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Enla 1011

Communicative English skills

PRESENT TENSE
USE Example
 Used to say what someone usually does I always study English on Tuesday;
I visit my uncle every Friday
 Action that is repeated every day. Habitual He smokes three packets of cigarettes per a day.
action.
 Facts that are believed to be true. Cats hate mice.
Generalizations The sun rises in the morning.
 Scheduled events in the near future The plane takes off at 10 o'clock tonight .

Examples

The Present Tense uses the verb's base form (write, work), or, for third-person singular subjects, the
base form plus an -s ending (he writes, she works).

Present tense habitual activities are frequently signaled by time expressions such as the following:

all the time every holiday every year often


always every hour most of the time rarely
every class semester every month sometimes
every day every week every usually never

 I walk to work every day.


 The players sometimes practice in this gymnasium.
 Dr. Yimer operates according to her own schedule.
 St. George Coach recruits players from cities outside Addis.
 We work really hard to make this a success, and then look what happens.
 Every time that kid finishes a sandcastle, the waves come in and wash it away.
 The shipment arrives tomorrow at 2 p.m.

Simple Present, Form


Example: to think, present simple
Affirmative Interrogative Negative
I think Do I think? I do not think.
You think Do you think? You don't think.
He, she, it thinks Does he, she, it think? He, she, it doesn't think.
We think Do we think? We don't think.
You think Do you think? You don't think.

Present Progressive

USE Example
 Used to express what someone is doing now I am studying English now

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 Used to express action that takes place now / at I am working on my computer


the moment Near future I am leaving tomorrow

MACBETH
Almaz: What are you reading?
Sara: 'Macbeth'. We're doing it in English. Our class is going to the theatre to see it next week. Mr
Adams is taking us.
Almaz: What's it about?
Sara: Well Macbeth murders the King of Scotland. But it doesn't do him any good.
Almaz: Mr Davis takes us for English. We aren't doing Shakespeare though.
Sara: Mr Adams loves Shakespeare. He's always quoting bits at us. Shakespeare is England's
greatest writer, he says.

Signal words for present simple tense:


Now, Look! Listen! at the moment, just, just now,

Present Continuous, Form


The present continuous of any verb is composed of two parts - the present tense of the verb
to be + the present participle of the main verb.
(The form of the present participle is: base + ing, e.g. talking, playing, moving, smiling)

Affirmative Negative Interrogative


Subject + to be + base+ ing Subject + to be + not + base + ing to be + subject + base + ing
She is talking She is not (isn't) talking Is she talking?

Example: to go, present continuous


Affirmative Negative Interrogative
I am going I am not going Am I going?
You are going You aren't going. Are you going?
He, she, it is going He, she, it isn't going Is he, she, it going?
We are going We aren't going Are we going?
You are going You aren't going Are you going?
They are going They aren't going Are they going?

Note: alternative negative contractions: I'm not going, you're not going, he's not going etc.
List of common verbs normally used in simple form:

Senses / Perception: feel*, hear, see*, smell, taste


Opinion: assume, believe, consider, doubt, feel (= think), find (= consider), suppose,
think*
Mental states: forget, imagine, know, mean, notice, recognize, remember, understand
Emotions / desires: envy, fear, dislike, hate, hope, like, love, mind, prefer, regret, want, wish
Measurement: contain, cost, hold, measure, weigh
Others: look (=resemble), seem, be (in most cases), have (when it means to possess)*

Notes:

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1. 'Perception' verbs (see, hear, feel, taste, and smell) are often used with 'can': e.g. I can see...
2. * These verbs may be used in the continuous form but with a different meaning,

Compare:
a. This coat feels nice and warm. (= your perception of the coat's qualities)
b. Abera's feeling much better now (= his health is improving)
a. She has three dogs and a cat. (=possession)
b. She's having supper. (= She's eating)
a. I can see Ayele in the garden (= perception)
b. I'm seeing Ayele later (= We are planning to meet)

Examples:
 I wish I was in Greece now.
 She wants to see him now.
 I don't understand why he is shouting.
 I feel we are making a mistake.
 This glass holds half a liter.

Present Perfect
USE EXAMPLE
 Used to show unfinished time I have studied English twice this week.
 To talk about experiences I have been to Italy.
 Past action that has the result in the present. She has read that book.
 Action which started in the past and continued up I have lived in this town for 12 years.
to now.

Example
Signal words for present simple tense:
Yet, never, ever already so far, Till, up to now, since for , recently
Present Perfect - Form

The present perfect of any verb is composed of two elements : the appropriate form of the auxiliary verb
to have (present tense), plus the past participle of the main verb.

Example: to walk, present perfect


Affirmative Negative Interrogative
I have walked I haven't walked Have I walked?
You have walked You haven't walked Have you walked?
He, she, it has walked He, she, it hasn't walked Has he, she, it walked
We have walked We haven't walked Have we walked?
You have walked You haven't walked Have you walked?
They have walked They haven't walked Have they walked?

Present Perfect Progressive


USE Example

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 Used to say how long someone has been I have been studying English for 2 years.
doing something. I have been studying English since 1997.
 To show that something started in the past He has been sleeping for the last 3 hours
and has continued up until now.
 To talk about an action that started in the The grass is wet because it has been raining all
past and stopped recently. day long.
 To talk about an action that started in the I have been watching TV for 2 hours / since you
past and is continuing now. left

Present Perfect Continuous, Form


The present perfect continuous is made up of two elements: (a) the present perfect of the verb 'to be'
(have/has been), and (b) the present participle of the main verb (base + ing).

Affirmative Negative Interrogative


I have been living I haven't been living Have I been living?
You have been living You haven't been living Have you been living?
He, she, it has been living He hasn't been living Has she been living?
We have been living We haven't been living Have we been living?
You have been living You haven't been living Have you been living?
They have been living They haven't been living Have they been living?

GOING INTO HOSPITAL

Ato Dawit: I shall have to go into hospital some time to have an operation on my leg.
Tedy: Are you on the waiting list?
Ato Dawit: Yes, I've been waiting for three years.
Tedy: Three years! That's awful! You've been suffering all that time.
Ato Dawit: Well, I have to use the wheelchair, that's all.
Tedy: They've been cutting expenditure, trying to save money. It's not right.
Ato Dawit: My son David has written to them three times. He's been trying to get me in
quicker. I don't know if it'll do any good.

PAST SIMPLE
USE Example
 Used to show a completed action in the past I studied English last Saturday.
 To talk about an action that started in the past and She left yesterday.
stopped recently.
 An action taking place in the middle of another action. She woke up, had a shower and left.

