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# Question 3

## a. Plot of fermi dirac distribution as a function of E at k B 𝑇 = 26 𝑚𝑒𝑉 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝜇1 = 0 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝜇2 = 0

𝑑𝑓
𝑃𝑙𝑜𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑣𝑠 𝐸
𝑑𝐸
b. 𝑃𝑙𝑜𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑓1 (𝐸) 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑓2 (𝐸) 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑉 = 0.5 𝑉 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝜇1 = 𝜇2 − 𝑞𝑉

## For calculating the current, hbar=1 and q=1- normalised units

We have considered single electron conduction through the energy level. Hence, we have taken the
number density to be 1 for each level.
𝑞𝑉 𝑞𝑉
𝑃𝑙𝑜𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝐼 − 𝑉 𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑐𝑟𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑠 𝑤𝑖𝑡ℎ 𝜇1 = 𝜀1 − 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝜇2 = 𝜀1 +
2 2
The current through individual energy levels are calculated along with the net current. Hbar and q
are taken to be 1.

## d. 𝑃𝑙𝑜𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝐼 − 𝑉 𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑟𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑎 1 𝑙𝑒𝑣𝑒𝑙 𝑠𝑦𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑚 𝑤𝑖𝑡ℎ 𝑎𝑛𝑜𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑟 𝑑𝑒𝑔𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒 𝑙𝑒𝑣𝑒𝑙

e. The net current increases upon addition of degenerate energy levels (which do not interact). This
is because we are considering single electron channels and further addition of degenerate energy
levels will increase total number of electrons carrying out transport.

## f. 𝐼 − 𝑉 𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑟𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑠 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑑𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝐿𝑜𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑧𝑖𝑎𝑛 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑏𝑢𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑐𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑒𝑑 𝑎𝑟𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑑 𝐸 = 0.1 𝑒𝑉

g. As shown above, the value of current (magnitude) and the threshold voltage depend on the
spread of the Lorentzian distribution. In the bottom right figure where the Lorentzian peaks very
close to the Energy level, E=0.1 eV, the current magnitude is highest and the threshold is the lowest,
resembling the single level IV characteristics in part (c) of the question.
Question 4
𝐼 − 𝑉 𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑟𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑏𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑖𝑐 𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑎𝑡 𝑑𝑖𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑔𝑎𝑡𝑒 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑡𝑎𝑔𝑒𝑠

Question 5
𝑃𝑙𝑜𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑚𝑜𝑒𝑙𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑐 𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑤𝑖𝑡ℎ 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑏𝑖𝑎𝑠 𝑠ℎ𝑜𝑤𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑒 𝑖𝑛 𝑑𝑖𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛
EE724: NANOELECTRONICS
ASSIGNMENT 1

Submitted by
Abin Varghese
Roll No. 164074002
MATLAB CODES
Question 3
Part a, b
q=1.6-19;
kT= 0.026;
g1=0.1;%gamma
g2=0.2;
V=0.5;
m1=0.0;%chemical potential for Q3(b)
m2=-0.5;
e1=0.1;
e2=0.25;
E=-2:0.05:2;

fd1=1./(1+exp((E-m1)./kT));
fd2=1./(1+exp((E-m2)./kT));
%plot(E, fd1)

%df1=-(exp(E-m1/kT)./(kT*(1+exp(E-m1/kT)).^2));
plot(E, fd1, '-ob')
hold on
plot (E, fd2, '-*r')
hold off
xlabel('Energy in eV');
ylabel('Fermi-Dirac distribution')
legend('f1(E)','f2(E)')

Part c
%one energy level-Q3c first part and second part
q=1.6-19;
kT= 0.026;
g1=0.1;%gamma
g2=0.2;
g=g1*g2/(g1+g2);
E1=0.1;
%E2=0.25;
V=0:.01:1;
%m1=V;%chemical potential for Q3(b)
%m2=zeros(1, length(V));
m1=E1-V./2;
m2=E1+V./2;
for i=1:length(V)
fd1(i)=1./(1+exp((E1-m1(i))./kT));
fd2(i)=1./(1+exp((E1-m2(i))./kT));
I(i)=-g*(fd1(i)-fd2(i));
end

plot(V, I,'*-')
xlabel('Voltage (V)');
ylabel('Current')
legend('Current')
Part d
%Q3(d)-degenerate energy levels- 1 level
clear all
q=1.6-19;
kT= 0.026;
g1=0.1;%gamma
g2=0.2;
g=g1*g2/(g1+g2);
E1=0.1;

