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Michele Kuznicki

Corey Willett
Michael Griffin
Eric Manley
Ronald Matten
INDT 479/592 Domestic and Foreign Terrorism
Eastern Michigan University
Skip Lawver/Bill Dangler

Terrorism

Irish Republican Army


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Table of Contents

Page

Introduction - Michele Kuznicki ------------------------------------- 3

History - Group --------------------------------------------------------- 5

Political Side - Michael Griffin -------------------------------------- 11

Leadership - Eric Manley --------------------------------------------- 14

Aid, Support and Funding - Ronald Matten ------------------------ 21

Conclusion - Michele Kuznicki -------------------------------------- 24

Presentation - Group

Introduction

by
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Michele Kuznicki

The purpose for the entire presentation is to inform interested students

issues that surround the Irish Republic Army.

First, the History of the Irish Republic Army established in Ireland explains

from the beginning of 6000 BC. Continuing through the 11th and 12th

centuries showing the changes of rulers throughout the 16th century by the

United Kingdom of Great Britain.

Second, the Political Side by Michael Griffin, expresses the struggle of

Ireland of its social and economic development as well as equality. Ireland

and the United Kingdom of Great Britain has had many battles dating back

to 6000 BC. While Ireland constantly campaigned for civil rights, they

were divided and the British government was successful. Yet parts of

Ireland still continued their struggle for unilateral independence.

Third, the Leadership by Eric Manley, although during the many years

Ireland had many leaders. Notably, Michael Collins, born in 1890, began
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freedom fighting (guerrilla warfare) in 1919. He was elected to the Sin

Fein Executive and continues his campaign of assassination, bombings and

arms smuggling. In 1921, he was elected chairman of Dublin following the

signing of a peace treaty. Great Britain broke the peace treaty, beginning the

Civil War which Michael was the only one killed in an ambush on his

return home.

Fourth, the Aid, Support and Funding by Ronald Matten, shows the Ireland

was mainly self-supported by it’s own government in organizing forces to

battle against Great Britain. Guerrilla forces targeted the British in

bombings and assassinations to secure arms to support their forces. The

IRA was also supported by America and received training from Libya

(Colonel Gadaffi), the Palestine Liberation Army (PLO), the Basque

Fatherland and Liberty (ETA) and the United States.

Great Britain.
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History

Human settlement began around 6000 BC by hunters and fishers on the

east coast. Celtic Ireland included a large number on small kingdoms -

called the Five Fifths - of Ulster, Leinster, Munster, and Connaught from

the beginning of the Christian era. St. Patrick is credited for Christianizing

Ireland, which shaped the Irish church.


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During the 11th and 12th century, boundaries were established by Henry II,

encouraged by Popes Adrian IV and Alexander III. Henry II proclaimed

overlord of Ireland and secured recognition of his of his actions from the

church leaders. In the 15th century a small region of Ireland was ruled by

the earls of Kildare until the 16th century.

In the late 1700’s, Irish Protestants began to agitate English control, which

restored same civil rights to Catholics. A revolt in 1798 forced British

action in 1801 between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.

This created a breach between the Catholics and the Protestants, which

resulted in the Great Hunger of 1845 - 1852. More than a million people

starved and more than a million people emigrated.

The Fenian movement resulted in some Parliamentary reforms supported

by Ireland and America for its struggle to achieve an Irish Republic.

Agitation continued throughout 1912, several home rule measures failed,

and despite the interventions of World War I, the Irish provisional


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government was proclaimed in 1916. In 1920 the government of Ireland

Act was adopted creating northern and southern Ireland. Southern Ireland

became the Irish Free State in 1921 and was changed to Eire in 1937.

In 1949 in response to the British government's Ireland Act which

reinforced partition all parties in the Irish parliament declared their

unanimous opposition to partition. The same year the IRA issued an Order

which forbade military action against the forces of the 26-County state.

