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Period; Early Modern Time; Jeopardising and Defending Honour in the Mid-
dle Ages and Early Modern Time; Military History and Homeland War.
For the first time, there was a separate Student Workshop at the Con-
gress. Two Round Tables were also held: The Croatian History – when does it
begin? and Croatian historiography (2010–2015) as well as a presentation of
the book by Prof. Dr Mithad Kozličić and Branko Kasal Study of History in
Zadar 1956–2016. As a part of the Congress and co-organised by the Town of
Nin, on 6th October 2016 Prof. Dr Mirjana Matijević-Sokol (Faculty of Huma-
nities of the University in Zagreb) gave an open lecture under the title Font –
Višeslav – Nin.
When organising the Congress, the aim was always to give it an interdi-
sciplinary, multidisciplinary and transdisciplinary angle. This approach has
been well recognised by the numerous foreign participants: Bulgaria (Institute
of Balkan Studies of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia), Hungary
(Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest; Faculty of Humanities of the
Eötvös Loránd University, Central European University, Budapest), Macedo-
nia (Faculty of Educational Sciences, Goce Delcev University, Štip), Ger-
many (University of Augsburg; Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Ki-
el), scholarship students from the NEWFELPRO in Rijeka, then colleagues
from Poland (Jagiellonian University, Krakow), Serbia (Institute of History,
Belgrade; Faculty of Philosophy of the University of Belgrade), Bosnia and
Hercegovina (Faculty of Humanities of the University of Sarajevo), Slovenia
(Institute for Ethnic Studies, Ljubljana; University of Primorska, Koper), Italy
(European University Institute, Florence) etc.
Full information about the Congress is available via the links below:
https://sites.google.com/site/hrvatskinacionalniodbor/
http://www.historiografija.hr/

Tomislav GALOVIĆ

The Third Triennale of the International Conference “Towns and Cities


of the Croatian Middle Ages: The City and the Newcomers”,
Croatian Institute of History, Zagreb 25–26 October 2016

Following two successful conferences held in 2010 and 2013 (dedicated


to the topics of power and ownership, i.e. the image of the town in narrative
sources), in late October 2016 the Third Triennale was held, focusing on
towns and cities of the Croatian Middle Ages. The conference was organised
by the Croatian Institute of History, which implements the project “Cities of

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the Croatian Middle Ages: Urban Elites and Urban Space” (URBES), finan-
ced by the Croatian Science Foundation. The scientific board of the conferen-
ce consisted of: Stanko Andrić, Irena Benyovsky Latin, Zrinka Pešorda Var-
dić, Nenad Vekarić and Danko Zelić, while Irena Benyovsky Latin, Zrinka
Pešorda Vardić and Bruno Škreblin dealt with organisational issues. With the
exception of two participants who spoke in Croatian (Ivica Prlender, Ante Bi-
rin), the conference was held entirely in English, so that foreign participants,
outside the former Yugoslav space, could follow the presentations. The inter-
national character of the conference was confirmed with the participation of
historians and art historians from Croatia, Slovenia, Serbia, Austria and Hun-
gary. Italy did not have its representatives as they were objectively prevented
from coming, although their participation had been envisaged.
The conference, held all the time in the Golden Hall of the Croatian In-
stitute of History in the Zagreb Lower Town, began with the introductory
word of Irena Benyovsky Latin. She touched upon the importance and role of
newcomers in life, economic development and social dynamics of medieval
urban settlements, expressing hope that the Triennale would serve as a chance
to present new knowledge and results of the current research into the urban hi-
story of Croatia in the Middle Ages.
Four participants took part in the first section titled The Town and the
Newcomers: Comparative Cases. Katalin Szende from Central European Uni-
versity in Budapest presented the paper Natives or Newcomers? “Slavs” in
the Towns of Medieval Hungary. She analysed the difference between the na-
tive Slavs and those who came later, the regions where the Slavic presence
was stronger (Slovakia and southern areas), and the intensification of migrati-
ons after the Ottoman conquest of Bulgaria and Serbia. She emphasised the
existence of dominantly Slavic settlements (e.g. in the suburbs of Buda or
Srpski Kovin) and mixed settlements (Gradec, Žilina, Rožnava), including mi-
ning centres where the Slavic population played an important role. The speci-
ficity was reflected in the language and alphabet, with church communities
acting as an integrative factor. This concerned primarily the Catholic Slavs,
while the Orthodox Slavs came too late to have a special status, which is why,
for instance, Bulgarians in Braşov found it hard to integrate. Professor Erman-
no Orlando, a researcher and lecturer in Venice, Sienna and Vienna Univer-
sity, could not attend the conference. His presentation Dalmatians and Slavs
in Venice during the Late Middle Ages: Between Integration and Assimilation
was read by his young colleague from Vienna Fabian Kümmeler. According
to Orlando’s assessment, the Slavs made up somewhat less than 5% of inhabi-
tants of Venice. Those were mostly newcomers from maritime towns in east-
ern Adriatic, which were often under Venetian rule. They were an important
factor of the revival of the population, most often serving as labour force, ser-
vice staff, temporary servants, but also as slaves. Integration took place in ti-
me and could be accelerated through mixed marriages with the native popula-

