of the above criteria the following
towns are identified as higher order settlements:
Pemba Ihla de Mozambique, Nampula, Nacala Montepuez Angoche Lichinga Cuamba

Fig B021: Urban Hierarchy

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3.1.2 LINKAGES BETWEEN TOWNS OF THE ARCO NORTE

There are strong relationships between transport linkages, economic linkages and the development of towns and cities.
Although there are no cities in the Northern Region in terms of the traditional definition for cities, towns that are linked
in terms of transport and economics in the Arco Norte are:
• Pemba in Cabo Delgado Province has an international airport receiving flights from nearby African countries.
• Nampula in Nampula Province is the largest town in the north of the country, but with little of interest to the trav-
eller.
• Nacala in Nampula Province with the third largest commercial harbour in the country and the industrial hub of the
Arco Norte. It is currently of little interest to the tourist.
• Lichinga - a temperate town with an international airport is the capital of Niassa Province. It currently holds little
attractions for tourist but is used as a base for exploration of the rest of the province.
• Cuamba in Niassa Province, mostly used as a transport hub, as it is on the railway line from Nacala Port to Malawi

SIGNIFICANCE FOR TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN ARCO NORTE:

A poor hierarchy of urban settlements means that there is a lack in concentration of services and functions. For tourism
this means that there is no clear gateway or focus area from which to develop the tourism industry. Due the airport in
Pemba it naturally follows that this town should be developed as the main tourist centre of the region, with possible satel-
lites in the other provinces.

3.2 ARCHITECTURAL CONTEXT OF NORTHERN MOZAMBIQUE

3.2.1 BACKGROUND

The Arco Notre Tourism Master Plan for Northern Mozambique aims to position Northern Mozambique as a world class,
sustainable tourism destination based on the region’s unique historical, cultural and natural resources.

One of the key considerations for a successful and sustainable tourism initiative is to understand the competitive advan-
tage one destination has over other potential rivals. This can be achieved by basing development and marketing efforts
on the unique attributes and strengths of the destination. For example, the development should reinforce the destination
brand and brand values. The attractions most likely to be successful, and those with the greatest enduring appeal, are those
which are genuinely relevant to the history, industry, culture, lifestyle and natural resources of the district. People’s moti-
vation for travel derives from the desire to seek an experience they cannot access at home. The ‘bundling’ of attributes
enhances the appeal of a destination and increases the likelihood of visitation.

It is therefore important that the Context Report considers the culture, history, art and architecture that combine to
create the distinct Mozambican character, and more specifically, how these unique attributes should be expressed through
tourism developments.

Tourism developments can interpret (present and explain) natural, social, historic and ecological features.

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Fig B022: Influences on Mozambican architecture. Photos Arco Norte Master planning Consortium

Presenting this unique narrative provides a more rewarding and inclusive experience, and ultimately helps conserve the
destination through making these features valuable commodities. This means representing the past, present and future
aspirations of the local community in a living and dynamic way rather than embalming the past or imposing development.
Architecture and good design respects the resources, achieves conservation outcomes, reflects community values, and is
instrumental in telling the story. Importantly, this includes involving, listening to and responding to the community. It is not
just about form and function but also about invoking an emotional response from the visitor.

The Context Analysis aims to define Sustainable Tourism and discusses the key design elements that drive the design devel-
opment of a sustainable tourism product.

Fig B023: Design Elements of Sustainable Tourism .Images Arco Norte Master planning Consortium

The Design Guidelines for sustainable tourism brings into place and provides a set of principles for the developer to follow
in order to establish a sustainable tourism product. The Design Guidelines have a consistent format that includes: Is-
sue – brief description of each development issue. Preliminary information – basic information that needs to be gathered
to commence analysis of the issues. Objective – describes the overarching development outcome that is sought for each
issue. Actions – describes a range of possible actions that will help to ensure sustainable outcomes. The actions are divided
into those that are relevant for planning, construction and operation.

The aim of the Building typology report is to provide a tool to calculate the specific needs for each typology type in terms
of location and grade, amount of bedrooms, plot coverage, building height, parking, other facilities as well as the amount of

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infrastructure investment. It should ne possible to do a rough cost calculation given the right information to give the inves-
tor an idea of project scope to take into consideration when a development is being planned.

Fig B024 : Influences on Mozambican architecture. Photos Arco Norte Master planning Consortium

The section on Mozambican architecture and its influences outlines the valuable architectural resources in each province.
A successful development is more than the sum of the buildings, facilities, activities and services provided. It is about giving
the consumer benefits at an emotional level. To deliver these crucial emotional benefits, the designer must go beyond the
technical or ‘scientific’ aspects of development, dealing with buildings, facilities and services; he or she must create a setting
for experiences. The design of facilities and sites can deliberately create many varied emotional responses, including sur-
prise, wonder, a sense of freedom, intimacy, restfulness, privacy and mystery. Aligned with the overall experience being of-
fered to the target market, these can create a powerful experience and lasting memories. The human mind reacts to forms,
colours and materials, and their combinations. When designing a sustainable tourism development, special attention should
be given to the entry experience. One never gets a second chance to make a first impression.

Finally the contect report evaluates a selection of international examples of sustainable developments, including some
within the northern region of Mozambique. These case studies showcase tourism developments that display elements of
sustainable design, construction and operation. These case studies highlight unique design responses to a range of environ-
mental, social, economic and cultural issues.

The importance of this Architectural Context Report is to touch on the elements of architecture influenced by the cul-
ture, history and art of Mozambique to motivate and inspire developers to harness and protect the local heritage when
designing a distinct Mozambican character. The guidelines are defined to practically guide and support the process and the
case studies aim to create the vision through current projects.

Fig B025: Influences on Mozambican architecture. Photos Arco Norte Master planning Consortium

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3.2.2 WHAT IS SUSTAINABLE TOURISM?

Sustainable tourism is often considered to be a special kind of tourism that appeals to a particular market niche that is
sensitive to environmental and social impacts. This is a narrow view as sustainable tourism is much more than a discreet or
special form of tourism. The term sustainable tourism refers to a fundamental objective to make all tourism more sus-
tainable. It is a continual process of improvement, one which applies equally to tourism in cities, resorts, rural and coastal
areas, hills and protected areas. It should be thought of as a condition of tourism, not a type of tourism.

Sustainable tourism is based on the three ‘pillars’ of sustainability (economic, social and environmental) and is simply
defined by the World Tourism Organization as: “Tourism that takes full account of its current and future economic, social,
and environmental impacts, addressing the needs of visitors, the industry, the environment and host communities.” (WTO
2005)

This definition embraces the concept of stewardship – a responsibility to care for the destination in a way that will pre-
serve and enhance its well-being for residents and its appeal for the visitors of tomorrow. Confusion over the meaning of
sustainable tourism has been compounded by the use of the terms ‘nature-based tourism’ and ‘ecotourism’.

SIGNIFICANCE OF ARCHITECTURE FOR TOURISM IN THE ARCO NORTE:

The importance of this Architectural Context Report is to touch on the elements of architecture influenced by the culture,
history and art of Mozambique to motivate and inspire developers to harness and protect the local heritage when designing
a distinct Mozambican character.The guidelines are defined to practically guide and support the process and the case studies
aim to create the vision through current projects.

Guiding the architecture of new developments in order to ensure that the Tourism development interpret (present and
explain) the relevant natural, social, historic and ecological features. Presenting this unique narrative provides a more
rewarding and inclusive experience, and ultimately helps conserve the destination through making these features valuable
commodities.This means representing the past, present and future aspirations of the local community in a living and dynamic
way rather than embalming the past or imposing development.

Architecture and good design respects the resources, achieves conservation outcomes, reflects community values, and is
instrumental in telling the story. Importantly, this includes involving, listening to and responding to the community. It is not
just about form and function but also about invoking an emotional response from the visitor.

3.3 DEVELOPMENT CORRIDORS

Development corridors in Mozambique, of relevance to the study are Maputo Development Corridor, Nacala Develop-
ment Corridor and Mtwara Development Corridor

3.3.1 MAPUTO DEVELOPMENT CORRIDOR

The Maputo Development Corridor was implemented in 1995. It was the first Spatial Development Initiative to be imple-
mented in the SADC region. The aim of the project was the rehabilitation and upgrading of basic infrastructure as a means
of promoting broad economic development in the region. MDC links the Gauteng province (South Africa), via Mpumalanga
province (South Africa) to the port of Maputo in Mozambique (SADC Today, 2006).
Private sector involvement was crucial for the:

• Construction of a toll road (N4) linking eMalahleni (Witbank) in South Africa to Maputo,
• Upgrading of the rail and port operations in Mozambique,
• Mozambique Aluminium Smelter (MOZAL),
• Maputo Iron and Steel Plant,
• Beluluane Industrial Park, etc. (SADC Today, 2006)

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• SADC Today (2006) estimated that approximately 15,000 job opportunities were created as a result of the
corridor developments.

3.3.2 NACALA DEVELOPMENT CORRIDOR

The governments of Mozambique, Malawi and Zambia are redeveloping the Nacala Corridor from Nacala Port on the
Indian Ocean via Malawi into the eastern and northern portions of Zambia. The Nacala Corridor project comprises the
development of the Nacala Port, Mozambique Northern Railway Network and the Malawi Railway System (African Devel-
opment Bank Group, 2009).

The aim of the project is to upgrade and rehabilitate strategic infrastructure along the route, thus promoting an efficient,
reliable, and seamless flow of goods and services. Like any other Spatial Development Initiative (SDI) the adopted strategy
is to identify and implement economic development projects that will become viable due to the upgraded infrastructure
(African Development Bank Group, 2009).

3.3.3 MTWARA DEVELOPMENT CORRIDOR (LOCATED IN TANZANIA)

The Mtwara Development Corridor falls within the territories of Malawi, Mozambique, the United Republic of Tanzania and
Zambia (SADC Today, 2006). The corridor runs for approximately 850 km from Mtwara in the east (Indian Ocean port) to
Mbamba Bay in the west (Lake Niassa) (National Development Corporation, 1999).

Fig B026: Source: The Mtwara Development Corridor

The MTWARA DEVELOPMENT CORRIDOR (MtDC) is a Spatial Development Initiative (SDI) which has the backing of
the 4 countries directly affected namely Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia, Mozambique. The development endeavours of the MtDC
are being guided by SATCC-TU under the framework of SADC. The corridor runs for approx. 850 km from Mtwara in
the east (Indian ocean port) to Mbamba Bay or Manda in the west (Lake Niassa). The anchor project is the Colliery and
the Thermal Power Station both in the Mchuchuma area with its supporting infrastructure .The project will also facilitate
the employment of existing natural resources, diversification of power sources, ability to earn forex as well as creation of
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thousands of direct and indirect employments. The socio economic development of local region, Tanzania and the neighbor-
ing SADC countries will receive a substantial boost from the impact of this project.

Fig B027: The Development Corridors

SIGNIFICANCE FOR TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN ARCO NORTE:

Development energy is generated along Development Corridors with positive spin-offs for the tourism industry. The Na-
cala Development Corridor will contribute to the development of tourism opportunities along the route at urban settle-
ments especially in Nacala.
The Mtwara Corridor may create job opportunities for the region.

3.4 AIR LINKAGE


3.4.1 AIRPORTS

According to the World Factbook, 2009, there are presently 111 airports/airstrips/aerodromes in Mozambique, of which
79% have unpaved runways.

Aeroportos de Moçambique (ADM) operates 19 of the airports in the country. No data was found on the number of
heliports in the country.

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Fig B028: International Airports in Mozambique Source Maps of the world, 2006

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INTERNATIONAL AIRPORTS IN MOZAMBIQUE

Province/ Airport Surface Runway


ICAO Code IATA Code Usage IFR
Town Name Condition Length (m)
Maputo Maputo FQMA MPM Civil Paved 3,660 Yes

Nampula Nampula FQNP APL Civil Paved 2,000 Yes

Cabo Delgado Pemba/ Porto


FQPB POL Civil Paved 1,800 No
(Pemba) Amelia

Sofala (Beira) Beira FQBR BEW Civil Paved 2,400 No

Inhambane
Vilanculos FQVL VNX Civil Paved 1,470 Yes
(Vilanculos)

There are 5 international airports in the country, namely Mavalane or Maputo International (MPM) in Maputo; Beira Inter-
national (BEW) in Beira; Nampula International (APL) in Nampula, Pemba International (POL) in Cabo Delgado and Vilan-
culos International (VNX) in Inhambane. Geographically, two of the international airports are located in the north, 2 in the
south, and only one is in the central region, in Beira. The table below presents some of the characteristics of Mozambique’s
international airports.

3.4.2 AIRLINES

There are 5 airlines operating in the country, namely: TAP (Portugal), SAA (South African Airways), Kenyan Airways (Kenya),
Pelican Air and LAM (Mozambique). 1Time airline (South African low-cost carrier) has reportedly obtained the rights to
start operating a service between Johannesburg and Maputo in 2010 (Club of Mozambique, 2009).
Most of the international access to Mozambique is via Maputo International Airport, from where passengers then connect
to any other province in the country using the National Carrier, LAM.
The tables below summarises the current flights (national and international) to and from Maputo International Airport,
as well the domestic flights linking Maputo with the Northern Provinces under this study. The provinces of Nampula and
Cabo Delgado have international access through Nampula- and Pemba Airports respectively. Niassa has no international
direct access and is only linked to the international market via Maputo.
There are many charter operators offering services to and from the northern Mozambique. An estimate of the number of
operators could not be obtained at this stage.

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INTRENATIONAL FLIGHTS

Capacity
Airline Route No. of Flights/Week Total Capacity (Passengers)
(Passengers per Trip)

Maputo - Johannesburg -
SAA 13 120 1,560
Maputo

SAA Maputo - Lisbon - Maputo 6 274/230 1,431

Maputo - Durban - Ma-


Airlink 10 30 300
puto
Beira - Johannesburg -
Airlink 7 90 630
Beira
Pemba - Johannesburg -
Airlink 4 90 360
Pemba
Maputo - Cape Town -
SA Express 4 50 200
Maputo
Maputo - Nairobi - Ma-
Kenyan Airways 3 120 360
puto
TAP Maputo - Lisbon - Maputo 7 274 1,918

Vilanculos (Inhambane) -
Pelican Air Johannesburg - Vilanculos 7 36 252
(Inhambane)
Vilanculos (Inhambane)
Pelican Air - Nelspruit - Vilanculos 3 36 108
(Inhambane)

Maputo - Johannesburg -
LAM 18 94 1,692
Maputo

LAM Maputo - Lisbon – Maputo 5 274 1,370

Maputo - Luanda – Ma-


LAM 2 94 188
puto
Maputo - Nairobi – Ma-
LAM 2 108 216
puto

LAM Pemba - Nairobi – Pemba 2 94 188

Maputo - Dar Es Salam -


LAM 8 94 752
Maputo

DOMESTIC FLIGHTS

Capacity Total Capacity


Airline Route No. of Flights/Week
(Passengers per Trip) (Passengers)
LAM Maputo - Nampula - Maputo 16 94 1,504

LAM Maputo - Pemba - Maputo 9 94 846

LAM Maputo - Lichinga - Maputo 4 94 376

Source: LAM, Kenyan Airways, SAA, Pelican Services and TAP

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.3 FUTURE PLANNED INFRASTRUCTURE

AIR LINKAGE

It is estimated that approximately 150,000 people will visit Mozambique in 2010. To cater for this demand, ten airports are
being modernized. Following is a summary of the proposed projects:

MAPUTO AIRPORT

Maputo Airport was built in the 1960’s and was designed to accommodate 60,000 passengers per annum. Presently, it
handles approximately 540,000 passengers per annum.
The proposed upgrading plan seeks to accommodate 900,000 passengers per annum, as well as allow for further expan-
sion to accommodate up to 3 million passengers per annum in the future. Phase one of the project comprised of building
a new cargo terminal and as already been completed. Phase two, which is set to be complete by June 2010, comprises the
rehabilitation and expansion of the existing terminal for domestic flights only. A new international terminal will be built. The
airport will also have a new duty free shopping area, control tower, car park and presidential pavilion.

NACALA AIRPORT

The project entails converting the Nacala military base into a civil airport. The project includes rehabilitation and upgrad-
ing of the existing runway, establishment of new arrival and departure infrastructure, as well as the improvement of com-
munication systems. The project is expected to have a construction duration of 24 months and will cost approximately
US$70 million. After the conclusion of the works, the Nacala airport will accommodate large aeroplanes and approximately
600,000 passengers per annum, with space for future expansion.

PEMBA AIRPORT

There is a plan to rehabilitate and expand the Pemba airport. Presently the Pemba aerodrome is operating above capacity
with passenger traffic of approximately 80,000 passengers per annum. The proposed project aims at increasing the current
capacity to approximately 200,000 passengers per annum (MCLI, 2006).

TETE, BEIRA AND QUELIMANE AIRPORTS

Tete Beira and Quelimane airports are also undergoing basic rehabilitation and expansion works, which comprise of:
Resurfacing the existing runways,
Building of taxiways and aircraft parking bays
Upgrading of departure- and arrival lounges
Fencing
Improving communication systems
Building new power generation sources and providing new airport vehicles and fire trucks

SIGNIFICANCE FOR TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN ARCO NORTE:

After completion of the Nacala Airport it will become the second largest airport after Maputo Airport in Mozambique.
This fact could mean that Pemba be replaced as main gateway for tourists to the north and the impact on such a change
should be considered in the development of tourism facilities.

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3.5 PORTS
3.5.1 OCEAN PORTS

There are 5 main ocean ports in Mozambique namely, Pemba, Nacala, Maputo, Beira and Quelimane ports (refer to drawing
NAT/AN/TP/C/00001). These are briefly discussed below.

3.5.1.1 PEMBA PORT

Pemba port is located in the northern province of Mozambique, Cabo Delgado. This port has a two dock fronts, one of
which is 15m long and 7 to 8m deep, and the other is 25m long and 2 to 5m deep. The port has a storage area of approxi-
mately 20,000m². There is no transit traffic through Pemba. (Source: Port Management Association of Eastern and Southern
Africa, 2007). The port authority is Portos e Caminhos de Ferro de Mocambique, E.P.

3.5.1.2 NACALA PORT

Nacala Port, some 200km east of the town of Nampula, is the biggest natural deep-water port on the East African Coast.
Due to its depth, it has exceptional conditions of navigability, allowing the entry and departure of ships of any size, 24
hours a day. The General Cargo Terminal has handling capacity of approximately 2,4 million tons of cargo per annum. It has
8 warehouses covering a total surface area of approximately 21,000 m². Currently, Malawi is the only country involved in
transit traffic through Nacala. (Source: Port Management Association of Eastern and Southern Africa, 2007)

3.5.1.3 MAPUTO PORT

Maputo Port is located in the capital province of Mozambique, Maputo. Maputo Port offers transit services to landlocked
destinations such as Gauteng, Mpumalanga, Zimbabwe, Botswana, Lesotho and Swaziland. (Source: Mozambique Interna-
tional Port Services (MIPS))

Access to the port is via Xefina and Polana channels, which have a depth between 7,5 and 9,1m and extension of 9,3 nauti-
cal miles. Access to the Matola harbour is via the Matola channel, which has a depth of 9,1m and an extension of 3,100m.
Maputo Port is 3,876m in length and has a global handling capacity of approximately 14 million metric tons per year.
(Source: Port Management Association of Eastern and Southern Africa, 2007)

3.5..1.4 BEIRA PORT

Beira Port has 2 harbours and its depth varies between 8 and 12m. Access to the port is via the Macúti channel, which is
well maintained and offers good conditions of navigability, 24 hours a day. There are however restrictions to night naviga-
tion related to ship sizes due to the nature of the Macúti curve. It has a width between 60m and 200m maximum and a
depth of about 11m. The projected terminal capacity is approximately 100 000 cubic meters per year. (Source: Port Man-
agement Association of Eastern and Southern Africa, 2007.)

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3.5.1.5 QUELIMANE PORT

Quelimane Port is located in the city after which it is named. Access to the port offers good conditions of navigability, 24
hours a day. The port has one single harbour of 210m of length and 3,5m wide. It has an annual handling capacity of ap-
proximately 650,000 tons. It’s handling area extents to about 5,417m2. There is no transit traffic through Quelimane.

Port facilities capable of handling containers are available. A tarred road links Quelimane and Nampula, but is badly pot-
holed in places. This road is currently being completely rebuilt with Chinese aid funds. Marropino and Morrua are con-
nected by accessible secondary gravel roads.

Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau (KWF) is financing the port’s rehabilitation project, which entails the rehabilitation of the
harbour’s substructure and equipment, rehabilitation of the pavement, drainage and fencing, as well as upgrading of the
electrical supply.
Source: Port Management Association of Eastern and Southern Africa, 2007

3.5.2 LAKE PORTS

Lake Niassa has 3 lake ports, namely Cobué, Metangula and Meponda. All three ports require upgrading of the existing
infrastructure.
Metangula is partially sheltered and shallow. There is limited information available on these ports

. Fig B029: Ports in Lake Niassa

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Fig B030: Ports in Mozambique Source Maps of the world, 2006

SIGNIFICANCE FOR TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN ARCO NORTE:

There is huge potential for the development of passenger services between ports of Mozambique. The cruise liner indus-
try could make a huge contribution towards tourism development in the north.
The ports along the Niassa Lake could become important nodal development points for tourism development if the op-
portunity to exploit the existing tourism market of Malawi is recognised and developed.
The transportation of goods and services in support of the tourism industry between ports could be a very important fac-
tor in the light of the poor road and rail linkage between north and south.

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3.6 ROAD LINKAGE

3.6.1 BORDER POSTS

There are various border posts to access Mozambique. Except for Inhambane, Nampula and Sofala, all provinces have at
least two border posts. The table below provides the list of existing border posts according to the access province. Nego-
mano border post is not officially opened for road users, but the construction of the Unity Bridge I has been concluded in
2009. The bridge is 720m long and 13,5m wide. The bridge is part of the Mtwara Corridor Initiative.

Fig B030: Border Posts in Mozambique Source Maps of the world, 2006
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.2 ROAD NETWORK

Transport infrastructure remains fairly basic and at times difficult to negotiate with a vast majority of the roads simply
made of dirt or sand especially in rural regions.

Fig B031: Road Network in Mozambique

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After the peace agreement, which was signed in 1992, it was estimated that less than 10 percent of the road network in
Mozambique was in good condition. In 2001, the Government of Mozambique developed a 10-year Roads and Bridges
Management and Maintenance Program (RBMMP), aimed at systematically maintaining all the roads specified in the annual
programs. This programme had a 3-year implementation cycle and aimed at promoting agricultural linkages, industrial de-
velopment and tourism along the coastal region (refer to drawing no’s AN/CD/TP/C/00001, AN/NP/TP/C/00001 and AN/
NS/TP/C/00001 indicating the road network of Mozambique).

According to ANE (Administração Nacional de Estradas), Mozambique’s classified road network consists of approximately
17,800 kilometres of roads as shown in the table below.

Summary Exiting Road Network of Mozambique

Classification Paved Unpaved Total

Primary 3,953km 784km 4,737km

Secondary 799km 2,259km 3,058km

Tertiary 322km 7,508km 7,830km

Vicinal 9km 2,171km 2,180km

Grand Total 5,083km 12,722km 17,805km

The total length of road for the provinces under discussion are 2,796km in Cabo Delgado, 4,055km in Nampula and
3,438km in Niassa (Hifab International, Africon and Institute of Transport Economics (TOI), 2003)

3.6.3 FUTURE PLANNED ROAD LINKAGE

The Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) is investing $176.3 million in a Roads Project to be implemented by 2015.
The objective of the Roads Project is to:
improve access to markets, resources, and services;
reduce transport costs for the private sector to facilitate investment and commercial traffic;
expand connectivity across the Northern region and down toward the southern half of the country; and
increase public transport access for individuals to take advantage of job and other economic opportunities.
Specifically, MCC funding will rehabilitate 491 km of key segments of the National Route 1, which forms the backbone of
country’s transportation network, in three provinces.

The road segments will include:


Rio Lurio – Metoro in Cabo Delgado (74 km);
Namialo - Rio Lurio (148 km) and
Nampula – Rio Ligonha (102 km) in Nampula; and
Nicoadala – Chimuara (167 km) in Zambézia.
These roads are part of the GOM’s five-year master plan for roads, known as the Integrated Road Sector Program (PRISE),
a sector-wide initiative for developing the national road network. The PRISE’s first three-year rolling investment program
(covering 2007-2009) is budgeted at more than US$1 billion, and includes: (i) the building, rehabilitation, and maintenance
of roads and bridges; (ii) the development of pilot projects to test low-cost materials; and (iii) the implementation of a
road-safety initiative.