The early 1950s saw an anti-partition campaign conducted by Irish

governments and supported by all parties in parliament. Its ineffectiveness

in the face of the British government's indifference contributed to the

renewal of the IRA.

Through 1970 and 1971 the IRA gained increasing support in nationalist

districts in the Six Counties and among nationalists throughout Ireland.

This accelerated with the introduction of internment without trial in 1971.

IRA Volunteers carried out a campaign of urban guerrilla warfare against

the British army and economic bombings in Northern cities and towns.
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Throughout the 1970s and 1980s confidential contacts were maintained

between British government representatives and the IRA. These channels

proved unproductive of an understand were maintained between British

government representatives and the IRA.

From August 31, 1994 the Irish Republican Army ceased military

operations and attempted a Truce with Britain. Britain demanded that the

IRA to unilaterally surrender their arms. The IRA criticized the British of

bad faith and unionist intersurgence and rejected their demands.

February 9, 1996: This statement announced the renewal of military

operations by the IRA, and accused the British government of squandering

an opportunity for peace. Later that month the IRA cited a lack of an

effective democratic approach and British abuse of the peace process as the

reasons for its failure.


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April 4, 1996: In its traditional Easter greeting, the IRA said there would

be no return to a Stormont assembly but said it remained ready to help in

developing a meaningful negotiations process.


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IRISH REPUBLICAN ARMY

THE POLITICAL SIDE

Description

The IRA is a radical terrorist group formed in the 1969 as a clandestine military wing of Sinn Fein the

legal political movement dedicated to remove the British forces from north Ireland and unify Ireland.

Activities

The IRA has a history of violence including bombings, assassinations, kidnapping, extortion And

robberies. Since breaking the cease fire agreement in 1996 the IRA has been on a bombing Campaign

against train and subway stations , shopping areas in mainland Britain and military Targets in northern

Ireland and the European continent .

Strengths

The IRA’s active membership is estimated to be several hundred , plus several hundred sympathizers.
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External Aid

The IRA has received economic aid form Libya , the Palestine liberation organization (PLO) and

thousands Of dollars from sympathizers in the US including a US congressman.

To Understand the political side of the IRA one must first look at Sinn Fein. Sinn Fein is the oldest

political party in Ireland , they take there name from The Irish expression for “We ourselves”. Since

being founded in 1905 they Have worked for the rights of the Irish people to attain their independence.

Sinn Fein seeks an end to partition which is the cause of conflict, injustice And division in Ireland. Sinn

Fein wants the establishment of a new Ireland based on social and economic Development ; genuine

democracy , participation , equality and justice at all levels.

Sinn Fein is a Irish republican party. There objective is to end British rule in Ireland. They seek national

independence of Ireland as a sovereign state. Sinn Fein wants to Transform Irish society into a

democratic settlement . “We know that peace is not Simply the absence of violence . real peace –a

lasting peace- is based on democracy, Justice, freedom and equality. Enter the IRA.

Sinn Fein believes beyond the present conflict, beyond this phase of their history That all people of

Ireland will be united .The Sinn Fein vision is one of redistribution Of wealth , for the well-being of the
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aged, for the advancement of youth , for the Liberation of women and for the protection of there

children.

The Sinn Fein party officials do not often comment on the operations of the IRA, but They do say that

Sinn Fein is committed to peace . They have sought to construct a Peace process which reaches out

and embraces everyone on the Island on the basis of Equality .

The Sinn Fein objective is for an agreement that will earn the respect and allegiance of All sections of

people . To achieve this and over objective ,Sinn Fein is supporting the Good Friday agreement , which

Sinn Fein reached with other northern parties and the British governments following multi-party

negotiations in Belfast.

Sinn Fein’s peace strategy was supported by a renewal of the 1994 cessation of the armed Struggle by

the military wing of Sinn Fein the Irish republican party and was reinstated At this years annual

conference called Ard Fheis.

Sinn Fein is seeking to build on the success of it’s 1998 election campaigns , which produced Vital

gains for the party with voters reelecting Party president Gerry Adams, and Chief Negotiator Martin

McGuinness.