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tion (particularly women). The language was preserved, but not consistently.
Foreigners committed somewhat more crimes than the native population, but
no special measures were introduced against them.
The two final presentations in this section were held by two historians
from Slovenia. Janez Mlinar from the Ljubljana Faculty of Philosophy talked
about Newcomers in Ljubljana: Possible Comparisons. The importance of
Ljubljana grew as of the 13th century. By the late 15th century, it became an
important civitas. At the beginning, the newcomers were mainly clerks (usu-
ally castellans) of the town masters, who settled there permanently from Ca-
rinthia, Gorizia, Tyrol, Friuli, Austria, Bavaria, Czechia, Silesia. The Florenti-
nes were also coming from Italy and Jews were coming from Friuli. The Gori-
zian counts were the first to bring the Italians, while the Habsburgs brought
people from the maritime lands (Trieste and the environs) and other Carinthi-
ans. Integration was fast. Latin and German were publicly used languages.
The Jews were the only victims of non-tolerance, in the 16th century. Darja
Mihelič (Scientific-Research Centre of the Slovenian Academy of Sciences
and Arts, Ljubljana) presented the topic of Economic Newcomers in Medieval
Piran and Their Inclusion in the Urban Setting. She analysed the development
of Piran based on notary documents starting from the 14th century. The main
newcomers were those from Istria, Italy and the Slavic hinterland. At the time
of the Turkish incursion, migrations from Dalmatia and Herzegovina intensi-
fied. Most newcomers came from Koper, Isola and Trieste – those were ma-
inly craftsmen and entrepreneurs. Italians dealt mainly with masonry and salt
trade (as well as newcomers from Pag), construction and specialised professi-
ons (barbers, shoemakers). The author emphasised the examples of integrated
families of foreign origin – Peroni (Florence) and Caviano (Venice).
The second section was titled Norms and Practice Concerning the
Newcomers. All participants were from Croatia. Ivan Majnarić (Catholic Uni-
versity of Croatia, Zagreb) presented the paper: The Social Position of Newco-
mers from the Hinterland in Eastern Mediterranean Cities: Norms vs. Practi-
ce. He analysed the administrative and social status of newcomers, re-exami-
ning the terms cives, forenses and habitatores. He underlined the changes that
took place in the 13th and 14th centuries through the statutes of cities and clo-
sing of city councils. The commoners were outside power, but were mutually
stratified. At the beginning, in notary documents, a civis was a noble, and a
habitator was any other inhabitant, while later a difference was made between
the terms civis and nobilis civis. Some Croatian nobles from the hinterland,
who were even very powerful, were habitatores and cives, but not nobiles ci-
ves in cities. Zoran Ladić from the Institute for Historical and Social Sciences
of the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts in Zagreb talked about Foreig-
ners in the Late Medieval Poreč, Labin and Buzet: Terms Used to Identify Fo-
reigners and Immigrants, giving examples from northern Istria. Limiting him-
self primarily to the material from Poreč, he re-examined the meaning of