SIGNIFICANCE FOR TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN ARCO NORTE:

Upgrading of roads especially the north-south linkage is crucial for tourism development to facilitate the movement of
goods and services in support of development.

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3.7 RAIL LINKAGE

The Mozambican railway network is divided into regions, namely CFM South, CFM Central, CFM North and CFM Zambé-
zia (refer to drawing NAT/AN/TP/C/00001). The combined rail system in Mozambique transports more than 1,7 million
people and more than 3,8 million tonnes of cargo per annum.

3.7.1 CFM SOUTH

CFM South is the largest network and is under the management of Caminhos de Ferro de Moçambique (Mozambique
Railways). The network consists of three main systems, Goba, Ressano Garcia and Limpopo railway systems, which will be
briefly discussed below.

• Goba Railway (Linha de Goba): This railway system connects Maputo to Swaziland and has an extension of 74kms.
There are 4 main stations and 14 secondary stations along the route.
• Ressano Garcia Railway (Linha de Ressano Garcia): This railway system connects Maputo to South Africa and has
an extension of 88km. There are 11 main stations and 2 secondary stations along the route. The tracks
have a capacity of 12-trains/ day in each direction.
• Limpopo Railway (Linha de Limpopo): This railway system connects Maputo to Zimbabwe and has an extension of
534kms. There are 12 main stations and 19 secondary stations along the route.

Besides the above-mentioned systems, the CFM Sul railway system has other 5 railways segments, namely:

• Salamanga (54km),
• Moamba - Ungubana - Xinavane (93Km),
• Xai-Xiai - Chicomo (90Km),
• Inhambane - Inharrime (90Km), and
• Manjacaze - Marão (50Km).

3.7.2 CFM CENTRAL

CFM Central railway system is made up of Machipanda and Sena, railways.


The Machipanda railway connects Beira to Zimbabwe and has an extension of 314kms. There are 14 main stations and 29
secondary stations along the route. This system is a vital economic link for both Zimbabwe and the Mozambique central
and Zambezi regions. The Sena railway system links Beira to Malawi, via Dondo and has an extension of 357km. There are
11 main stations along the route. This system has 2 segments, one is the Inhamitanga – Marromeu (88km) and the other is
the Dona Ana - Moatize (254Km).

3.7.3 CFM NORTH

CFM North railway network falls under the Corridor de Desenvolvimento do Norte (North Development Corridor)
region. The Nacala Corridor consists of the Nacala Port, the Northern Railway network, and the Malawi (CEAR) railway
system.

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CFM North railway network is made up of 3 main systems, namely Nacala – Cuamba, Cuamba – Entre Lagos and Cuamba
– Lichinga. These are briefly discussed below.

Nacala – Cuamba has an extension of 533km. This route has been completely rehabilitated during the war period. It has a
modern super structure and it is well maintained.
Cuamba - Entre Lagos (to Malawi border) has an extension of 77km.
Cuamba - Lichinga has an extension of 262Km. This is a fundamental linkage for the development of the Niassa Province.
The railway is used for the transport of passengers and goods at a frequency of 1 to 2 trains per week.

3.7.4 CFM ZAMBÉZIA

The railway Quelimane – Mocuba extends from the Quelimane Port to Mocuba city. It has an extension of 145km.
3.7.5 Future Planned Railway Infrastructure
According to CFM, the section of the railway line between Cuamba - Entre Lagos (to Malawi border), is expected to be re-
habilitated under the Corridor de Desenvolvimento do Norte (North Development Corridor) 15-year concession, signed
in 2005.
The section of the railway line between Cuamba and Lichinga is presently under rehabilitation.

.
Fig B032: Railway Infrastructure in Mozambique Source Maps of the world, 2006

SIGNIFICANCE FOR TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN ARCO NORTE:

There is no north-south rail linkage to support the economic movement of goods and services to facilitate large scale
development in the north. In this regard the region will be very dependent on markets in Zambia and Malawi that link with
Nacala. Delivery of much needed goods and services form these secondary economies are questioned.
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3.8 POWER STATIONS AND SUPPLY

Electricidade de Moçambique (EDM) is the Manager of the National Transmission Network or Rede Nacional de Trans-
porte (RNT). The RNT consist of the EDM, Hydroelectric of Cahora Bassa (HCB) and Mozambique Transmission Com-
pany (MOTRACO) networks. Of these networks, EDM consists of 51 points of delivery against the 3 of HCB and 2 of
MOTRACO.

The northern part of Mozambique is supplied with electricity by the HCB network, and distributed via a 220kV network
to Alto-Molócue and Nampula and an 110kV network to the remote substations in Cabo Delgado, Niassa and Nampula.
The Network is shown in the Figure below.

Fig B033: Power Stations and Supply network

Quality of supply is another concern, especially in the northern region. Due to the long distances, climatic conditions and
some lines without proper protection cable, the annual interruptions on average for this region are in the order of 100,
with Lichinga slightly more. The interruption time in these areas add up to an average of 70 – 90 hours per year.
Another concern in these areas is voltage drop problems. According to previous work done in the Nacala area, these
problems have already been identified. With any further expansions to the network, increasing problems will be encoun-
tered in this regard.

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The figure below illustrates the electricity network Northern Region.


The following table shows main Transmission lines feeding the Northern region:

From To Length Voltage Capacity

B07 Mocuba Alto-Molócue 151 km 220 kV 239 MVA

C21 Alto-Molócue Gurué 76 km 110 kV 99MVA

C22 Gurué Cuamba 343 km 110 kV 70MVA

C23 Cuamba Lichinga 235 km 110 kV 70MVA

B08 Alto-Molócue Nampula 220 183 km 220 kV 239MVA

C31 Nampula 220 Nampula Central 4 km 110 kV 99MVA

C32 Nampula Central Monapo 131 km 110 kV 84MVA

C35 Nampula 220 Pemba 376 km 110 kV 84MVA

Details of the installed and available capacities of the different nodes will be discussed at the different provincial sections

SIGNIFICANCE FOR TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN ARCO NORTE:

Quality of supply of electricity is a concern as well as voltage drop problems. With any further expansions to the network,
increasing problems will be encountered in this regard.

3.9 WATER AND SANITATION

MCC (Dec 2007) reports that a lack of access to water and sanitation is a major barrier to growth and health. Mozam-
bique has one of the lowest levels of per-capita water consumption in the world. With an average of less than 10 litres per
day, the country is far below global benchmarks. Moreover, due to existing gender norms, girls and women are responsible
for collecting most of the water at the household level. They spend hours fetching water, leaving little time for child care,
attending school, or income-generating activities.
Future Planned Water and Sanitation Infrastructure
The authority responsible for water and sanitation in the rural areas is mostly DNA, while FIPAG is responsible for water
and sanitation in urban areas.
MCC intends to fund Water and Sanitation Project to the value of $203.6 million during the following years. The aim is to
address some key heretofore neglected market segments – small-town water supply and sanitation – and, in so doing, help
consolidate and advance the GOM’s water sector strategy. In urban water supply, the strategy is based on a separation
of asset ownership and operations and maintenance (“O&M”). Under the so-called system of delegated management, the
state owns the water assets; O&M is carried out by the private sector; and an independent regulatory authority (“CRA”)
sets service standards and regulates tariffs. Accordingly, the MCC program is predicated on private sector participation to
reduce operating costs and improve service – factors that are key to sustainability.

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Fig B033: Water and Sanitation network

The Water Supply and Sanitation Projects will focus on improving access to safe, reliable water supply and sanitation ser-
vices:

• water supply and sanitation services in three large cities (Quelimane, Nampula, and Pemba) and three mid-sized towns
(Gurué, Mocuba, and Nacala) in the provinces of Zambézia, Nampula and Cabo Delgado;
• water supply services in two small towns (Monapo and Montepuez) and 600 rural villages in the provinces of Nampula
and Cabo Delgado;
• Capacity building of local institutions; and policy development.

At the project level, the Water Supply and Sanitation Project is expected to assist some 1.9 million beneficiaries by 2015
through improved water systems, wastewater disposal, and storm water drainage. Around one-third of these beneficiaries
are among the poor.
Overall, it is expected that the Program will increase regional gross domestic product across the targeted provinces in
Northern Mozambique (Cabo Delgado, Nampula, Zambézia, and Niassa) by nearly $75 million in 2015 and $180 million in
2025 (MCC, 2009).

SIGNIFICANCE FOR TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN ARCO NORTE:

The quality and supply of water remains a constraint to developing areas within the provinces under discussion.
The absence of proper formal sanitation systems is a major constraint to developing areas within the provinces under
discussion.
During the implementation of infrastructure projects, capacity constraints within the relative legislative authority should be
addressed by means of capacity building. This will assist in ensuring the sustainability of the infrastructure.

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4 SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT
4.1 NATIONAL DEMOGRAPHICS

The population of Mozambique is 21 971 712 people of which 48.2% are male and 51.8% are female. The annual population
growth rate is estimated at 1.9 % (World Gazetteer, 2010)
The table below shows the population distribution according to administrative provinces.

Table: Provincial Population distribution

Province Census 1997 Census 2007 Calculation 2010 Annual


Growth Area (Km²) Population Density
(Per Km²) Capital
Cabo Delgado 1 284 000 1 632 809 1 732 068 1.99 82 625 20.96 Pemba
Gaza 1 034 000 1 219 013 1 266 204 1.27 75 709 16.72 Xai-Xai
Inhambane 1 112 000 1 267 035 1 303 530 0.95 68 615 19.00 Inhambane
Manica 975 000 1 418 927 1 562 593 3.27 61 661 25.34 Chimoio
Maputo 966 000 1 099 102 1 130 391 0.94 602 1 878 Maputo
Maputo Province 809 000 1 259 713 1 413 406 3.91 25 756 54.88 Matola
Nampula 3 065 000 4 076 642 4 375 722 2.39 81 606 53.62 Nampula
Niassa 764 000 1 178 117 1 318 385 3.82 129 056 10.22 Lichinga
Sofala 1 380 000 1 654 163 1 725 945 1.43 68 018 25.37 Beira
Tete 1 149 000 1 832 339 2 068 597 4.13 100 724 20.54 Tete
Zambezia 3 202 000 3 892 854 4 074 871 1.53 105 008 38.81 Quelimane
Total 15 740 000 20 530 714 21 971 712 2.29 799 380 27.49

Source: The world Gazetteer, 2010


4.2 ETHNIC GROUPS

Mozambique’s major ethnic mosaic encompasses numerous subgroups with diverse languages, dialects, cultures, and
histories. Many are linked to similar ethnic groups living in inland countries. The estimated 4 million Makua are the domi-
nant group in the northern part of the country. The Sena and Shona (mostly Ndau) are prominent in the Zambezi valley
while the Shangaan (Tsonga) dominate southern Mozambique. Other groups include Makonde, Yao, Swahili, Tonga, Chopi,
and Nguni (including Zulu). The country also has a small number of European descent residents mainly of Portuguese an-
cestry who after colonial rule lived permanently in almost all areas of Mozambique. There is also a small mestiço minor-
ity of Mozambicans with mixed Bantu and Portuguese heritage. The remaining Caucasians in Mozambique claim heritage
from India, Pakistan, Portuguese India and Arab countries. There is also a growing population of Mozambique’s Chinese
community.

4.3 EDUCATION AND HEALTH

Under colonial times, educational opportunities for poor Mozambicans were limited; 93% of the Bantu population was
illiterate, and many could not speak Portuguese. Those who could afford were educated in missionary schools. After
independence, the government placed a high priority on expanding education, which reduced the illiteracy rate to about
two-thirds as primary school enrolment increased. Unfortunately, in recent year’s school construction and teacher training
enrolments have not kept up with population increases. With post-war enrolments reaching all-time highs of about 78%
(INE, 2007), the quality of education has suffered. The literacy rate, defined as the: age 15 and over who can read and write,
averages 47.8%, with the male rate higher at 63.5% compared to females who are at 32.7% (2003 est. CIA) Mean school life
expectancy is eight years. Infant mortality rate (2007) is estimated at 115 infants per 1,000 newly born, while average life
expectancy is 42.07 years
The literacy rate in Mozambique is very low. The Institute of National Statistics define literacy as number of people of age
15 years and over who can read and write. The literacy rate for the country is 47.8%, with the male rate higher at 63.5%
compared to the female rate of only 32.7%. School life is expected at 8 years from primary school to tertiary education.
Government expenditure on education as a percentage of GDP is just 5%.
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4.4 EMPLOYMENT STATUS

The unemployment rate for Mozambique is 60% of a labour-force of 9.77 million people (CIA World Factbook, 2009). Of
the people employed, 81% are employed in agriculture, 6% are employed in industry (manufacturing and mining) while the
remaining 13% is employed in the services sectors. Level of employment and household size is indicative of dependency
ratios. About 70% of the population lives below the poverty datum line.

4.5 RELIGION

According to the census 1997, about 40.6% of the population are Christians including 23.8% Catholics, 17.8% are Mus-
lim, 17.8% adheres to traditional beliefs and 23.1% do not associate with a specific religion. Christianity dominates due to
early missionary activity and many foreign clergy remain in the country, while Islam continues to grow especially along the
coastline regions.

4.6 LANGUAGES

Portuguese is the official and most widely spoken language of the nation, but only 40% of Mozambique’s population speak
Portuguese as both their first or second language, and only 6.5% speak Portuguese as their first language. Arabs, Chinese,
and Indians speak their own languages (Indians from Portuguese India speak any of the Portuguese Creoles of their origin)
aside from Portuguese as their second language. Most educated Mozambicans speak English, which is used in schools and
business as second or third language.

4.7 CULTURE

The people of Mozambique have largely retained an indigenous culture based on small scale agriculture despite the influ-
ence of Islamic coastal traders and European colonisers.
The country’s most highly developed art forms have been wood sculpture, for which the Makonde in northern Mozam-
bique are particularly renowned, and dance. The middle and upper classes continue to be heavily influenced by the Portu-
guese colonial and linguistic heritage.

4.8 HERITAGE

Mozambique is a country with uniquely diverse cultural heritage. The criteria for heritage classification in Mozambique are
based on historic value, architectural value, archaeological value, spiritual value, artistic value, scientific value, ethnographic
or anthropologic value, aesthetic value, natural value, etc. Some of the Cultural Heritage elements are protected under
more than one value, like the Old urban settlements. There is also the recognition of the Cultural Landscape values of the
sites, which are protected.

Fig B034: Mozambica Heritage

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Northern Mozambique in particular has some unique resources of important cultural and heritage significance. One of this
is Ilha de Mozambique in Nampula Province which is on the UNESCO World Heritage List. Also in the Cabo Delgado of
the North is the Quirimbas archipelago which is presently on the tentative UNESCO World Heritage Resource.


Fig B035: Mozambica Heritage
4.8.1 HERITAGE RESOURCES IN NAMPULA PROVINCE

Nampula Province has a good variety of heritage resource ranging from classification described above. Some of these are:-
Swahili Ruins of Somaná (Nacala)
Chapel of Saint Francisco Xavier (Island of Mozambique)
Gruta de Riane ( Erati) –Rock Art Chapel of Our Lady of the Bulwark (Island of Mozambique)
Fortaleza de São Sebastião (Ilha de Mozambique)
Fortim de Santo António (Ilha de Mozambique)
Templo Hindú

4.8.2 HERITAGE RESOURCES IN CABO DELGADO PROVINCE

The following are some of the Heritage Resources in Cabo Delgado Province

Fig B036 Posto Administrativo de Chai (Chai-Muchai)


Fig B037 Antiga Administração de Mueda (Casa do Massacre)
Fig B038 Fortim de São José (Ilha do Ibo)

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Fig B039 Monumento dos Mártires da Mueda (Mueda


Fig B040 Igreja de São João Baptista
Fig B041 Base Central (Base Moçambique)

4.8.3 HERITAGE RESOURCES IN NIASSA PROVINCE

Niassa Province has a unique heritage because it was a major war site during the political liberation. Military bases form a
major part of the Province’s heritage resource.

Ngungunhane Historical Site – Military Base


It was one of the largest bases of the guerillas led by FRELIMO during the national liberation struggle against the Portu-
guese regime in the Niassa Province. It was founded in 1964.Total area is about 37,735 acres.
It was the place where traced plans military action was initiated to spread to other regions such as Eastern Europe
(M’sawise) and Southern (Catur) and the progresion of the war to Mecanhelas, Cuamba, entering in Zambezia province.

Fig B042 Matchedje historical war Fig B043 Igreja Catolica Romana de Fig B044 Base M’sawise (Mavango)

4.3 SOCIAL LINKAGES


4.3.1 HISTORICAL TIES

Mozambique has historical linkages with Arabic Countries who trades with Eastern African Countries form as early as the
7th century AD. Remnants of these early days are found on Ibo Island, Sangule (Nampula) and Sofala.
The Portuguese occupied the East Coast of Africa from 1488 and in 1507 a permanent Portuguese settlement was estab-
lished on Mozambique Island (Biggs and Edmunds, 2007).
All Mozambique’s neighbouring countries have an Anglo-Saxon past. Mozambique is the only country in the region that of-
fers a cultural environment with a rich heritage of Arabic, Swahili, Portuguese and African influences. This is reflected in its
daily life through history, architecture, language, local cuisine, arts and cultural expressions. Mozambique must cherish these
differences and use them as an advantage
Later strong ties with South Africa developed following the completion of the rail link to the Witwatersrand in 1894 re-
sulting in migration of 50 000 to 100 000 Mozambicans annually to work on the gold mines.

4.3.2 CULTURAL TIES

The official language of Mozambique is Portuguese, but only 45% of the population can speak the language.Various dialects
of Makua-Lomwe are spoken by approximately 40% of the total population. In the south the majority of people speak dia-
lects of Tsonga that is also spoken in South Africa. In the northern coastal regions some people speak KiSwahili, which is an
African language with some Arabic influences (Biggs and Edmunds, 2007).
The majority of the Mozambicans follow traditional African religions with some Christians and Muslims. There are numer-
ous catholic churches and mosques in urban areas.
The sculpture of the Makonde people from the north is recognised as one of Africa’s most sophisticated art forms. They
are also noted for their wind instruments, known as lupembe. In the south the Chope musicians play the marimba, a form
of xylophone found throughout Southern Africa, and are famous for their marimba orchestras. Modern music using tradi-
tional rhythms flourishes in the cities. There is a strong tradition of story-telling throughout Mozambique.
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5 ECONOMIC
5.1 INTRODUCTION

The primary focus of the Arco Norte Tourism Masterplan is to identify, stimulate and accelerate investment to unlock
tourism potential in the selected parts of the Northern provinces of Mozambique to achieve sustainable economic growth.
The project is driven by the notion that public investment and funding can be used creatively to attract private and com-
munity investment to unlock the social and economic potential within the selected towns and their neighborhoods.

A key principle of the initiative is to create environments that improve the quality and variety of tourism products on offer
and attract huge numbers of tourists as well as private-sector investment into local economies. The aim of the plan is to
support and or unlock the huge tourism potential that lies in the northern provinces of Mozambique through the creation
of high-quality developments (such as roads, hotels, communication, sanitary infrastructure) aiming to overcome the exist-
ing spatial and economic challenges and distortions – by creating an integrated sustainable tourism destinations and human
settlements.

The creation of these integrated sustainable tourism sites and human settlements should be done within a framework of
national, provincial, district and local legislation and policies – reflecting the roles and responsibilities of various spheres of
government, underlying departments and the private sector.

The Economic Context Section of the report therefor consists of:

• Mozambique Macro-economy
• General Tourism Concepts
• Overview off Tourism Trends (Global, Africa & SADC)

5.2 MACRO- ECONOMIC OVERVIEW

Since the end of the civil war (1977-1992), the economy of Mozambique has developed tremendously, achieving rapid eco-
nomic growth rates of around 8%. However, the country is still one of the world’s poorest and most underdeveloped. The
civil war, ineffective socialist-economic policies, government mismanagement, and severe droughts plagued Mozambique’s
economy throughout the 1980s, leaving it heavily dependent on external assistance. In 1987, the government embarked on
a series of macroeconomic reforms that were designed to stabilize the ailing economy. These steps, combined with donor
assistance and with political stability since the multi-party elections in 1994, have led to dramatic improvements in the
country’s growth rate. Inflation was brought to single digits during the late 1990s although it returned to double digits in
2000-2002. Fiscal reforms, including the introduction of a value-added tax and reform of the customs service, have im-
proved the government’s revenue collection abilities. In spite of these gains, Mozambique remains dependent upon foreign
assistance for much of its annual budget, and a large majority of the population remains below the poverty line. Subsis-
tence agriculture continues to employ the vast majority of the country’s workforce. A substantial trade imbalance per-
sists although the opening of the MOZAL aluminium smelter, the country’s largest foreign investment project to date has
increased export earnings. Additional investment projects in titanium extraction and processing and garment manufacturing
should further close the import/export gap. Mozambique’s once substantial foreign debt has been reduced through forgive-
ness and rescheduling under the IMF’s Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) and Enhanced HIPC initiatives, and is now
at a manageable level.

5.2.1 MOZAMBIQUE’S ECONOMIC SECTORAL PROFILE

All economic sectors ranging from manufacturing and agriculture to tourism and finance, declined sharply during the civil
war, but have since rebounded though they are still performing well below potential.
The table below indicates the GDP per sector of the Mozambican economy.
Table : GDP by sectors in Mozambique (10 millions of Metical)

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Sector 2007 2008


Agriculture 34.90 38.96
Fisheries 2.52 2.70
Mining 1.73 1.95
Manufacturing 20.41 20.62
Electricity and water 8.49 8.45
Construction 4.97 5.40
Trade and Services 17.45 18.48
Hotels and Restaurants 2.41 2.56
Transport and Communications 14.94 17.10
Financial Services 7.82 8.11
Rent 11.48 11.56
Public Administration 5.40 5.92
Education 5.59 6.04
Health and Social 2.03 2.17
Other Services 2.62 2.68
Total 2149.76 2160.71
Source: INE

The table indicates that agriculture alongside manufacturing, trade service and transport and communications sectors are
the major drivers of the Mozambican economy.

5.2.1.1 AGRICULTURE, FISHING AND FORESTRY

Agricultural potential is high, particularly in the fertile northern regions, which accounts for the bulk of the country’s agri-
cultural surplus. The main cash crops are sugar, copra, cashew nuts, tea, and tobacco. Total sugar production was expected
to rise by 160% in the 2000s, which made the country a major net exporter for the first time since independence. All the
plantations and refineries have been privatised. Marine products, particularly prawns, are Mozambique’s largest single ex-
port. There is an abundance of marine resources that are not fully exploited. After the Mozambican Civil War, the return of
internally displaced persons and the gradual restoration of rural markets have enabled Mozambique to increase agricultural
production dramatically. Agriculture offers vast opportunities for the production of cereals, fruits, flowers, vegetables, for
the local market and for export.

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The fisheries sector is also a very important industry in Mozambique, contributing more to the export of fish and other
aquaculture products to the European market. This sector has been developing rapidly due to the presence of local and
foreign companies and has seen a strong growth in European and Asian markets in terms of prawns, and various sea prod-
ucts. The country has an enormous potential all along its 2 700 km Indian Ocean coast line, combined with the excellent
natural conditions favourable for fishing activities.

5.2.1.2 MINING AND SEMI-PROCESSING

There are large mineral deposits, but exploration has been constrained by the civil war (1977-1992) and poor infrastruc-
ture. The World Bank has estimated that there was the potential for exports worth US$200m in 2005. In the late 1990s
exports totalled US$3.6m, some 1% of total exports, and a contribution of less than 2% of GDP. Minerals currently being
mined include marble, bentonite, coal, gold, bauxite, granite and gemstones. Illegal exports from artisanal production are
estimated at being as high as US$50m.

5.2.1.3 MANUFACTURING

Although very well developed during the 1960s and early 1970s, industrialisation declined rapidly during the war. Since
1995 production has increased sharply and was expected to grow by 33% in 2001 due to the expansion (costing
US$860m) of the Mozal aluminium smelter which was approved in mid-2001. The country’s largest ever foreign investment,
Mozal has little impact on employment, but is making a substantial contribution to balance of payments through taxes
generated. Exports generated in the first quarter of 2001 were worth US$85.3, the primary factor for the 172% expansion
in Mozambique’s exports for the period. Completion of the smelter resulted in aluminium accounting for up to 70% of
exports. Construction materials, agricultural processing, beverages and consumer goods were the main sub-sectors.