By Michael Griffin
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LEADERSHIP IN THE IRISH REPUBLIC ARMY

Michael Collins 1890-1922

Commander-in-Chief

Michael Collins, an Irish freedom fighter who essentially invent

modern guerrilla warfare when he founded the Irish Republic Army.

Leading thousands of fighting Irish, Collins liberated parts of Ireland from

the British control in 1921.

On October 16, 1890, Michael Collins was born near Sam’s Cross, a

Hamlet in West Cork. The young Michael grew up spearhead fishing for

Salmon in the river and sea and played among the cliffs above Black Beach

and at Cliodhna’s Rock.

Michael was born to a Michael John Collins and Marianne O’brien.

Michael was the youngest of eight children. Michael was born when his

father was seventy-five, unfortunately Michael was only six when his father

died.
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Michael attended a national school at Lisavaird where he met a

schoolmaster named Dennis Lyons, who was a active member at the Irish

Republic Brotherhood (IRB). A secret organization dedicated to Ousting

the British from Ireland - by force if necessary. Dennis was Michael’s tutor

in giving him a sense of pride of the Irish as a race.

Michael went to London where he became active in the Gaelic Athletic

League and in the Irish Republican Brotherhood (IRB) where he later

became the secretary and president of the IRB. In 1916 Michael returned

home to Ireland where he became a recognized organizer and immediately

following, began to rebuild the IRB.

In 1919, Michael, he was elected to the Sinn Fein Executive. 1917-1918

his activities included creating a intelligence network. Organizing a

national loan fund for Rebellion, Creating and Assassination Squad (“The
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twelve Apostle”) and arms-smuggling operations. By 1920, Michael was

wanted by the British and had a $10,000 Price tag on his head.

Two years later, Michael and a best friend name Harry Boland (another IRB

member) went to Lincoln Gaol in England to help Eamon de Valera

Escape. A member of the Irish Republic Army.

RETALIATION

By the mid 1919 the Anglo-Irish War had begun with the first shots being

fired at Solo Headbeg. Over the next year the Royal Irish Constabulary

became the target of Sinn Fein Terror Campaign which was orchestrated by

Michael. He felt there was much to gain by provoking England to war.

In the late 1919 the IRB had infiltrated the leadership of the volunteers and

directing its pace on the violence. Michael was made president of the IRB

Supreme Council. At the same time, he was Minister for Finance in Dail

government and commander of the Irish Republic Army (IRA). Michael


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became acting president after Arthur Griffiths was arrested in 1920 and de

Valera left for America. Michael and de Valera co-operated, however,

there were differences between them.

ATTACKS

Later the British responded with violence. Special forces were sent over to

impose curfews and Martial law on Irish. These forces became known as

the Black and Tans after a popular Limerick Hunt Group

because of their dark green and khaki uniforms. Also, another veteran

force from the great war, called the Auxiliaries joined them thus beginning

a pattern of assassination and reprisal.

In November 1921, Michael Collins gave the order for the IRA to launch

an assassination on the British, resulting in 14 British Officers being

assassinated which effectively destroyed the British Secret Service in

Ireland. In Reprisal, the Black and Tans launched a attack on a crowd


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watching a football game at Croke Park - twelve people were killed, this

day became known as “Bloody Sunday” throughout the world.

TREATY TALKS

In 1921, the day after truce was signed, de Valera led a delegation to

London for peace talks with the British Prime Minister. These talks broke

down after irreconcilable differences. Later, de Valera was elected

president of the Irish Republic. He then offered negotiations as

representative of sovereign state. He knowing, neither Republic nor United

Ireland could be won at such a meeting, he sent Michael to head the Irish

delegation. Michael didn’t want to go - he declared that he was a soldier

not a politician.