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terms civis, habitator and villicus in this commune, emphasising that the titles
egregius, circumspectus, spectabilis and providus vir are insufficiently exami-
ned, as well as the epithet “ser”, and asking whether they meant reputation,
erudition or something third. Most newcomers in Poreč were from the city
district, as well as from Croatia and Dalmatia. The number of newcomers
grew at the time of Ottoman conquests. There is also information about arri-
vals from Italy and Kotor. Some inhabitants stayed there temporarily, due to
work, while it also happened that the commune was inviting people, particu-
larly after epidemics. Men were the most numerous, and the term forenses
was rare. Tomislav Popić’s presentation (Department for Croatian Studies of
Zagreb University) was titled Court Trials Involving Foreigners in Late Medi-
eval Zadar, focusing on court practice and the position of foreigners. Local in-
habitants could not represent foreigners in complaints against other represen-
tatives of the local population. Foreigners were subject to restrictions when
buying real estate, and there were also court martials for foreigners in transit.
After the deposal of the Venetian authorities in Zadar, the Hungarian authori-
ties nominated four professional judges, who were Italians trained for the job,
as well as notaries who often acted as lawyers. The patricians, however, con-
ducted civil suits without having special formal education.
The third section, Networking Strategies began with the presentation of
Marija Karbić (Croatian Institute of History, Department for the History of
Slavonia, Srijem and Baranja), titled Forenses, aduene and novi concives no-
stri in the Medieval Urban Settlements of the Sava-Drava Interamnium. Emp-
hasising a different position of settlements in the civitates category compared
to those considered oppida, dr Karbić gave examples of free royal cities such
as Gradec and Varaždin, as well as Ilok whose statute contained elements of
the so-called tavernical law. There were permanently inhabited foreigners and
those in transit. Many of them were traders. Despite restrictions to the rights
to trade, criminal law was equal for everyone, with differences in the level of
some penalties. The conditions for acquiring citizenship were the possession
of real estate, faith, length of stay and financial independence. Marriages with
reputable locals were the catalyst for obtaining citizenship. The presentation
of Zrinka Pešorda Vardić (Croatian Institute of History) – The Social “Net-
working“ of Newcomers in Dubrovnik during the Late 14th and in the 15th
Centuries was devoted to the social position of newcomers to Dubrovnik. Ar-
rival to the city of St Blaise was supported, but not a massive one. The majo-
rity of newcomers were labourers, craftsmen, traders, clerks and experts (ma-
gisters). More affluent citizens (cittadini) were mainly traders from the hinter-
land (Serbia, Bosnia, present-day Montenegrin littoral). Their arrival was in-
tensified from the second half of the 14th century. They could not become pa-
tricians or marry them, but there was social networking among them, which is
how they introduced an equal degree of endogamy. Many genealogies from
the 15–18th centuries have been preserved, mainly for the groups of antunini

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and lazarini. The author gave networking examples in the families of Cotrugli
(from Kotor), Salimbene (from Venice), Brungnoli (from Mantova), Kasela
(from Rudnik in Serbia), Sfondrati (from Cremona). Acquiring citizenship
was generally linked to Catholicism, although the presence of other faiths (no-
tably Jews) was tolerated. The final paper in this section was presented by its
two authors Marija Mogorović Crljenko and Danijela Doblanović (Faculty of
Philosophy of Juraj Dobrila University in Pula). The paper was titled Newco-
mers in Rovinj during the Late 16th Century. The authors examined marriage
registers of Rovinj, determining the presence of foreigners and their origin.
Those were mostly newcomers from the immediate environs of the city and
wider areas of Venetian Istria. There were marriages between representatives
of the nobility and other citizens with newcomers (contrary to Dubrovnik) and
some of these marriages were arranged. The number of different types of ma-
rital gifts was determined – basadego (husband’s gift to the wife), dowry (gift
of the wife’s family to the husband) and contradote (gift of the husband’s fa-
mily to the wife) – and their amounts.
The first conference day was concluded with the fourth section titled
Newcomers as an Urban Elite. The section started with the presentation of
Zrinka Nikolić Jakus (Zagreb Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences) –
Integration of Immigrants among the Dalmatian Nobility before the Mid-14th
Century. Relying on source materials from Zadar, Trogir and Split, the author
concluded that there was an influx from the hinterland in time as the number
of Slavic names and surnames was rising. Based on examples of the families
of Martinušić-Pečar (from the Šubić family), Contarini (who may have had
connections with Venice) from Zadar, and Viturri (of Venetian origin by the
female line), Andreis and Cipicco from Trogir, she showed that integration
was fast and that links with the domestic population and interests were above
the origin which was not particularly emphasised. It is therefore hard to assess
the number of newcomers from the hinterland. Marital links with the old elite
of cities accelerated the process of integration, while the maintenance of links
with the hinterland slowed it down. Bruno Škreblin (Croatian Institute of Hi-
story) presented his research Newcomers Serving as Judges in Medieval Gra-
dec (1350–1526). The richest and most influential newcomers were becoming
the political elite – councillors and judges. The majority were Germans, follo-
wed by Italians (including Florentines). Newcomers were also coming from
more important cities in the environs, as well as smaller centres and fortresses
(mainly the petty nobility and gradokmeti), particularly as of the 15th century.
Marriages with representatives of the elite were crucial for climbing the social
ladder. They were even more important than inheritance. Some older reputa-
ble men fared even worse than the successful and well-connected newcomers.
The Celjski were bringing Germans, and familiares of Ivaniš Korvin were
bringing people from the wider region. The openness to newcomers was also
an indication of a client system (favouring).

