Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 14

Abstract

The aims of this experiment is to analyse the relationship between pressure and
temperature of saturated steam in equilibrium. Another objective of this experiment was
carried out to demonstrate the vapor pressure curve. The experiment was done by using the
market boiler. Based on the graph, it shown that the curved of pressure and temperature are
directly proportional as the temperature increase with the pressure. The graph of absolute
pressure against dT/dP (measured slope) was slightly deviate compared to absolute pressure
against Tvg/hfg (calculated slope) due to error occurred during the experiment. Theoretically,
the value of dT/dP (measured slope) should be near to the value of Tvg/hfg (calculated slope).
Introduction
When a system undergoes a process the exchange of heat and work between a system
and the surrounding occurred. This process is the field study of thermodynamics. Beside,
thermodynamic also study about the changes in properties of gas and liquid. Gases and
vapours which is some example of thermodynamics substances are often preferred as P-V-T
substances.

The equation of states that relates the pressure, the specific volume or density, and
absolute temperature with mass of molecule and the gas constant, R is obey by an ideal gas
but the not real gas. The ideal gas equation of state has been modified to allow its uses in the
properties of real gas. The activities among the molecules increasing as energy added within
the water caused the number of molecules escapes from a surface until the equilibrium
increases until the state of equilibrium is achieved. This equilibrium state is depends on the
pressure between water surface and steam. The required energy to reach the state of
equilibrium will be reduced when the pressure is lower as the molecule will be easier to leave
the water surface. Saturated temperature is temperature where equilibrium occurs at given
pressure while saturated pressure is pressure where equilibrium occurs at given temperature.

The relationship between pressure and temperature of saturated steam in equilibrium


with water at all temperature gradient between atmospheric to 10 bars was carried out by
Marcet boiler. The reading of measuring slope of the graph dT/dP gained from the
experiment can be compared to the theoretical value which calculated from the steam table.
Objective
The purpose of this experiment is to study the relationship between the pressure and

temperature of saturated steam in equilibrium. Besides that, this experiment was carried out to

demonstrate the vapour pressure curve. This was done by recorded the reading of temperature

when pressure of the saturated steam.

Theory

Marcet boiler has been developed for study the relationship between pressure and

temperature of saturated steam, in equilibrium with water all pressure between atmospheric

and 10 bars (abs) (150lb/in2).

Thermodynamics deals with interchange of heat and work of a system but only with the

large-scale response of a system that can be observed and measured in experiments. Kinetic

theory gases is used to describe small-scale gas interaction which is compliment to

thermodynamics.

Three state variable where ideal gas can be characterized:-

1) Absolute pressure (P)

2) Absolute Temperature (T)

3) Volume (V)

The relationship between them may be reduced from kinetic theory and is called the Ideal

Gas law. The ideal gas law was originally determined empirically and is simply:-

𝑃𝑉 = 𝑛𝑅𝑇

Where,

P= Absolute Pressure

V= Volume
n=Amount of substance (moles)

R= Ideal gas constant

T= Absolute temperature (T)

Ideal gas said to occurred when the gas behave likely as the ideal gas law in terms of

the volume, pressure, moles and temperature. While, the gas differs from the Ideal gas

behaviour is said to be ‘real gas’.

As the number of energy within the water increases, the activity among the molecules

also increases caused the number of molecule escape from the surface increases until it reach

equilibrium. This equilibrium state depends on the pressure between the water surface and

steam. The molecule required less energy in reaching the state of equilibrium at lower

pressure as it is easier for the molecule leaving the surface of water. Saturated temperature is

the temperature where the equilibrium happens at given pressure level.

The calculated value of the slope dT/Dpsat gained from the practical results can be

compared with the corresponding value that calculated from the data obtain in steam tables.

Clausius-Clapeyron states :

dT TVfg
( )SAT = ….(2)
dP hfg

dT T ( vf − vg )
( )SAT = ….(2)
dP hf − hg

hf + hfg = hg ….(2)