5.2.1.4 TOURISM

This sector declined sharply due to insecurity during the civil war, but is now undergoing rapid expansion, although it is still
performing well below potential. The national strategy is to promote high-value, low-volume tourism. The first section of
the “Peace Park” initiative which links with Kruger Park in South Africa, and Gonarezhou in Zimbabwe, was project aimed
at the development of tourism. Other initiatives in the Northern provinces are underway to rump up tourism activity.
Mozambique possesses high tourism potential, given its long coast line with superb beaches, its tropical climate and its
people who are welcoming by nature. The existence of several attractions of historical interest and of great diversity in the
wildlife and flora are likewise factors to encourage the development of tourism in the country. The extensive coral reefs
host a dazzling array of marine life, while off the mainland coast are countless tiny islands to explore. But Mozambique of-
fers much more. Forest-clad mountains, mighty rivers, bubbling hot springs, inland lakes, grasslands- all are there to attempt
adventurous travellers seeking new horizons. The historic and cultural tourism, and business tourism has been growing in
recent years representing a very viable option in many regions of the country.

5.2.1.5 FINANCE

The banking system almost collapsed during the war. Ever since the government moved away from central command of
the economy, Mozambique has initiated rapid reforms in recent years, accelerating the implementation of market-based
economic policies, and committing to a policy of fiscal and monetary discipline. The government introduced its medium-
term economic growth, strategy which it continues to pursue. Since the late 1990s, both national and international banking,
established an environment for rapid economic growth and development of the financial system.

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5.2.2 SUMMARY OF ECONOMIC INDICATORS AND CURRENT TRENDS

The table below indicates a summary of the country’s economic indicators from 2004 to 2009. These indicators show the
most important economic performance indicators.

TABLE : MOZAMBIQUE’S MACROECONOMIC INDICATORS


2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Nominal GDP ($US billions) 5.7 6.6 7.2 8.1 9.9 9.7
Real GDP ($US billions) 12.7 13.9 15.6 17.2 18.7 19.9
Inflation 12.6 6.4 13.2 8.2 10.3 3.5
GDP per capita ($US) 664 711 783 845 903 938
Real GDP growth 7.9 8.4 8.7 7.0 6.8 4.3
Current account balance ($US mill) 98 -703 -600 -984 -1,165 -1,170
Current account balance (% GDP 1.7 -10.7 -8.3 -12.2 -11.8 -12.1
Goods & services exports (% GDP) 30.9 31.7 38.4 35.4 32.4 na
Source: ABS and IMF

The country’s economy recovered in line with global trends in the third quarter of 2009, driven by the primary sectors,
agriculture and mining, which individually grew by 9.6% and 5.3% respectively. This was followed by the
tertiary sector which grew by 5.3%. The secondary sector had a negative performance of 0.7% influenced by the decline in
industrial manufacturing (-5.2%). Agriculture with a weight of 24% of GDP contributed most in the economy in the third
quarter of 2009. The other notable economic contributions are energy, contributing 5.4% (electricity) and the min-
ing industry, contributing 1.3%.
Preliminary estimates of GDP at constant prices, measured as the sum of added values not adjusted for seasonality, indi-
cate an annual growth in the 3rd Quarter of 2009 of 6.5% and an annual growth of about 6.1%.

5.2.1 INFLATION

Mozambique’s month on month inflation index during the month of September 2009, indicated
that the country has experienced an increased general level of prices in the range of 0.39%. Food and non-alcoholic
beverages provided the strongest influence, contributing about 0.24 percentage points, potatoes rose 12.2%, fresh cas-
sava 8.1%, charcoal 1.8%, fresh fish 2.2%, rice 1.0%.Year on year there was a fall in the general price level of around
1.73%. Food and non-alcoholic beverages and housing, water, electricity, gas and other fuels dictated the trend in total
contributions to the cumulative inflation of about 1.28 and negative 0.69 percentage points respectively. The fall in prices of
tomatoes, the oil for lighting, Cassava fresh gasoline, maize grain, peanut and corn flour, had an impact on the total nega-
tive cumulative inflation of about 3.46 percentage points. For the same period last year, prices for the month under review
registered an increase of about 1.04%. 

5.2.2 ECONOMIC CLIMATE

In August 2009, the Economic Climate Indicator of Enterprises (ICE) continued the upward trend for the third con-
secutive month, but has not passed the level reached in March 2009. This increasing trend, although slight, is still in line with
the global economy. The favourable evolution of the ICE is due to the favourable assessment of confidence in all
respondent sectors in the economy, with the exception of the Hotel and catering industry which experienced a reduction
compared to the month of July. Extraordinary recovery continued in transport, industry and construction sectors. Trade
and other services sectors presented a tenuous recovery of confidence in the previous months.

In August 2009, business confidence in future expected employment recorded a rise. The number of current
employment improved substantially over the past two months. The rise of confidence in expected employment in also
emanates from positive evaluation of the economy over the past months in transport and construction.

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MA R K E T C H A L L E N G E S

Despite Mozambique’s investment potential, the Mozambican business climate remains a challenging
one. Generally good macroeconomic policies and a high-level commitment to attracting large-scale
investments masks a bureaucratic system that remains at times unresponsive to the needs of corporations,
especially small-to-medium-sized enterprises. O perating permits are slow and difficult to obtain;
corruption is sometimes problematic; the legal system is antiquated and cumbersome and procedures to
clear customs remain onerous.

Although under revision, the labour law is a serious impediment to businesses. T he government has limited
qualified staff, and this small pool of workers is under increased threat from the spread of
HIV/AIDS. Mozambique’s C onstitution does not allow private ownership of land. Land can only be leased,
although for renewable 50-year periods. Road infrastructure is generally poor, except for large stretches
of the main south-north highway, the Beira corridor and the toll highway connecting Maputo with
Johannesburg, South Africa. C ell phone coverage is however
quite good in most inhabited areas of the country.

MA R K E T O P P O R T U N IT IE S

Investment and export opportunities exist in construction, energy (natural gas, hydropower and bio-
diesel), mining (tantalum, graphite and coal), fishing (prawns, lobster and pelagic fishes), aquaculture,
tourism, agriculture/horticulture (cashews, sesame, tea, essential oils, vegetables, flowers, paprika,
tobacco and fruits), telecommunications and transportation. Additional export possibilities lie in
infrastructure projects in agriculture, transportation, education and health, which are financed by the
W orld Bank, the African Development Bank, USAID and other donors, and N G O s.

Mozambique is eligible for trade benefits under the African Growth and O pportunity Act (AGO A),
the European Union C otonou Agreement, the Southern African Development C ommunity (SADC )
T rade Protocol and the U.S.-Mozambique Bilateral Investment T reaty, all of which increase the
country’s attractiveness for investments. Mozambique has submitted a compact proposal to the
Millennium C hallenge C orporation (MC C ) and is currently working with the MC C towards the
signing of a compact. T he compact proposal, focused on the northern part of the country, contains
several potential projects, including improving the business environment, water, sanitation and
transportation infrastructure, investment in the agricultural sector and developing tourism.

5.2.7 MARKET ENTRY STRATEGY      

Most companies find it advantageous to establish a local office in Mozambique to assist in dealing with local officials and
clients.  At a minimum, this involves registration with three ministries:  the Ministry of Industry and Commerce, the Minis-
try of Planning and Development and the Ministry of Finance.  Red tape remains a problem, and petty corruption can ob-
struct the securing of local licenses and permits.  Most firms hire a consulting firm to assist with the registration process,
and small-to-medium-sized businesses experience significant delays.  The “Doing Business in 2006” World Bank Report
identifies Mozambique as one of the most difficult countries in the world to start a business.  Entrepreneurs can expect to
go through at least 14 steps to a launch a business, in a lengthy procedure that according to the World Bank lasts, on aver-
age, 139 days.  Prospective investors use the government’s Investment Promotion Centre (CPI) for assistance in obtaining
licenses and permits.
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5.2.8 ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT CONCLUSIONS

This section illustrated that the Mozambican economy is stable and on a sustainable path of growth. The government is
undertaking policy changes in various sectors to ramp up economic growth and poverty reduction. Huge potential has also
been revealed in various sectors of the economy including tourism, mining, agriculture and fishing. This indicates that gov-
ernment and prospective investors need to explore the various sector opportunities in depth for these opportunities to
be exploited. The country’s demographics were also analysed they reveal challenges of illiteracy and poverty that may need
government and private sector collaboration to eliminate these challenges.
The objective of this chapter is to lay foundation to understand tourism sector in the northern provinces of Mozambique
in the ensuing chapters. The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) is providing technical assistance
and funding to the Ministry of Tourism of the Republic of Mozambique to implement the Arco Norte tourism project. This
project aims to develop the tourism potentials of three Northern Mozambican Provinces, namely, Cabo Delgado, Nampula
and Niassa. The goal is to position Northern Mozambique as a world class, sustainable tourism destination based on the
regions’ unique historic, cultural and natural resources. The project seeks to enhance competitiveness, sustain economic
growth by creating an industry friendly policy environment and transforming tourism into a major sector that:
Attracts large private investments and partnerships.
Stimulates tourism related businesses and agricultural transformation.
Creates increased opportunities for employment.
Contributes significantly to enrichment and empowerment of destination communities.
Preserves the environment.

5.3 GENERAL TOURISM CONCEPTS


5.3.1 INTRODUCTION

This section provides a description of tourism in terms of segments, products and visits.

Definition:
• Tourism is travel for recreational, leisure or business purposes. The World Tourism Organisation defines tourists as
people who “travel to and stay in places outside their usual environment for more than twenty-four (24) hours and
not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes not related to the exercise of an activity
remunerated from within the place visited”.
• Tourism is an amalgam of visitors’ consumption of goods and services which include transportation, accommodation,
food and beverage, recreation and entertainment, travel and tour operations, and souvenirs. It is envisaged that tourism
is becoming a global pillar of productive and sustainable source of national revenue, decent employment and poverty
reduction globally.
• Tourism is the business of selling leisure as a destination or a place as a product.

The characteristics of the product are:

Spatial scale: a place is inevitably one component in the hierarchy of a spatial scale, a characteristic unique to the place
product. The potential holidaymaker buying e.g. Pemba may be simultaneously purchasing other levels of hierarchy - the
hotel, spar etc. A different structured hierarchy may create a different product.
Multi-sold: The same destination, the same facilities etc. are sold to different groups of consumers for different purposes.
The place is often viewed differently in tourist origin area and tourist destinations inclusive of travel in the former and
exclusive of travel in the latter. A place product is distinguished by variety of businesses and experiences obtainable at that
place. Each individual consumes a unique selection of these products. Consequently, a place product is marketed by desti-
nation agencies without a clear idea of nature of product being consumed.

A TOURISM PRODUCT = PLACE PRODUCT + TRAVEL

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5.3.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF TOURISM

TOURISM HAS THE FOLLOWING CHARACTERISTICS AS A PRODUCT:

Inflexibility: The tourism industry is highly inflexible in terms of capacity. The number of beds in a hotel or seats on a
flight is fixed so it is not possible to meet sudden upsurges in demand similarly restaurants tables, hotels beds and flights
seats remain empty and unused in periods of low demand.

Perishability: It is related to the fact that travel products are intended to be consumed as they are produced. For
example, an airline has seats to sell on each flight; a hotel has rooms to sell for each night. If the airline is not able to sell
all its seats on its flight, or a hotel is not able to sell its rooms for the night then the opportunity to sell the product is lost
forever. Service sector cannot keep inventory like products. If the tourist cannot visit the place, the opportunity is lost.
Hence, this becomes one of its important characteristics.

Inconsistency: In the Travel and Tourism industry a product or a package of a tourism service can be standardised i.e.
for example of 2 days 3 nights in so and so hotel, but the actual experience of consuming this package is highly inconsis-
tent. There are lots of travel stories which becomes a portrayal of a lot of bad experiences for example the tourist guide
may not be good, the hotels lodging and boarding was bad etc. Therefore there is high level of inconsistency prevailing.

Intangibility: Travel products cannot be touched as they include flight experience on an airplane, cruise on an ocean
liner, a night’s rest in a hotel, view of the mountains, a visit to a museum, a good time in a night club and much more. These
products are experiences. Once they have taken place they can only be recalled and relished.

Elements that’s make a successful Tourism destination


High Quality: is a key guiding value in tourism development. For any attraction this means having a pleasing clean appear-
ance, offering smooth customer oriented operations and procedures, resource protection, friendly hospitality, etc.
Authenticity: being real, matters. It means letting the distinctive local flavour of a community shine through in ways that
create and produce a “sense of place”.

Uniqueness is the “edge” that sets an attraction in one community apart from the competition somewhere else.

Drawing Power is measured in terms of the number of visitors who will travel to a specified distance to visit a commu-
nity and whether they will return for repeat visits.

Activity Options: A variety of activities are important characteristics of attractions. The first impulse is to concentrate
on buildings, sites, facilities. But, it is important to remember the activities that provide resident and visitors things to do.
Does the attraction offer a varied and changing set of activities?

The combination of these tourism elements sets attractions apart from one another.

SIGNIFICANCE FOR TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN ARCO NORTE:

The literacy rate of 47.8 % for Mozambique is very low, with the male rate higher at 63.5% compared to the female rate of
only 32.7%. School life is expected at 8 years from primary school to tertiary education. Government expenditure on edu-
cation as a percentage of GDP is just 5%. The unemployment rate for Mozambique is 21% of a labour-force of 9.77 million
people with the bulk of the people, 81% employed in agriculture. The level of employment reflects employment and unem-
ployment levels in the consumer market, which impacts on disposable income patterns. Level of employment, coupled to
household size is also indicative of dependency ratios. About 70% of the population lives below the poverty datum line.

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5.3.3 TOURISM PRODUCT SEGMENTATION

Market segmentation can be defined as the process through which people (both tourism providers and consumers) with
similar needs, wants and characteristics are grouped together so that a tourism business/organisation can use greater pre-
cision in serving and communicating with these groups (marketing). The benefits of segmentation are that it enables better
marketing decisions, and promotes more viable operations.
Characteristics commonly used to divide markets into segments include:

Supply Side Demand Side

Product related Demographic and Socio-economic

Geographic Behavioural and Psychographic

Channels of distribution Purpose of Trip

Geographic

The following comments focus on the three main bases for market segmentation: product, demographic and behavioural.

Supply side segmentation:

• Product Related Segmentation:



Typical product-related segmentation may be along the lines of the following:
Accommodations (from camp grounds to high end wilderness lodges)
Adventure Operators/Organisers: These incorporates family adventures and motorcycle tours to hunting and bird-
watching
Attractions: these include museums and theme parks to sports clubs and festivals
Transportation and Services :These include cruise liners, train and van tours to restaurants and gas stations.
The tourism product can be a location where the specific real place is the destination and it can either be natural
or manmade e.g. theme parks, a travel itself as the destination e.g. cruise liners and train tours or the stay as the
destination e.g. resorts and palaces.
Other supply-side segmentation criteria may be geographical location of the customers, e.g. Europe, Africa etc
while channel of distribution entails the means by which the consumer is reached e.g. packaged tours, individuals
and tour operator.

• DEMAND-BASED SEGMENTATION

Demographics: Understanding demographics is imperative to product development and segmentation, especially with
regard to understanding trends in the market place. Demography (the study of age, sex, education, family status, life cycle
etc.) is an excellent tool for product developers and marketers. According to the well respected demographer, David Foot,
demographics accounts for “two-thirds of everything”, (markets, social problems, demand for services etc).The subject
therefore plays a key-role in decision-making regarding demand for tourism products.
Behavioural Segmentation: People’s activities, interests and opinions (AIO’s) also play a key role in decision-making and
travel habits. These behavioural characteristics (also known as psychographics), when used in conjunction with demograph-
ics, provide a much stronger marketing tool for tourism businesses and planners. Key among these behaviours are

Intimacy & Romance


Experiencing Different Cultures
Natural Wonders
Fine Cuisine and being pampered
Escaping winter weather
Adventure and Excitement
Experiencing Unspoiled Nature
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Historic sites
Hands on Learning
Hobby or sport

Purpose of trip e.g. conferences and geographical factors also affect the segmentation of tourism from the demand side.

5.3.4 POTENTIAL PRODUCTS TO BE OFFERED BY MOZAMBICAN DESTINATIONS

Potential products and activities that can be offered in the various identified coastal and inland Priority Areas for Tourism
Investment (PATI) are the following:

• Business Tourism
• Pristine beaches
• Events e.g. Weddings
• Aquarium/marine display tanks
• Visitor information and exhibit areas
• Research/indoor and outdoor wet labs
• Dive centre and class rooms
• Outdoor café/terrace
• Craft shops where visitors can see artists and crafts people at work
• A crafts centre that will similarly showcase local craft wares and act as a retail and wholesale centre for local crafts
people
• Events stage and multipurpose central square (seating, outdoor exhibitions and events etc)
• Waterfronts along the beaches
• Historical buildings
• Soft adventure holidays
• Walking trails
• Hunting
• 4x4s
• Hiking
• Scuba diving
• Snorkelling
• Fishing
• Camping
• Mountain biking
• Experiencing the stories of the local people
• Visiting friends and family
• Nature based leisure
• Educational experience
• Special Interest holidays
• Archaeology
• Conservation/game breeding
• History
• Ecology
• Bird Watching

These tourist products are categorised to show the motivations of the tourists when they decide to visit a destination.
When a tourist visits one of the tourism places, it will be primarily because of the motivations as given above.
The table below show the various tourism products that can be offered in the identified in Northern Mozambique and
their descriptions.
Tourism Product descriptions

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Product Description
A family leisure experience A leisure visit to the area with family, including enjoying a variety
of leisure activities associated with spending time with family e.g.
Entertainment for children, water based activities, soft adven-
tures, socialising, eating out as a family etc
Wilderness experience A leisure visit because of the wilderness and nature areas in
places in mountains or natural beauty of the area e.g. Niassa
Nature reserve
Experiencing Stories/folklore An authentic experience of the various cultures in the area
through storytelling, and experiences unique to that culture such
as food, family gathering etc
Conferencing or business tourism Staying overnight for a conference, meeting or incentive trip.
Events Either an overnight or day visit to attend an event in the area
Educational experiences Visit an area for educational experience that includes learning
more about the local people or the natural environment
Business travel Do business in the area, mostly overnight
Transit stop en route An overnight stay in the area while travelling to another area.
Visitors can either use camping or other types of accommoda-
tion
Soft adventure holidays
Walking trails
Boating
Hunting
4x4 A visit (either overnight or for the day) to experience soft adven-
ture in the area
Hard adventure Holidays
Rock climbing
Kloofing Hiking
Mountain biking
Hang gliding Experiencing hard adventure activities in the area’s bush or
mountains.
Special Interest trips:
Archaeology Learning more about the archaeological finds in the area
Ecology Learning more about the unique ecology in the area
History Learning more about the history of the area, history of the indig-
enous tribes
Bird watching A visit to the area to do bird watching and specifically to experi-
ence the birdlife
Golf A visit to the area to play golf

5.3.5 BUSINESS AND LEISURE TOURISM

Leisure tourism is when someone travels to a destination because they want to and there is no other motivation except
looking for fun and relaxation and it has experience at its core. Whatever subtle reasons or motivations for leisure travel,
when done, one engages in an experience. One does not just buy a product (although one may buy souvenirs) or are just
buy services (although one buys transportation, accommodation, food service, etc.), but buys an experience that comprises
what and how one feels during and at the end of a trip –emotional response to a journey through time and space that
includes purchases of products and services, but also an interaction with people and places. 

Business tourism comprises of a trip that is undertaken for the purpose of attending a conference, meeting, exhibition or
event, or as part of an employment incentive. Business travel, by contrast, is conducted by individual businesses, which is
more difficult to track and to market in a targeted fashion. Business tourists as a category tend to be more worldly and

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well-travelled than the norm, and thus more interested in new and better experiences. Mozambique is a place where the
business tourist can gain a completely new perspective on doing business and leisure. It is a country that has a rich heri-
tage of African traditions and an environment where you can enjoy Sun, Sand and Sea products.

.1 GENERIC SUBCOMPONETS OF TOURISM AND LEISURE

Tourism is a quaternary economic activity, thus it cannot be defined as an individual economic sector because the activities
that make up tourism are spread and embedded across a range of other definable economic sectors, mainly catering and
accommodation. Therefore the subcomponents of tourism and leisure are:
• Accommodation
• Attractions
• Catering
• Information services
• Trade
• Business services
• Infrastructure
• Transport

The figure below shows the interconnections of various activities that make up the tourism and leisure sector.
Tourism cluster

Fig B046 Tourism Cluster Source: Demacon, 2010

The figure above gives a consolidated conceptualisation of tourism. Leisure is shown to involve “feel good” activities such
as historical places, natural wonders, game viewing etc., while business tourism include purpose driven activities such as
conferences, political events, business and study among others. The figure outlines the core services e.g. accommodation
and transport, involved as well as some of the most important support services such as food and beverages, finance, cater-
ing etc that are required to make tourism tick. Some of the services are to be provided by individual business eg accom-
modation and catering while some such as sewerage and accessibility infrastructure are offered as general infrastructure by
local authorities.

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SIGNIFICANCE FOR TOURISM

Tourism is split between business and leisure, while core services required for the sector are accommodation and trans-
port. A mix of other support or additional services is also required. These are shown to include telecoms, information
services, finances, legal, real estate, etc.

.1 OVERVIEW OF TOURISM TRENDS (GLOBAL, AFRICA & SADC)

.1.1 GLOBAL TOURISM TRENDS

Tourism has become a global and highly competitive socio-economic and environmental activity in both developed and
developing countries. It has become the largest and fastest growing industry world-wide, and stimulates other sectors such
as agriculture, finance and manufacturing. Apart from generating foreign exchange earnings and revenue for governments,
tourism has the potential to become a powerful tool in pro-poor development strategies. It has the ability to create jobs
and wealth for local economies as well as contribute to conserving natural resources.

.1.1.1 LATEST GLOBAL TRENDS

The recession that hit the global economy in late 2000s has had a negative impact on travel and tourism demand. As a
result, international travel suffered a strong slowdown beginning in June 2008. Growth from 2007 to 2008 was only 3.7%
during the first eight months of 2008. The Asian and Pacific markets were affected and Europe stagnated during this period,
while the Americas performed better, reducing their expansion rate but keeping a 6% growth from January to August 2008.
Only the Middle East continued its rapid growth during the same period, reaching a 17% growth as compared to the same
period in 2007. This slowdown on international tourism demand was also reflected in the air transport industry, with a
negative growth in September 2008 and a 3.3% growth in passenger traffic through September. The hotel industry also
reports a slowdown, as room occupancy continues to decline. As the global economic situation deteriorated dramatically
during September and October as a result of the global financial crisis, growth of international tourism is expected to slow
even further for the remaining of 2008, and this slowdown in demand growth was forecasted to moderate in 2009 as re-
cession has already hit most of the top spender countries, but the global economy has since rebounded. Long-haul travel
was the most affected by the economic crisis. This negative global tourism trend was also negatively influenced in some
regions due to the outbreak of the influenza AH1N1 virus.
Against the backdrop of both the upturn in international tourism figures and overall economic indicators in recent months,
UNWTO forecasts a growth in international tourist arrivals of between 3% and 4% in 2010.
In the medium term the World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) forecasts that international tourism will continue to
grow at the average annual rate of 4 %. A major contributor to the growth has been ecommerce which has made tourism
products to be traded on the internet. Tourism products and services are increasingly being made available through inter-
mediaries (e.g. tour operators), although tourism providers like hotels and airlines can still sell their services directly.
Other exciting developments in the global tourism industry are space tourism which is expected to “take off” in the first
quarter of the 21st century, although compared with traditional destinations the number of tourists in orbit will remain
low until space travel has become significantly cheaper. Technological improvements are likely to make possible air-ship ho-
tels, based either on solar-powered airplanes or large dirigibles, underwater hotels, like the Hydropolis, opened in Dubai in
late 2009.

SUMMARY OF KEY GLOBAL TOURISM TRENDS:

International tourist arrivals reached 922 million in 2008, up 18 million over 2007, representing a growth of 2%.
International tourism receipts rose by 1.7% in real terms to US$ 944 billion.
Following four years of consecutive strong growth, an abrupt shift in trend occurred in the middle of 2008, with tourism
demand falling significantly under the influence of an extremely volatile world economy (financial crisis, commodity and oil
price rises and sharp exchange rate fluctuations).

Global International Tourism Arrivals (millions of people)

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Fig B046 Global International Tourism Arrivals Source: World Tourism Organisation, 2010

International tourist arrivals are estimated to have declined worldwide by 4% in 2009 to 880 million.

• Growth returned in the last quarter of 2009, after 14 months of negative results, contributing to a better than expect-
ed full-year.
• The 2% upswing registered in the last quarter of 2009 contrasts with the declines of 10%, 7% and 2% felt in the first
three quarters respectively.
• Asia and the Pacific and the Middle East led the recovery with growth already turning positive in both regions in the
second half of 2009.
• Based on the trends through the first three quarters, international tourism receipts for 2009 are estimated to have
decreased by around 6%.
• While this is unquestionably a disappointing result for an industry accustomed to continuous growth, it can also be
interpreted as a sign of comparative resilience given the extremely difficult economic environment.
• This becomes even more evident when compared with the estimated 12% slump in overall exports as a consequence
of the global crisis.
• Against the backdrop of both the upturn in international tourism figures and overall economic indicators in recent
months, UNWTO forecasts a growth in international tourist arrivals of between 3% and 4% in 2010.