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Example
If I had a million dollar, I would help the poor.
She was playing when the accident occurred.

Signal words for present simple tense: last ... ago, in 1990, yesterday
Simple Past, Form

Regular verbs: base+ed


e.g. walked, showed, watched, played, smiled, stopped

Simple past, be, have, do:


Subject Verb
Be Have Do
I was had did
You were had did
He, she, it was had did
We, you, they were had did

Affirmative
a. I was in Japan last year
b. She had a headache yesterday.
c. We did our homework last night.
Negative and interrogative
Note: For the negative and interrogative simple past form of "do" as an ordinary verb, use the
auxiliary "do", e.g. We didn't do our homework last night. The negative of "have" in the simple past
is usually formed using the auxiliary "do", but sometimes by simply adding not or the contraction
"n't".

The interrogative form of "have" in the simple past normally uses the auxiliary "do".
 They weren't in Rio last summer.
 We hadn't any money.
 We didn't have time to visit the Eiffel Tower.
 We didn't do our exercises this morning.
 Were they in Iceland last January?
 Did you have a bicycle when you were a boy?
 Did you do much climbing in Switzerland?
Example: to walk, simple past.

Affirmative Negative Interrogative


I walked I didn't walk Did I walk?
You walked You didn't walk Did you walk?
He, she, it walked He didn't walk Did he walk?
We walked We didn't walk Did we walk?
You walked You didn't walk Did you walk?
They walked They didn't walk Did they walk?

Note: For the negative and interrogative form of all verbs in the simple past, always use the
auxiliary 'did''. Examples: Simple past, irregular verbs
to go to come

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A. He went to a club last night. G. My parents came to visit me last July.


B. Did he go to the cinema last night? H. We didn't come because it was raining.
C. He didn't go to bed early last night. I. Did he come to your party last week?
to give
D. We gave her a doll for her birthday.
E. They didn't give John their new address.
F. Did Belay give you my passport?

Present Perfect and Past Simple

THE SKI SHOP


Sofia: Have you seen the ski shop that's just opened in the High Street?
Nega: Yes, it opened last week, didn't it? I haven't been in there yet.
Sofia: I went in yesterday. It's really good. I bought some gloves. We're going to Italy next winter,
and I can buy clothes there.
Nega: I haven't skied for ages actually. I've got some skis - I've had them for years. I used to ski a
lot when I was younger.
Sofia: Where did you go?
Nega: We went to Austria a few times.
Sofia: I've been to Scotland twice, but I've never done any skiing abroad. I'm really looking forward
to Italy.

Past Progressive
USE Example
 Often used to say when something was being I was studying English last Monday when my
done or what was happening when something friend rang.
else happened I was studying English at 5pm last Monday.
 Actions happening at the same time in the He was reading a newspaper while his wife was
past. preparing dinner.
 Interrupted action in the past. She was reading a book when the light went
off, had a shower and left.

Past Continuous - Form.


The past continuous of any verb is composed of two parts : the past tense of the verb to be
(was/were), and the base of the main verb + ing.

Subject was/were base-ing ; They were watching

Example: to play, past continuous


Affirmative Negative Interrogative
I was playing I was not playing Was I playing?
You were playing You were not playing Were you playing?
He, she, it was playing She wasn't playing Was she playing?
We were playing We weren't playing Were we playing?
You were playing You weren't playing Were you playing?
They were playing They weren't playing Were they playing?
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AN UNIDENTIFIED FLYING OBJECT

'I was going home from the pub at quarter to eleven. There was a full moon. I was walking over the
bridge when I saw the UFO. It was quite low. It was long and thin, shaped like a cigar. It appeared to be
made of aluminum. It was travelling east to west, towards Warminster. I didn't know what to do. I didn't
have a camera of course. I watched it for a minute and then it went behind a cloud.'
Signal words for present simple tense: when, while, as long as

Past Perfect Simple


Completed action before another She had left when I arrived
action in the past
Used to say when something was I had done my English homework by 6.30 pm last Saturday.
done by. I had done my English homework by the time I ate dinner last
Saturday

Past perfect, form


The Past Perfect tense in English is composed of two parts: the past tense of the verb to have
(had) + the past participle of the main verb.
Example: to decide, Past perfect
Affirmative Negative Interrogative
I had decided I hadn't decided Had I decided?
You had decided You hadn't decided Had you decided?
He, she, it had decided He hadn't decided Had she decided?
We had decided We hadn't decided Had we decided?
You had decided You hadn't decided Had you decided?
They had decided They hadn't decided Had they decided?

Past Perfect Progressive


USE EXAMPLE
Used to show how long something was done for by a I'd been doing my English homework for 30
certain time. minutes when my friend rang last Saturday.
I'd been doing my English homework for 30
minutes by 1 pm last Saturday.
To show that something started in the past and They had been playing soccer when the
continued up until another action stopped it. accident occurred
To show that something started in the past and I had been living in that town for ten years
continued up until another time in the past. before I moved to New York.
We use the Past Perfect Continuous before another I was so tired. I had been working for 6 hours.
action in the past to show cause and effect.

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Past perfect continuous, form


The past perfect continuous is composed of two elements - the past perfect of the verb to be
(=had been) + the present participle (base+ing).
Examples:to buy, past perfect continuous

Affirmative Negative Interrogative


I had been buying I hadn't been buying Had I been buying?
You had been buying You hadn't been buying Had you been buying
He, she, it had been buying He hadn't been buying Had she been buying?
We had been buying We hadn't been buying Had we been buying?
You had been buying You hadn't been buying Had you been buying
They had been buying They hadn't been buying Had they been buying

Example
Meron lay on her bed and stared at the ceiling. She was depressed. Her boyfriend Mesfin had gone
on holiday with his brother the day before. He hadn't invited Meron to go with him. He hadn't even
said goodbye properly. And everything had been going so well. What had she done wrong?

Future Simple
(Some uncertainty) I think I'll do my English homework
Decide to do something at the time of speaking tonight.

I am going to study English next Saturday.


Simple Future (Certain)
Have already decided or arranged to do something

USE EXAMPLE
Instant decisions
 We use the simple future , when we I've left the door open; I'll close it.
predict a future situation
 We use the simple future with: "I (don't) She'll pass the exam. She's hardworking.
think...", "I expect...", "I am sure...", "I It will probably rain tonight
wonder...", "probably".
 Conditional sentence type one If I have enough time, I'll watch the film.
will - future:
 Predictions about the future (you think I'll work, he'll work , I'll go , he'll go

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that s/t. will happen)


going to:
 Future plan- decided before time of I’m going to leave next week.
speaking He’s going to fall off his bike
 Future result from present evidence
Will:
 Future willingness. I won’t do it.
 Sudden decision made at time of I’ll phone her now.
speaking.
 Offer/suggestion. Shall I open the door for you?
Going to/will
 Neutral future fact (will is more common here) Daniel will be eight next week.
Daniel will be eight next week.
 First conditional. If it rains, we’ll leave.

