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TOPIC 1 – DEVELOPMENT OF MUSIC

THE DEVELOPMENT OF MUSIC


Western Classical Tradition

Name: _________________________________________________

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TOPIC 1 – DEVELOPMENT OF MUSIC

GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE EXAM


The four areas of study are Musical Forms and Devices, Music for Ensemble,
Film Music and Popular Music
You will sit an examination of approximately 1 hour 15 minutes duration
There will be eight questions in total, all worth equal marks. All questions
will be out of 12 marks
Two questions will be based on the prepared extracts, and the other six
questions will be based on unfamiliar extracts
The longer response question will always be on an unprepared extract
There will always be a dictation score-based question based on an
unprepared extract
There will always be a question on each of the prepared extracts
The paper will always have 24 marks on each area of study (12 x 2)
The areas of study will always appear in order from 1- 4

You will be required to write a short section in pitch or rhythm (but not
both at the same time)
You will be required to write in simple time only
You will be required to read rhythms in compound time (but not write
them).

You will be required to read or write key signatures up to four sharps or


four flats (both major and minor keys) but not both in the same question
You will be required to write chord symbols in both contemporary
symbols and roman numerals, but not both in the same question.
Questions on chords will always be based on chords I – VI in a major key.
Any chords outside of I- VI (or other relevant theoretical information)
contained within the prepared extract must also be studied

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TOPIC 1 – DEVELOPMENT OF MUSIC

INFORMATION ABOUT AREA OF STUDY 1


Area of study 1: Musical Forms and Devices
 You need to know the principal features of Baroque, Classical and
Romantic music.

 There is one prepared extract which you must study in depth: Eine
Kleine Nachtmusik, Movement 3, Minuet: Mozart (1787)
Structure:
You need to identify the main features of binary, ternary, minuet and trio,
rondo, variation and strophic forms
Devices:
You need to learn how composers use the musical devices listed below to
create and develop music:
 repetition
 contrast
 anacrusis
 imitation
 sequence
 ostinato
 syncopation
 dotted rhythms
 drone
 pedal
 canon
 conjunct movement
 disjunct movement
 ornamentation
 broken chord/arpeggio
 Alberti bass
 regular phrasing
 melodic and rhythmic motifs
 simple chord progressions including cadences
 modulation to dominant and relative minor.

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TOPIC 1 – DEVELOPMENT OF MUSIC

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TOPIC 1 – DEVELOPMENT OF MUSIC

The Baroque Period

1600-1750

Which composers & works do you know?


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Instruments used:
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What stylistic features do you hear (MRS TIGHTS)?


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TOPIC 1 – DEVELOPMENT OF MUSIC

Main Composers

FROM GERMANY

Bach

Johann Sebastian Bach was born into a


musical dynasty. The Bach family had over 300
years' worth of professional composers and
musicians, but Johann Sebastian was the most
famous of all of them. In addition to being
one of the greatest composers the world has
ever known, Bach was also an excellent
organist and violinist.

Works you may know:

Brandenburg Concertos (a concerto grosso – piece for orchestra and a


small group of soloists)
The Well-Tempered Clavier (‘Preludes and Fugues’)
Cantatas (German Lutheran music for church)

FROM GERMANY THEN MOVED TO ENGLAND

Handel

Georg Friedrich Händel was born in Halle, Germany.


But since he spent most of his professional life in
England, he's better known as George Frederick
Handel.

Works you may know:

Messiah (an oratorio – orchestra, chorus & vocal


soloists based on Biblical story)
Water Music and Fireworks Music

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TOPIC 1 – DEVELOPMENT OF MUSIC

ITALY

Vivaldi

Antonio Vivaldi was born in Venice, Italy,


which is where he spent most of his life. His
father taught him to play the violin, and the
two would often perform together. Antonio
continued to study and practice the violin,
even after he became a priest. He taught at
an orphanage for girls, and wrote a lot of
music for the girls to play.