CURRENT DEVELOPMENTS:

According to the June 2009 UNWTO World Tourism Barometer, the decline in tourism demand intensified in the first
four months of 2009, sliding to -8% when compared to the same period in the previous year.
The year 2009 performance was more dependent on the global economic performance which was battling to get out of
the global recession and the evolution of the influenza (H1N1) outbreak. Taking into account the results for the first four
months of 2009 and current market conditions, the pace of decline is was reversed during the remainder of the year and
international tourist arrivals decreased by between -6% and -4% in 2009.
According to the UN World Tourism Organisation, the global tourism sector is expected to post a moderate recovery in
2010 after slumping in 2009 due to the recession, with Asia set for the strongest rebound.

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International Tourism by Purpose of Visit 2008

Fig B0479 Source: World Tourism Organisation, 2010

International Tourism By Means Of Transport 2008

Fig B048 Source: World Tourism Organisation, 2010

.1 GLOBAL TOURISM OUTLOOK:

International tourist arrivals have continued to grow from 277 million in 1980, to 438 million in 1990, to 684 million in
2000, and reaching 922 million in 2008.
Over the past six decades, tourism has experienced continued growth and diversification to become one of the largest
and fastest growing economic sectors in the world. Many new destinations have emerged alongside the traditional ones
of Western Europe and North America. As growth has been particularly high in the world’s emerging regions, the share in
international tourist arrivals received by developing countries has steadily risen, from 31% in 1990 to 45% in 2008.
By 2020 international arrivals are expected to reach 1.6 billion.
UN WTO Panel of Tourism Experts 2010 expectations (score)

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Fig B049 UN WTO Panel of Tourism Experts 2010 expectations Source: World Tourism Organisation, 2010

The improved prospects for 2010 are confirmed by the encouraging steep rise in the UNWTO Panel of Experts’ Confi-
dence Index for 2010.
As expected, given the turbulence experienced over the past 12 months, the over 340 members of the UNWTO Panel of
Tourism Experts from around the world who contributed to this issue of the UNWTO World Tourism Barometer have
evaluated 2009 with a pretty poor score of just 72.
However, the average score given by these same experts for 2010’s prospects is 131, well above the neutral 100 and close
to the level of the boom years 2004-2007.

.1 AFRICA’S TOURISM TRENDS

Tourism in Africa is gradually becoming the mainstay of domestic economies as countries undertake policies and infrastruc-
tural investments needed to unlock the industry’s potential. Despite being endowed with vast amounts of natural resourc-
es such as game parks, historical monuments etc, Christie and Crompton (2001) observe that Africa receives just about
four per cent of all international travellers and tourism receipts.
Over the decade of the 1990s, Africa has experienced a rise in tourist arrivals from 8.4 million to 10.6 million and re-
ceipts growth from $2.3 billion to $3.7 billion. According to the World Tourism Organization (WTO, 2006), the tour-
ism industry in Sub-Saharan Africa enjoyed a robust annual market share growth rate of 10 percent in 2006. Following
the recent global recession of the late 2000s, all regions with the exception of Africa, recorded a decrease in arrivals for
the first four months of 2009. The positive results for Africa of +3 percent growth in 2009 reflect the strength of North
African destinations around the Mediterranean and the recovery of Kenya as one of leading sub-Saharan destinations.
Christie and Crompton (2001) show that receipts from tourism industry significantly contribute both to the current
level of gross domestic product and the economic growth of Sub-Saharan African countries. African economies could en-
hance their short run economic growth by strategically strengthening their individual tourism industries.

North Africa attracts 35 percent of the continent’s traffic; Southern Africa 35 percent whilst East Africa receives 23 per-
cent, West Africa attracts only 10 percent with Central Africa contending with three percent.
The World Bank points out that even though Africa started from a lower base of investor arrivals, and is relatively still not
known to the main traveller generating markets in Europe, that is Spain, Germany, France, Holland, Sweden, Norway, U.S.
etc, the continent now enjoys the highest growth rates of 7.2 per cent. However, it is expected that Africa will have 36
million visitors by 2010 and 57 million visitors by 2020. Africa’s tourism potential and strength lies in the originality and
authenticity of its products, most notably game parks, historical sites and culture and tradition.
Andebrhan (2009) notes that tourism is the only service in Africa where there is a positive balance of trade flowing from
the developed world to third world countries. Specifically, tourism’s economic activities effectively improves the livelihoods
of the people through income generation, employment creation, improved infrastructure, increased standard of living and 
increased government revenue. Most Africa governments have already accepted not only the importance of tourism but
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also have played the dominant role in the planning process. This role might be adopted through political preference or
necessity, or both. No two countries or sub-regions in Africa are similar in the range and difficulty of problems they face.
Many African countries have weak, embryonic tourism sectors, while other countries have vigorous, more developed tour-
ism sectors. In the latter countries, much of the investment, management and development in tourism are from private sec-
tor initiatives. But few African countries have given careful consideration to the type of tourism they want, and to what ex-
tent their declared aims are realistic and what needs to be done to achieve those aims.
Against this brief background, it is possible to identify a number of issues relating to the development of tourism in Africa.
Addressing the issue areas is important because the issues are crucial ingredients to maximise tourism’s contribution to
Africa’s development. The issues are really of two kinds: those for the tourism industry itself and issues for African govern-
ments.

• First is the need to delineate the relative roles of the private local and foreign tourism partners in development
decisions on the continent. In particular, the decisions in the areas of investment, marketing and operation of the
tourism enterprises appear to be critical to the tourism industry. The key issue for all concerned is to recognise that
the development decisions made by them do have wider economic consequences for Africa. It is therefore imperative
that investors recognise the implications of their actions in the overall interest of the long-run economic sustainabil-
ity of the tourism sector.
• The second is the need to develop human resources, particularly indigenous personnel, both for reasons of de-
livering quality services for tourists, as well as enhancing general skills of the local workforce. Achieving these broad
objectives will potentially encourage sound utilisation of local suppliers and thus enhance not only their productivity
but also intersectoral linkages. In this sense, the spin-off effects are obvious: foreign exchange will be retained local-
ly and further income would be earned.
• Thirdly, there are problems facing the local tourism industries in Africa that are characterised by a large number of
small and medium-sized tourism enterprises (SMEs). Although SMEs serve useful functions in tourism (e.g. the devel-
opment of linkages, providing personal service, etc), but for most of them, life is a daily struggle, with many of them
operating at the margin of survival. They also lack the requisite experience to run tourism business along modem man-
agement principles. Even the nature of tourism demand renders them uncompetitive as they are unable to capitalise on
the advantages that accrue from the economies of scale. The real challenge is for them to develop marketing strategies
that would enable them to overcome some of these difficulties and thereby sell their products. Again, their limited re-
source base makes this objective hard to  achieve.

The traditional role of government is to formulate policy for the tourism sector. The focus has however changed because
of changing priorities occasioned by development in the international tourism scene. The challenge for national govern-
ments is to formulate tourism sector policies that best reflect the new thinking. Some important areas needing policy
reorientation or refocusing are consultation with local communities in the planning process; forging partnership with the
private sector; liberal immigration regulations to facilitate free tourist movement; tourism infrastructure development
policy to facilitate tourism development, for the benefit not just for tourism but the wider society. 

Andebarhan (2009) notes that policy issues need to be linked to devising viable and sensible options for financing tour-
ism infrastructure. Other areas where there is need for policy re-focusing include entrepreneurial development initiatives,
policies to enhance tourist length of Stay. Last but not least, the policy to identify ways in which the benefits from tourism
activity can be spread more evenly throughout the society.
The basic strategy for achieving sustainable development through economic growth is now well established. Core com-
ponents for tourism success include macroeconomic stability and a stable investment environment; integration into the
international economy; a reliance on the private sector as the driving force for economic growth; long-term foreign direct
investment, especially in support of export-oriented activities; adequate investment in human development areas such as
health and education; a fair and reliable legal framework; and the maintenance of basic physical infrastructures.
Long-term success can be achieved only if African Governments have the political will, not just to enact sound economic
policies but also to persevere in their implementation until a solid economic foundation has been established.

Despite mounting criticisms of the negative effects of tourism development, there is evidence that many African countries
encouraged by positive developments elsewhere e.g. Dubai and Bahamas continue to pursue its promotion as part of their
economic development strategies. Tourism has now merited inclusion in national development plans of most African coun-
tries.

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It should be noted however that tourism development cannot be separated from other facets of economy, society and
politic. Merely creating national, sub regional and regional institutions or planning bodies responsible for tourism is hollow
in the absence of the political will and procurement of adequate resources. Much of the difficulty with developing tourism
in Africa results from ineffectual policies and lack of capital resources. This holds the key to future advances in tourism de-
velopment in the region.

There is need to empower the African masses. This can be done in a variety of ways: by creating in them an awareness of
the benefits of tourism, by allowing them access to entrepreneurial opportunities offered by tourism, permitting women a
role in the industry, and perhaps finally giving them a sense of ownership in the sector.

African tourism policy strategies should aim to redress these deficiencies. It then means, as noted, that the existence of
credible political, commitment on the part of African governments is a sine qua non to the realisation of such strategies.

SIGNIFICANCE FOR TOURISM DEVELOPMENT

In developing tourism in Africa, the following areas for policy consideration are important,
including:Well conceived and well articulated but realistic tourism policy objectives. Local
involvement and control over tourism development. Forging private-public sector partnerships
for tourism development. Raising gender awareness to enhance women’s participation in the
tourism sector. Promoting regional tourism co-operation and integration. Availability and
allocation of appropriate resources (e.g. financial, human, product).

Developing equity in tourism benefits-sharing.

Promoting community tourism awareness campaign.

Availability of appropriate legal framework for tourism.

Building image of a destination through a marketing and promotional campaign

Expanding tourism entrepreneurial initiatives/investment opportunities

For the tourism sector in Africa to respond to changing realities in the international tourism
market scene, the strategic development of the industry is paramount. This requires co-
operation from all concerned: the tourism industry, the national governments and the
international community to make it happen.

5.4.4 REGIONAL (SADC) TOURISM TRENDS

The countries of SADC boast a wide range of beautiful environments, wildlife, a rich natural heritage/culture and an ideal
climate. Throughout the region, a multitude of various and unique floral habitats meet. The exceptionally long curve of
unspoilt and scenic coastline, large land area and the considerable longitude and latitude distances provide the region with
highly varied vegetation with a combination of summer and winter rainfall. Some of these resources are cross boarder
resources e.g. the Kruger Transfrontier Park (Zimbabwe, South Africa and Mozambique) that provide a sound basis of their
equitable exploitation and for shared prosperity. Governments of the sub-region are committed to ensuring tourism devel-
opment is carried out in a sustainable manner, which does not exceed carrying capacities, nor threaten the unique land and
marine environment as well as the heritage/culture of the people of the region.

5.4.4.1 SPECTACULAR FAUNA & FLORA

Whilst certain regions are arid and semi-arid, much of the interior regions are characterised by rolling grasslands and
savanna bushveld. In other areas, tropical forests intermingle with the more temperate woods, creating an interesting forest
habitat of a large variety of species endemic to the region, including the ancient forests that are found in the various parts
of the region. The extraordinary wealth of fauna and flora of the region has played a catalytic role in the development of a
modern tourism industry, but considerable scope exists for improved coordination in the marketing of the entire region as
a tourism destination of choice.

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5.4.4.2 TOURISM TRENDS

Tourism industry in the SADC region is expected to grow underpinned by the development of infrastructure and a vigor-
ous ecotourism approach. Airline capacities from Europe and Asia have increased substantially. This has encouraged tour
operators in the source markets to expand their packages to the region. The United Nations World Tourism Organization’s
2009 report states that the SADC region receives about 2% of global tourists on average instead of the expected 7%. The
lack of growth has been attributed to constraints that include the under-exploitation of the rich tourism potential, lack of
proper infrastructure development, price competitiveness and non-aggressive marketing of the region.
The table below shows the number of tourist arrivals in the SADC region in 2000 and 2007 and the percentage increase
thereof.

 Country International Tourist Arrivals 2000 International Tourist Arrivals 2007  Percentage Increase
Angola 51,000 212,000 316%
Botswana 969,290 2,366,280 144%
DRC stats not available stats not available stats not available
Lesotho 63,000 351,325 458%
Madagascar 160,000 289,320 81%
Malawi 228,000 431,092 89%
Mauritius 656,000 923,292 41%
Mozambique stats not available stats not available stats not available
Namibia 732,317 888,293 21%
South Africa 5,872,000 9,050,000 54%
Swaziland 281,000 861,016 206%
Tanzania 459,000 824,652 80%
Zambia 457,000 703,373 54%
Zimbabwe 1,868,000 2,200,000 18%

** Source: World Travel and Tourism Council, Tourism Satellite Accounting Tool 2008

The region has a regional organisation (RETOSA) for tourism marketing, but most of the countries in the SADC region
have a range of strategic marketing initiatives that are individually undertaken to strengthen the national position of their
respective tourism industries in the source markets of Europe, North America and South East Asia
In terms of challenges, the delays in implementing the UNIVISA concept continues to hamper tourists who prefer guar-
anteed access to an integrated destination spanning across national boundaries. The strengthening of currencies in some
Member States has created the perception of some of the markets as expensive. Furthermore, delays in the implementa-
tion of air open skies policy amongst Member States and relaxation of intra-SADC visas amongst member states continue
to have an adverse impact on tourism growth. These are challenges the SADC is trying to address.

5.4.5 MOZAMBIQUE’S NATIONAL TOURISM TRENDS

Mozambique’s tourism sector was once a significant part of the economy but years of a protracted armed conflict de-
terred international tourist arrivals, setting the country back to square one. Mozambique’s comparative advantage – its
marine and terrestrial wildlife resource base and historical and cultural heritage – is still compelling, although wildlife was
decimated during the conflict. Images of armed conflict, landmines, and floods still linger in the minds of tourists.
Since the restoring peace in 1992, international tourist arrivals to Mozambique have grown rapidly from 240,000 in 1999
to some 470 000 by 2004, before skyrocketing to just under two million visitors by 2008, an annual growth rate of about
13%. This growth rate, however, is from a low level in absolute terms. At 4 and 2 tourists per 100 inhabitants respectively,
both Africa and Mozambique compare rather unfavourably to a world average of 11 tourists per 100 inhabitants. Spending
in Mozambique is comparatively low, international tourism receipts per international arrival reached US$240 in 2003 – well
short of the unit price in Africa ($404) and the world ($675). The disparity is explained by the short average length of stay,
which is 2.3 days in Mozambique compared to 8.4 days for Kenya, for example.

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5.4.5.1 TOURISM PATTERN IN MOZAMBIQUE

The following tables indicate the pattern of tourist arrivals by motive or reason or visit and source market or country of
origin respectively.
The Foreign arrivals in Mozambique by Motive

Country of Origin Total


South Africa 1 084 572
Zimbabwe 811 241
Swaziland 174 648
Malawi 72 807
Country of Origin Total
Bulgaria 72 637
Portugal 49 116
UK 36 262
US 32 436
Others 283 705
Total 2 617 424

Source: INE/Migration

Mozambique’s International Arrivals By Country Of Origin In 2008Source: INE/Migration


The majority of international visitor arrivals in Mozambique are regional. On average, Mozambique attracts 6 times fewer
inter-continental travellers than the rest of Africa.

The share of inter-continental travellers of total arrivals is approximately 10% in Mozambique compared to approximately
60% for the rest of Africa.
South Africa with a share of 41% of all visitors to Mozambique accounts for the bulk of Mozambique’s regional traffic. The
only inter-continental market of any significance is Portugal with 49 116 arrivals in 2008 reflecting a 2% share. All other
inter-continental (EU except Portugal, Americas and Bulgaria) markets generate 283 705 visitors.
Of all tourist arrivals in Mozambique in 2008, a significant portion, about 177 169 were business travellers.
Visiting Friends and Relatives (VFR) account for 13% of all tourists in 2008.
In total almost 70% of tourists are motivated by specific personal or business reasons, while only 32% of the tourists visit
Mozambique with the primary purpose of leisure, recreation and holidays.
Compared to neighbouring countries where the leisure segment accounts for upwards of 70% of tourists. Mozambique’s
leisure market seems particularly depressed.
Mozambique’s large share of business tourists stands out in comparison to the average share of business tourists in other
African countries. The dominance of business tourists is not unusual for countries where leisure tourism has not devel-
oped.

The table below show the country’s revenue receipts from foreign arrivals into Mozambique fro 2004 up to 2008 in mil-
lions of US dollars. Receipts from International Tourism in $US

Year 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008


Millions $US 95.3 129.6 139.7 163.4 190

Source: INE/BM
In 2008, Mozambique earned around $US 190 million in revenue.

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5.4.1.22 PERCEPTION OF MOZAMBIQUE’S TOURISM DESTINATIONS IN INTERNATIONAL


MARKETS

All other countries sharing borders with Mozambique are within the top 10 African tourism destinations except Malawi.
This shows that Mozambique is underutilising its tourism resources compared to its regional neighbours.
The potential of Mozambique’s tourism product offering is undoubted. This is because the tourism products and experi-
ences available in Mozambique are unique – pristine beaches with wild marine life, but no big game viewing products. The
product offering if well developed has the potential to rival respected international destinations such as Hawaii and the
Mauritius. These destinations are currently providing direct competition with Mozambique. Although no competing country
offered the same unique package of products and environment, the Indian Ocean islands (Mauritius, Seychelles, and Mal-
dives) are Mozambique’s main competitors. The second tier of competition is provide by Tanzania and Kenya (their coast-
line and isles) while third tier competition comes from South Africa and Botswana (game parks, historical). There are also
competitors that emerge from unique source markets for example Brazil and Cape Verde, competing with Mozambique for
the Portuguese-speaking tourists.
The table below indicates the perception of foreign tourists, foreign tour operators and domestic operators on the weak-
nesses and strengths of the domestic tourism industry.
Feedback from Tourists and Tour Operators on tourism in Mozambique

Positives Negatives
Tourists -Pristine beaches and a unique African-
Mediterranean-Arabic Culture Friendli-
ness of the people and the quality of the
accommodation.

-The hideaway-character of the destina- -Services – air transportation,


tion. food, and communication/information is
substandard, Limited number of attrac-
tions,
-Little interaction with locals and their
culture
Foreign Tour Operators Non-commercial environment -Less value than Zanzibar, Mombasa and
and the destination’s unpretentious feel. Mauritius, Bad or poor air access – Inter-
The simple, unspoilt but luxurious charac- national and domestic,
ter; its unique beaches; and the friendliness
of the people.Value for money compared
to Indian Ocean Islands
-Availability and quality of service provid-
ers – particularly inbound tour opera-
tors, Lack of tourism products to enrich
customer experience,
-Shortage of dive sites,
-Bad image of Mozambique: poverty, hun-
ger, spectre of armed conflict, cronyism

Domestic Inbound Tour Operators Unspoilt and unexplored features of the -Immigration formalities and malaria acted
destination. The friendliness of the people, as deterrents to tourism
combined with the unique cultural heritage
compared to neighbouring Anglophone
countries
Source: IFC, 2006

The table above indicates the strengths and gaps in the tourism sector of Mozambique. There is need to revamp or expand
access by air, road and rail to various tourist destinations. Nacala, Lichinga and Pemba airports need to be upgraded to
international status so that tourists can fly directly to these destinations, thus saving cost and time. Tour guides of all tour-

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ism support staff need to learn other languages, especially English to provide easy communication with tourists. Infrastruc-
ture for mobile and telephonic communication also needs to be expanded to reach all corners of the country.
There is also need by the government to deal with a plethora of problems such as poverty and hunger, corruption, bureau-
cracy a general bad image especially in terms of health and sanitation, diseases as well as land mines. Easing of immigration
formalities, especially for SADC countries has been a positive development for tourism. A gap analysis of facilities required
for tourist attempts to turn the proverbial shortfalls into opportunities for Mozambique’s tourism.

5.4.5.3 GAP ANALYSIS OF FACILITIES TO SERVE THE TOURISM SECTOR

The tourism sector needs facilities that complements or complete the tourism product being consumed. These facilities
can be classified as higher-order, middle order and lower-order depending on the size of the area that they serve. These
facilities may or may not be tourism specific and they generally also serve the resident population of an area.

• Higher-order urban facilities: These facilities generally serve the entire region, (e.g. airports, hospitals, universities). From a
tourism perspective these facilities are essential at larger service centre to support the entire tourism region.
• Middle-order urban facilities: These are facilities which serve a number of diverse and different communities (e.g. shop-
ping malls, banks, clinics, libraries, post office, and police stations). These facilities are essential to individual neighbourhoods,
but the facilities serve a threshold population which exceeds an individual neighbourhood, and therefore are supported by
a number of settlements or neighbourhoods.
• Lower-order public facilities: These are facilities which are utilised by a single or a limited number of communities (e.g. a
restaurant, shop, filling station) and which are generally provided for in the design and layout of a small settlement.
The following table shows a gap analysis of facilities that are pertinent to the tourism sector.
In general, all facilities need upgrading to be competitive on an international level in terms of tourism.
Facility Gap Analysis

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Africa is capturing an increasing share of the global tourism market and Mozambique is securing a fair
share of that growth at an annual growth rate of 13%;
Africa’s, and especially Mozambique’s, International T ourism Receipts are depressed mainly due to
low number of tourists per 100 inhabitant, and lower expenditure per visiting tourist. Mozambique
attracts 9 tourists less per 100 inhabitants, compared to the global average. Similarly, international
tourism receipts in Mozambique were 1.7 times, 2.5 times, 3 times, and 4.2 times less than the
average tourism receipts for Africa, Europe, Asia Pacific and the Americas, respectively.
C ompared to other countries in the region, Mozambique receives relatively few inter-continental
visitors.  O nly a few of the other countries on the African continent (T anzania, and K enya) offer a
Sun, Sand and Sea (SSS) product akin to Mozambique’s, but they are further away from the Southern
African countries.
Mozambique’s main leisure tourism product is Sun, Sand and Sea (SSS), which complements the
tourism products in South Africa, Botswana, Zambia, Zimbabwe and Malawi, which do not have a
SSS-product;
Mozambique’s neighbour South Africa is head and shoulders above any other country in Africa (top
25 globally), putting Mozambique in a unique position to tap this market for travellers desiring to
experience more than one African country and/or relax on the beach;
Mozambique currently does not have wildlife viewing product – big game (lion, elephants etc), which
is the well-known sales-point for the inter-continental tourist visiting Africa. Instead, it has to rely on
other countries in the region (e.g. RSA, Zambia, T anzania, K enya, Botswana, Malawi, and Zimbabwe)
for tourists wanting this experience)
Mozambique is mainly sold by way of individual private customisation by Visiting Friends and
Relatives and business tourists in inter-continental markets;
W ith regard to the commercial distribution of tourism products by international tour operators in
the inter-continental markets, Mozambique is primarily sold as a unique add-on to other standards
travel (Safari-) packages.
Most of Mozambique tourism products are sold by way of individual customisation – put together
either by the individual traveller or by a professional agent for the high-end tourist segment. T his
contrasts with the market share of standardised ‘group’ packages in the larger south- and eastern
African countries.