Simple future, form


The 'simple' future is composed of two parts: will / shall + the infinitive without 'to'

Contractions:
I will I'll We will we'll
You will you'll You will you'll
He,she, will he'll, she'll They will they'll

NOTE: The form 'it will' is not normally shortened.


Example: to see, simple future
Affirmative Negative Interrogative
I'll see I won't see Will I see?/
*I will/shall see I shan't see Shall I see?
You'll see You won't see Will you see?
He, she, it will see He won't see Will she see?
We'll see We won't see/ Will we see?/
*We will/shall see We shan't see Shall we see?
You will see You won't see Will you see?
They'll see They won't see Will they see?

*NOTE: shall is slightly dated but can be used instead of will with I / we.

Future Progressive (uses will be, shall be or going to be +- ing form)


USE EXAMPLE
(Some uncertainty) I will be starting my English lesson at 7.30 pm.
The English lesson should begin at 7.30 and end at
9.15, so the person should be studying at 7.30 (but
the lesson might start late).
 Sometimes it is possible to use either “going to” or “will”, but at other times only one of them is
correct.
(Certain) I am going to be studying English when my friends
The English lesson begins at 7.30 and ends at 9.15, arrive at 9.00 pm.
so he's certain to be studying when his friend
arrives at 8.00
Action that will be taking place at some time in the When you arrive, I'll be sleeping
future
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Future Continuous, Form


The future continuous is made up of two elements: the simple future of the verb 'to be' + the present
participle (base + ing)

Subject simple future, 'to be' base + ing: Example: to stay, future continuous
Affirmative Negative Interrogative
I will be staying I won't be staying Will I be staying?
You will be staying You won't be staying Will you be staying?
He, she, it will be staying He won't be staying Will she be staying?
We will be staying We won't be staying Will we be staying?
You will be staying You won't be staying Will you be staying?
They will be staying They won't be staying Will they be staying?

Future Perfect (uses will have or shall have + past participle)


USE EXAMPLE
Used to say something will already be complete by I will have already done my English homework by
a time. the time I eat dinner on Saturday.
Completed action before another action in the past By tomorrow, I will have finished the work

Future perfect, form


The future perfect is composed of two elements: the simple future of the verb to have (will
have) + the past participle of the main verb:

Subject + will have + past participle: = He + will have + finished


Example: to arrive, future perfect
Affirmative Negative Interrogative
I will have left They won't have gone Will we have seen?
I'll have arrived I won't have arrived Will I have arrived?
You'll have arrived You won't have arrived Will you have arrived?
He'll have arrived She won't have arrived Will it have arrived?
We'll have arrived We won't have arrived Will we have arrived?
You'll have arrived You won't have arrived Will you have arrived?
They'll have arrived They won't have arrived Will they have arrived?

Future Perfect Progressive (uses will have been or shall have been + -ing form)
Used to say how long something will have been happening I will have been studying English for 30
in the future by a certain time. minutes when my friends arrive.

 It is used to show that an action will continue up until a particular event or time in the future.
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Example
 She will have been working for over 8 hours by the time her children arrive.
Future perfect continuous, form
This form is composed of two elements: the future perfect of the verb to be (will have been)
+ the present participle of the main verb (base+ing):

Subject will have been base+ing; We will have been working.

Example: to live, Future Perfect continuous


Affirmative Negative Interrogative
I'll have been living I won't have been living Will I have been living?
You'll have been living You won't have been living Will you have been living?
He'll have been living He won't have been living Will she have been living?
We'll have been living We won't have been living Will we have been living?
You'll have been living You won't have been living Will you have been living?
They'll have been living They won't have been living Will they have been living?

CINEMA TO CLOSE
The Maxime Cinema is to close in November, it was announced yesterday. The owner of the building, Mr.
Charles Peters, has sold it to a firm of builders, who are going to build a block of old people's flats on the
site. 'The cinema has become uneconomic to run,' said Mr. Peters. The last performance is on Saturday
17th November, and after that the cinema will finally close its doors after sixty years in business. 'This
town won't be the same again,' said camera operator Bert Dudley, who has worked at the cinema for
eighteen years. Mr. Dudley (67) is retiring when the cinema closes. In future, cinema goers will have to
travel ten miles to the nearest cinema.

A FEW DAYS OFF

Abera: I'll see you on Monday then.


Abebe: Oh, I won't be here. Didn't I tell you? I'm taking a few days off. I'm
going on holiday. I'll be away for a week.
Abera: No, you didn't say. Where are you going?
Abebe: The Lake District. I'm going to do some walking.
Abera: Oh, that'll be nice. Well, I hope you have a good time.
Abebe: Thanks. I'll see you the week after.

REVISION OF TENSES IF NECESSARY.

Practice A: Put the verbs in brackets in their correct present simple or present continuous tense.
1. We_______ (wear) a rain coat during rains.
2. It is dark now because the moon __________ (not shine).
3. Where you (go) now? I (go) to the cafeteria to eat my dinner. I__________ (go) everyday.
4. She__________ (have) her lunch now.
5. You__________ (have) a car? No, I (have) a motorbike.
6. We__________ (listen) to the radio, please do not disturb us.
7. The book which Meron__________ (read) __________ (belong) to me.
8. She often__________ (read) fast but now she (read) too slowly.
9. Listen! I__________ (talk) to you! __________ (you, hear) me?
10. You always __________ (help) your friend?

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Practice B: Put the verbs in brackets either into the present perfect or present perfect continuous
tense.
1. I __________ (be) the manager of this company for the last 10 years.
2. She __________ (write) a letter since early morning.
3 She__________ (already write) the letter.
4. You __________ (ever see) an elephant?
5. Look! I __________ (find) some money.
6. You __________ (cut) your finger! What you (do)?
7. How long you __________ (learn) Englsih?
8. She __________ (cry) since she heard the death of her mother.
9. The telephone__________ (ring) for five minutes.

Practice C: Put the verbs in brackets in the correct tense: simple past or past continuous.
1. He __________ (sit) on a bench when I (see) him.
2. The light __________ (go) out while we (have) tea.
3. What you __________ (do) when the alarm bell rang?
4. While they were playing, we __________ (study).
5. I __________ (watch) the news when she phoned.
6. While he __________ (drive), I fell asleep.