Works you may know:

Four Seasons (a concerto – soloist and orchestra - for violin)

Other Important Composers

Corelli (Italy): wrote many concertos

Lully (Italian-born/ French) composed for King XIV of France

Purcell (English) organist at the Chapel Royal. Composed opera Dido and
Aeneas

LISTEN & FIND OUT MORE

Classics for Kids:


http://www.classicsforkids.com/composers/composers_period.asp

DSO Kids: https://www.mydso.com/dso-kids/learn-and-listen/composers

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TOPIC 1 – DEVELOPMENT OF MUSIC

How do I know it is Baroque music?

Use of the harpsichord, organ, figured bass (the numbers tell the
harpsichordist which chords to play)

Elaboration of melodies using ornamentation (grace notes)

Basso Continuo (bass instrument with chordal instrument: i.e. cello &
harpsichord)

Use of different textures, with complex polyphonic passages (melodies


interweaving)

Development of western tonality: major & minor


A movement in a piece will remain in one mood (there is no contrast of
themes within a piece)

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TOPIC 1 – DEVELOPMENT OF MUSIC

Contrasted terraced dynamics (dynamics change without gradual crescendo


or diminuendo)

Energetic and relentless rhythmic movement


Forms: binary (AB), ternary (ABA), rondo/rondeau (ABACAD…), variations (A-
A1-A2-A3-A4), ritornello (recurring passage in a piece), fugue (complex
polyphonic form)

a fugue

What was the Baroque orchestra like?

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TOPIC 1 – DEVELOPMENT OF MUSIC

Quiz Time!

1. What are the dates of the Baroque era?

___________________________________________________________________

2. Name two-three composers from the Baroque era:

___________________________________________________________________

3. Define the following terms:


Concerto: ____________________________________________________________
Concerto grosso: ____________________________________________________
Polyphony:___________________________________________________________
Oratorio: _____________________________________________________________
Cantata: ______________________________________________________________
Fugue: ________________________________________________________________
Ritornello: ____________________________________________________________
Binary: ________________________________________________________________
Ternary: _______________________________________________________________
Rondo/rondeau: ______________________________________________________
Theme and Variations: ________________________________________________
Figured bass: __________________________________________________________
Basso continuo: _______________________________________________________

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TOPIC 1 – DEVELOPMENT OF MUSIC

4. Label the ornamentations: appoggiatura, acciaccatura, turn, mordent, trill

5. Name the instrument:

______________________________
______________________________
______________________________
______________________________

6. Circle if the following excerpts are:


Symphony or Concerto
Symphony or Concerto
Symphony or Concerto
Symphony or Concerto

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TOPIC 1 – DEVELOPMENT OF MUSIC

The Classical Period

1750 - 1810
Which composers & works do you know?
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Instruments used:
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What stylistic features do you hear (MRS TIGHTS)?


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TOPIC 1 – DEVELOPMENT OF MUSIC

Main Composers

FROM AUSTRIA

Haydn

Franz Joseph Haydn was the most famous composer of


his time. He helped develop new musical forms, like the
string quartet and the symphony. In fact, even though he
didn't invent it, Haydn is known as the "Father of the
Symphony."

Works you may know:

104 symphonies (large scale work for orchestra in 4 movements) e.g.


Surprise Symphony ‘2nd movement’: theme & variations
Quartets (music for violin1, violin 2, viola & cello; also in four
movements)

Mozart

Wolfgang (was a child prodigy. He composed his first


piece of music at age five; he had his first piece
published when he was seven; and he wrote his first
opera when he was twelve. By the time Wolfgang was
6, he was an excellent pianist and violinist. He
composed in all different musical forms, including
operas, symphonies, concertos, and chamber music.
Works you may know:
Eine Kleine Nachtmusik (serenade -light music for entertainment - for
strings)
12 Variations on ‘Ah Vous Direz-Je Maman’ (aka ‘Twinkle’)
Operas (staged musical work for soloists, chorus, orchestra) Marriage of
Figaro, Don Giovanni, Magic Flute

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TOPIC 1 – DEVELOPMENT OF MUSIC