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CATEGORY OF SERVICE TYPE OF FACILITY SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS QUALITY OF THE SERVICE GAP
TRANSPORT Sea or lake ports Must have a regular passenger services POOR YES
INFRASTRUCTURE
Airport Needs International Airports AVERAGE YES
Railway Passenger Stations AVERAGE YES
Bus Service Tour bus services AVERAGE YES
Local Bus services AVERAGE YES
Taxi service Tourist taxi service of shuttle services AVERAGE YES
Local taxi services POOR YES
Roads Paved roads AVERAGE YES
Good, unpaved roads AVERAGE YES
Vehicle and equip- Sedan motor vehicle hiring services GOOD YES
ment hiring
4x4 Hiring services GOOD YES
Camping and off-road hiring services AVERAGE YES
Vehicle maintenance Fuel services GOOD YES
Tire repair services GOOD YES
Auto mechanic services GOOD YES
Auto electrician services GOOD YES
COMMUNICATION mobile coverage GOOD
Radio and TV Coverage GOOD
ACCOMMODATION Short stay accom- Hotels GOOD YES
modation
Lodges AVERAGE YES
Resorts AVERAGE YES
Guesthouse and Bed and breakfast AVERAGE YES
Self catering accommodation AVERAGE YES
Caravan and camping AVERAGE YES
FOOD AND BEVERAGE Super market AVERAGE YES
Liquor store GOOD
Restaurant AVERAGE YES
Pub AVERAGE YES
Take-away AVERAGE YES
Convenience store POOR YES
ENTERTAINMENT Facilities other than Cinema POOR YES
tourist attractions
Theatre AVERAGE YES
Art gallery AVERAGE YES
Craft market AVERAGE YES
Night club AVERAGE YES
FINANCIAL Money and ex- Banks GOOD
change
Foreign Exchange AVERAGE YES
Auto banks GOOD
ADMINISTRATION AND Information centres Tourist information centre GOOD YES
INFORMATION and government
support services
tour guides and tour operators AVERAGE YES
insurance brokers, YES

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CATEGORY OF SERVICE TYPE OF FACILITY SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS QUALITY OF THE SERVICE GAP
Customs AVERAGE YES
foreign affairs offices AVERAGE YES
Consulates AVERAGE YES
HEALTH FACILITIES Medical facilities Hospital with trauma centre POOR YES
Dive decompression tank AVERAGE YES
Clinic with qualified doctors POOR YES
Pharmacy POOR YES
SECURITY All facilities to Police station POOR YES
ensure the safety of
visitors
Security services GOOD

Source: Holm Jordaan. 2010

The table above indicates that the northern provinces of Mozambique, despite having awesome natural resources that are
required for a successful tourism sector, the areas are not yet particularly geared to serve the tourist market satisfactorily.
Facilities that are listed as poor or average, and even those listed as good offer opportunities for replacement, renovation,
upgrade or new establishment. Fig B050
Most services and facilities are not suitable or good enough to attract niche market tourists or meet the level of sophisti-
cation required to ensure a comfortable stay. Therefore, a successful tourism development strategy will be dependent on
successful establishment, renovations, upgrading or otherwise to bring all ancillary facilities of tourism to the required level
of quality and sophistication.

6. INSTUTUTIONAL ENVIRONMENT
6.1 REFERENCE FRAMEWORK

The reference framework for national, provincial and local government legislation and policy underlying the creation of
integrated sustainable human settlements is summarised as follows:

6.1.1 THE CONSTITUTION

Local government is responsible for the development process in municipalities, including municipal planning.
The constitutional mandate relates to municipalities management, budgeting and planning functions of its objectives and
provides a clear indication of the intended purposes of municipal integrated development planning: This is:

• to ensure sustainable provision of services;


• to promote social and economic development;
• to promote a safe and healthy environment;
• to give priority to the basic needs of communities; and
• to encourage involvement of communities.

6.1.2 MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS

The millennium development goals cover a range of life quality indicators and targets that have been set for 2015 and to
which Mozambique has subscribed.
The target that is most relevant to the Local Economic Development (LED) strategy for the Northern Provinces is to
halve unemployment, meaning that the strict unemployment rate should be reduced.

National Framework for LED in Mozambique


The National Framework for LED in Mozambique aims to support the development of sustainable local economies
through integrated government action. This government action is developmental and stimulates the heart of the economy
which comprises those enterprises that operate in local tourism spaces.

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The framework is underpinned by an appreciation of the evolving practice of LED internationally and is based on the
unique Mozambican context and challenges. It contextualizes the move towards “new institutionalism” that questions the
distinction between economy and society, showing how economic decision-making and action is shaped by the shared
values, norms, beliefs, meanings and rules and procedures of the formal and informal institutions of society. The norma-
tive agenda of the New Institutionalism is to develop shared meaning and values and to strengthen the networks of social
interaction. This has also been variously described as building social capital, or developing social cohesion.

The two major policy thrusts of the national framework for LED are:

• Public Sector Leadership and Governance,

• Sustainable Community Investment Programs.

Four key strategies emanate from these policy thrusts with accompanying main actions, implementation and funding ap-
proaches, which are:

• Improving good governance, service delivery, public and market confidence.

• Spatial development planning and exploiting the comparative advantage and competitiveness of Districts and Metros;

• Enterprise support and business infrastructure development;

6.2 NATIONAL AND PROVINCIAL PLANNING LEGISLATION


The following laws are regarded as being of highest importance for tourism development in Mozambique:

• Tourism Law (2004)


• Tourism Policy and Implementation Strategy (2003)
• National Forestry and Wildlife Policy and Strategy (1995)
• Forestry and Wildlife Law (1999)
• Land Law (1997)
• National Environmental Management Programme (1995)
• Environmental Framework Law (1997)
• Law on Environmental Impact Assessment, (2004)
• Fisheries Law
• Investment Law (1993)
• Labour Law, (2007)
• Tourism Investment Law 2010

Through Resolution 14 of the 4th of April 2003, the Government approved the ‘National Tourism Policy and Implementa-
tion Strategy’, which sets the direction for future tourism growth and development.

.1 TOURISM LAW, 2004


This Law sets down the legislation that applies to tourism activities, public sector activities directed at promoting tourism,
suppliers of tourism products and services, tourists and consumers of tourism products and services.

.2 LAND LAW, 2004


This collection of legislation covers the key aspects of land occupation and use. It contains rules on the delimitation of
community lands and the governing fees payable by land users, as well as details on the relationship between the public and
the Cadastre Services, and the rights and duties of titleholders.

This Law establishes the terms under which the creation, exercise, modification, transfer and termination of the right of
land use and benefit operates.

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Land ownership

In the Republic of Mozambique, land is the property of the State. This means that the right of ownership over land is
vested in the State (article 46 of the Constitution and article 3 of the Land Law).Consequently, land may not be sold, alien-
ated, mortgaged or attached (distrained).
Notwithstanding that land is owned by the State, all Mozambicans have the right to use and enjoy the land (right of land
use and benefit).

Right of land use and benefit

Right of land use and benefit is a right that individual or corporate persons (be they national or foreign) and local commu-
nities acquire in respect
of land, subject to the demands and limitations of the land legislation.
Individual and corporate persons and local communities can be holders of a right of land use and benefit.
Under the land legislation, there are national holders, as provided for in article 10 of the Land Law, and foreign holders, as
provided for in article 11.
National titleholders- National individual and corporate persons, men and women, as well as local communities may be
holders of the right of land use and benefit. By making the right of individual persons (men and women) explicit and clear,
the legislator wished to stress that the right can be held by women independently of male guardianship. This flows from the
principle of equality provided for in articles 66 and 67 of 81.
Rights of land use and benefit are not granted over partial or total protection zones, as these are areas to be used in the
public interest.
Only certain activities can be conducted in these zones, and a special licence from the Cadastre Services is required for
these.

Right of land use and benefit by occupancy

This is where the right of land use and benefit is acquired by national individuals or local communities that have been using
the land in good faith for at least ten years.
Time periods of rights of land use and benefit

The first authorisation (provisional authorisation) that the Cadastre Services grant to the applicant lasts for two (2) years
for foreigners and for five (5) years for nationals.
Once the provisional authorisation period has expired, or before this if the applicant so requests, the land is inspected to
check that the proposed project or the exploitation (development) plan has been fulfilled in accordance with the approved
schedule. If the exploitation plan or the project has been fulfilled, the Cadastre Services issue a definitive authorisation,
which is valid for 50 years and may be renewed for a further 50 years.
It should be noted that the following rights of land use and benefit are not subject to the 50-year time limit:

a) Those acquired by occupancy by local communities;


b) Those destined for personal dwellings;
c) Those destined for family development by national individuals.

Transfer

A right of land use and benefit can be transferred in two ways:


a) Inter vivos, by the sale and purchase of infrastructures, structures and improvements on the authorised land plot.
b) By inheritance.

The purchaser of infrastructures, structures and improvements does not acquire the right of land
use and benefit automatically. After the deed of sale has been executed, the purchaser should apply for the right
of land use and benefit in respect of the land on which the infrastructures, structures and improvements are in his or her
name.

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Title

Title (sometimes called a title deed) is a document issued by the general or urban Public Cadastre Services, proving right
of land use and benefit.
The non-existence of a title does not affect a right of land use and benefit
An exploitation plan is only required when land is to be used for economic activities. For all other activities, it is not re-
quired.
Exploitation plan: document presented by an applicant for the use and benefit of land describing activities, works and build-
ing which the applicant undertakes to realise in accordance with a determined schedule.
For titleholders of a right of land use and benefit, the State recognises and protects rights acquired by occupancy through
customary norms and practices, in good faith for more than ten years, and occupancy by inheritance.

A right of land use and benefit may be extinguished in the following instances:
a) By failure by the titleholder to fulfil the exploitation plan without justifiable reasons, even if fiscal obligations (annual
fees) are being complied with;
b) By revocation of the right of land use and benefit for reasons of public interest, preceded by payment of fair indemnifica-
tion and/or compensation;
c) Upon the expiry of its term or a renewal thereof;
d) By renunciation by the titleholder.
It is not compulsory to register a right of land use and benefit. This can be done on the initiative of the titleholders. Al-
though registration is not compulsory, it is important for titleholders to register their rights, since this gives the public
notice of the act and the said right.
POWERS AND RESPONSIBILITIES

Areas not covered by urbanisation plans

In areas that are not covered by urbanisation plans:

1. The Provincial Governors have the competence to:


a) Authorise applications for land use and benefit for areas that do not exceed 1 000 hectares;
b) Authorise special licences in partial protection zones;
c) Issue opinions regarding applications for land use and benefit in areas that fall within the competence of the Minister of
Agriculture and Fisheries.

2. The Minister of Agriculture and Fisheries has the competence to:

a) Authorise applications for land use and benefit for areas that are between 1 000 and 10
000 hectares;
b) Authorise special licences in total protection zones;
c) Issue opinions regarding applications for land use and benefit regarding applications that exceed his competence for ap-
proval.

3. The Council of Ministers has the competence to:

a) Authorise applications for land use and benefit in areas which exceed the competence of the Minister of Agriculture and
Fisheries, provided they are within in a land use plan or could be integrated in a land use map;
b) Create, modify or extinguish total or partial protection zones;
c) Decide on the use of the bed of territorial waters and the continental platform.

4. Municipal Councils, Settlement Councils and District Administrators Presidents of Municipal Councils and Settlement
Councils and, where there are no municipal
structures, District Administrators, have the competence to authorise applications for land use and benefit in areas that are
covered by urbanisation plans, provided they ave public cadastre services.

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5. Local communities
1) In rural areas the local communities shall participate in:
a) The management of natural resources;
b) The resolution of conflicts;
c) The process of titling, as established in paragraph 3 of article 13 of this Law;
d) The identification and definition of boundaries of the land that the communities occupy.
2) In exercising the competences listed in a) and b) in paragraph 1 of the present article, the local communities shall use,
among others, customary norms and practices.

.3 URBAN LAND REGULATIONS 2006


The regulations laid out are confined to establishing a uniform system of access to urban land based on town planning
schemes. The Land Law, Law 19/97 of 1 October, confers upon the Council of Ministers the power to enact implementing
regulations. In the exercise of those powers, the Land Law Regulations were enacted under Decree 66/98 of 8 December,
which applies only to land not falling within the jurisdiction of municipalities with municipal cadastre services. Consequent-
ly, regulations were still required to govern the right to the use and benefit of urban land.

The Urban Land Regulations therefore regulates the use of land within urban areas (municipal areas).

.4 ENVIRONMENTAL ACT 1997

The law addresses all issues concerning the environmental impact assessment of land prior to development, including
pollution, infra-structure, sustainable management, audits, responsibilities and sanctions. The Environmental Act 20 of 1997
provides for judicious Environmental management of all public or private activities which may influence the natural envi-
ronment directly or indirectly. Therefore, projects and operations such as infrastructural developments that are likely to
have a negative impact on the environment are required to be subject to an Environmental Impact Assessment by indepen-
dent assessors. Such projects and operations are governed by the hospices of the Act.
Whilst a robust legal framework for Environmental Management exist in Mozambique, site investigation and Government
personnel interviews indicates that there is need capacitate the operational efficiency of the legislation. Skills, work force
and resources to enforce the composition of the law need to be strengthened

6.3 TOURISM GOVERNMENT BODIES AND STRUCTURE

The Ministry of Tourism is organized according to the following activity areas:

a) Tourism activities;
b) The hotel and related industry;
c) Conservation areas designated for tourism;
d) Tourism inspection.

At national level, the Ministry of Tourism has the following bodies:

FUTUR was restructured in 2009 and renamed Instituto Nacional do Turismo (INATUR).  
National Directorate for Tourism (DINATUR),
National Directorate for Conservation Areas Designated for Tourism (DNAC),
Tourism Promotion Directorate (DPT),
Planning and Cooperation Directorate (DPC),
General Inspection of Tourism (IGT),
Human Resources Department (DRH),
Administration and Finance Department (DAF),
Legal Department (DJ) and
Transfrontier Conservation Areas Coordination Unit (ACTF).

At local level, the Ministry of Tourism is represented by the Provincial Directorates of Tourism, with representative direc-
torates or offices at district level expected to be introduced in the future. In January 2004, the Ministry of Tourism estab-
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lished Provincial Directorates of Tourism in all the provinces,

The institutions governed by the Ministry of Tourism are:

a) National Tourism Fund (FUTUR), responsible for the promotion of the development of tourism through marketing, tech-
nical and financial assistance to local operators,
training and provision of assistance on undertakings of tourism interest.
b) Hotel Escola Andalucia, offering basic training in the areas of front office, food and beverage and housekeeping.

MITUR currently employs about 600 people; this includes central staff as well as staff in the Provincial Directorates and in
the National Parks and Reserves (400).

Fig B036 Posto Administrativo de Chai (Chai-Muchai) Fig B037 Antiga Administração de Mueda (Casa do Massacre)

Fig B038 Fortim de São José (Ilha do Ibo) Fig B039 Monumento dos Mártires da Mueda (Mueda)

Fig B040 Igreja de São João Baptista (Ilha do Ibo) Fig B041 Base Central (Base Moçambique)

6.4 TOURISM DEVELOPMENT COMPANY LAW, REGULATIONS AND POWERS

6.5 STRATEGIC PLAN FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF TOURISM IN MOZAMBIQUE (2004- 2013)

The Strategic Plan for the Development of Tourism in Mozambique (SPDTM) contains the following strategic directives for
tourism development in the Northern Region.
Mozambique’s Tourism Vision for 2020

‘By 2020, Mozambique is Africa’s most vibrant, dynamic and exotic tourism destination, famous for its outstanding beaches
and coastal attractions, exciting eco-tourism products and intriguing culture, welcoming over 4 million tourists a year.

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Strategies for the Use of Mozambique’s Key Tourism Resources

Resource Strategy Explanation


Coastal and Capitalize Mozambique’s vast coastline, tropical
Marine beaches and warm waters and rich coastal
Resources and marine resources are of exceptional
quality and unique in southern Africa.
Mozambique should capitalize on this posi-
tion in product development and market-
ing, while at the same time conservation
and protection of the fragile coastal and
marine resources should be a priority
Wildlife and Develop To be able to compete in Southern Africa
Nature markets, Mozambique must develop its
Resources nature and wildlife based tourism product.
Efforts should be focused on (re)building
the resources and infrastructure, promot-
ing investments in conservation areas,
developing human resources and restock-
ing wildlife.

Cultural and Capture Mozambique’s cultural identity, determined


man-made by its heritage, people and history, dif-
Resources fers significantly from other countries in
southern Africa and is one of the country’s
key tourism assets. Mozambique must
cherish these differences and use them to
‘flavour’ its ‘blue’ and ‘green’ product lines,
as well as to develop a specialized ‘orange’
or cultural product offering.

Key Factors of Success

These are:
• Regional integration (Southern Africa),
• Marketing and product development geared towards selected source and niche markets, and
• The application of spatial focus in integrated planning, marketing and product development.

Critical success factors for maximizing Mozambique’s tourism potential are:

• Capitalize on coastal and marine assets – Mozambique’s extensive coastline, warm tropical waters and rich coastal and
marine resources are of exceptional quality and unique in southern Africa. Mozambique should capitalize on this posi-
tion in product development and marketing while at the same time conservation and protection of the fragile coastal
and marine resources should be a priority.
• Develop nature and wildlife based tourism products – Mozambique is not a significant player yet in eco-tourism in
southern Africa. To be able to compete in international markets, Mozambique must have a competitive wildlife and
nature based tourism product. Efforts should be focused on (re)building the infrastructure, investment promotion in
conservation areas, human resources development and restocking of wildlife.
• Capture Identity of Culture –Mozambique’s cultural identity, determined by its heritage, people and history, differs
significantly from other countries in southern Africa and is one of the country’s key tourism assets. Mozambique must
cherish these differences and use them to ‘flavour’ its ‘blue’ and ‘green’ product lines, as well as to develop a specialized
‘orange’or cultural product offering.
• Integration with neighbouring countries (southern Africa) – No country is Africa will be able to compete in the chang-
ing international market place on its own. Regional integration and the development of a southern African destina-
tion will be an essential survival technique for all countries in southern Africa. Mozambique will take a lead in regional
integration through
• developing and promoting bush-beach linkages with neighbouring countries,
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• initiating and actively developing TFCA initiatives with neighbouring countries, and iii) active participation in regional
marketing and development initiatives.
• Strategic Markets: Niche Markets – With the current offer of products and limited resources available for marketing
and product development, Mozambique must concentrate its resources on a few selected markets. Based upon analysis
of tourism trends and resource strengths of Mozambique, the following strategic niches have emerged: diving, deep sea
fishing, hunting, birding, eco-tourism, adventure, beach tourism, high-yield ‘island’ tourism and cultural tourism.
• Strategic Markets: Source Markets – With a low awareness of foreign markets and limited resources available for
marketing and product development, Mozambique has to concentrate its scarce resources on a few selected source
markets. Strategic source markets have been selected using three criteria,
• strategic source markets to South Africa,

(ii) high potential niche markets and
(iii) strong cultural synergy.

• Spatial Focus:

• Mozambique Regions – The country is too vast and diverse to be considered and managed as a single destination.
• The three regions of Mozambique, the South, Centre and North, each has its own identity, strengths, development
priorities and regional partners.
• The tourism profile of the southern region emphasizes regional and domestic tourism, coastal tourism and water
sports; the central region is best positioned to concentrate on the development of eco-tourism and adventure based
tourism, mainly for specialized international niche markets, while the northern region will develop into an exclusive
international beach and ecotourism destination with a strong cultural component.
• PATIs, TFCAs and Routes and Circuits – Tourism is spatial in nature and selected geographic areas should be priori-
tised for development.
• TFCAs (Transfrontier Conservation Areas), PATIs (Priority Areas for Tourism Development) and Tourism Routes are
the identified localities where resources for tourism development will be concentrated.

Focus and Spatial Framework of Tourism
Tourism is spatial in nature and, therefore, three platforms have been identified for its development, namely:

(1) the Priority Areas for Tourism Investment (PATIs),


(2) the Transfrontier Conservation Areas (TFCAs) and
(3) the Tourism Routes.

There is, however, some measure of overlap between these three platforms, for example some PATIs cover all or part of
some TFCAs or Conservation Areas. The first two (PATIs and TFCAs) are indicated as “destinations”.

The linkages between these ‘destinations’ are added as the last platform for delivery of this Strategic Plan. These linkages
are the routes connecting the various destinations.

Definition of Priority Areas for Tourism Investment

The following criteria for defining PATIs were work-shopped with a cross-section of national, provincial and local stake-
holders:
• Distance – the area should be within 3 or less hours drive from an air gateway;
• Maximum product and marketing potential – marine parks, world heritage sites, national parks, Transfrontier Conserva-
tion Areas (TFCAs), significant inland water, trade and investment centres, ports, quality beaches, biological diversity, exist-
ing and potential tourism “icons”;
• Population density – taking into account both low and high density population scenarios in the kind of resorts and desti-
nations to be built;
• Infrastructure and access – existing and planned levels of infrastructure, particularly related to roads and air utilities;
Accommodation – existing and planned volume and quality of accommodation;
• Clustering – logic of the clustering of accommodation and tourism attractions enabling both to be accessed from a com-
mon centre;
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• Linkages to national economic initiatives – existing or potential linkages to major national and regional sectoral initiatives
with greater economic and environmental impact (e.g. spatial development activities (SDIs), TFCAs, Development Corri-
dors, etc); and
• Strategic areas – area of strategic national importance from a product, market and/ or infrastructure development per-
spective.

The Dual Approach towards the Development of Tourism Destinations

The PATIs, TFCAs and the linkages between them, and the routes are viewed as the key vehicle for the implementation of
this Strategic Plan for the Development of Tourism.

Eighteen areas have been identified as Priority areas for Tourism Investment (PATIs); three areas as type “A” or existing
destinations; five as type “A/B” destinations with limited existing tourism development; and ten as type ‘B’ destinations,
areas with high potential to develop into a tourism destination but with very few products and services developed yet.

Type ‘A’ PRIORITY AREAS FOR TOURISM INVESTMENT (PATI’S)

2. Greater Maputo Zone


6. Inhambane Coastal Zone
7.Vilankulo/bazaruto Zone

Type ‘A/B’ PATI´s

1.Elephant Coast Zone


3.Xai-Xai Coastal Zone
8. Sofala Tourism Zone
14. Ilha de Moç./Nacala Zone
15. Pemba/Quirimbas Zone

Type ‘B’ PATI´s


4.Limpopo – Massingir Zone
5.Limpopo – Mapai Zone
9. Gorongosa Tourism Zone
10. Manica Tourism Zone
11. Cahora Bassa Tourism Zone
12. Gilé/Pebane Tourism Zone

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13. Guruè Tourism Zone


16. Northern Cabo Delgado Zone
17. Lake Niassa Zone
18. Niassa Resesrve Zone

PATI’S IN THE ARCO NORTE indicated in red 14,15, 16,17,&18

Fig B051 Source: MITUR (2004) Strategic Plan for the Development of Tourism in Mozambique
(2004-2013).

MARKET APPOACH AND PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT

Tourism is seen as a “complementary sector” that cuts across many of the primary priorities and that has significant po-
tential for contributing to the economic development of the country
According to the Strategic Plan for the Development of Tourism in Mozambique, 2004, the tourism profile of the southern
region emphasizes regional and domestic tourism, coastal tourism and water sports; the central region is best positioned
to concentrate on the development of eco-tourism and adventure based tourism, mainly for specialized international niche
markets, while the northern region will develop into an exclusive international beach and ecotourism destination with a
strong cultural component.
A niche-approach, in line with the trends towards increased segmentation is, from a marketing perspective, much more
cost-effective than a ‘mainstream’ marketing approach. Niche markets are often easier to target through specialized maga-
zines, web sites, travel agents, clubs and organizations and the power of word-of-mouth. In addition, dedicated niche tour-
ists are often less demanding in terms of service levels and infrastructure and can, therefore, represent a factor that can
be used for the development of a region, with less services and infrastructures. Thus, this can actually constitute an asset
for certain niche markets, e.g. for hunting, eco-tourism and adventure tourism, where people are looking for an ‘off-the-
beaten-track’ experience. Therefore, niche markets can also be a short-term goal for the development and marketing of
different products that the country can offer.

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SIGNIFICANCE FOR TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN ARCO NORTE:

Northern Mozambique: Provinces of Cabo Delgado, Nampula, Niassa and Zambézia. Exclusive destination for affluent seg-
ments. Image of exclusive beach, island and eco-tourism destination with strong cultural influence.
Northern Mozambique will be Mozambique’s most exclusive destination. Marketing and product development initiatives
should strongly feature the exclusive and wilderness character of the region. Exclusive small resorts will arise along the
coast and islands of Cabo Delgado and Nampula. Strong ‘Icons’ of the North are Pemba, the National Park and the archi-
pelago of Quirimbas, Ilha de Moçambique, Niassa Reserve and Lago Niassa.

Exclusive eco-tourism (adventure, birding, hunting, lake based activities) to be developed mainly in remote areas of Niassa
and Cabo Delgado Province.

7 TOURISM ENVIRONMENT
7.1 TOURISM MARKETS
7.1.1 STRATEGIC MARKETS

Tourism demand or potential must be translated into meaningful products and services of acceptable quality if tourism is
to grow. A clear understanding of the target market is required to develop the correct products. A marketing strategy and
action programme was completed for Northern Mozambique by Mike Fabricius in June 2006. The following paragraphs
represent a summary of the findings of that study.
Strategic source markets have been selected using three criteria: (i) strategic source markets to South Africa, (ii) high po-
tential nice markets and (iii) cultural synergy. Three categories of strategic source markets have emerged:

(1) natural markets (based upon proximity and strong cultural synergy),
(2) niche markets (selected strategic source markets to RSA that have strong niche market potential) and
(3) emerging synergy markets (developing source markets that have a strong cultural synergy with Mozambique).

Combining the strategic niche markets, strategic source markets and the drivers of demand for domestic, regional and
international markets, the following strategic markets emerge for Mozambique.