Michael as chief negotiator pressed for a United Ireland. After Michael

excepted and signed the treaty, he said “I tell you, I have signed my death

warrant.” In 1922, Michael was elected chairman and Dublin Caste was

surrendered to him.
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CIVIL WAR

The civil war came, the IRA had split into pro-treaty or anti treaty

forces. Many followed Michael accepting that the treaty gave the

country the freedom to win freedom. Michael efforts had failed,

fighting broke out in Dublin and Cathal Brugha was killed. The ten

month civil war had begun. Michael then fled on a mission to visit

troops in his home country of Cork. Michael was warned not to go.

He told his companion, “they wouldn’t shoot me in my own

country.” Depressed and ill, he set out, some say to stop the fighting.

He visited many people. And, on his return back, his convoy was

ambushed at a place named Beal Na Mblath -- the Mouth of flowers.

Michael was the only man killed.

By: Eric Manley

Aid, Support and Funding


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The Irish Republican Army and the armed struggle in Irish politics. There has

always been a tradition of armed resistance to the British military and political

occupation of Ireland. The British government has denied demands for Irish

Independence since the 1700’s.

During the “Great Hunger” of 1845 - 1852 more than a million unarmed

people died and a million people emigrated in 1848. In 1850 the Irish

government was supported by America during the Fenian Movement for an

armed struggle.

In 1911, the British government denied liberated plans for Ireland. therefore,

in 1913 the Unionists and Conservative organized the importation of arms

illegally and pledged to resist Home Rule (Britain) by force, which

established the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF). The Irish Volunteers, also

called Oglaigh na hEireann major goals were to “secure and maintain the

rights and liberties common to all of Ireland”. In 1914 they were allowed to

import arms and later attacked by the crown forces.


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In 1916 after the execution of their (IRA) leaders, they voted in 1918 for the

Sinn Fein party which sought to establish an Irish Republic. In 1919, Sinn

Fein established an independent parliament called Dail Eiriann and declared

sovereignty of Ireland as a Republic. The Irish Volunteers became the Army

of the Republic under the Minister of Defense.

The British government sought to ban and declare war on the Irish

democracy, which killed three Irish mayors. The IRA waged an effective

guerrilla campaign led by the , “Tom Barry’s Flying Column (Tom Barry)” in

Cork.

In July 1921 an agreement of Truce was called by the British government

which split the IRA. Consequently the IRA dumped their arms. During the

late 1920’s and 1930 the reorganized and again sought political and military

strategy.

The IRA raided British installation in Six Counties for arms during the 1950’s

to 1962. Consequently nationalists districts were attacked in Belfast and

Derry in 1969. The military organization of the IRA was defeated.


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Again in 1970 and 1971 the IRA was reorganized and began yet another

campaign of urban guerrilla warfare of economic bombings. Another truce

was called in 1974/75 and was unsuccessful.

Sinn Fein leader Gerry Adams and SDLP leader John Hume supported by

the Irish government attempted another Irish Peace Initiative.

The Irish Republican Army (IRA)/Provisional Irish Republic Army (PIRA)

has received aid from a variety of groups and countries and considerable

training and arms from Libya (Colonel Gaddafi) and at one time the Palestine

Liberation Army (PLO) Chairman Arafat. Also suspected of receiving funds

and arms from sympathizers in the United States. Their are suggested links to

the Basque Fatherland and Liberty (ETA) which is found in the Spain’s

Basque region.

By: Ronald Matten

Conclusion:

Finally, bringing the presentation to an end by tying the sections together to

give interested students a full explanation of the armed struggle and political

conflicts that Ireland has experienced. Even today Ireland continues to battle
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politically with the United Kingdom of Great Britain. Ireland as a weak

country has shown its strength in being successful in its tactics and

experience to bring about an opportunity for equality in Justice, which at

times did not last long. Ireland continued to struggle against Great Britain for

independence against Home Rule. Many times Great Britain used peace talks

to gain an opposition for Ireland to dump their arms, which consequently

planned attacks to take over Ireland. Maintaining their goals for a free country

Ireland is still today forced to negotiate with Great Britain.