Symphonies, quartets, piano & concertos, and a beautiful concerto for


the newly-invented clarinet
(early) Beethoven
Beethoven was one of the first composers to make a
living without being employed by the church or a
member of the nobility. At first, he was known as a
brilliant pianist. But when he was around 30 years
old, Beethoven started going deaf. Even though he
could no longer hear well enough to play the piano,
Beethoven composed some of his best music after
he was deaf! He was a revolutionary who pushed
boundaries and heralded the Romantic era.
Works you may know:
Early symphonies (No 1 & 2)
Early sonatas (music for solo (or solo with piano) instrument in four
movements)

LISTEN & FIND OUT MORE

Classics for Kids:


http://www.classicsforkids.com/composers/composers_period.asp

DSO Kids: https://www.mydso.com/dso-kids/learn-and-listen/composers

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TOPIC 1 – DEVELOPMENT OF MUSIC

How do I know it is Classical music?

Mainly melody-dominated homophony (one melody with

accompaniment), but some counterpoint (another word for polyphony)


at times

Alberti bass

Greater variety of key (major/ minor scales) & dynamics (volume)


Simpler melodies with balanced and regular phrases (example, 4 bars
question + 4 bars answer)

More variety and contrast in a piece, with changes of mood


Elegant, graceful and symmetrical style
Greater us of woodwind (flute, bassoon, oboe) in the orchestra &
introduction of clarinet in the woodwinds
Harpsichord no longer in use; introduction of pianoforte
Ternary, rondo, theme and variations forms; da capo (back to the start)

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TOPIC 1 – DEVELOPMENT OF MUSIC

Minuet and trio form (2 contrasting dances, ternary: AABB-CCDD-AB)


Repeat sign :

Form ABA

Melodies

Minuet: ‘home’ key Trio: contrasting key Minuet: ‘home’ key

Development of sonata-form (large-scale ternary form):

What was the Classical orchestra like?

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TOPIC 1 – DEVELOPMENT OF MUSIC

Quiz Time!

1. What are the dates of the Classical era?

___________________________________________________________________

2. Name the three famous composers from the Classical era:

___________________________________________________________________

3. Define the following terms:


Concerto: _____________________________________________________________
Symphony: ____________________________________________________________
Melody-dominated homophony:
_________________________________________________________________________
Counterpoint: __________________________________________________________
Regular phrasing: ______________________________________________________
Alberti bass: ____________________________________________________________
Ternary: ________________________________________________________________
Rondo: _________________________________________________________________
Trio and Minuet: _______________________________________________________
Sonata form: ___________________________________________________________
Exposition: _____________________________________________________________
Development: __________________________________________________________
Recapitulation: _________________________________________________________
Da capo: ________________________________________________________________

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TOPIC 1 – DEVELOPMENT OF MUSIC

4. Is the following music Baroque or Classical?


Excerpt 1 is: __________________________________
Excerpt 2 is: __________________________________
Excerpt 3 is: __________________________________
Excerpt 4 is: __________________________________

5. Classical music is lighter in style, clearer in texture and doesn’t follow a


polyphonic texture.

TRUE or FALSE?

6. Give three-four main differences between the Baroque and Classical


orchestras:
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

7. What are the following musical excerpts? Tick one box

a) Symphony a
String quartet
String orchestra

b) Symphony b
Concerto (solo + orch.)
Opera

c) Sonata violin & piano c


Piano trio
Piano quartet

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TOPIC 1 – DEVELOPMENT OF MUSIC

The Romantic Period

1810 - 1910
Which composers & works do you know?
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Instruments used:
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What stylistic features do you hear (MRS TIGHTS)?


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TOPIC 1 – DEVELOPMENT OF MUSIC

(Some) Main Composers

FROM GERMANY

(Late) Beethoven

Ludwig van Beethoven is regarded as the


first Romantic composer. His 3rd Symphony
‘Eroica’ was a revolutionary work of
such unprecedented length and
complexity. Beethoven injected his
symphony with a passion, an intensity, and
ideas that had never been heard before. It
was at first dedicated to the revolutionary Napoleon, but when he made
himself Emperor Beethoven was so furious that he scribbled out de dedication
(as you can see on the Symphony’s title page).