Strategic Market Selection criteria Source markets


Natural Markets Proximity and strong Domestic market, South Africa, Portugal,
Natural Markets cultural synergy Zimbabwe, Swaziland
Strategic Niche Markets Strategic source markets to Spain, Italy, UK, US, Germany,
RSA that have strong niche Netherlands
market potential
Emerging synergy markets Developing source markets Brazil, Saudi Arabia, UAE and Angola
that have a strong cultural
synergy

.2 Source Markets

The findings of that study concluded that the source markets for Northern Mozambique to be:

Primary Source Markets:

Priority 1: South Africa and Portugal, Mozambique domestic market


Priority 2: UK, Italy, France

Secondary Source Markets:


USA, the Netherlands, Spain Brazil, Germany

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Future (potential) target markets

• General Touring & Backpacking – Mainly as an extension of South Africa for European and South African overlander-
backpackers
• Short/power breaks – depending on improved airline access and price competitiveness
• Cruising – already a limited cruise market for Ilha and Ibo – could be further expanded
• Charter holidays – In the longer term as facilities and air access improves
• Small Meetings and Conferences – As conference and team incentives and break-away

These market have been tested since the completion of the market study and is was found that
Portugal plays a insignificant role in the current tourism market because of financial consider-
ations and that Brazil, China, India and the Middel Eastern tourism markets play a more signifi-
cant role.
The following World Map indicates the diversity in origin of the actual tourism market of North-
ern Mozambique:

7.1.3. Activity target markets

Given the Northern Mozambique product portfolio and the current status of tourism development in the area, the follow-
ing current activity market segments could be targeted.
Current activity target segments

Main segment From where? Demographic Key product re- How best to reach? Key trends?
profile? quirements?
High end safari/is- UK 35 years + Lodges in Niassa Specialised tour Could linked marine
land lodge packaged Germany Benelux Mostly couples Reserve, Quirimbas operators (coast) and wildlife
holidays USA High-income Park Targeted media (terrestrial) lodges
Italy Professionals Exclusive, high cost Major potential as
Portugal packages complimentary to
All inclusive regional circuit
Resort/Beach holi- Mozambique Do- All age groups to 60 Pemba Beach, Word of Mouth Substantial compe-
days mestic market Couples, families Wimbe, Nacala Family media – tition from other
Middle-high income Relaxation radio, TV 7 family resort destinations
South Africa (LSM 5-8) Fun/entertainment print e.g. Bazaruto, Mauri-
Family activities Tour ops tius, Tanzania
Price range incl.
tourist class accom-
modation
Touring Explorers South Africa Global citizens Combination of Targeted travel Internet growth as
Gauteng, KZN, W/ Young couples, “alternative” experi- media information & re-
Cape groups and families ences” & sophisti- Word of mouth/ search mechanism
Germany (20 – 50 yrs) cated leisure busi-ness /societal Camping/self-
UK Well-educated Main tourist attrac- networks catering
Netherlands Often well-travelled tions + undiscov- Internet Special interests
Professional/student ered/non-touristy Tour operators growing
networks/circles areas Direct mail to selec- Cultural/heritage
Often special inter- Require Vehicle tive databases interaction NB
est – e.g. environ- Rental Service Etc.
ment, activities, Travel Routes
politics, etc. Require adequate
roads & signage
Good visitor infor-
mation material
Special offers &
deals

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Main segment From where? Demographic Key product re- How best to reach? Key trends?
profile? quirements?

Special Interest South Africa Across age groups Lake Niassa, Pemba, Clubs/associations Special interest
market niches UK Well-educated Quirimbas, Ibo, Ilha Customer relation- niches are:
Germany Benelux Not geographically de Mozambique, ship marketing Aquatic sports i.e.
USA bound Coastline general Special interest diving and deep sea
Italy Often belong to Mix of traditional operators fishing
Portugal association/club of holidaymaking with Direct mail promo- Ecotourism
people with similar a range of special tions Adventure
but special interests interests interest experiences Internet Cultural/heritage
are not location Often well-travelled Special interests Special interest Tourism
bound could be organized media Ornithology or
group activities, or birding
self-arranged Indigenous knowl-
edge
Botany

Scientific, Academic, As above 25 – 45 years Areas/projects of University agree- Less sensitive,


Volunteer, Educa- Highly educated environmental and ments early adopters/trail-
tional (SAVE) Universities, re- social significance Conservation links blazers
search societies, Want to make a Development agen- Important oppor-
institutes, etc. contribution cies tunity for young
Philantropic Research opportu- explorers to enter
Early adopters nities the market

Adventure As above 16 – 55 years Soft and extreme Outdoor and Ad- Increasingly sophis-
Risk prone adventure venture publications ticated & innovative
Environmentally Angling/deep sea Internet Safety receiving
aware 4x4 Youth groups much attention
Couples and smaller Diving Clubs & associations
groups Hiking
Also corporations Extreme - sea
for team building kayaking, paragliding,
dhow journeys, etc.
Culture/ lifestyle/ As above 20 – 45 years Interaction with Strong media focus Indigenous culture
Educated/intellec- locals Groups/so-cieties Arabic & Portu-
tual Getting “behind the with traditional links guese trade routes
“new generation” scenes” to SA Slave trading
travellers Real experiences African cultures “dif-
Well read & in- – food, lifestyle, ferent”
formed on SA language, etc.
Stories & symbols
Eco As above 30 years + Staying in nature Variety of media Major global growth
Couples, groups & reserves and parks – publications, TV, in environmental
families Whale/dolphin/pen- radio, etc. awareness (devel-
Well educated & guin watching Internet oped countries)
high income Experiencing local Eco-tourism opera- Increased media
communities tors & agents coverage (Discovery
Specialist tours: Environ-mental Channel, 50/50 &
Botany, birding, pal- groups others)
aeontology, archae- Earth Summit 2002
ology, etc. in SA
Source: Mike Fabricius in June 2006

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Competitor Assessment

Northern Mozambique’s key competitors are:

• Destinations that offer tropical island, marine and ecotourism experiences, particularly in Africa and the Indian Ocean
but not limited to these area;
• Surrounding and adjacent destinations in Southern Africa that offer scenic, safari and ecotourism experiences in combi-
nation with beach and coastal experiences.

Comparison with competitors


The following table provides an indication of how Northern Mozambique compares to its competitors and some pointers
pertaining to a possible competitive approach.

REGIONAL DESTINATION STRENGTHS/OPPORTUNITIES ARCO NORTE COMPARITIVE


STRENGTHS/CONSTRAINTS
Kenya Well known cultural heritage and interest- Limited wildlife, Niassa Reserve does how-
ing cuisine; ever provide exclusive safaris in a pristine
Well established, good quality safari expe- environment with large populations of
riences; game;
Good quality facilities and accommodation Quirimbas Archipelago provides great
for a diverse range of markets; bio-diversity and holds great potential for
Good accessibility; low impact tourism development with
Diverse range of products from coastal exceptional interpretation value;
lodges and resorts to exceptional wildlife Very little institutional structure and pro-
conservation areas; and cesses to ensure a standardised approach
Good branding and good access in terms to tourism development and investment in
of ecotourism and beach tourism. protected areas;
High cultural heritage value in terms of
cuisine, living culture and cultural hot spots
such as Ilha de Mozambique and Ibo Island;
Pollution and lack of waste management
provides opportunity for the degradation
of the region as a tourism destination;
Beaches are a feature, but are not unique
from other beach tourism destination.

Well marketed island destination; Branding is not as well established as a


Good quality ‘green’ experiences; beach tourism destination;
Established products and operators; Products and packages are not as well
Good market reach; established;
Well established brand; and High quality, low impact tourism establish-
Established image as a romantic and hon- ments on Quirimbas islands;
eymoon getaway. Marketing is driven by private sector with
no cumulative and co-ordinated branding
drive;
Quirimbas Archipelago provides great
bio-diversity and holds great potential for
low impact tourism development with
exceptional interpretation value
Well established top-end operators. The
area can however accommodate a larger
number of operators.

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REGIONAL DESTINATION STRENGTHS/OPPORTUNITIES ARCO NORTE COMPARITIVE


STRENGTHS/CONSTRAINTS

Zanzibar tourism destination; Limited game populations;


Well established products and packages; Access to Lake Niassa;
Good access to tourism market; Branding is not as well established;
Good accessibility for tourism investors; Beach tourism is an important feature of
Good quality wildlife products with large the area, but is not unique;
populations of game and unique wildlife Accessibility for tourism is limited due to
migrations; higher air travel costs;
Established image as a romantic and hon- Quirimbas Archipelago provides great
eymoon getaway; bio-diversity and holds great potential for
Branding is established and co-ordinated; low impact tourism development with
and exceptional interpretation value
Marketing is driven by both private and Limited number of top-end operators.
public sector.

Established branding in terms of the coun- Limited access to Lake Malawi (Lake
try’s access to Lake Malawi; Niassa);
Established products and packages based Not as established as Malawi in terms of a
on Lake Malawi; destination to visit the lake;
Physical access to Lake Malawi is well es- Very few facilities and operators available
tablished and a large number of operators in the lake district;
are utilising this access to provide good Conservation planning has been deemed
quality tourism products; necessary and protected areas have been
Air travel is cheaper than that of desti- established in the Lake District, adding
nations of Northern Mozambique and value to potential tourism products and
International airports are available. establishments;
Branding in terms of a lake destination has
not been established;
The World Wildife Fund (WWF) has taken
custodionship of the natural resources and
communities in certain areas of the Lake
District; and
Potential link between Niassa Reserve and
the Lake District.

Victoria Falls is an important icon and Lack of institutional structure and invest-
provides for great market reach and tour- ment mechanisms make it very difficult for
ism spin-offs to surrounding products and potential investors to approach Mozam-
destinations; bique, wither in the coastal regions or
The Peace Parks Foundation is currently wildlife areas;
undertaking tourism development projects Limited wildlife products;
and these projects are making pristine and Tourism icons include significant cultural
high value conservation areas accessible heritage resources and the region does
for investors and tourists; not only rely on the natural features avail-
Good institutional structure and mecha- able for tourism.
nisms to allow for tourism investments
and concessions in protected areas;
Good wildlife products and other natural
resources makes this a viable destination;
and
Branding is established but not as ad-
vanced as other regional destinations.

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REGIONAL DESTINATION STRENGTHS/OPPORTUNITIES ARCO NORTE COMPARITIVE


STRENGTHS/CONSTRAINTS
South Africa Diverse range of tourism products includ- Transport infrastructure is not as estab-
ing urban, agricultural, eco, beach and lished as South Africa;
cultural tourism; Linkages between the different attractions
The branding of South Africa is advanced are not as established as south Africa;
and well established; Development legislation and processes
Marketing of individual national destina- are not as clear cut and easy to follow as
tions is undertaken successfully; South Africa;
Hub of tourism in the SADC; Beaches are more ‘tropical’ compared to
Well established transport infrastructure, South Africa;
making the entire country easily accessible; Northern Mozambique holds a much
Development process and legislation is more rustic image than that of south
well enforced and clear to follow; Africa;
Support services are relatively well estab- Independent travel is not a preferred
lished; option due to lack of infrastructure and
Beaches are not as ‘tropical’ as Mozam- supporting services; and
bique, Kenya and Tanzania; Accessibility is limited due to expensive
Wildlife tourism is well established with flights, travel distances and poor
many options for tourists;
The carrying capacity of the products and
supporting infrastructure of tourism al-
lows for large international events to take
place in the country;
Relatively stable economy; and
Provides good opportunities and infra-
structure for independent travel.
Southern and Central Mozambique Much more accessible than Northern Inaccessible to South African market due
Mozambique; to lack of transport infrastructure over
Greater awareness of products on offer by long distances and expensive flights;
international visitors; Prices attached to experiences are on av-
Better infrastructure than Northern Mo- erage higher than those offered in South-
zambique; ern and Central Mozambique; and
Affordable prices for good quality experi- Holds a rustic image and creates a sense
ences; of adventure for visitors travelling to
Popular visitor destination for south Afri- Northern Mozambique.
cans due to easy access; and
High market potential due to the destina-
tions being included into holiday itineraries
by professional trip planners.
Source: Mike Fabricius in June 2006

SIGNIFICANCE FOR TOURISM DEVELOPMENT:

Who demands tourism products in this region and what should the market focus be?
The upper and internaional ezplorer/ the adventure tourist.

What are the unique selling propositions of the region? Exotic-Africa-Eco Island Experience.
(beaches, islands, bush, wilderness and cultural heritage)

What are the elements of these tourism typologies?

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7.1.5 COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES AND CHALLENGES

THE ABOVE MENTIONED COMPETITOR ASSESMENT HIGHLIGHTS THE FOLLOWING FAC-


TORS AS BEING THE KEY COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES AND CHALLENGES FACING NORTH-
ERN MOZAMBIQUE:

Northern Mozambique’s comparative advantage is its combination of undiscovered, untamed, pristine Indian Ocean
coastline and islands, spectacular corals and marine life and its unique and non-commercialised cultural heritage:

• Some of the regional competitors (Zimbabwe, Botswana, Zambia) offer excellent eco and wildlife attractions, but lack
the exotic tropical island experience offered by Northern Mozambique;
• Some destinations (Tanzania, Kenya, South Africa) offer both wildlife and coastal experiences, but do not offer the pris-
tine eco-environment of the Quirimbas, the Niassa Reserve and Manda Wilderness nor the Africa-Arab-Chinese-
Indian-Portuguese heritage;
• The tropical islands in the region (Mauritius, Seychelles, Madagascar) largely lack the non-comercial, undiscovered envi-
ronment and cultural richness and heritage of the Quirimbas

The key competitive challenges facing the area are related to:

Irregular air links compounded by the challenge of the area being relatively far away from the main tourism hubs (Jo-
hannesburg, Maputo, Dar-es-Salaam);
Poor road links hamper regional tourism to the area and independent travel;
The area is largely unknown and has not been extensively promoted;
General tourism infrastructure such as airports, public transport, etc. is poor;
Private tourism facilities are underdeveloped.

In summary Northern Mozambique is best positioned to compete on the following bases:

• Direct competition with other tropical coastal/island experiences based on its unique cultural
African-Arabic-Indochinese-Portuguese heritage; its pristine, undiscovered and “untamed” natural splendour and its
bush-beach proximity;
• Co-opetition with other regional eco and wildlife destinations (South Africa, Tanzania, Kenya, Zimbabwe, Botswana
etc.) as a natural, undiscovered, exotic tropical island-bush-beach add on to touring and safari experiences.

IT IS STRATEGICALLY IMPORTANT FOR MOZAMBIQUE TO LINK INTO THE MORE DEVEL-


OPED TOURISM MARKETS IN NEIGHBOURING COUNTRIES, TO PROMOTE MOZAMBIQUE
AS AN ADD-ON DESTINATION TO THESE COUNTRIES (MOSTLY SOUTH AFRICA BUT ALSO
SWAZILAND AND, ONCE RECOVERED, ZIMBABWE AND THE NEIGHBOURING COUNTRIES
IN NORTHERN MOZAMBIQUE, INCLUDING ZAMBIA, MALAWI AND TANZANIA) AND TO
MAKE EFFECTIVE USE OF INFRASTRUCTURE IN THESE COUNTRIES (MAINLY INTERNA-
TIONAL AIRPORTS, TRAVEL AGENCIES AND TOURISM OPERATORS).

7.1.6 PRICE COMPETITIVENESS

The draft value chain analysis of the tourism sector in Mozambique (FIAS, 2005) indicates that the total cost of a tourism
package to Northern Mozambique is substantially higher than costs to Vilanculos-Bazaruto. The high costs are driven by a
few key factors, namely:

• Limited and costly access: there is no direct air access to Pemba from any international destination and add-on flights
from Maputo, Johannesburg (with a stop in Maputo), Dar-es-Salaam and Nairobi are expensive, adding substantially to
the exisiting airfare between Europe and these enty hubs.
• Limited accommodation choices: the bulk of tourist accommodation in Northern Mozambique falls in the luxury five-
star category and very few choices exist for good tourist class accommodation.
• Limited and expensive internal ground, sea and air transport: air and boat transport within the Quirimbas and along
the coast is not well organized and largely ad-hoc resulting in high prices.
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• Other factors: the limited availabilty of local suppliers and the resultant high procurment costs; low skills and produc-
tivity levels and opportunity costs associated with bureacracy and administrative time delays are addition factors that
reduce the price competitiveness of the destination.

Given these factors it is clear that the comparative cost of travel to and in Northern Mozambique will, for the foresee-
able future, be relatively high in comparison to other tourism destination in Southern and Eastern Africa. The marketing
implications of this reality are:

• The area should be uniquely differentiated and positioned so as to be a “must visit” destination for specific tar-
get markets who should be prepared to pay a premium for the experience;
• While the area should not primarily compete on a cost-based strategy, every effort should be made to become more
price competitive in the middle-upper segment by down airline costs and providing for the 3 – 4 star ac-
commodation range;
• The area should establish strong marketing linkages with key regional hubs, as an extension to established
destinations such as Maputo, Johannesburg, Dar-es-Salaam, Nairobi,Victoria Falls, Lilongwe, etc. so as to capitalise on
visitors who have absorbed the international travel costs to the region.

7.1.7 UNIQUE SELLING PROPOSITION

• The combination of Northern Mozambique’s beaches, Quirimbas and Other islands, bush wilderness and
ancient cultural heritage is clearly the factor that differentiates the destination from its competitors.
• In particular the largely undiscovered heritage character (Ibo Island, Pemba, Mozambique Island, Mueda, etc.),
the tropical and pristine Quirimbas islands and the largely untouched Manda wilderness, the Niassa Reserve and Lake
Niassa combine to form a unique destination personality.

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• This positioning is very different from the one-dimensional, commercialized tropical island holiday; rather it focuses
on a more adventurous and exotic Africa-Eco-Island experience.

7.1.85 MARKET FOCUS

• Given the environmental quality and sensitivity of the area and the cost of access and operations, it is believed that the
area should retain and further develop its positioning at the upper end of the market spectrum, at least for
the foreseeable future;
• This does not imply an exclusive focus on the 5-star lodge accommodation market. The area could appeal to various
higher-end market segments, e.g. those seeking relaxation and an exclusive island experience; those wanting a combina-
tion of bush and island activities; up-market international explorers who thrive on eco-activity and eco-
heritage experiences; up-market 4x4 (overland) enthusiasts; and special interest groups such as the Scientific,
Academic,Volunteer and Educational (SAVE) market , birding, deep-sea fishing, diving, etc. Accommodation-wise these
segments would demand tourist class accommodation and higher i.e. from 3 to 5-star facilities.

7.2 TOURISM PRODUCTS


7.2.1 CURRENT CONTEXT

The Arco Norte Region is currently characterised as having very little infrastructure and access is limited with very little
product awareness in the national and international tourism market place. The region has however been identified as a
tourism destination worthy of sustainable tourism development on a global standard. This value has been acknowledged
due to increasing pressure from investors with a vision to develop tourism products in the region. This vision is based on
exceptional natural and cultural resources with a value being placed on sustainability and interpretation. This value and in-
terest which has been placed on the region is proof that the attractions and potential tourism supply offered by the region
are attractive for potential investors and that they regard development in the area a feasible option.

Although these positive aspects are being considered by potential investors, negative aspects are also being considered.
These aspects include, but are not limited to the following:

• Waste management systems are poor and mostly non-existent throughout the region;
• Transport infrastructure is limited and therefore making the tourism attractions, being offered by the region, very dif-
ficult and expensive to access;
• The region’s tourism marketing is mainly driven by individual operators and no consolidated approach is being utilised;
and
• Tourism support services need to be further established to ensure high quality tourism products are successfully pro-
vided in the region.

The tourism supply and attractions of Northern Mozambique are not as developed as what World Class tourism destina-
tion standards require them to be. The region’s attractions and tourism supply does however boast great potential in the
regional and international tourism arena. The tourism supply and attraction assessment focuses on identifying the tourism
supply and attractions of the three northern provinces of Mozambique including Cabo Delgado Province, Niassa Province
and Nampula Province.

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Fig B053 Current linkages from main centre to tourism destinations are illustrated in the above sketches.

7.2.2 OVERVIEW OF REGIONAL TOURISM SUPPLY AND ATTRACTIONS

The Arco Norte Region, despite being a ‘new comer’ in the tourism market place, shows great potential and strengths in
various facets of the tourism industry. It is essential that these strengths are focussed on and developed if the region is to
succeed as a tourism destination of a World Class standard. The following key strengths have been identified for the region:

The region offers a relatively untouched coastline, which is however not unique, but has the potential to be developed to
the same standards as that of the region’s counterparts including Zanzibar, Seychelles and Kenya;
The region boasts a variety of different cultures and with these cultures comes a rich history with cultural heritage fea-
tures. These features include areas such as Ibo Island, Island of Mozambique and various smaller concentrations of cultural
heritage features throughout Northern Mozambique;
The Niassa Reserve provides a high quality game experience to hunters and eco-tourists. The pristine nature of the re-
serve makes it a unique feature in Southern and Central Africa as it joins only a handful of truly pristine conservation areas;
The Quirimbas Archipelago provides opportunity for high quality ecotourism experiences with exceptional interpretation
value. This area is a unique selling feature for Northern Mozambique;
Urban ‘living culture’ in all of the historic towns of Northern Mozambique provides good opportunity for Urban Tourism
Products and operators;
Due to the unexploited nature of the tourism industry in Northern Mozambique, potential operators are becoming more
and more interested in the potential of the area; and
The rustic image and ‘into deep Africa’ feeling which tourists have when visiting the region adds to its attractiveness. Tour-
ists who are visiting the area perceive their experience to be an adventure.

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The table below provides an overview of the region’s tourism attractions:

Attraction Uniqueness Tourism Development/Utilisation Status


Beaches Medium Threatened by poorly planned development and pollution due to poor waste
management systems. East coast beaches are relatively undeveloped with most
of development impacts taking place in and around Pemba in the Cabo Del-
gado Province and in and around Lumbo in the Nampula Province.
Fauna High High interpretation value for tourism products. Unique and endemic species
occur in the region and high conservation value needs to be placed on these
species. Certain faunal species are currently being over utilised.
Flora High High interpretation value for tourism products. Unique and endemic species
occur in the region and high conservation value needs to be placed on these
species. Certain floral species are currently being over utilised.
Marine Ecosystems High Although, over utilised through local fishing industries, the marine ecosystem is
a major draw card for the region as many divers and fisherman visit the area to
enjoy this natural resource.
Parks and Conservation High Limited access for tourists with many of the protected area being over utilised
by locals. The protected areas do hold high tourism value.
Topography and Scenic Beauty High High tourism value if interpreted effectively.
Hiking Trails Low Hiking trails are not a popular form of tourism infrastructure in Northern
Mozambique but the area does have the necessary characteristics to make
potential hiking trails viable options as day/overnight expeditions.
4x4 Routes Medium 4x4 Routes are provided in the Niassa Reserve. The interpretation and loca-
tion of these routes ensures value adding.
Scuba Diving/Snorkeling Medium-High High tourism value due to endemic and unique species occurring in marine
ecosystems and in Lake Niassa.
Water sports Medium High tourism value products as climate and water conditions allow for a vari-
ety of water sports to be provided to visitors.
Living Culture High The unique ‘living cultures’ of the region allows for value adding of tourism
products. These cultures should be included in products where possible.
Museums Medium Very few museums have been developed in the region and therefore tourism
products have been designed based on historic story lines, playing the role of
museums.
Cuisine High Unique cuisine adds value to tourism products. This includes local dishes, sea-
food and affordable food.

Protected Areas and Areas of Endemism of northern Mozambique

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SIGNIFICANCE FOR TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN ARCO NORTE:

Northern Mozambique is a region with an impressive array of natural, cultural, and historical resources. These include
pristine beaches, age-old dances, imposing forts, healthy coral ecosystems, striking inselbergs, expansive wildlife reserves,
world-renowned crafts, a stunning lake, colourful colonial towns, secluded tropical islands, thriving Swahili and other Afri-
can traditions, well-preserved cave paintings ect. These features present excellent opportunities for tourism development.
However, some of these sites are not prepared to receive tourists due to a lack of tourism infrastructure, products, and
services. The following issues have been identified:

• Travel costs to the region are exceptionally expensive (air fares and distances);
• Limited variety of products ( beds) in the region;
• Supplies and support services are expensive and limited due to limited infrastructure;
• The area does not have branding and is unknown in the market place;
• Lack of co-ordinated marketing efforts and most of the marketing is done by private operators;
• Health dangers due to malaria and concerns of tourists due to the unknown nature of the region;
• Access infrastructure is poorly developed or maintained;
• Government development and operational funds are limited and therefore the industry is reliant on private operators;
• Tourism products are concentrated around specific points and community members have historically received very
little benefits from tourism; and
• Service quality and skills are scarce and are generally of a low standard.