dT T ( vf − vg ) Tvg
Hence, ( )SAT = = ….(2)
dP h f − hg hfg

As vg >> vf
In which,

vf = specific volume of saturated liquid

vg = specific volume of saturated vapour

hf = enthalpy saturated liquid

hg = enthalpy of saturated vapour

hfg = lantent hat f vaporization


Apparatus

B G
H
C

I
E J

A. Pressure Transducer F. Bourdon Tube Pressure Gauge


B. Pressure Indicator G. Temperature Sensor
C. Temperature Controller/Indicator H. Pressure Relief Valve
D. Control Panel I. Heater
E. Bench J. Water Inlet Port & Valve
PROCEDURE
a) General start-up procedure
1. A quick check up was performed to make sure that the unit was in good operating
condition.
2. The system was attached to the nearest power supply.
3. The boiler filled with water.
4. The level sight tube (V1,V2 andV3) and the valves at the feed port opened.
5. The distilled water added to the boiler through the feed port until the water level at
about the half of the boiler height. Next, closed the valves, V1 and V2 at the level
sight tube.
6. The switch of power supply was turned on.
b) Experimental procedures
1. The general start-up procedure were carried out.
2. The boiler was filled with water initially, the water level checked by opening the
valves at the level side tube (V2 and V3). If necessary the distilled water poured
into the boiler. Then closed the valves.
3. 185 ͦ C was set as controlled temperature which is slightly higher than expected
boiling point of water at 10 bar (abs).
4. The valve (V3) opened and turned on the heater.
5. The temperature of steam rise observed as the water boils.
6. The steam was permitted to escape from the V3 for 30 seconds then valve closed.
This is step crucial as the accuracy of the experiment data will be reduced if the
air is present.
7. The boiler is heated until the steam pressure reached 10 bars (abs) and the steam
temperature and pressure recorded.
8. The heater turn off and the steam temperature and pressure start to drop. The
steam temperature was recorded as the boiler cooled until the steam pressure reach
the atmospheric pressure.
9. The boiler cooled down to the room temperature.
Result
Pressure , P (bar) Temperature, T ( ͦ C) Measured Calculated
Slope, Slope,
Inc. Dec. Tavg Tavg
Gauge Absolute dT/dP Tvg/hfg
( ͦ C) ( ͦ C) ( ͦ C) (K)
( K/kPa) (K/kPa)

0.10 1.10 81.30 81.80 81.55 354.55 - -


0.20 1.20 82.30 83.90 83.10 356.10 0.155 -
0.30 1.30 83.80 85.90 84.85 357.85 0.175 -
0.40 1.40 85.80 87.70 86.75 359.75 0.190 -
0.50 1.50 87.60 89.40 88.50 361.50 0.175 0.188
0.60 1.60 89.30 91.00 90.15 363.15 0.165 -
0.70 1.70 90.80 92.50 91.65 364.65 0.150 -
0.80 1.80 92.40 93.90 93.15 366.15 0.150 -
0.90 1.90 93.60 95.30 94.45 367.45 0.130 -
1.00 2.00 95.10 96.60 95.85 368.85 0.140 0.148
1.10 2.10 96.40 97.90 97.15 370.15 0.130 -
1.20 2.20 97.60 99.10 98.35 371.35 0.120 -
1.30 2.30 98.70 100.30 99.50 372.50 0.115 -
1.40 2.40 100.00 101.40 100.70 373.70 0.120 -
1.50 2.50 101.40
0 102.50 101.95 374.95 0.125 0.124
1.60 2.60 102.20 103.50 102.85 375.85 0.090 -
1.70 2.70 103.10 104.60 103.85 376.85 0.100 -
1.80 2.80 104.20 105.60 104.90 377.90 0.105 -
1.90 2.90 105.20 106.60 105.90 378.90 0.100 -
2.00 3.00 106.20 107.50 106.85 379.85 0.095 0.106
2.50 3.50 111.10 111.70 111.40 384.40 0.091 0.094
3.00 4.00 114.50 115.60 115.05 388.05 0.073 0.084
3.50 4.50 118.10 119.00 118.55 391.55 0.070 0.076
4.00 5.00 121.30 122.20 121.75 394.75 0.064 0.070
4.50 5.50 124.20 125.00 124.60 397.60 0.057 0.065
5.00 6.00 126.90 127.70 127.30 400.30 0.054 0.061
5.50 6.50 129.50 130.20 129.85 402.85 0.051 0.057
6.00 7.00 131.90 132.70 132.30 405.30 0.049 0.054
6.50 7.50 134.10 134.80 134.45 407.45 0.043 0.051
7.00 8.00 136.40 137.00 136.70 409.70 0.045 0.048
7.50 8.50 138.30 139.20 138.75 411.75 0.041 0.046
8.00 9.00 140.30 141.10 140.70 413.70 0.039 0.044
8.50 9.50 142.10 143.30 142.70 415.70 0.040 0.042
9.00 10.00 143.90 143.90 143.90 416.90 0.024 0.040
0
Average Temperature against Absolute Pressure
430