Works you may know:

5th Symphony, 6th Symphony (‘Pastoral’), 9th Symphony


Für Elise
Sonatas for piano: Moonlight Sonata, Tempest

Brahms

Many people considered Brahms to be the successor to


Beethoven. For a long time, he didn't want to write a
symphony, because he was afraid his work would not be as
good as Beethoven's. Brahms ended up writing four
symphonies, plus pieces in every musical form except opera.

Works you may know:

Lullaby
Hungarian Dance No.5

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TOPIC 1 – DEVELOPMENT OF MUSIC

Mendelssohn

Mendelssohn loved to travel. His trips to other


countries inspired some of his best music, like his
Scottish and Italian Symphonies. Mendelssohn also
became well known as a conductor. When he was
just 20, he put together and conducted the first
concert of Johann Sebastian Bach's St. Matthew
Passion since Bach's lifetime.

Works you may know:

Midsummer Night’s Dream (which features in Barbie’s ’12 Dancing


Princesses’ and includes the famous Wedding March)
Fingal’s Cave from his visit to the Scottish Hebrides

Schumann

After Robert injured his ring finger, he became a full-time


composer. His most famous musical compositions were for
piano. He was also a writer and published a music
magazine called Neue Zeitschrift Fur Musik (New Journal
for Music). In it, he wrote about music and composers of
the day, encouraging some and criticising others.

Works you may know:

‘The Happy Farmer’ and other piano pieces for young (which he
composed for his children)

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TOPIC 1 – DEVELOPMENT OF MUSIC

Wagner

Before composing his own works, he was a


theatrical and operatic producer. He was also a
conductor and wrote articles and essays on drama
and music, something he continued to do
throughout his lifetime. His masterpiece is the Ring
of the Nibelung, a cycle of four operas that tells the
story of mythological German gods and beings.
Composition of this series took over twenty-five years. The use of leitmotifs
(a theme (melody) that is linked to a person or object) helps to unite these
four operas.

Works you may know:

‘Ride of the Valkyries’


‘Bridal Chorus’

CZECK REPUBLIC

Dvořák

Dvorak played the piano and organ, but the viola was
his favourite instrument (😊). He was a country boy
from a small village in Bohemia. In 1892, Dvorák came
to America to be the head of the National
Conservatory of Music. While he was in the United
States, he wrote the famous "New World Symphony".

Works you may know:

New World Symphony (which features the ‘Largo’ and the music
features in Barbie’s film Rapunzel)

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TOPIC 1 – DEVELOPMENT OF MUSIC

FINLAND

Sibelius

(Late-Romantic & early-Modern) Yes, Sibelius is not just


a computer software… Sibelius was known as one of the
foremost composers of nationalist music – that is, pieces
that celebrate and describe a particular country.
Finlandia is probably his most well-known work. It
became theme of the Finnish Resistance during World
War II.

Works you may know:

5th Symphony with the ‘swan-call’ as the composer witnessed 16


swans taking flight at once.

NORWAY

Grieg

Grieg had an active career as a pianist, giving concerts all


over Europe. But every summer, he came back to Norway
to compose. He became a great champion of Norwegian
music, art and theatre, which is why the great Norwegian
playwright Henrik Ibsen asked Grieg to write music for his
play Peer Gynt.

Works you may know:

From Peer Gynt: ‘Hall of the Mountain King’& ‘Morning Mood’

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TOPIC 1 – DEVELOPMENT OF MUSIC

RUSSIA

Tchaikovsky

Tchaikovsky had a patroness named Nadezhda von


Meck -- a wealthy widow who was a big fan of
Tchaikovsky's music. She regularly sent him money so
that he could concentrate on composing without
having to worry about making a living. But Nadezhda
von Meck didn't want to meet Tchaikovsky. For 14
years, they only communicated by writing letters to
each other. Tchaikovsky dedicated his Fourth
Symphony to his patroness. He is famous for his ballet music.

Works you may know:

Ballets: Nutcracker, Swan Lake

Mussorgsky

Modest went to military boarding school, and when he


graduated, he joined the army as an officer. Then,
Mussorgsky started studying music with Russian
composer Mily Balakirev, and left the army to become a
composer. He was part of a group of five Russian
composers known as "The Five," or the "Mighty Handful."