Practice D: Put the verbs in brackets in the correct tense: simple past or past perfect.
1. She__________ (do) all her work before her daughter __________ (come) to help her.
2. We (make) arrangements for a hundred guests but only fifty __________ (turn).
3. The bookseller (sell) most of the books before the book fair __________ (be) over.
4. They__________ (find) that they __________ (take) the wrong road.
5. He __________ (say) he __________ (enjoy) the book very much.
6. I __________ (reach) the stadium at five. The match __________ (already stat).

Practice E: Put the verbs in brackets into the past perfect continuous tense.
1. He spoke English very well. He__________ (learn) English for a long time.
2. He__________ (fish) all day. But he caught just one fish towards the evening.
3. They__________ ( sail) for months when they suddenly saw a small island.
4. I realized that he__________ (help) me all along.
5. He__________ (avoid) me for a long time. But I finally caught hold of him last night.

Practice F: Put the verbs in brackets into the simple future tense.
1. He__________ (not buy) a cheap car.
2. It__________ (rain) in the afternoon.
3. I always__________ (trust) you.
4. They__________ (not go) there at all.
5. You__________ (be) there?
Practice G: Put the verbs in brackets into the future continuous tense.
1. Hurry up. The shops__________ (close) in an hour’s time.
2. She has got a job as a teacher. She__________ (join) on Monday.
3. Be quick. She__________ (wait) for you.
4. Passengers, please get in. We__________ (take off) in five minutes time.
5. Please wait. My father__________ (return) anytime now.
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Practice H: Put the verbs in brackets into the future perfect tense.
1. By the time you get there, the meeting__________ (be) over.
2. He__________ (fly) round the world by next month.
3. When he comes back, I__________ (build) this house.
4. We__________ (use) up all the oil in fifty years time.
5. Come back after an hour. We__________ (prepare) your account by then.

Practice I: Put the verbs in brackets into the simple future perfect continuous tense.
1. By October, we__________ (study) three units.
2. I__________ (exercise) since early morning.
3. He__________ (not study) for a few days.
Use the right tense form of the words that seems to express the meaning of each sentence best. Write
your answer on the space given below

1. I (have)_________ the same car for more than ten years. I'm thinking about buying a new
one.
2. If it (snow) snows this weekend, we (go) ___________ skiing near Lake Tana.
3. A: What do you call people who work in libraries?
B: They (call) _________ librarians.
4. Samuel (arrive) __________ in Addis Ababa a week ago.
5. Peter (live)__________ in Nazareth for more than two years. In fact, she was living there
when the Nazareth wall came down.
6. If Meseret (keep) ___________drinking, she will eventually lose her job.

EXERCISE:1.

Change the given verbs in bracket to their correct tense patterns.

Last weekend I (6) ______________ (be) with my classmates for a trip. We (7) ___________ (enjoy) a
lot at the Langano beach. Everybody was dancing and swimming. Today is another day. I am home. I
start doing my regular activities. I (8) ___________ (clean) our home and prepare breakfast. Then I (9)
___________ (do) my home work. I have an appointment with my doctor for my regular medial check
up. Therefore, I (10) ____________ (visit) him next week.

EXERCISE:2.
Put in the verbs in brackets in the correct tenses.
1. When I was a young boy, I ________________ (meet) Santa Claus.
met When I w as a yo
2. Tony ________________ (study) for his math test
as we speak.
is studying Tony * (study) fo
3. Pat and Sean ________ (smoke) for the past three
years. They would like to quit though.
have smoked§ha Pat and Sean * (s
4. She sometimes ___________ (lose) her temper.
She scares me a bit when she does.
loses She sometimes *
5. I ______________________ (understand) your
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point now.
understand I * (understand) y
6. I _________________ (see) this movie about a
dozen times already.
have seen I * (see) this movi
7. We _______________ (sleep) all day yesterday.
slept We * (sleep) all d
8. I finally ______________________ (decide) to call
her yesterday to ask her out.
decided I finally * (decide)
9. She ______________________ (be) never late. I
wonder why she is missing.
is She * (be) never
10. I ____________ (be) in class very early this
morning to study for my math exam.

ANSWER:

1. met 2. is studying 3. have smoked/have been smoking 4. loses 5. Understand 6.


have seen 7. slept 8. decided 9. is 10. was

Fill in the blanks using the correct form of the verbs

1. Hardly had the minister finished his speech when gunshots __________ (storm) the stadium.
(stormed)
2. Everybody will be at the office at about 08:30 tomorrow as the meeting __________ (start) at
nine o'clock.
3. That candidate who we had been interviewed before we __________ (speak) to all the others is
still my favorite.
4. While climbing onto the mountain top, I __________ (encounter) a strange animal which I'd
never seen before.
5. The chairman was sure that his plan would work out fine as no other member __________
(oppose) it up to that time.
6. I wasn't surprised to hear that Monica __________ (have) an accident as she is a very reckless
driver.
7. Since the very first day when the Umbrella Company embarked upon such a dangerous and risky
lab-research, very strange incidents __________ (take place) within the research complex.
8. Urbanization __________ (always / be) a problem which causes several environmental
challenges ever since the rate of migration __________ (increase) after the industrial revolution.
9. When I __________ (come) home this evening, my parents had gone out for a walk.
10. By the time the troops __________ (arrive), the war will have ended.
11. By the year 2020, linguists __________ (study) the Indy-European language family for more than
200 years.
12. Gasoline __________ (become) a major problem for people for the last ten years, therefore,
during this time many people have preferred to sell their cars and buy smaller ones.
13. By the time he was 14, Wolfgang Mozart __________ (compose) an enviable number of musical
pieces.
14. Nothing in my life__________ (be) so strong to stop me achieve my goals so far and i don't think
anything will be.
15. Archaeologists __________ (explain) recently that an ancient underground city around
Cappadocia has long wide corridors where there are many special areas for making cheese and
wine.
16. I was amazed when he accepted a drink, since I __________ (always / assume) that he was a
teetotaler.

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17. I __________ (play) tennis tomorrow but I won't be able to do that because I have injured my
right ankle.
18. We __________ (visit) the seashore many times before but last summer we enjoyed ourselves
more than ever.
19. According to a survey, thousands of vending machines __________ (have to be converted) before
the new coins have come into circulation.
Answer
1. stormed
2. starts
3. spoke
4. encountered
5. had opposed
6. had had
7. have taken place
8. has always been, increased
9. came
10. arrive
11. will have been studying
12. has become
13. had composed
14. has been
15. have explained
16. had always assumed
17. was going to play
18. had visited
19. will have to be converted

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READING COMPREHENSION 1

Read the following Passage and answer the questions that follow it

EFFECTIVE READING

Pre- Reading Activities

Discus the following questions with your classmates.