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In his presentation Medieval Dubrovnik as a Point of Attraction for the


Elites of Central and Eastern Europe, Ivica Prlender (Zagreb Faculty of Hu-
manities and Social Sciences) put forward his observation that newcomers
were always present in Dubrovnik and that even the establishment of the city
was connected with their arrival. They are mentioned in sources with certainty
as of the 13th century. Dubrovnik was protected by walls and provisions of its
communal law. Newcomers of lesser origin usually served as labour force.
Mentioned as temporary inhabitants of the city are also the rulers of neighbou-
ring countries, notably Serbia and Bosnia, with whom business relations were
maintained as well. The freedom of refuge was granted to all the nobility of
“Sclavonia”. The author gives examples of arrivals of representatives of the
Serbian dynasties of Lazarevićs and Brankovićs, and of the accompanying
Turkish pressures on the Dubrovnik authorities. In his presentation titled New-
comers as Office Holders: The familiares of Hrvoje Vukčić in Central Dalma-
tian Towns during the Early 15th Century, Neven Isailović (Institute of Hi-
story Belgrade) spoke about two periods when Hrvoje Vukčić was the leading
political factor in Dalmatia and its towns, and when he was appointing his fa-
miliares, mainly from Bosnia, to important positions. By giving examples of
the counts of Split Petrica Jurjević and Cvitko Tolihnić, and officers such as
Raup Dragović, Ivan Mišljenović, Latičić brothers, Mihailo Kabužić, Gojak
Lalković and castellans of Omiš Ostoja and Biloslav, the author analysed the
degree of acceptance and integration of foreigners into the political and social
life of communes under Bosnian rule.
The second conference day began with the fifth section titled Newco-
mers and Public Offices. In his presentation Humanist Chancellors of Vene-
tian Dalmatia: Leonardo Montagna in Split, Luka Špoljarić (Zagreb Faculty
of Humanities and Social Sciences) spoke about the persons who discharged
the duty of the chancellor of the count and municipalities in Venetian Dalma-
tia, with a special focus on Leonardo Montagna in Split. Those were people
with a humanist educational background, transcribing classics, writing poems
about contemporary events and establishing close political and family links
with the city elite. In his presentation Notar Ser Indricus de Indrico de Veneti-
is habitator Sibenici, Ante Birin (Croatian Institute of History) gave the bio-
graphy of Venetian Indricus from the Indrico family – a Šibenik notary and
entrepreneur. He came to Šibenik by 1430 at the latest, from Venetian Alba-
nia, where his brother used to serve. He was a notary until 1435, and later pur-
sued a business career which lasted until his death. He married the daughter of
the Šibenik noble Stjepan Tišković, with whom he had offspring. He perfor-
med various services in the town, possessed substantial property, some of
which he was buying, and also dealt with credit trade, lease of municipal and
church revenue, and had his own ship. He was a brilliant lawyer who always
won disputes, apart from one – against his father-in-law. Meri Kunčić (Institu-
te of Lexicography Miroslav Krleža) presented the paper titled The Role of

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Foreign Intellectual Elite in Everyday Life of Late Medieval Rab, based on


