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A Circular Polarization Alterable Square MPA with

Wide Frequency Tuning

Biswajit Dwivedy Santanu Kumar Behera
Department of Electronics and Communication Engg. Department of Electronics and Communication Engg.
National Institute of Technology Rourkela, India National Institute of Technology Rourkela, India
Email: Email:

Abstract—A wide-range frequency tunable (2.01 GHz- 2.41

GHz) square patch antenna with simultaneous CP alteration
ability is designed and its performance is analyzed. Frequency
tuning is achieved by varying the capacitance of four varactors
connected between the central portion and four additional
segments of the main patch. Circular polarization at different
bands are achieved by using a wideband 90◦ phase shifter and
a DPDT switch is used to vary the sense of circular polarization
rotation. The antenna shows very good axial ratio value at all
frequencies with a maximum gain of 2.2 dBc.
Keywords—frequency reconfigurable; circular polarization; var-
actor; axial ratio

In RF communication major challenges which are becoming
Fig. 1. Layout of the proposed antenna
worse day by day are spectrum congestion problem arising due
to uninterrupted increase in modern features along with users from the main patch for connection of four varactor diodes.
and signal quality degradation by multipath propagation based Specific varactor (SMV-2025, Skywork solutions) is selected
fading. The earlier problem is handled by frequency tunable for tuning purpose as it has low series resistance (0.8 Ω) and
antennas using MEMS, p-i-n diodes, RF switches and varac- high range of capacitance variation (1.15 pF-8.81 pF). Due
tors etc [1]. To withstand the later problem, polarization agile to the simultaneous variation of capacitances of four varactors
antennas are considered, as they can provide better weather overall electrical length of the antenna is varied causing change
penetration and enhance information content by their two sets in resonant frequency of the antenna. All dimensional details
of co-polar and cross-polar data [2]-[3]. So intense importance of the antenna layout shown in Fig. 1 are presented in Table.
is given on development of such antennas which are less I. From Fig. 2, it is revealed that the resonant frequency of the
complex, compact, efficient and with ability to reconfigure antenna varies between 2.41 GHz to 2.01 GHz for variation
both frequency and polarization to mitigate above discussed of the capacitances from 1.15 pF to 8.81 pF.
problems [4]-[5]. In this article, design of a microstrip line
B. CP Alteration with Frequency Tuning
fed square patch antenna having both frequency and circular
polarization agile characteristic within 2.01 GHz - 2.41 GHz To achieve circular polarization the main patch is fed
is discussed and its performance is analyzed. orthogonally with a phase difference of +90◦ for LHCP or -
90◦ for RHCP respectively. Current distribution of the antenna
II. D ESIGN A ND F UNCTIONAL D ESCRIPTION at 2.16 GHz which is shown in Fig. 3 clearly illustrates
A. Design Procedure And Frequency Reconfigurability RHCP for a phase difference of -90◦ . The circular polarization
The design of the proposed antenna starts with a simple performance of the antenna for different values of capacitances
quarter wave length transformer matched square patch antenna
designed on 62 mil FR-4 substrate at the centre frequency of
2.4 GHz following standard design formulae [6]. The antenna
radiates in basic T M10 fundamental linear polarized mode. To
achieve frequency tuning, an annular square shape portion with
some additional lengths on four sides are carefully removed

Para. Ls Lz Wz Lx Wf g L(λ/4) W(λ/4)

Val.(mm) 60 11.4 1 25 3 1 11.3 0.9 Fig. 2. S-parameters of the antenna for different values of varactor capacitance
Fig. 3. Current distribution of the antenna at 2.16 GHz showing RHCP
Fig. 5. Antenna feed network consisting of phase shifter and DPDT swicth

(a) (b)
Fig. 4. Axial ratio versus frequency plots for different values of capacitance
Fig. 6. Circular polarized radiation pattern of the antenna without using the
are presented in Fig. 4, where it can be clearly visualized feed network at (a) 2.41 GHz (b) 2.04 GHz
that the axial ratio values are well below 3 dB at all tunable
frequency bands. To facilitate automated switching of antenna
CP states at different operational frequencies, its performance
is checked using a wideband phase shift network consisting of
a Wilkinsons power divider and a Schiffman 90◦ phase shifter
(shown in Fig. 5). S-parameter file of a practical diversity
switch (MASWSS0129) provided by the manufacturer was
also used to examine the overall performance of the antenna
with the feed network using ANSYS Designer-15. The radi-
(a) (b)
ation performance of the antenna at different frequencies and
the impact of the switching circuit on the antenna are discussed Fig. 7. RHCP radiation pattern of the antenna using the feed network at (a)
2.41 GHz (b) 2.04 GHz
in the next section.
the basic square patch shows low bandwidth performance.
The radiation patterns of the antenna at two different fre- Along with frequency agility the antenna can be operated in
quencies (2.41 GHz and 2.04 GHz) corresponding to varac- both RHCP and LHCP mode with a maximum realized gain
tor capacitance values 1.15 pF and 6.93 pf evaluated using of 2.2 dBc. Small degradation in gain value is noticed due to
ANSYS HFSS-15 are given in Fig. 6. From the plots, it reduction of effective aperture of the antenna with decrease in
is noticed that the difference between the co-pol. and cross resonant frequency, but the loss may be compensated by using
pol. components of the antenna is more than 25 dB at both a wideband LNA.
the frequencies within a very wide beam-width of ±50◦ .
Similarly the radiation patterns at same two frequencies using R EFERENCES
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