Hopefully you have read different kinds of materials like newspapers, magazines, fictions, notices, notes,
handouts and text books.

A. What were your reasons for reading these different materials?


B. Have you read them with the same speed?

1. When a lecturer recommends a student to read a book, it is usually for a particular purpose.
The book may contain useful information about the topic being studied or it may be invaluable for
the ideas or views that it puts forward and so on. In many cases the lecturer does not suggest that the
whole book should be read. In fact, he or she may just refer to a few pages which have a direct
bearing on the matter being discussed.

2. Unfortunately, when many students pick up a book to read, they tend to have no particular purpose in
mind other than simply to ‘read the book’. Often they open the book and start reading page by page,
Line by line, and word by word. In other words, they read slowly and in great detail. The result is that
students frequently do not have an overall view of what they are reading; also, they tend to forget
fairly soon what they have been reading.

3. Students can make their reading much more effective by adopting a strategy aimed at helping them
to understand and to remember what they read. Firstly, they should decide precisely why they are
reading the book; perhaps, it is to find some information that will answer a question; perhaps, it is to
understand a difficult idea or argument, and so on. Then the students should decide exactly what they

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are going to read; it is seldom necessary to read the whole book. A good starting point is the contents
page, at the front of the book; a quick look at the chapter headings may help to indicate what should
be read. The index, at the back of the book is often extremely useful in helping to pinpoint the exact
pages that need to be consulted for particular pieces of information.

4. When it has been decided what is to be read, a chapter of a book, for example, then it is helpful to get
an overview of the contents before starting to read. This can be done by reading the introduction,
usually the opening paragraph and the conclusion, usually the final paragraph. In addition, a glance at
the headings of sections or sub-sections will show the order in which the items are introduced. As
well as doing this, some students find it useful to skim or read very quickly some sections in order to
get the gist or general ideas of the contents.

5. Finally, students should ask themselves a specific question connected with the main part of their
reading. They should then endeavor to answer it by making appropriate notes as they read. This will
help them to focus on the reading as well as providing a summary which can be re-read later. This is,
perhaps, the most effective element in the reading strategy.

6. If a student puts into practice everything that has been suggested so far, can we say that he or she
reads efficiently? Well, we must remember that most students have a lot to read and only a limited
time in which to read it. As a result, it is important that a student reads as quickly as possible. If he or
she can increase his or her reading speed without loss of comprehension, then he or she will become
a more efficient reader.

7. Basically, there are three main kinds of silent reading speed, all for different purposes. The slowest
speed is study speed, for a high level of understanding and when it is necessary to remember details.
Next is average speed, for easier text books, novels, etc. The fastest is skimming, when it is not
necessary to have high level of comprehension. Skimming is used to get a general idea of what an
article or a book is about.

Comprehension Questions
1. Paragraph one introduces the text by raising some points regarding the purpose of reading and
selecting reading materials that go with the purpose.

Explain what each of the body paragraphs below is about?

A. Paragraph 2
________________________________________________________________________

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B. Paragraph 3
________________________________________________________________________
C. Paragraph 4
________________________________________________________________________
D. Paragraph 5
________________________________________________________________________
E. Paragraph 6
________________________________________________________________________

2. Should on effective reader follow the same strategy every time he/she reads? Why?
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
3. As stated in paragraph 2, what is the main reading problem of students? How can they avoid this
problem?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
4. How can one get the overview of the contents of a text before starting to read it?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
5. Guess the contextual meaning of each the following words.
A. Invaluable (Para. 1, line 3)_______________________
B. overall view (Para. 2, line 4) _______________________
C. adopting (Para. 3, line 1) _______________________
D. gist (Para. 4, line 6) _______________________
E. focus (Para. 5, line 3) _______________________
F. comprehension (Para. 6 line 4) _______________________

6. Explain what each of the following pronouns refer to in the passage


A. it (Para. 1 line 3) _______________________________
B. they (Para. 2, line 2) ___________________________
C. that (Para. 3, line 3) ___________________________
D. it (Para. 5, line 2) ___________________________
E. E. he or she (Para. 6, line 4) ____________________
F. All (Para. 7, line 1) ___________________________

7. Say TRUE or FALSE according to the information in the passage

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A. Study speed is recommended for reading fiction books.


B. According to the information in the passage the different types of silent reading are applied in
all instances.
C. The writer seems to argue that students should read a book from cover to cover if they are to
get maximum understanding.
D. According to the passage students usually have a clear picture of why they read before they
start reading.
8. Find the words in each paragraph that have the same or similar meaning with the following
words.
A. extremely important (Para. 1) _________________________________________
B. exactly (Para. 3) ___________________________________________________
C. a quick look (Para. 4) _______________________________________________
D. attempt (Para. 5) ___________________________________________________
E. implement (Para. 6) _________________________________________________
F. reason for reading (Para. 7) __________________________________________

9. reading the passage again and then refer the table below and match the strategies on the left with
the purpose on the right

Strategies/what students should do when they Purposes


read
_____ 1. know why they are reading A. to enable them to get an overview of a chapter
_____ 2. read the table of contents and index before reading
_____ 3. read the introduction, conclusion and, B. to get them a focus for their reading
heading of each section of relevant C. to read easier books and novels.
chapter. D. to get the general idea
_____ 4. ask themselves specific question about E. to work out which are relevant parts that need
their reading. to be read
_____ 5. Adopt study speed. F. to enable them to focus on specific purpose
_____ 6. Adopt average speed when reading.
_____ 7. Skim/read sections very quickly G. to read through and remember details

A walk in the park

Kruger National park is a very different place when explored on foot. Narina Exleby pulled on her
walking shoes and joined the three-night Olifants Trial to get up close to rhino, Otters, skulls and
crickets.

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hat‘s your bush. If it charges, you get behind it,” Nicol Coetsee whispered softly. Eight pairs of eyes
widened behind him. The white rhino munched on sweet grass. Every one stood still.
T
It’s one thing for rhino to pass 3m from your vehicle, but when you’re watching it gaze just 15m away
from you, and you have only a flimsy piece of vegetation for cover, the feeling is quite different. When it
turns and charges, and you have a 2,600 kg white rhino bull sprinting straight at you, it’s blood chilling.

The ground shook and thundered and dust billowed up behind the rhino. As the distance between it and
the vegetation grew shorter and shorter, everyone held their breath and stood dead still; you could have
heard a butterfly land on a twig.