Works you may know:

Night on a Bare Mountain


Pictures at an Exhibition

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TOPIC 1 – DEVELOPMENT OF MUSIC

G.B. – ENGLAND

Sir E. Elgar

Born in Worcester. He started by making a living as a


freelance musician starting when he was just 16 years old.
Violin was his main instrument, but he also played organ,
violin, piano, and bassoon and conducted too. During this
time, he was also writing compositions and eventually
decided to move to London, where he would stop playing to
concentrate on writing music. There are recordings of Elgar
conducting his own compositions.

Works you may know:

Enigma Variations
Pomp and Circumnstance marches (features on Fantasia 2000)

FRANCE

Berlioz

Berlioz was as mad as he looks! He was not a child


prodigy and started studying music seriously late. He
was a guitarist, not a pianist, which is quite unusual
for a composer. Berlioz was noted for his orchestral
writing and is credited with creating the modern
orchestra. His ideas were quite grand; his Requiem
uses an orchestra of 190, four additional brass and
percussion ensembles, and a 210-voice chorus! His version of the leitmotif
was the idée fixe – where a melody or theme was used to represent a person
or idea throughout a composition.

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TOPIC 1 – DEVELOPMENT OF MUSIC

Works you may know:

Symphonie Fantastique based on Berlioz’s‘hopeless love’and


obsessive passion for an Irish actress, complete with waltzes, witches
and a hallucinogenic nightmare.

LISTEN & FIND OUT MORE


Classics for Kids:
http://www.classicsforkids.com/composers/composers_period.asp
DSO Kids: https://www.mydso.com/dso-kids/learn-and-
listen/composers

How do I know it is Romantic music?


Emphasis on lyrical melodies (singing, long melodies)
Greater tonal and rhythmic complexity
Richer harmonies (chords) with chromaticism (chords that are not part
of the key and ‘clash’)
Unexpected changes of key (scales)
Nationalist music that represents a country’s musical or cultural
background
Development of the orchestra with more brass (trombone, tuba,
trumpet).
Denser textures and an expansion of the orchestra
Closer links with other arts and nature
More technical virtuosity (technically difficult passages) – the performer
as genius: Liszt on the piano and Paganini on the violin

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TOPIC 1 – DEVELOPMENT OF MUSIC

Use of letimotives (recurring themes linked to a person, object or idea)


and large-scale pieces
Dramatic, expressive and intense music
Greater variety of dynamics
Symphonic poem & programmatic works (large-scale orchestral
pieces that tell a story, rather than following a set structure)
Lied(er)Lieder (art song(s):: songs for solo voice and piano based on
poems)

What was the Romantic orchestra like?

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TOPIC 1 – DEVELOPMENT OF MUSIC

Quiz Time!

8. What are the dates of the Romantic era?

___________________________________________________________________

9. Name three composers from the Romantic era:

___________________________________________________________________

10. Define the following terms:


Leitmotif: _______________________________________________________________
Virtuosic: _______________________________________________________________
Harmony: _______________________________________________________________
Chromaticism: __________________________________________________________
Nationalism: ____________________________________________________________
Name 4 string instruments:
__________________________________________________________________________
Name 4 woodwind instruments:
__________________________________________________________________________
Name 4 brass instruments:
__________________________________________________________________________
Name 4 percussion instruments:
__________________________________________________________________________
Lieder/ art song: ________________________________________________________
Programme music: ______________________________________________________

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TOPIC 1 – DEVELOPMENT OF MUSIC

11. Is the following music Baroque, Classical or Romantic?


Excerpt 1 is: __________________________________
Excerpt 2 is: __________________________________
Excerpt 3 is: __________________________________
Excerpt 4 is: __________________________________

12. Romantic music is often based on nature, the arts and literature.

TRUE or FALSE?

13. Give three-four main differences between the Classical and Romantic
orchestras:
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

14. What are the following musical excerpts? Tick one box
a) Opera a
Lieder
Requiem (mass for dead)

d) Symphonic poem b
Concerto
Chamber music (for small ensemble)

e) Sonata violin & piano c


Sonata for viola & piano
Sonata for cello & piano

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