If the number of beds can be increased, economies of scale could be achieved to introduce lower priced air operators to
the market and this should lead to a snowball effect. Demand for tourism will increase and the market should respond
with the development of more and better facilities.

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PLANNING ENVIRONMENT OPPORTUNITIES CONSTRAINTS


The biodiversity that underlay the natural envi- • Environmental Management issues in urban
ronment of the area present many opportunities areas negatively impacts on tourism devel-
for eco-tourism development. opment in the region:
The Niassa Lake, Niassa Game Reserve and • Poor sanitation (beach defecation)
the Quirimbaras National Park present natural • Poor water quality
resources that have yet to be developed into • Saline water being pumped from bore holes
tourism destinations • Illegal waste dumping
• Uncontrolled development within ecologi-
cally sensitive areas
• Environmental Impact Assessment are not
being carried out for listed developments
There is an opportunity for better tourism link- The tourism authorities of Tanzania have indicat-
ages between Mozambique and its neighbouring ed their willingness to cooperate but they have
countries through the Peace Parks that could a huge resistance against the current hunting
be exploited to promote regional integration of practices in the reserve. This is an urgent matter
tourism development. to be addressed on a policy level.
The proposed Niassa-Selous Park could create
great regional tourism opportunities with Arco
Norte benefiting from the established tourism
sector and trade in Tanzania.
BUILT ENVIRONMENT Due the airport in Pemba it naturally follows A poor hierarchy of urban settlements means
that this town should be developed as the main that there is a lack in concentration of services
tourist centre of the region, with possible satel- and functions. For tourism this means that there
lites in the other provinces. is no clear gateway or focus area from which to
develop the tourism industry.
After completion of the Nacala Airport it will Upgrading of roads especially the north-south
become the second largest airport after Maputo linkage is crucial for tourism development to
Airport in Mozambique. This fact could mean facilitate the movement of goods and services in
that Pemba be replaced as main gateway for support of development.
tourists to the north and the impact on such a
change should be considered in the development
of tourism facilities.
There is huge potential for the development of There is no north-south rail linkage to support
passenger services between ports of Mozam- the economic movement of goods and services
bique. The cruise liner industry could make a to facilitate large scale development in the north.
huge contribution towards tourism development In this regard the region will be very dependent
in the north. on markets in Zambia and Malawi that link with
The ports along the Niassa Lake could become Nacala. Delivery of much needed goods and
important nodal development points for tourism services form these secondary economies are
development if the opportunity to exploit the questioned.
existing tourism market of Malawi is recognised
and developed. The transportation of goods
and services in support of the tourism industry
between ports could be a very important factor
in the light of the poor road and rail linkage
between north and south.
During the implementation of infrastructure Quality of supply of electricity is a concern as
projects, capacity constraints within the rela- well as voltage drop problems. With any further
tive legislative authority, should be addressed expansions to the network, increasing problems
by means of capacity building. This will assist in will be encountered in this regard.
ensuring the sustainability of the infrastructure.

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PLANNING ENVIRONMENT OPPORTUNITIES CONSTRAINTS

The quality and supply of water remains a


constraint to developing areas within the prov-
inces under discussion.The absence of proper
formal sanitation systems is a major constraint
to developing areas within the provinces under
discussion.
ECONOMIC Investment and export Oportunities exist in Despite Mozambique’s investment potential, the
construction, energy (natural gas, hydropower Mozambican business climate remains a chal-
and bio-diesel), mining (tantalum, graphite and lenging one.  Generally good macroeconomic
coal), fishing (prawns, lobster and pelagic fishes), policies and a high-level commitment to attract-
aquaculture, tourism, agriculture/horticulture ing large-scale investments masks a bureaucratic
(cashews, sesame, tea, essential oils, vegetables, system that remains at times unresponsive to
flowers, paprika, tobacco and fruits), telecom- the needs of corporations, especially small-to-
munications and transportation.  Additional medium-sized enterprises.
export possibilities lie in infrastructure projects
in agriculture, transportation, education and
health, which are financed by the World Bank,
the African Development Bank, USAID and other
donors, and NGOs.
Mozambique is eligible for trade benefits Operating permits are slow and difficult to
under the African Growth and Opportunity obtain; corruption is sometimes problematic; the
Act (AGOA), the European Union Cotonou legal system is antiquated and cumbersome and
Agreement, the Southern African Development procedures to clear customs remain onerous
Community (SADC) Trade Protocol and the
U.S.-Mozambique Bilateral Investment Treaty, all
of which increase the country’s attractiveness
for investments.  Mozambique has submitted a
compact proposal to the Millennium Challenge
Corporation (MCC) and is currently working
with the MCC towards the signing of a compact.
The compact proposal, focused on the northern Although under revision, the labour law is a seri-
part of the country, contains several poten- ous impediment to businesses.  The government
tial projects, including improving the business has limited qualified staff, and this small pool
environment, water, sanitation and transporta- of workers is under increased threat from the
tion infrastructure, investment in the agricultural spread of HIV/AIDS
sector and developing tourism.
Tourism Development will lead to economic Mozambique’s Constitution does not allow pri-
development in the region and ultimately benefit vate ownership of land.  Land can only be leased,
the entire country although for renewable 50-year periods.  Road
infrastructure is generally poor, except for large
stretches of the main south-north highway, the
Beira corridor and the toll highway connecting
Maputo with Johannesburg, South Africa.
Tourism Development will lead to economic
development in the region and ultimately benefit
the entire country

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PLANNING ENVIRONMENT OPPORTUNITIES CONSTRAINTS


SOCIAL ENVIRONEMENT Tourism will create opportunities for local com- Most of the communities live in extreme poverty
munities to improve their living conditions. due to high level of unemployment. Most of the
communities rely on fishing, mango trees and
small agricultural projects for survival. Commu-
nities do not have the capacity, knowledge and
skills to handle big projects.
There is water supply within communities;
however it is not sufficient for some of the com-
munities. Some communities are still relying on
boreholes for water supply. Coastal communities
in the Pemba region complained of the presence
of salt in their drinking water.
Some of communities don’t have sufficient elec-
tricity.
The existing health care facilities are not suf-
ficient to meet the demands of various commu-
nities. There are limited schools within communi-
ties. Not all the kids can be accommodated by
existing schools due to lack of capacity. In some
of the communities teaching and learning is con-
ducted under the tree.
Many communities practice different cultural
and religious believes. However, Islamic religion is
predominant in the Northern region.
There is enormous shortage of skills across the
communities.
INSTITUTIONAL ENVIRON- The new Tourism Investment Law will be the The land ownership structure in Mozambique is
MENT institutional vehicle to develop new tourism poli- a constraint especially for the development of
cies following this framework agriculture to support the tourism industry

TOURISM ENVIRONMENT Middle East is increasingly confronted with Poor linkage between north and south and the
complications with visas, etc., to enter developed distance area major obstacles and to a large
tourism destinations in the Americas and Europe, extent limits the market from South Africa.
and is looking for alternatives. Furthermore the transportation of goods and
The relative proximity of Mozambique and the services from the business centres in South
strong Muslim tradition in the country provide Africa by road or rail is a challenge for tourism
entry points. South America, and in particular development in the north
Brazil, also provide exciting opportunities. The
cultural and language similarities between the
two countries and the percentage of the popula-
tion with African roots (about 45%) combined
with the growing percentage of the population
that can afford travel provide a good base for
further exploration.
Marketing and product development initiatives
should strongly feature the exclusive and wilder-
ness character of the region. Exclusive small
resorts will arise along the coast and islands of
Cabo Delgado and Nampula. Strong ‘Icons’ of
the North are Pemba, the National Park and the
archipelago of Quirimbas, Ilha de Moçambique,
Niassa Reserve and Lago Niassa.

Exclusive eco-tourism (adventure, birding, hunt-


ing, lake based activities) to be developed mainly
in remote areas of Niassa and Cabo Delgado
Province.

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PLANNING ENVIRONMENT OPPORTUNITIES CONSTRAINTS


Northern Mozambique is a region with an The tourism destinations in the Arco Norte are
impressive array of natural, cultural, and histori- not prepared to receive international or local
cal resources. These include pristine beaches, tourists due to a lack of tourism infrastructure,
age-old dances, imposing forts, healthy coral products, and services. The following issues have
ecosystems, striking inselbergs, expansive wildlife been identified:
reserves, world-renowned crafts, a stunning • Travel costs to the region are exceptionally
lake, colourful colonial towns, secluded tropical expensive (air fares and distances);
islands, thriving Swahili and other African tradi- • Limited variety of products ( beds) in the
tions, well-preserved cave paintings ect. These region;
features present excellent opportunities for • Supplies and support services are expensive
tourism development. and limited due to limited infrastructure;
• The area does not have branding and is
unknown in the market place;
• Lack of co-ordinated marketing efforts and
most of the marketing is done by private
operators;
• Health dangers due to malaria and concerns
of tourists due to the unknown nature of
the region;
• Access infrastructure is poorly developed or
maintained;
• Government development and operational
funds are limited and therefore the industry
is reliant on private operators;
• Tourism products are concentrated around
specific points and community members
have historically
International airports, sea and lake ports are
tourism gateways and present ideal localities for
tourism entrepreneurs to develop related ser-
vices such as shops, filling stations, restaurants,
over night accommodation ect.

Route development from these gateways


becomes equally important in terms of signage
and interpretive information to guide visitors to
tourist destinations and tourists service provid-
ers.
Good tourism linkages are dependent on trans-
port infrastructure including airports, airfields,
weather proof roads, and facilities such as fuel
stations, vehicle repair facilities, food supply
stores and a range of accommodation facilities.
The development and designation of some of
these roads as scenic routes becomes a prior-
ity in term so of tourism development. Scenic
routes should meet certain criteria and guide-
lines to ensure that they remain scenic routes
over the longer term.

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8.2 Tourism as a system

The tourism system has three main components, namely Demand, Supply and the Linkages between them.
“Tourist generation regions” are connected to “Tourist destination regions” by means of “Transit routes”.
The following diagram illustrates the Tourism System.

Source: Tourism Planning, Clare A Gunn, 2002

In order to satisfy demand a nation or region must be able to provide a variety of development and services. The balance
between these two forces is the key to reaching the ultimate in correct tourism development (Clare A Gunn, 2002).
Resources, Organization, Leadership, Finance, Labour, Entrepreneurship, Community, Competition and Government Poli-
cies.

Demand for tourism is dependent on the following:


A tourist must be motivate to travel;
They must have the financial ability to pay for services and facilities of travel and
They must have the time and physical ability to travel.
In order to understand demand, market analysis must be done to do effective marketing.
Supply has many more components, namely attractions, services, transportation, information, promotion and numerous
external factors.
The external factors include: Natural and Cultural Resources.

8.3 THE DEMAND FOR TOURISM PRODUCTS


8.3.1 MARKET SEGMENTS

According to the Strategic Plan for the Development of Tourism in Mozambique, 2004, the focus of tourism development
in the northern region should be the exclusive international beach and ecotourism market with a strong cultural compo-
nent.
A niche-approach, in line with the trends towards increased segmentation is, from a marketing perspective, much more
cost-effective than a ‘mainstream’ marketing approach. Niche markets are often easier to target through specialized maga-
zines, web sites, travel agents, clubs and organizations and the power of word-of-mouth. In addition, dedicated niche tour-
ists are often less demanding in terms of service levels and infrastructure and can, therefore, represent a factor that can
be used for the development of a region, with less services and infrastructures. Thus, this can actually constitute an asset
for certain niche markets, e.g. for hunting, eco-tourism and adventure tourism, where people are looking for an ‘off-the-
beaten-track’ experience. Therefore, niche markets can also be a short-term goal for the development and marketing of
different products that the country can offer.
The following niche markets have therefore been identified for the north:

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The diagram indicates small, medium and high potential for the various niche market segments. The diagram is used to
spatially indicate tourism demand at various destinations in the region.

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.2 TOURISM UTILIZATION ZONES

High Sensitivity Zone Medium Sensitivity Zone Public Zone

8.3.3 SUPPLY OF TOURISM SERVICES AND FACILITIES


Depending on a number of criteria areas are classified as high sensitivity, medium sensitivity, public or community tourism
utilization zones.

High sensitivity zones represent tourism areas located in ecologically sensitive environments, where the impact of
tourism must be managed to ensure survival of the asset in the longer term. The development footprint of tourism facili-
ties must be very small and the number of visitors must be controlled. Due to the high demand for such destinations these
destinations will accommodate focus on low numbers/high yield tourism products.

Medium sensitivity zones represent areas with medium environmental sensitivity such as coastal zones. These areas
could accommodate higher visitor numbers in controlled areas to protect the resource from over utilization. Development
footprint can be large subject to development guidelines for such areas.

Public zones include tourism areas where facilities for day visitors are provided as well as other supporting facilities for
the wider public spectrum. These zones are typically in urban areas.

Community zones refer to tourist areas within communities, where services and facilities are provided aimed specifi-
cally at the tourism market. These areas will be integrated in all of the above zones. Examples include craft markets and
cultural villages.

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TOURISM UTILIZATION ZONES

HIGH  SENSITIVITY  ZONE

MEDIUM  SENSITIVITY  ZONE

PUBLIC  ZONE

COMMUNITY  BASED  
TOURISM

The Map presents the Regional Tourism Utilization zones.

The entire northern hemisphere of the region contains sensitive environments and any tourism development should be
approached with caution in order to protect the resources of the area.
The coastal zones are classified as medium sensitive zones in order to manage tourism development within set guidelines
to ensure long term sustainability of coastal environments.
The urban areas are classified as public zones as these areas represent the main centra from where tourism destinations
are serviced. Community based tourism are not zone specific and are incorporated an all the zones.
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8.3.1 TOURISM SERVICES AND FACILITIES

Tourist requires services and facilities to make the visit possible and enjoyable. These services and facilities can be catego-
rised as follows:

Transport: Airports, Sea Ports, Railway Stations, Bus and taxi services, roads, vehicle hire, vehicle maintenance and fuel.
Accommodation: Hotels, lodges, resorts, guest houses, self catering accommodation, camping facilities.
Food and beverage: Restaurants, pubs, take-away, supermarkets, liquor stores.
Entertainment: Music, dance, shows, movie theatres, cultural displays, art exhibitions and markets.
Financial: Banks, auto banks, foreign exchange,
Administration and information: Travel information, tour guides, insurance brokers, customs, foreign affairs offices
and consulates.
Health facilities: hospitals, clinics, doctors, pharmacies.
Security: police services, private security facilities
Basic infrastructure: Clean reliable potable water, sanitation, reliable electricity or other power source, compliance
with international health standards.

8.3.2 CRITERIA FOR TOURIST SERVICE CENTRES

It is accepted that all destinations cannot and should not comply with all requirements. Therefore it is necessary to identify
places that could serve as tourist service centres.
The following criteria have been identified as possible criteria for the selection of tourist service centres:

Areas with a reasonable concentration of tourism opportunities to satisfy most market segments
Areas with existing tourism support services
(catering, food markets, banks, tour operators, entertainment, vehicle hiring, insurance, ect.)
Areas that enjoy good and affordable accessibility
Areas that provide the best linkages with smaller or more remote tourism and leisure activities
Areas with the best economic potential to support large scale development of tourism facilities,
Areas in which concentration of tourism development will have the least impact on sensitive environments
Areas with exiting or potential access to engineering services (water, sanitation, electricity, transport)
Areas with administrative capacity and support from the government and tourism structures.

The following Map represents the result of an analysis of the towns and villages of the Arco Norte in terms of the above
criteria.

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8.3.3 HIERARCHY OF SERVICE CENTRES


It is the ideal that all service centres accommodate the full range of services. However in a developing area this is not
always realistic and authorities need to identify priority areas in which to provide services for tourists. A hierarchy of
service centres is therefore proposed to focus development energy on certain centres that have been selected for their
potential to serve a larger area. A first order centre will therefore serve a larger area than a third order centre and should
provide more regional services and functions.

The following minimum services are proposed for a hierarchy of first, second and third order service centres.
SPECIFIC FIRST ORDER SECOND ORDER THIRD ORDER
CATEGORY OF SERVICE TYPE OF FACILITY
REQUIREMENTS SERVICE CENTRE SERVICE CENTRE SERVICE CENTRE

TRANSPORT Must have a


Sea or lake ports √
INFRASTRUCTURE passenger service

Airport International Airport √

Domestic Airport √

Air field √

Railway Passenger Station √ √

Bus Service Tour bus service


Local Bus service √ √

Tourist taxi service of


Taxi service √ √
shuttle service

Local taxi service √ √

Roads Paved roads √ √

Good, unpaved roads √ √

4x4 road access √

Vehicle and Sedan motor vehicle


√ √
equipment hiring hiring

4x4 Hiring √ √
Camping and off-road

hiring

Vehicle maintenance Fuel √ √ √

Tire repair √ √ √
Auto mechanic √ √
Auto electrician √

Short stay
ACCOMMODATION Hotels √
accommodation

Lodges √ √
Resorts √

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SPECIFIC FIRST ORDER SECOND ORDER THIRD ORDER


CATEGORY OF SERVICE TYPE OF FACILITY
REQUIREMENTS SERVICE CENTRE SERVICE CENTRE SERVICE CENTRE

Guesthouse and Bed


√ √ √
and breakfast

Self catering

accommodation
Caravan and camping √ √
Bush camping √

FOOD AND BEVERAGE Super market √ √ √

Liquor store √ √
Restaurant √
Pub √
Take-away √ √
Convenience store √ √ √
Facilities other than
ENTERTAINMENT Cinema √
tourist attractions
Theatre √
Art gallery √
Craft market √
Night club √

FINANCIAL Money and exchange Banks √ √

Foreign Exchange √

Auto banks √ √ √
Information centres
ADMINISTRATION AND Tourist information
and government √ √ √
INFORMATION centre
support services
tour guides and tour

operators

insurance brokers, √

Customs √

foreign affairs offices √

Consulates √
Hospital with trauma
HEALTH FACILITIES Medical facilities √
centre

Dive decompression

tank

Clinic with qualified


√ √ √
doctors
Pharmacy √ √ √

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SPECIFIC FIRST ORDER SECOND ORDER THIRD ORDER


CATEGORY OF SERVICE TYPE OF FACILITY
REQUIREMENTS SERVICE CENTRE SERVICE CENTRE SERVICE CENTRE
All facilities to ensure
SECURITY Police station √ √ √
the safety of visitors
Security services √

PROPOSED HIERARCHY OF SERVICE CENTRES

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8.3. 4. PUBLIC FACILITIES QUANTITIVE GUIDELINES


In addition to facilities specifically for tourists healthy urban communities requires a range of public facilities. These facilities
support the resident population of an urban areas and ultimately contribute to the long term sustainability of any tourism
destination. The provision of public facilities is the responsibility of other sectors of economy and therefore requires an
integrated approached.

Public facilities can be classified as higher-order, middle-order, lower-order and mobile, depending on the size of the area that
they serve.
· Higher-order public facilities: these facilities generally serve the entire region, metropolitan area or city (eg.
hospitals and universities), and are not provided for in the layout planning process for localized uses eg residential
settlements.
· Middle-order public facilities: these are facilities which serve a number of diverse and different communities
(eg. high schools and clinics). These facilities are essential to individual residential settlements, but the facilities serve a
threshold population which exceeds an individual settlement, and therefore are supported by a number of settlements.
· Lower-order public facilities: these are facilities which are utilised by a single or a limited number of residential
communities (eg. a crèche or pre-primary school), and which could be provided for in the design and layout of
residential settlements.
· Mobile public facilities: these area facilities which move from one location to another, serving a large number
of communities. Many problems with regard to the spatial location of public facilities are increasingly being solved
through the use of mobile public facilities, such as clinics, post offices and public telephones. Through mobile facilities,
the ideal of allocating scarce resources, whilst at the same time serving the greatest number of people, can be achieved.
The following table provides quantitive guidelines in terms of location, access, size and dimensions as well as use capacities
and thresholds, for various types of public facilities.

Quantities Guidelines for Public Facilities

Facility Location Access Size and Dimensions Use Capacities and


Thresholds
Crèche / nursery school Community-specific Maximum travel time: 10 Minimum size for facility: Estimated minimum
facilities which should be minutes 130m2 population: 5 000
within walking distance Maximum walking dis-
of residential units; can tance: 750m
be clustered with pre-
primary schools, primary
schools, community
centres etc
Primary School Should be located within Maximum travel time: 20 Minimum size for facility: Estimated minimum pop-
easy reach of the local minutes 2.4 ha ulation: 3 000 – 4 000
areas which it is in- Maximum walking dis-
tended to serve – needs tance: 1.5km
to be located close to
public transport route,
and can be combined
with a number of other
facilities
High School School should be situ- Maximum travel time: 30 Minimum size for facility: Estimated minimum pop-
ated on a major trans- minutes 4.6 ha ulation: 6 000 – 10 000
port route with public Maximum walking dis-
transport stops tance: 2.25km
Clinic Should be located close Maximum travel time: 30 0.1 ha per 5 000 people Estimated minimum
to public transport minutes 0.2 ha per 10 000 people population: 5 000
shops, but need not be Maximum walking dis- 0.5 ha per 20 000 people
located along a major tance: 2 km 1 ha per 40 000 people
route 1.5 ha per 60 000 to 80
000 people

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Facility Location Access Size and Dimensions Use Capacities and


Thresholds
Libraries Should be easily acces- Maximum travel time: 20 Minimum size for facility: Libraries can serve
sible, preferably on main to 30 minutes 130m2 populations of 5 000 to
thoroughfare convenient 50 000
to main traffic and trans- Maximum walking dis-
portation routes tance: 1.5 to 2.25km
Community Centres Provides a variety of Maximum travel time: 20 Maximum travel time: 20 Estimated minimum
services to a number to 30 minutes to 30 minutes population: 10 000
of residential communi- Maximum walking dis- Maximum walking dis-
ties – should be easily tance: 1.5 to 2.25km tance: 1.5 to 2.25km
accessible to these com-
munities
Religious Centres Churches can be clus- Maximum travel time: 20 Site can range from 150 Estimated minimum
tered with other public minutes m2 to population: 2 000
facilities in order to pro- Maximum walking dis- 3 000m2
mote multi-functionality tance: 1.5km

Municipal Offices / Pay Require high levels of Maximum travel time: 30 Minimum size for facility: Estimated minimum
Points exposure and must be minutes 3 000m2 population: 50 000
easily accessible by pub-
lic transport
Post Offices Needs to be visible and Maximum travel time: 30 Minimum size for facility: Estimated minimum
accessible and located to 40 minutes 500m2 population: 11 000
along activity routes Maximum walking dis-
within easy walking dis- tance: 2km
tance of public transport
shops
Police Stations Should be located Maximum travel time: 20 Varies between 0.1 ha Estimated minimum
central to all the com- minutes to 1 ha population: 25 000
munities which they are Maximum walking dis-
required to serve and tance: 1.5km
should be on a main
thoroughfare
Fire Stations Should be located on Not generally planned Average erf size: 1.2 ha Estimated minimum
higher-order multifunc- for within a residential population: 60 000
tional routes community
Children’s home Regional facility and Not applicable to the Average erf size: 2 ha One children’s home is
would be provided in planning of residential required per 200 000
terms of a develop- settlements people
ment framework based
on statistics regarding
homeless children
Community Information Should be easily acces- Maximum travel time: 15 Need not be bigger than Estimated minimum
Centres sible and visible to as minutes 100m2 population: 22 000
many people as possible Maximum walking dis-
tance: 1km

Source: Guidelines for Human Settlement Planning and Design, CSIR 2005

8.4 TOURISM LINKAGES

The tourism destinations in most instances are removed from the tourism service centres and will required good linkage in
order to balance demand and supply in the system.

These linkages are in the form of transport linkages (physical) and package linkages (marketing) and will require intervention
from other sectors of the economy outside the tourism industry.

Transport linkages are important components of tourism planning because the gateways of tourism penetration from
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markets deserve special planning attention for visitors. It is at these sites that visitor information such as maps,
brochures and personal guidance are essential. International airlines, immigration and customs contribute to enhance the
visitor experience. For example a welcoming service creates a feeling of security in visitors.The first contact between foreign
visitors and the country is often through customs officials.

8.4.1 International Airports

The tourists visitng the Arco Norte are mostly international tourists and due to the remoteness of the Arco Norte,
international air access is crucial to the successful development of tourism in the region.

Most international flights arrive from Johannesburg South Africa at Maputo International Airport in the south
of the country, although direct international routes also exist between Mozambique and Swaziland, Zimbabwe,
Tanzania, Kenya and Portugal.

There are also several flights during the week from Dar es Salaam, and Nairobi to Pemba in the North, operated
by either South African Airlink (SAA) or Mozambique Airlines (LAM).