When Nicol and Tsambok - both trail rangers – shouted and waved, their arms, the rhino realized we were
human, took fright and sprinted off in another direction. Once the dust had settled, Nicol explained it had
been a case of mistaken identity- we weren’t really the rhino’s target. Someone in the group had coughed
and, probably thinking it was another male in its territory, the rhino had hurtled over to enforce its
territorial rights.

It’s like the kind of encounter people dream of – and dread – when they do a wilderness trial

Wilderness trials in Kruger National Park offer three nights of bush solitude. There are seven wilderness
areas, set aside for walking trials. These sections have been virtually untouched by humans. Each has a
camp, which is basic but comfortable, and minimal roads – used only by a few trial staff.

Olifants Trial camp is situated on the banks of the Olifants River. In the pre-dawn mornings you’ll wake
up to the snort of hippos. During the day, the call of a fish eagle pierces the midday heat and at night the
moans and roars of lions drift into the camp.

Questions

What happened when the group saw the rhino? Put these events in the correct order.

a. Someone in the group coughed and the rhino heard this. __________
b. They saw the rhino 15 metres away. ________
c. The rhino ran off in another direction. _________
d. Nicol told them what to do if the rhino charged. ________
e. Nicol and Tsambok shouted and waved their arms. __________
f. The rhino turned and ran towards the group. ___________
ANSWER B,D,A,F,E,C
Bank bans vicar’s son for life for going 11p overdrawn
By Geoff Maynard

Bank chiefs have banned a schoolboy for life because his account went 11 pence into the red.

Vicar’s son Jerome Jacob, 15, was told he could never have another account at HSBC, despite
offering to repay the money.

Jerome, who holds down two part-time jobs in between studying for his GCSEs, went overdrawn
when he bought a football magazine using his debit card.

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After receiving a monthly statement, Jerome and his father, the Reverend Neville Jacob, went
into their local branch in Romsey, Hampshire, to clear the debt. But they were amazed when staff
told them the account had been closed and they could not open a new one.

Jerome said, “Their customer service was awful. When I opened the account, they told me it
would be impossible to go overdrawn when using my card.”

Mr Jacob, vicar of Copthorne, Hampshire, added: “We don’t fault the bank for applying its rules.
All we wanted was a bit of common sense.”

“My son was willing to repay the 11p and apologies, but they just were not interested. It was a
flat refusal. My son was quite upset.”

“It’s the first time he has gone overdrawn and I’m astonished at their attitude. To say he can
never go back is ridiculous and the way he was treated was outrageous. If they treated adults this
way, they would soon be out of business.”

A spokesman for HSBC said, “This doesn’t appear to be in line with our commitment to our
customers. Being overdrawn by 11p would not trigger the decision to close the account and we
will be investigating this incident.”

Jerome, who does a paper round and works part-time in a tea room, has now applied for a
Barclays account.

In which order did Jerome do these things?

a. He got his monthly bank statement.


b. He went to the bank with his dad
c. He opened a bank account at HSBC.___1____
d. He found out he was overdrawn.
e. He decided to open an account with another bank.
f. He used his debit card to buy a magazine.
g. He said he would pay the money he owed.
Answer C,F,A,D,B,G,E

INTRODUCTIONS
When you meet and greet someone for the first time introductions are needed. There are a number of
standard expressions that can be used for introductions. Take a look at some of them.

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English Expressions

Expression Response
Hello, I’m ( ... Ms. Jaines). Hello, Ms. Jaines, I’m Susan Appleton.
My name is ( ... John Grey). Nice to meet you Mr. Grey, I’m Mrs. Sukjoy.
I’m (... George Franks. What's your name)? My name is Sopida, Sopida Hakam. It’s a pleasure to meet
you Mr. Franks.
Allow me to introduce myself. My name is ( ... Frank I'm delighted to meet you Mr.Jeffers. My name is Pornpan
Jeffers). Orasa.

Introducing others
On occasion, you may find yourself in a situation where you have to introduce one person to another.
Look at these possible expressions that are used for this.

English Expressions

Expression
Sam: Peter, I would like to introduce (... Miss Helen Cranston).
Peter: Hello Miss Cranston, nice to meet you.
Helen: Nice to meet you too Mr. Kellogg.
Bob: Min Ju, this is ( ... my friend Betty Watson).
Min Ju: Hi Ms. Watson, a pleasure to meet you.
Betty: Same here.
Alice: Harry, let me introduce ( ...my supervisor, Mr.Lee).
Harry: Mr. Lee, it’s good to meet you.
Mr. Lee: Good to meet you too. But please, call me Sammy.

Point to remember
Many beginning learners use the expression “Nice to meet you” even when they interact with a person
they have already been introduced to. This expression (Nice to meet you) is only used at a first meeting,
not after that. Instead, if greeting a person for the second time, use “Nice to see you again”

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Farewells

Just as there are several standard expressions for greetings, there are also expressions of farewell. The
farewell itself is generally very short- one or two words. However, many times people add something to
the expressions, depending on what they want to happen in the future or the situation.

Expressions
Goodbye Bye
So long Catch you later
I have to run I have to be going now
So long Later dude
Good day

Extensions to farewells
See you again I hope to see you again
See you later (soon) Call me

Point to remember
Bye Bye is an expression that very young children use when they are first beginning to learn to talk or on
very rare occasions by women, but almost never by most adults.

Well Being

After the greeting are finished the conversation should be continued in some way. One of the most
common ways is ask about the other persons well being. Again, there are several expressions that can be
used for this. The responses to such inquiries will, of course, depend on how one actually feels. Lets take
a look at these.

Expressions Responses
IF GOOD
How are you? Great.
How’s it going? Couldn’t be better.
How are things? Fantastic.
IF SO-SO
How are things going? Could be worse.
How have you been? I can’t complain.
How do you feel? Not bad
IF BAD
How goes it? I’ve had better days.
How are you doing? Not too good.
How's life treating you? Lousy.

English Dialogue

Students should work together in pairs and read the following dialogue, one student reading one part, the
other student reading the other. Note the expressions used in the dialogue and the progression of the
conversation. The dialogue can be used as a model to have similar conversations.

Sam: Hello, you look lost. Can I be of assistance?


Mary: Oh, thanks. You’re right, I am lost. I’m looking for the Student Union building?
Sam: You’re close; it’s just across the lawn. It’s the three story brick building over there.
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Mary: see, well thanks a lot. You’ve been a big help.