data from notary documents of the mid-15th century. She determined that new-
comers were primarily professionals (doctors, barbers, apothecaries, herba-
lists, masons, artists, notaries), in the service of the municipality, and were
forbidden to do additional work. Some notaries, however, were also local peo-
ple. A habitator would become a civis through service and a good marriage
with a reputable female representative of the domestic population. Newco-
mers most often originated from Koper, Iustinopolis, Korčula, Zadar, Rovinj,
Trogir, Napoli, Venice, as well as Hungary. At the time of the Turkish onsla-
ught, Rab was inviting some foreigners into the municipal service. The earlier
announced presentation of Goran Budeč (Institute for Historical and Social
Sciences of the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts in Zagreb) about the
topic similar to the previous one – medicus, chirurgicus, barbitonsor… New-
comers as Health Care Providers in the Second Half of the 15th Century, did
not take place.
Section 6 – Newcomers and Urban Economy was to begin with the pre-
sentation of Paola Pinelli from the Faculty of Economics of Florence Univer-
sity, but she was absent for justified reasons. The same happened with the
next participant – Tonija Andrić (Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences
in Split), but her presentation – Role of Foreigners in the Economy of Late
Medieval Split, was read by Zrinka Pešorda Vardić. Based on Split records of
the 15th century, it is possible to determine that the number of newcomers was
large and that their primary role was related to the economic life of the city of
Split. The Venetian conquest and the arrival of Turks spurred the influx of mi-
grants, but also temporarily slowed down economic growth. Prominent among
newcomers were the permanently inhabited Venetian officers (mainly from
Venice proper), refugees from Bosnia after 1463, newcomers from the neig-
hbouring towns and villages around Split.The terminology was different (ha-
bitatores, cives et habitatores). The most esteemed and richest new citizens
were textile traders and experts (magisters) of different profiles. Openness for
needed people was demonstrated, although they did not have access to power.
Fabian Kümmeler from Vienna University dealt with Venetian Korčula in his
presentation“The World in a Village?” A Microhistorical Perspective on the
Socio-Political and Economic Influence of External Settlers on the Late Medi-
eval Island of Korčula. The inhabitants of Korčula maintained links with the
entire Adriatic, as well as with the Ionian and Aegean seas. The island also at-
tracted foreigners – travellers (traders, pilgrims), despite frequent social un-
rests between the nobility and common people, and a large number of bases
for the smuggling of goods. When needed, newcomers were invited to the
commune’s service – those were surgeons, teachers, craftsmen, as well as
many traders and mariners. They were coming from different sides – from the
confluence of the Neretva river, Krajina (Makarska littoral), Senj, Italy. It is
interesting that no settlement from Bosnia was recorded. Newcomers were

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usually labelled as habitatores, while the term cives was rare. Venetians did
not settle in villages, but did transact with peasants.
Section 7 – Newcomers and the Church had only two participants. Trpi-
mir Vedriš (Zagreb Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences) analysed the
topic of Saints as Newcomers: Mechanisms of Adaption and the Appropria-
tion of Saintly Cults in Medieval Dalmatian Cities. Determining that saints –
protectors of cities mainly came from the sea and that the cults were usually
imported, Vedriš concluded that this took place primarily at the time of the re-
newed Byzantine presence on the Adriatic (8–10th centuries) and the transfor-
mation of fortresses and episcopal cities into open cities. New hagiographies
were compiled, which helped develop the awareness about the rootedness and
even the domestic character of the important saintly cults. The Francian influ-
ence, if any, did not persist in cities, unlike the hinterland. Relics and cults
were coming primarily from Rome and Constantinople. Dušan Mlacović (Lju-
bljana Faculty of Philosophy) spoke about Franciscan Rab in the 15th Cen-
tury. Comparing literature about Rab and disputes among local historians of
Croatian origin (Brusić) and Italian historiography (Prague), he concluded that
the Franciscan monastery in Rab was created in 1446 owing to efforts of a re-
presentative of the local community. Only compilations of non-preserved
Franciscan chronicles are known today, as well as sources that scantily recor-
ded the inflow of foreigners, stating that the largest inflow was recorded after
the plague of the 1450s and the fall of the Bosnian kingdom.
The last section was titled Newcomers and the Evolution of Urban Spa-
ce. The first paper – Newcomers and the Suburbia of Dubrovnik in the 13th
Century, was presented by Irena Benyovsky Latin (Croatian Institute of Hi-
story). The first newcomers to the Dubrovnik suburbs were explicitly recor-
ded in the 13th century. Most of them came from the city district and the im-
mediate hinterland, as well as from Italy. The wars with Serbia encouraged
the consolidation of cities, including parts of the suburbs, while the new impe-
tus to urbanistic organisation came from the fire of 1296. In time, the inflow
of the Slavic population from Hum and Bosnia (who were quickly assimila-
ted) was intensified, as well as the inflow of island inhabitants (e.g. from La-
stovo). Newcomers from Astareja in the later period were considered dome-
stic people. Particularly welcome were craftsmen, as well as experts and cre-
dit merchants (notably from Italy). In his presentation Newcomers and the
Formation of Urban Space in the Medieval Towns of Continental Croatia,
Ratko Vučetić (Institute of Art History) dealt with the development of medie-
val and early new century city space. He ascertained that suburbs originally
appeared in the areas around the city walls, followed by separated suburbs
around some churches that were sometimes fortified. There was also space for
trade and fairs, and in later period city parts with a military purpose appeared.
The author examined the urban development of Kaptol, Varaždin, Krapina,
Koprivnica, Križevci, Ilok and Osijek, with a special focus on the phases of