Main access from Europe and North America is via Johannesburg although TAP Air Portugal and LAM Mozambique
Airlines operate direct services to Maputo from Lisbon.

LAM’s domestic services connect Maputo with the country’s major cities and tourist destinations ( Beira, Nampula, Chimoio,
Quelimane, Pemba, Tete, Vilanculos. and Lichinga). Other destinations can be reached via chartered flights giving access to
smaller airports and air fields. Cheaper flights by other airlines are currently being introduced to the region and once critical
mass has been reach it is believed to have a snowball effect on the growth potential of tourism in the region.

The international airports in the region at Pemba, Nampula and Lichinga are however very important tourism gateways
to the region and are potential tourism information points to promote opportunities in the region. The proposed airport
in Nacala will become an important gateway for business tourists and should be developed with this market in mind. In a
developing region business tourism could provide the required numbers to grow the economy.

8.4.2 NTERNATIONAL SEA PORTS

Although there are several good commercial harbours in Mozambique, currently there is no scheduled passenger sea travel
to and from Mozambique. Cruise Ships from Great Brittan and South Africa visit ports along the coast a few times per
year. There is huge potential to expand this market and the ports at Nacala and Pemba could become gateways for marine
access in terms of tourism. Nacala harbour is more focused on cargo as an export harbour but Pemba Port holds great
potential for tourism. This important tourism gateway should complement the Pemba International airport and other access
infrastructure to the region.

The Pemba Port is situated in the Pemba Bay, which has been recognised as one of the ten most beautiful bays in the world.
The depth of the Port is not sufficient to accommodate large vessels, but infrastructure and facilities to accommodate ferries
and smaller ships should be developed to capitalize on this tourism asset. The Port has the potential to be developed as a
marina with mooring space for private yachts. The marketing of the Pemba Bay as a safe and efficient destination for private
yachts could unlock another tourism niche market for the region. Ferries from Pemba to the Islands could unlock further
tourism market in currently inaccessible areas.

The local community could benefit from the tourism market by offering scenic trips, sunset cruises and fishing trips over the
bay in their dough’s.

In order for these opportunities to be exploited the Pemba Port need to be upgraded to accommodate visitors and a detail
plan for the Port must be developed. The adjacent urban area must be incorporate with the Port and buildings restored to
offer restaurants, shopping and other tourism services.

8.4.3 LAKE PORTS

Lake Niassa is an African Great Lake  and the most southerly lake in the East African Rift valley system.The lake, third largest
in Africa and eighth largest in the world, is situated between Malawi, Mozambique, and Tanzania. It is also the second deepest
lake in Africa. The lake is between 560 and 579 km long and is 75 km wide at its widest point.
Large-scale transport between settlements along the shores of the lake and between the Malawi shore and Likoma and
Chizumulu islands is provided by steamers. Boats travel about twice a week from Nkhata Bay (Malawi) on the mainland to
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Likoma and Chizumulu islands, taking about five hours to cross the lake. Neither island has a usable port, and boats moor
offshore before transferring passengers and produce to the shore in small dinghies Informal transport between the two
islands and from Likoma Island to the Mozambique town of Cobue  is provided by small dhow. Cobue is a small lake-side
town in Niassa Province, in north-west Mozambique. It is located on the shore of Lake Niassa. Cobue serves as the gateway
to Mozambique from Malawi. It is located 10 km from Likoma Island.
A ferry (the Ilala) between Mozambique and Malawi make several stops along the shores of Lake Niassa on a weekly basis.
When running, it travels between Monkey Bay  at the southern end of the lake to Karonga  in the north, and occasionally to
the Iringa Region (Tanzania). It is operated by Malawi Lkae Services and offers a weekly round-trip (stopping at all the same
ports on the way up and down the lake), leaving Monkey Bay on Friday and returning the following Wednesday. There are
three types of tickets: cabin, first and second class. First class passengers have the use of the upper deck, clean allusions, a
bar and a saloon.
It links, Metangula, Cobue and Meponda on the Mozambique side , with ports along the Malawi side including Monkey Bay,
Likoma Island, (a Malawian island), Nkhata Bay, Usisya, Ruarwe, Charo, Miombo-green and Chilumba.
A business consortium in Malawi has submitted proposals to the Malawi government to run cargo vessels on the lake. The
company intends to bring cargo via Tanzania’s port of Mbeya to Chipoka in Salima (Malawi). This initiative could be extended
to include lake ports of Mozambique. The Naval Port at Metangula has great potential to be developed as a commercial
port from where cargo could be transported by road to the western regions of Arco Norte. Improvements to the Port at
Metangula could open up opportunities for the tourism market in Mozambique with a huge untapped potential to link the
existing tourism market of Malawi with the shores of the lake in Mozambique.
This potential development highlights the potential for Metangula as a tourism gateway to the Niassa Province and focus the
need for tourism services and facilities at this locality.

8.4.4 INTERNATIONAL ROAD LINKAGE


There are several border crossings between Mozambique and the neighbouring countries of Malawi, South Africa, Swaziland,
Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe .

Negomano border post linking Mozambique with Tanzania to the east of the Niassa Reserve was not officially opened for
road users at the time of writing this report, but the construction of the Unity Bridge I has been concluded in 2009. This
border crossing will become increasingly important for tourism development in the north as package linkages between the
tourism products of Tanzania and Mozambique will form a large part of future tourism in the region.

Road linkage between the northern and southern parts of the country is moderate with road quality being the biggest
problem. Some sections of the main National Route 1 are currently under construction and other sections have been
earmarked for upgrading. A vehicle journey between Maputo and Pemba currently takes between four and five days.

The Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) is investing $176.3 million in a Roads Project to be implemented by 2015.
The objective of the Roads Project is to increase public transport access for individuals to take advantage of job and other
economic opportunities.

MCC funding will rehabilitate 491 km of key segments of the National Route 1, which forms the backbone of country’s
transportation network, in three provinces. The road segments will include Rio Lurio – Metoro in Cabo Delgado (74 km);
Namialo - Rio Lurio (148 km) and Nampula – Rio Ligonha (102 km) in Nampula; and Nicoadala – Chimuara (167 km) in
Zambézia.

The Road Sector Strategy 2007 – 2011 (August 2006) presents the main elements of the Government of Mozambique’s
(GOM’s) strategy for developing and managing the country’s classified roads. As part of the Road Sector Strategy (RSS), a
number of corridors have been identified, following the main principles of connectivity and accessibility. The RSS includes
strategic plans for maintenance, investment and finance, which are formulated for a 5-year period. It is therefore important
that the priorities in terms of this study be aligned with the priorities of the RSS in order to facilitate the development of
these nodes.

Access routes which are required to support the development of all the Tourism Nodes in the Northern region, are
currently part of the Road Sector Strategy 2007 – 2011 (August 2006). However, the following amendments to the strategy
is proposed:

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A road link is proposed between Marrupa and Negomane to provide access to the Niassa Reserve. This will also provide
much needed access to the centre of the Region especially with regards to the North-South movement. In addition, a link
will be required to Ibo to support it’s tourism potential.

Further, an alternative alignment to the proposed Negomane Corridor is proposed, as it is understood that the current
proposed alignement (as proposed in the RSS), traverses a pristine nature reserve. The alternative alignment runs from
Montepuez to Mueda instead of from Marrupa to Mueda.
Following is a summary of road sections which need to be upgraded to support the tourism objectives of this study with
some high level cost estimates, in-line with the RSS and the amendments recommended above.

In the calculations above it was assumed that all roads are to be re-built, to a Primary Classification (paved, single lane, dual
carriageway, upgradable to double lane carriage way in future), at a cost of US$600,000 per km.

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Budget
Approx Length
RSS Corridor Road Number Main Nodes Current Condition Motivation
(km) (million)
Part of East-West
Nampula to link between
Nacala Corridor N13 335 Unpaved, Poor US$201
Cuamba Lichinga and
Nacala
Part of East-West
Lichinga to link between
Niassa Corridor N13 290 Unpaved, Fair US$174
Cuamba Lichinga and
Nacala
Pary of East-West
Montepuez Marupa to link between
N14 225 Unpaved, Fair/Poor US$135
Corridor Montepuez Lichinga and
Pemba
North-South link
Lichinga to
Mentangula between Western
N361, R733, R1215 Macaloje to 250 Unpaved, Poor US$150
Corridor portion of region
Matchedje
and Tanzania

Sunate to Oasse to North-South link


Negomane N380, N381, Mueda to Ngapa between Eastern
430 Unpaved, Poor US$258
Corridor R1251 to Negomane portion of region
(Unity Bridge) and Tanzania

Montepuez to North-South link


N/A (Alternative
Mueda to Ngapa between Eastern
to Negomane R698, N381, R1251 370 Unpaved, Poor US$222
to Negomane portion of region
Corridor)
(Unity Bridge) and Tanzania
Marrupa to Mecula
To provide road
to Gomba to
N/A R371, R1204 290 Unpaved, Poor access to Niassa US$174
Negomane (Unity
Reserve
Bridge)

To provide road
N/A R762 Pemba to Ibo 100 Unpaved, Poor US$60
access to Ibo

8.4.5 RAIL LINKAGE FOR PASSENGERS


As far as rail linkage is concerned, the section of the railway line between Cuamba - Entre Lagos (to Malawi border), is
expected to be rehabilitated under the Corridor de Desenvolvimento do Norte (North Development Corridor) 15-year
concession, signed in 2005. The section of the railway line between Cuamba and Lichinga is presently under rehabilitation.

There is no North-South rail linkage to support the economic movement of goods and services to facilitate large scale
development in the North region. In this regard the region will be dependent on markets in Zambia and Malawi that link
with Nacala. Although the North-South link will be advantageous to the economic development of the region, it is not seen
as a major draw-back in terms of the tourism potential of the region, and no further conceptual planning is recommended.

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SIGNIFICANCE FOR TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN ARCO NORTE:

Existing domestic tourist demand is mainly from South Africa and internationally from Europe, the Middle East and China.
There is strong tourism industry in Malawi and Tanzania and there is an opportunity to create linkages in terms of tourism
packages to access these markets.

Poor linkage between north and south and the distance area major obstacles and to a large extent limits the market from
South Africa. Furthermore the transportation of goods and services from the business centres in South Africa by road or
rail is a challenge for tourism development in the north.

International airports, sea and lake ports are tourism gateways and present ideal localities for tourism entrepreneurs to
develop related services such as shops, filling stations, restaurants, over night accommodation ect.

Route development from these gateways becomes equally important in terms of signage and interpretive information to
guide visitors to tourist destinations and tourists service providers.
Good tourism linkages are dependent on transport infrastructure including airports, airfields, weather proof roads, and
facilities such as fuel stations, vehicle repair facilities, food supply stores and a range of accommodation facilities.
The development and designation of some of these roads as scenic routes becomes a priority in term so of tourism
development. Scenic routes should meet certain criteria and guidelines to ensure that they remain scenic routes over the
longer term.

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SECTION C DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK

1 DEVELOPMENT CONEPT
The development concept addresses the following spatial aspects of the Regional Tourism Framework:
The concept recognises the main attraction of the Arco Norte for the international tourism market to be the “undiscov-
ered and undeveloped” character of the region. This character must be protected but at the same time interventions are
necessary to unlock the potential of the region as a tourism destination that can contribute to economic upliftment of the
people of the region.
The concept therefore recognises the need for good transport access between main urban centres of the region and
indicates the main roads as economic development corridors. Furthermore some areas especially the northern parts of
the Arco Norte are highly sensitive in terms of environmental aspects and access to these areas are proposed along scenic
routes that will have to comply with guidelines to ensure that it remains scenic in the long term.
· The concept identifies a number of urban centres as first and second order service centres in which the focus of
development should be to provide facilities and services that could serve a wider region.

· International airports, ports and border posts are recognised as tourism gateways where first contact with visitors
from international markets is made. These gateways should be treated as marketing centres from which the entire
region can be accessed. The linkage with international tourism regions through these gateways are recognised in the
concept.
Tourism corridors are identified along the coast, along the Niassa Lake and through the Niassa and Quirimbas
National Park.
The potential for water links along the coast line, lake Niassa and the Ruvuma River are indicated.
The areas between the Road Corridors and Tourism Corridors proposed to be protected as pristine environments to
maintain the undiscovered and undeveloped character of the region.

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2 DELOPMENT FRAME WORK

The Arco Norte Regional Tourism Framework includes the following main development proposals:

2.1 HIGH TOURISM DEMAND AREAS


These areas have been selected following an analysis of tourism destinations in the region that have potential to satisfy
the needs of the following niche markets. High end safari/lodge tourists, explorers, adventure tourists, eco-tourists, beach
holidaymakers, SAVE tourists, cultural visitors and business tourists.

The following destinations within the region are identified as having the most potential to serve these markets:

· Qirimbas Archipelago and mainland beaches with Ilha do Ibo as entry point

· Quirimbas National Park main land with the entry point at Taratibo

· Ilha de Mozambique

· Niassa Game Reserve with Mecula as entry point

· Lake Niassa with Metangula as entry point

· Pemba Bay with Pemba as entry point

· Segundas Archipelago with Angoche as entry point.

Tourism accommodation and related services must be provided in these areas. The accommodation typologies to be
provided at each destination will depend on the guidelines that have been developed for the various tourism utilization
zones.
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Section C:
Development Framework

The following tourism utilization zones have been identified:

· High Sensitivity Zones

· Medium Sensitivity Zones

· Public Zones and

· Community Zonee
2.2 SERVICE CENTRES
The framework indicates first, second and third order service centres. These urban areas have been selected following a
analysis to determine which areas satisfy the following criteria:

Areas with a reasonable concentration of tourism opportunities to satisfy most market segments

Areas with existing tourism support services (catering, food markets, banks, tour operators, entertainment, vehicle hiring, insurance, ect.)

Areas that enjoy good and affordable accessibility


Areas that provide the best linkages with smaller or more remote tourism and leisure activities
Areas with the best economic potential to support large scale development of tourism facilities,

Areas in which concentration of tourism development will have the least impact on sensitive environments

Areas with exiting or potential access to engineering services (water, sanitation, electricity, transport)

Areas with administrative capacity and support from the government and tourism structures.

The following urban areas will serve as service centres for tourists:

FIRST ORDER CENTRES:

Pemba, Nampula, Nacala and Lichinga

SECOND ORDER CENTRES:

Ilha de Mozambique and Cuamba

Second order centres

THIRD ORDER CENTRES:

Montepuez, Mueda and Metangula

The following table provides a list of minimum facilities that must be provided at the various service centres.

CATEGORY OF SPECIFIC FIRST ORDER SECOND ORDER THIRD ORDER


TYPE OF FACILITY
SERVICE REQUIREMENTS SERVICE CENTRE SERVICE CENTRE SERVICE CENTRE

TRANSPORT Must have a passenger


Sea or lake ports √
INFRASTRUCTURE service

Airport International Airport √

Domestic Airport √

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CATEGORY OF SPECIFIC FIRST ORDER SECOND ORDER THIRD ORDER


TYPE OF FACILITY
SERVICE REQUIREMENTS SERVICE CENTRE SERVICE CENTRE SERVICE CENTRE

Air field √
Railway Passenger Station √ √
Bus Service Tour bus service
Local Bus service √ √

Tourist taxi service of


Taxi service √ √
shuttle service

Local taxi service √ √


Roads Paved roads √ √

Good, unpaved roads √ √

4x4 road access √

Vehicle and equipment Sedan motor vehicle


√ √
hiring hiring

4x4 Hiring √ √
Camping and off-road

hiring

Vehicle maintenance Fuel √ √ √

Tire repair √ √ √
Auto mechanic √ √
Auto electrician √

Short stay
ACCOMMODATION Hotels √
accommodation

Lodges √ √
Resorts √
Guesthouse and Bed
√ √ √
and breakfast
Self catering

accommodation

Caravan and camping √ √

Bush camping √
FOOD AND
Super market √ √ √
BEVERAGE
Liquor store √ √
Restaurant √
Pub √

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CATEGORY OF SPECIFIC FIRST ORDER SECOND ORDER THIRD ORDER


TYPE OF FACILITY
SERVICE REQUIREMENTS SERVICE CENTRE SERVICE CENTRE SERVICE CENTRE

Take-away √ √
Convenience store √ √ √

Facilities other than


ENTERTAINMENT Cinema √
tourist attractions

Theatre √
Art gallery √
Craft market √
Night club √

FINANCIAL Money and exchange Banks √ √

Foreign Exchange √
Auto banks √ √ √

ADMINISTRATION Information centres


Tourist information
AND and government √ √ √
centre
INFORMATION support services

tour guides and tour



operators
insurance brokers, √
Customs √

foreign affairs offices √

Consulates √
Hospital with trauma
HEALTH FACILITIES Medical facilities √
centre

Dive decompression

tank

Clinic with qualified


√ √ √
doctors
Pharmacy √ √ √

All facilities to ensure


SECURITY Police station √ √ √
the safety of visitors

Security services √

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2.3 TOURISM ACCOMMODATION TYPOLOGIES


A number of destinations have been identified that cannot be classified as high tourism demand areas or service centres.
However the quality of the tourism attractions at these destinations warrants the development of at least accommodation
facilities for tourists. The accommodation typology will depend on the potential niche market segment that could be
served at these destinations as well as the tourism utilization zone within which these destinations fall.

The accommodation typologies associated with the various niche markets within the different tourism utilization zones
are indicated on the following Map and the accompanying table.

Self Catering Accommodation

Residential development at
Beach/ Bush/ Safari Lodge

Backpackers & Hostels


Resort development

Caravan & Camping


Water based Lodge

Bed and Breakfast


Boutique Hotel

Establishments
Guest house

30 u/ ha
Motel
Hotel

  TOURISM ACCOMODATION TYPLOGY


                         

Angoche / Segundas                        

Ilha de Mozambique                        
Nacala                        
Pemba                        
Ilha de Ibo                        
Montepeuz                        
Mueda                        
Niassa resrve                        
Cobue                        
Metangula                        
Lichinga                        
Cuamba                        

2.4 SUPPORT FOR TOURIST IN TRANSIT


Due to the vast distances between destinations, localities along transport routes have been indicated where tourists
travelling by road will require support services. These services relate to fuel, vehicle maintenance, food, restrooms and
overnight facilities. There is a huge potential to attract the adventure and touring market segment to the region, but
support for road travel will be required to unlock this potential.

As these services are not directly related to the tourism industry, it will be the responsibility of other sectors to accept
the challenge to stimulate the development of facilities at these localities. Opportunities for the private sector exist to
develop facilities, but the feasibility will be dependent on economies of scale. Therefore it is expected that government
intervention will be required initially to provide facilities in crucial spots to kick-start this support industry. Once tourism
numbers increase, the viability of these tourism support stations will increase and market meganism of supply and demand
will eliminate the need for government intervention.

2.6 TRANSPORT

The framework identifies various transport elements that provide the connections between destinations within the Arco
Norte.The framework identifies: airports, ports and border posts. A hierarchy of roads are identified each with a different
purpose in support of tourism development.
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2.6.1 PRIMARY ROAD LINKS

These roads represent the main arterials of the region and must provide fast and efficient linkage between main urban
centres to transport goods, services and passanges between the main tourism regions of the region. These roads should be
paved and be developed to a freeway standard.

2.6.2 SECONDARY ROADS

Secondary roads provide inter destination linkage within a province and should transport goods, services and passengers
between the service centers and the mian tourism destinations. These roads should be paved and provided on a provincial
road standard.

2..6.3 TERTIARY ROADS

These roads are meant to provide local access between the main entry point to a tourism destination and surrounding
attractions. These roads should not be designed to carry high traffic volumes or heavy vehicles. Ideally these roads should
be paved, but well maintained unpaved surfaces are acceptable.

2.6.4 SCENIC ROUTES

A special category of road linkage has been identified to support tourism development in the Arco Norte. Scenic routes
provide the means of preserving and experiencing prime sub regions of the Arco Norte’s natural and cultural landscapes.
To be designated as a scenic route, a road has to comply with certain criteria to ensure that it remains scenic over the
longer term. These routes require certain interventions by government and appropriate management policies to ensure
sustainability and will form that backbone of the tourism framework of the Region. In the guidelines section of the
framework specific policy, programmes and projects have been identified to create and maintain scenic routes of the Arco
Norte.

Guidelines aim to:

• Protect views

• Regulate the provision of service stations

• Manage informal and formal trading

• Provision of picnic sites and view points

• Regulate road aesthetics and edge treatment

• Improve road safety

• Regulate environmental impact

• Determine guidelines for signage, information and interpretation

• Landscaping

2.6.5 MARINE LINK

The framework identifies the potential for marine links along the coast, the Niassa Lake and along the Ruvuma River.

The development of a ferry service between destinations along the coast as well as tapping into the cruise ship market
needs to be explored by tourism authorities. Development of facilities at ports to accommodate vessels need to be
addressed by other sectors.

The potential to receive tourists along the Niassa Lake that are visiting destinations in Malawi need to be exploited and
tourism authorities need to enter into agreements with tourism authorities in Malawi to tap into this opportunity. Facilities
for tourist’s needs to be developed along the Niassa Lake to accommodate tourists and to serve their needs. This initiative
will require interventions all sectors of government to be successful as it involves infrastructure, customs and economic
ARCO NORTE REGIONAL TOURISM DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK
PHASE 1 CONTEXT AND CONCEPT REPORT. 125
Section C:
Development Framework

development. At the same time measures must be implemented to protect the sensitive environments to avoid over
development of this valuable resource.

The Ruvuma River has potential to be developed as a tourism link via river rafting or houseboats. The full potential of this
possible tourism initiative needs to be further investigated in studies that falls outside the scope of this framework but is
recognised as an important tourism possibility.

THIS CONCLUDES PHASE 1, STAGE 1 OF THE PROJECT FOR THE REGIONAL TOURISM
FRAMEWORK

SECTION D: IMPLEMENTATION AND MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK

This section of the report will be completed with the in Phase 1 Stage 2 and will include the following sections:

1. GUIDELINES FOR DEVELOPMENT

• Guidelines for tourism accommodation typologies

• Guidelines for tourism utilization zones

• General Environmental guidelines

• Guidelines for transportation routes

• Guidelines for service centre development

• Guidelines for various elements of the Development Framework

2. PROGRAMMES, POLICIES AND PROJECTS

• A set of programmes, policies and projects that will be required to implement the proposals on the regional level will
be completes.

• This task will involve an indication of phasing and the responsible authority for each task.

• Catalytic projects will be indicated as well as strategic interventions.

Definitions And Abbreviations


Abbreviations and definitions will have the meanings as specified herein for the purpose of understanding the context and
contents of this document only.

Abbreviation Definition
ADM Aeroportos de Moçambique
ANE Administração Nacional de Estradas
CDN Corredor De Desenvolvimento Do Norte
Portos e Caminhos de Ferro de Moçambique/Mozambique Ports
CFM
and Railway
EDM Electricidade de Moçambique
GIS Geographical Information System
h hour
HCB Hydroelectric of Cahora Bassa
kV Kilovolt
LAM Mozambique
MOZAL Mozambique Aluminium Smelter

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PHASE 1 CONTEXT AND CONCEPT REPORT. 126
Section C:
Development Framework

Abbreviation Definition
SAA South African Airways
MCC Millennium Challenge Corporation
MDC Maputo Development Corridor
MIPS Mozambique International Port Services
MITUR Ministry of Tourism of the Republic of Mozambique
MOTRACO Mozambique Transmission Company
MVA Mega Volt-Ampere
MW Megawatt
PIA Potential Tourism Investment Areas
PRISE Integrated Road Sector Program
RNT National Transmission Network
RBMMP Roads and Bridges Management and Maintenance Program
RSA Republic of South Africa
SADC Southern African Development Community
SDI Spatial Development Initiative
STP Sewage Treatment Plant
TOI Institute of Transport Economics
USAID United States Agency for International Development
US$ United States Dollar
ZAR (or R) South African Rand

DNA, SEE ENGINEERING REPORT on sanitation in the Northern Region


FIPAG SEE ENGINEERING REPORT on sanitation in the Northern Region
African Developing Bank (ADB)
GOM SEE ENGINEERING REPORT on sanitation in the Northern Region
CRA SEE ENGINEERING REPORT on sanitation in the Northern Region
Transfrontier Conservation Areas (TFCAs)
SAVE
Priority areas for Tourism Investment (PATIs),
Local Economic Development (LED)

ARCO NORTE REGIONAL TOURISM DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK


PHASE 1 CONTEXT AND CONCEPT REPORT. 127
Section C:
Development Framework

SOURCES

ALL CONSULTANTS TO PROVIDE A LIST OF SOURCES

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[4 December 2009]

African Development Bank Group. January 2009. Project: Niassa Provincial Towns Water Supply and Sanitation Project –
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PHASE 1 CONTEXT AND CONCEPT REPORT.

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