Sam: Excuse me for saying so, but you’re not from around here, are you? Are you British or what?
Mary: Actually I’m Australian. I’m a new transfer student. You’re an American, I assume?
Sam: Yes, by the way I’m Sam, Sam Jones.
Mary: I’m Mary Donald. Pleased to meet you.
Sam: Yes, by the way I’m Sam, Sam Jones.
Mary: I’m Mary Donald. Pleased to meet you.
Sam: So how long have you been in the States, Mary?
Mary: I’ve been here about three weeks now. So, what’s your major Sam?
Sam: I’m a pre-med student. What’s yours?
Mary: I’m not sure yet, but I’m kind of interested in sociology.
Sam: So, do you live in the dorm?
Mary: Actually no, I have a small apartment about five blocks from here. Well, I have to run. Thanks
for your help. Maybe we’ll bump into each other again sometime.
Sam: Could be, it’s a pretty small campus. Nice to meet you, Mary. See you later.
Mary: So long.

After reading, close your book and tell your partner a summary of the dialogue. Then switch and have
your partner tell his or her summary. Start like this: This dialogue is about two people who meet...This
may seem silly, since you both already know what the dialogue is about, but the purpose is to practice
using your English, not to give information or test your reading skills

Alex is talking to the new manager and his assistant. Notice how they introduce themselves:

Alex: Hi! My name is Alex Litterman, the new manager.


William: Hi! I'm William O'Brian. Nice to meet you, Mr Alex Litterman.
John: William, please meet Mr Steve Lynch, my assistant
Jack: How do you do?
Nicolas: How do you do?

Things to remember:

 When introducing yourself or other people in a formal situation use full names. ("I'm
Alex Litterman.")
 "How do you do?" isn't really a question, it just means "Hello"

Conversation Activities

1. Pair work- Role Play


The situation: Meeting new people
Working with a partner, role play the situation, using the information below

The roles: See items below


1. One partner is a new student at a university meeting his/her major professor for the first time.
2. One partner has recently moved to a new neighborhood and is meeting their next door neighbor
for the first Time.
3. On partner is a new employee at a company meeting a coworker for the first time.
4. Both partners are strangers at a mutual friend’s party meeting for the first time.
5. One partner is a frightened earthling who is meeting a very friendly ET, who is here on earth
for vacation. The ET knows English.
6. Both partners are meeting blind dates.

2. Individual Assignment (10%)


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Interview someone in the class you do not know well. After the interview is over, the interviewer could
give a short introduction of the person to the whole class or to small groups of 4 to 6 people. Questions
you may want to ask during the interview include:

- Name - Age
- Where they are from - Job or major
- Number of people in their family - Hobbies
- His or her goal in life - Religion
- What their family members do - Marital status
- Favorite kinds of music (or food, movies, etc) - Why they want to learn Accouning

RELATIVE CLAUSES
What is a relative clause?

We can use relative clauses to join two English sentences, or to give more information about something.
I bought a new car. It is very fast.
→ I bought a new car that is very fast.
She lives in New York. She likes living in New York.
→ She lives in New York, which she likes.

Defining and Non-defining


A defining relative clause tells which noun we are talking about:
 I like the woman who lives next door.
(If I don’t say ‘who lives next door’, then we don’t know which woman I mean)

A non-defining relative clause gives us extra information about something. We don’t need this
information to understand the sentence.
 I live in London, which has some fantastic parks.
(Everybody knows where London is, ‘which has some fantastic parks’ is extra information)
Defining relative clauses:
1: The relative pronoun is the subject:

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First, let’s consider when the relative pronoun is the subject of a defining relative clause.

We can use ‘who’, ‘which’ or ‘that’. We use ‘who’ for people and ‘which’ for things. We can use ‘that’
for people or things.

The relative clause can come after the subject or the object of the sentence. We can’t drop the relative
pronoun.

For example (clause after the object of the sentence):

 I’m looking for a secretary who / that can use a computer well.
 She has a son who / that is a doctor.
 We bought a house which / that is 200 years old.
 I sent a letter which / that arrived three weeks later.

More examples (clause after the subject of the sentence):

 The people who / that live on the island are very friendly.
 The man who / that phoned is my brother.
 The camera which / that costs £100 is over there.
 The house which / that belongs to Julie is in London.

2: The relative pronoun is the object:

Next, let’s talk about when the relative pronoun is the object of the clause. In this case we can drop the
relative pronoun if we want to. Again, the clause can come after the subject or the object of the sentence.
Here are some examples:

(Clause after the object)


 She loves the chocolate (which / that) I bought.
 We went to the village (which / that) Lucy recommended.
 John met a woman (who / that) I had been to school with.
 The police arrested a man (who / that) Jill worked with.

(Clause after the subject)


 The bike (which / that) I loved was stolen.
 The university (which / that) she likes is famous.
 The woman (who / that) my brother loves is from Mexico.
 The doctor (who / that) my grandmother liked lives in New York.
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Non-defining relative clauses:

We don’t use ‘that’ in non-defining relative clauses, so we need to use ‘which’ if the pronoun refers to a
thing, and ‘who’ if it refers to a person. We can’t drop the relative pronoun in this kind of clause, even if
the relative pronoun is the subject of the clause.

(Clause comes after the subject)

 My boss, who is very nice, lives in Manchester.


 My sister, who I live with, knows a lot about cars.
 My bicycle, which I've had for more than ten years, is falling apart.
 My mother's house, which I grew up in, is very small.

(Clause comes after the object)

 Yesterday I called our friend Julie, who lives in New York.


 The photographer called to the Queen, who looked annoyed.
 Last week I bought a new computer, which I don't like now
 I really love the new Chinese restaurant, which we went to last night.

The table below sums up the use of relative pronouns in restrictive relative clauses:

Reference to
Function in
the sentence
People Things /concepts Place Time Explanation

Subject who, that which, that

Object (that, who, whom)* (which, that)* where when what/why

Possessive whose whose, of which

EXERCIS: 4.

Choose the correct answer for the following questions.


(Where, who, which, whose, when, whom, that, what, to whom,)

1.- The train ________ goes to Madrid leaves from platform 2.

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2.- The friend ________ CD I borrowed wants it back.


3.- Where’s the dog _________ lives next door?
4.- My friend Caroline, ________ is Scottish, tells funny jokes.
5.- If you can’t find the hotel ________ I stayed last weekend, I can tell you ________ to ask.
6.- Do you know ________ this mobile phone belongs to?
7.- The students didn’t understand ________ the teacher said.
8.- The meal ________ we had at the restaurant was very good.
9.- “Grease” was the first film ________ I saw at the cinema.
10.- The teacher, ________ I spoke this morning, said I was doing very well.

Reading Comprehension 2

Pre-Reading Activities

Discuss the following questions with your classmates.