420
Average Temperature, T (K)

410

400

390

380

370

360

350
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
Absolute Pressure, P (bar)

Measured and Calculated Slope against Absolute Pressure


0.2

0.18

0.16

0.14

0.12
Slope

0.1

0.08

0.06

0.04

0.02

0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
Absolute pressure

Measured slope Calculated slope


Sample of calculation

𝑇 𝑖𝑛𝑐𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑠𝑒𝑠 +𝑇 𝑑𝑒𝑐𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑠𝑒𝑠
a) Temperature average, Tavg ( ͦ C) = 2

81.3 ͦ 𝐶 +81.80 ͦ 𝐶
=
2

= 81.55 ͦ 𝐶
Tavg ( °K) = Tavg ( °C) + 273 = 81.55 + 273 = 354.55°K

356.1°K−354.55°K
b) Measured slope, dT/dP = = 0.155°K/kPa
120 𝑘𝑃𝑎−110𝑘𝑃𝑎

1 bar = 100 kPa


c) Calculated slope, Tvg/ hfg
Based on table A-5; P=100kPa, vg= 1.1594 m3/kg, hfg =2228.0 kJ/kg
𝑚3
(361.5 𝐾)(1.1594 ) 𝐾.𝑚3
𝑘𝑔
Tvg/ hfg = ⁄ 𝑘𝑔 = 0.188
2226 𝑘𝐽
𝑘𝐽

𝐾. 𝑚3 𝐾
0.188 = 0.188
𝑘𝐽 𝑘𝑃𝑎
1 kJ = 1 kPa. m3
d) Percentage error
0.175−0.188
% error = | |x 100% = 7.43%
0.175
Discussion

In thermodynamics, temperature and pressure are two fundamental quantities of


materials. Pressure and temperature is directly proportional to each other.

Liquid will transform from liquid to steam when saturated liquid inside a container
heated to its boiling temperature. The internal pressure will increases if the steam are not
allowed to escape from the container because the internal molecular energy will increase and
the atoms will more excited. This atoms will collides with each other and split with higher
velocity. Their forces will be higher as their mass remain constant. As it are not allowed to
occupy more area and their forces on them increases, they exerts pressure on the container,
which gradually increases with temperature. Based on the graph, that temperature is directly
proportional to the pressure.

The experiment was done in enclosed surface and no volume of experimenting


samples are allowed to escape from the system thus the percentage error should not beyond
10%. It also vital to allow the gas escape at the beginning of the experiment to avoid flaws of
reading due to pressure different.
Conclusion

Marcet boiler is the device which we use to observe the relation in between pressure
and temperature for a water at saturated liquid phase. The water started to be heated with
constant pressure until it reaching boiling point. A constant volume system was created by
close the valve. At that point, direct relations between temperature and pressure is observed.

We noticed that the valve should be close as it reach boiling point to ensure the
system is in constant volume process, otherwise pressure cannot increased. This action also
keep the water at saturated liquid phase.

Based on the result and plotted graph, the relation between pressure and temperature
is directly proportional. The error between theoretical value and the actual value is 7.43%
which caused by some error. The experiment slope also show a small deviation compared to
theoretical value because of certain error during the experiment.
Recommendation

There are a few of recommendations that can be considered after the experiment is
done. To get the accurate results in observation and reading, the experiments must repeat
three time then get the average reading. Next, we should learn how to read the data properly
to avoid any error during the experiment. Besides, we should learn technique to handle the
equipment to avoid failure in handle the experiment. We also should be alert to turn off the
heater when the pressure reach 10 bar.

Reference

1. Yunus A. Cengel, Micheal A. Boles “ Thermodynamics An Engineering Approach


“,McGraw-Hill Book Company, 7th edition 2011.
2. Chemical Engineering Laboratory Manual. (CGE 536), Faculty of Chemical
Engineering, UiTM Shah Alam
3. https://www.khanacademy.org/science/physics/thermodynamics/temp-kinetic-theory-
ideal-gas-law/a/what-is-the-ideal-gas-law
4. https://www.e-education.psu.edu/png520/m3_p2.html
5. http://che31.weebly.com/uploads/3/7/4/3/3743741/handout_g2-saturatedwater-
pressure.pdf
Appendix