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urbanisation of Osijek, which turned, from a Turkish town, into a fortification


under the Vauban system, whose three urban hubs were later colonised. The
final paper at the conference was presented by Ana Plosnić Škarić (Institute of
Art History) – Builders of Trogir in the 15th Century. Builders were divided
into two groups of craftsmen with the titles of protomagisters and magisters,
into “lapicidae” who dealt with stone processing and “marangoni” who pro-
cessed wood. The former were usually foreigners, and the latter were mostly
locals. The fortification of the city intensified in the 1400–1420 period, while
after the damage that occurred in 1420, the new castle was built (around
1420–1436). An emphasis was also placed on the upgrade of the cathedral.
Master Andrija Aleši from Drač was mentioned as an important person.
Each section was accompanied with lively discussion among partici-
pants and attendants, among whom there were many students and historians of
the youngest generation, which, unfortunately, is no longer a frequent practice
at conferences. As the first organiser and manager of the project within which
the Triennale was organised, Irena Benyovsky Latin closed the conference, in-
viting the participants to submit their papers, equipped with a critical appara-
tus, for the conference proceedings to be published, after a review, in 2018.
This will mark the continuation of the valuable practice established after the
first two Triennale events.
The third Triennale about towns and cities of the Croatian Middle Ages
can be, in all aspects, considered a successful conference. The presentations
were original, deriving from a thorough research of sources and knowledge of
relevant literature, and sections were well designed and grouped. The thematic
framework defined by the title was consistently complied with and there were
no digressions that are typical of many conferences, particularly those of the
most general character. There is no doubt that the proceedings from this con-
ference of medievalists will be an equally successful and valuable historio-
graphical result.

Neven ISAILOVIĆ

Politics and Society in Central and South-Eastern Europe


(13th–16th Centuries), Timişoara, 26 October 2017,
Muzeul Naţional al Banatului, Timişoara
У организацији Националног музеја Баната у Темишвару је 26. ок-
тобра 2017. одржана конференција под називом Политика и друштво у
централној и југоисточној Европи (од 13. до 16. века). Треба рећи да је
скуп са истом тематиком одржан и две годинe раније. Овога пута учешће

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ИНИЦИЈАЛ
INITIAL
A REVIEW OF MEDIEVAL STUDIES
UDC 93/94 ISSN 2334-8003

CENTRE FOR ADVANCED MEDIEVAL STUDIES

INITIAL
A REVIEW OF MEDIEVAL STUDIES

VOLUME 5

Editor-in-Chief
Srđan Rudić

Editorial Board
Lenka Blechová-Čelebić (Prague), Stanoje Bojanin,
Borislav Grgin (Zagreb), Sergey Ivanov (Moscow),
Gábor Klaniczay (Budapest), Esad Kurtović (Sarajevo),
Smilja Marjanović-Dušanić, Vojin Nedeljković,
Georgi Nikolov (Sofia), Paola Pinelli (Florence),
Danica Popović, Dejan Radičević, Srđan Rudić,
Irena Špadijer, Georg Vogeler (Graz)

Publishing Editor
Dragić M. Živojinović

Belgrade
2017
UDK 93/94 ISSN 2334-8003

ЦЕНТАР ЗА НАПРЕДНЕ СРЕДЊОВЕКОВНЕ СТУДИЈЕ

ИНИЦИЈАЛ
ЧАСОПИС ЗА СРЕДЊОВЕКОВНЕ СТУДИЈЕ

КЊИГА 5

Главни уредник
Срђан Рудић

Редакциони одбор
Ленка Блехова-Челебић (Праг), Станоје Бојанин,
Борислав Гргин (Загреб), Сергеј Иванов (Москва),
Габор Кланицај (Будимпешта), Есад Куртовић (Сарајево), Смиља
Марјановић-Душанић, Војин Недељковић,
Георги Николов (Софија), Паола Пинели (Фиренца),
Даница Поповић, Дејан Радичевић, Срђан Рудић,
Георг Фогелер (Грац), Ирена Шпадијер

Одговорни уредник
Драгић М. Живојиновић

Београд
2017