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ZOBAKC

Fuente: https://www.google.com/patents/US7181380

Coulomb failure envelope is an example of a relatively simple hydrocarbon

recovery model that can be used to help identify reservoir failure modes in

box 70 of FIG. 1. FIG. 4 provides a graphical way to visualize stress states that

represents failure modes such as tensile failure, cohesive failure, shear failure, and

pore collapse or compaction failure. Given the complexities of other known models,

the relatively simple Mohr Coulomb failure envelope will be discussed here for

clarity and ease of understanding.

FIG. 4 is a typical plot of a Mohr Coulomb failure envelope. The X-axis represents

the effective normal stress (perpendicular to the plane) and the Y-axis represents

the shear stress (parallel to the plane). The normal stress increases with

compression in the positive X direction and decreases with tension in the negative

X direction. The failure envelope 130,140, 150 is the best-fit line representing the

locus of shear and normal stresses at failure for a material, such as a core sample,

taken from laboratory results. Stress states below this line are considered stable

and above this line are unstable.

In the laboratory, failure points are determined by breaking core samples under

different confining stresses that can later be translated to pore pressure conditions.

The triaxial compression laboratory test procedures and calculations to achieve the

failure envelope are known to those skilled in the art. Applying a confining pressure

to a core in a laboratory test can be very similar in principle to applying pore

pressure to the material in the formation. Therefore, confining pressures defined in

the lab can be extrapolated into pore pressures to predict failure in the field.

semicircles 110 and 120 to represent reservoir stress states in time.

Curve 110 in FIG. 4 represents initial stress conditions in the reservoir and is

plotted by using the stress conditions evaluated at the pore pressure calculated at

initial conditions. Curve 120 in FIG. 4 represents stress conditions evaluated at the

pore pressure calculated under drawdown and production as determined by

hydrocarbon recovery modeling. Hydrocarbon fluids that occupy the pore spaces in

the reservoir rock of a hydrocarbon formation can reduce the normal stress. As the

reservoir is produced, the change in pore pressure can result in going from stable

to unstable rock conditions resulting in failure. As the reservoir is predicted to be

depleted by hydrocarbon recovery modeling, the pore pressure is reduced which

shifts the two points where curve 110 intercepts the horizontal axis both to the left

at the left-most end of the semi-circle, and to the right at the right-most end of the

semi-circle, basically growing the semi-circle out as drawdown and production

occurs as is shown by curve 120. Where the semi-circle 120 intersects the failure

line 130, this corresponds to pore pressures that initiate unstable conditions. In this

particular example shown in FIG. 4, the Mohr Coulomb failure envelope helps to

show that as conditions change in the life of a well, shear failure can occur.

When operating a well at stress states inside of the failure envelope 130, 140, 150,

the reservoir rock can be considered stable. However, when operating at stress

states outside of the envelope then the reservoir rock can be considered unstable

and failure is likely. Tensile failure is graphically illustrated to occur in the region to

the left of the Y-axis and below the X-axis, when the effective normal stress is

negative. If a well is operating with stress states in this region it can fail in tension.

This is what occurs when a well undergoes hydraulic fracturing. Some water

injection wells typically operate in this region of the graph.

The failure envelope intersects the Y-axis when there is no effective normal stress.

The magnitude of the shear stress at this point represents the cohesive strength of

a material (the bonding strength between the particles of a material). Cohesive

failure can be expected at this point. Cohesive failure is a surface failure

phenomenon that is generally not a critical component in a completion evaluation

because typically it is a temporary event that clears up on its own after being

produced for a short period of time. With cohesive failure a small amount of sand is

produced initially but as the well continues to be produced the sand production

generally stops. Producing a well at stress conditions conducive to cohesive failure

could be an ideal case for a managed sand production completion design.

The slope of the failure envelope is the ratio of the shear stress to the normal

stress at failure and is a straight line 130 inFIG. 4 up to a point 140 at which the

line becomes a curve 150 bending down toward the X-axis. The region of the

graph above the straight-line portion of the failure envelope and to the left of a

vertical line through point 140 can be considered an area when shear failure in the

reservoir is probable. Shear failure initiates with the onset of grain shifting that

eventually liberates fines migration. This can cause a reduction in permeability in

the near wellbore region as already discussed. In sand prediction models, shear

failure is often associated with the onset of significant sand production as well.

The area above the curved portion of the failure envelope 150 and to the right of a

vertical line through point 140 is a region when pore collapse failure due to

compaction can be expected. Determination of the point 140 allows the cap 150 to

be inserted on the failure envelope to predict compressive-failure. Pore collapse, or

compaction failure, is a far field effect as mentioned previously.

hydrocarbon recovery model that can typically provide a good visualization tool to

indicate potential failure modes; but it is not designed to handle all the complexities

of non-elastic or plastic type failure modes. The Mohr Coulomb failure envelope is

an elastic solution and it does not consider plastic deformation conditions. Elastic

deformation conditions are observed when a material is deformed with stress and

then when the stress is removed the material returns to its original form. Plastic

deformation conditions are observed when a material is deformed beyond its

elastic limits, meaning the material is permanently changed, so that when the

stress is released, it no longer can go back to its initial condition. Sheer failure can

typically be considered to be more of a plastic failure mode. Pore collapse is also

considered a plastic failure mode. Accordingly, some reservoir evaluations may

require a more rigorous solution taking into consideration the plastic-elastic finite

element models that are readily available, such as known Drucker-Prager and

Modified Lade models. These more sophisticated models use more complex

elastic-plastic failure modeling that requires a multitude of core testing at different

confining stresses to generate them. It is quite a complex process to develop one

of these more sophisticated failure envelopes.

Once the failure mode or modes have been determined through hydrocarbon

recovery modeling such as was just described in the above example using a

simple Mohr Coulomb failure envelope or by using some other model or

combination of models, the process to optimize selection of completion and well

design continues on to box 80 of FIG. 1 as already described earlier herein.

modeling to help with drilling operations planning, where the primary concern is

wellbore stability during drilling. In particular, geo-mechanical models that are most

readily available right now have traditionally been focused on optimizing the drilling

process, for example determining the right direction for optimum wellbore stability,

to prevent a loss of circulation or a hole collapse. As illustrated in FIGS. 1–4, the

process in accordance with the present invention illustrates how these same tools

may be used to do a better job of completing the well. A potential benefit is that by

planning the completion type in advance of drilling using the geo-mechanical model

in combination with reservoir modeling and all other available reservoir information

obtained from well data and subsequent hydrocarbon recovery modeling presents

an opportunity to optimize the wellbore to be drilled for the selected completion.

Typically, at the completion stage, the well planning and drilling is already done.

Historically, if geo-mechanics were used in hydrocarbon recovery modeling and

evaluation, they were used from the standpoint of borehole stability and drilling

optimization. Therefore, at the completion stage, the wellbore has already been

drilled without completion selection or design considered and now is to be

evaluated for completion selection and design for the borehole in place. Doing a

better job of completing the well can have a long-term effect on the life and

productivity of the well. The system and process described herein enables an

optimal pre-drill completion selection, so that the optimal borehole can then be

planned and drilled to fit the best completion option for the reservoir particulars.

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