E2=0.1;
V=0:.01:1;
m1_e1=V;
m2_e1=zeros(1,length(V));

m1_e2=V;
m2_e2=zeros(1,length(V));
%consider one energy state E1 with 2 degenerate levels
deg1=2;
for i=1:length(V)
fd1_e1(i)=1/(1+exp((E1-m1_e1(i))/kT));%fermi dirac coupling b/w contact 1
and energy level 1
fd2_e1(i)=1/(1+exp((E1-m2_e1(i))/kT));%fermi dirac coupling b/w contact 2
and energy level 1
I_e1(i)=g*(fd1_e1(i)-fd2_e1(i));

fd1_e2(i)=1/(1+exp((E2-m1_e2(i))/kT));
fd2_e2(i)=1/(1+exp((E2-m2_e2(i))/kT));
I_e2(i)=g*(fd1_e2(i)-fd2_e2(i));
I(i)=I_e1(i)+I_e2(i);
end
figure
plot(V, I_e1,'--g')
hold on
plot(V, I_e2,'*r')
hold on
plot(V, I,'.-b')
hold on
xlabel('Voltage (V)')
ylabel('Current')
legend('Current through E=0.1 eV','Current through degenerate E=0.1
eV','Total current')

Part f
%density of states-Lorentzian
q=1.6-19;
kT= 0.026;
g1=0.1;%gamma
g2=0.2;
g=g1*g2/(g1+g2);
E1=0.1;
%E2=0.25;
V=0:.005:1;
m1=V;%chemical potential for Q3(b)
m2=zeros(1, length(V));
E=-0.05:0.01:0.05;
dE=E(2)-E(1);
for i=1:length(V)
for j=1:length(E)
dos(j)=(g/2*pi)/(((E(j)-E1)^2)+(g/2)^2);

fd1(i)=1/(1+exp((E(j)-m1(i))/kT));
fd2(i)=1/(1+exp((E(j)-m2(i))/kT));
I(i)=dE*dos(j)*g*(fd1(i)-fd2(i));
end
end
figure
plot(V, I,'.-r')
xlabel('Voltage (V)')
ylabel('Current')
legend('IV for Lorentzian -0.05<E<0.05')

Question 4
clear all
hbar=1.055e-34;q=1.602e-19;
eps0=8.854E-12;epsr=4;
m=0.25*9.11e-31;
W=1e-6;L=10e-9;t=1.5e-9;
v=1e5;
g1=(hbar*v)/(q*L);
g2=g1;g=g1+g2;
Cg=epsr*eps0*W*L/t;
Cs=0.05*Cg;
Cd=0.05*Cg;
CE=Cg+Cs+Cd;%C equiavlent
U0=q/CE;%charging energy
alphag=Cg/CE;%parameters for Poisson
I0=q*q/hbar;
kT=0.025;mu=0;ep=0.0;
%D=(2*g/(2*pi))./((E.ˆ2)+((g/2)ˆ2));% Lorentzian Density of states per eV
E=linspace(-1,1,101);
dE=E(2)-E(1);%difference
D0=m*q*W*L/(pi*hbar*hbar);%density of states
D=D0*[zeros(1,51) ones(1,50)];
%Fermi Dirac distribution to find number of electrons since using a
%Lorentzian
%--------------------------------------------------------------------------
-----------------
f0=1./(1+exp((E-mu)./kT));
N0=2*dE*sum(D.*f0);
ns=N0/(L*W*1e4);%convert to /cmˆ2
point=101;V=linspace(0,1,point);%define voltage range
tol=1e-6;%tolerance
%--------------------------------------------------------------------------
for i=1:point
Vg=0.1;Vd=V(i);
mu1=mu;mu2=mu1-Vd;
U=0;%For Self-consistent field
dU=1;
while dU>tol
f1=1./(1+exp((E+UL+U-mu1)./kT));
f2=1./(1+exp((E+UL+U-mu2)./kT));
N(i)=dE*sum(D.*((f1.*g1/g)+(f2.*g2/g)));
Unew=U0*(N(i)-N0);dU=abs(U-Unew);
U=U+0.1*(Unew-U);
end
I(i)=dE*I0*(sum(D.*(f1-f2)))*g1*g2/g;
end
hold on
h=plot(V,I,'.-r');

xlabel('Voltage')
ylabel(' Current')
legend('Vg= 0.1 V')

Question 5
%thermolectric effect
clear all
hbar=1.055e-34;q=1.602e-19;I0=q*q/hbar;
kT1=0.026;kT2=0.025;
points=101;
V=linspace(-0.25,0.25,points);%from -0.25 to 0.25 in question
%ep=0.2;
alphag=1;
E=linspace(-1,1,101);
dE=E(2)-E(1);
%g1=0.005*(E+abs(E))./(E+E+1e-6);% zero for negative E
g2=0.005*ones(1,101);
g1=g2;
g=g1+g2;
mu2=mu1;
%ep=0.0;
for i=1:points
mu1=V(i);
mu2=V(i);
f1=1./(1+exp((E-mu1)./kT1));
f2=1./(1+exp((E-mu2)./kT2));
D=(g./(2*pi))./(((E).^2)+((g./2).^2));
%I=dos*I0*f diff
D=D./(dE*sum(D));

I(i)=dE*2*(sum(D.*(f1-f2).*g1.*g2./g));
end
figure
hold on
h=plot(V,I,'.-r');
xlabel(' Voltage ')
ylabel(' Current ')
legend('Thermoelectric current')