1. What obstacles and success have you experienced in your academic life
so far?
2. How do you think success in college can be achieved?
3. As a university student, what problems do you expect to face in your
way of reaching your goals?
Factors that Lead to Success in College
The road to success in college is full of obstacles that might interfere with students reaching their goals.
Despite these obstacles, students can achieve their dreams of earning their degree. They need support
from families and friends, strong motivation, and the ability to focus.

First, college students need the support of their families to succeed. If they are lucky, they have families
that protect and nurture them. Their family members act as helping hands, friends who they can depend
on emotionally. Students need this support system to help them realize their own capacity even when
they doubt themselves. For example, because the work load is too great or the exams are too hard,
students may get discouraged. Families can encourage them to preserve. In addition, tuition and books are
very expensive; consequently, some students are forced to work. If they receive financial assistance from
their families, they can dedicate all their times to their studies.

Students need to keep up the motivation they need to study. Students have many obligations to fulfill such
as completing homework, assignments, research projects; studying for exams, and writing term papers.
Many students work after school and arrive home late at night. Only dedicate and responsible students
will push themselves to finish their work before going to bed. When the options are to go to a party with
friends or stay at home and work, only determined students will choose to study.

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Students also need to focus on realistic academic goals. Many students are not aware of the importance of
selecting the right college and major. In fact, a wrong decision may result in waste of time and money.
For example, students may have very high expectations and select a major that presents demands they
cannot meet. In some career, they find themselves on a career path they do not even enjoy. As a result,
they may have to change their major or drop out of college when they realize that they cannot keep up
their grades. If they are more focused on what they want, the better their chances will be to achieve their
goals.

If students are enthusiastic about what they are studying, realistic about their academic goals, and receive
support from their families, their college journey will be easier. They need to transform themselves into
eagles. An eagle knows how to focus on what it wants and captures it even when the distance is great.

Comprehension Questions

A. Compete each of the following sentences based on the information from the passage.
1. To be successful in their education, college students need
______________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________.
2. The supports that college students need to get from their families are
__________________________ and ____________________________.
3. The obligations that college students need to fulfill are
______________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________.
4. The problems college students may face due to wrong decision on selecting the right institution
and the right major are
______________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________.
5. According to the passage, some of the factors that lead to success in college are
______________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________.
B. Based on the passage, say whether each of the following statements is true or false.
6. College students need someone to depend on economically, emotionally and
academically._____________
7. Working after school can be considered as one of the factors that affect success in
college.___________
8. Only dedicated and responsible students can be adequately motivated to finish their work before
going to bed after school. ____________
9. Selecting a wrong educational institution and area of study may lead to waste of time and money.
___________
10. It is hardly possible to succeed in college._______________
11. College students must become eagles in order to achieve their dreams of earning degrees.

C. Guess the contextual meaning of each of the following words.


12. obstacle (para.1) ___________________________________________________ .
13. realize (Para. 2) ___________________________________________________ .
14. obligation (Para. 3) ___________________________________________________ .

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15. meet (Para. 4) ___________________________________________________ .


16. enthusiastic (Para. 5) ___________________________________________________ .

GIVING ADVICE & WARNING

Giving Advice is to give (someone) a recommendation about what should be done.

Expressions of Asking for Advice Expressions of Giving Advice


 What should……………………….. ?  You should/ought to……….
 What do you think should………… ?  I think you should/ought to………
 What do you advise?  You ought to………………
 Could you give me some advice for ...?  I advise you to
 What you would advice?  If I were you, I would……..
 What would you do if……….?  I would recommend that you ……
 Do you think I should …..?  You’d better tell …………..
 You must to……………….

Warning is admonition (caution) notice, or pointing out on existing or potential danger, especially to one
who would otherwise would not be aware of it.

Expression of Warning
A warning means giving information of the danger or unexpected situation that my happen if a person
does something. He/she wants that person will be more careful. When we see a snake on a tree, for
example, we may shout our friends "Watch out" It means we inform them be careful and to pay attention
to the snake.

A warning is usually in the form of imperative, but it may occur with the modal "must" and "should"

Here are other examples of expressing warning.


1. Your little sister wants to cross the busy street. Then you warn her to cross carefully by saying,
"Mind the traffic!"
2. There is a long wire connected to the computer. At present you are using your computer and your
little brother is playing a toy car behind the computer. You see what he is doing and warm, "Dont
touch the wire!"
3. There is blackout in the neighborhood. A father lights a lantern and puts it on the table. His son is
amazed and plays with the lantern. When the father sees, he warns, "Keep away from the fire!"
or "Don't play with the lantern!"
4. You are walking on the pavement with your friends in the rain. Suddenly you see a big hole on
the pavement. You want your friends by pointing at the hole and saying, "Look out!"
5. In the zoo, many cages of wild animals are applied with a warning board saying, "Beware of the
wild animals!"

Expression of Warning
 Look out! There is a snake beside you.  Be Silent
 Don’t step on the grass!.  No camping without permission!
 No smoking!  Do not cut down the trees!
 No hunting!  Keep out of the reach of children!

Dialogue Expressing of Giving Advice


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Hailu: Good morning, Gemedi.


Gemedi: Good morning, Hailu. (Looks confused)
Hailu: How are you, Nanda
Gemedi: I’m confused now.
Hailu: Why?
Gemedi: My girlfriend forbade me to follow the singing competition. If you
were me, what would you tell her?
Hailu: I would say that the competition is very important to you, and instead,
the prize of the competition would you give to her
Gemedi: That’s a good idea. I will do it. Thank you very much, Hailu. Now I
want to go to canteen. See you.
Hailu: You’re welcome. See you too.

Dialogue Expressing of Warning

Aster: “Mom, let me go out for awhile, please?”


Mother : “Where are you going to, Aster?”
Aster : “I’d like to visit Betty. She got accident this morning. She
is in the hospital now.”
Mother: “Okay, but take care when you drive! The road is very
slippery.”
Aster: “Thank you, Mom.”

Introduction to Principles of Public Speaking

Public speaking is nothing but talking to a group of people with some purpose. Osborn (1997) pp7-
28. Speeches serve a variety of purposes. The purpose may be anything from providing some information
or entertainment or even influence and make the audience act.

THE THREE MAIN TYPES OF PUBLIC SPEAKING

All speeches fall into one of three categories: speeches that inform, persuade, or entertain.

Speeches that inform explain, report, describe, clarify, define and demonstrate. Such speeches can move
an audience to action or belief. Their primary purpose is to present facts, details, and examples.

Speeches that persuade are designed to convince and the goal is to influence the audience’s beliefs or
attitudes. This can be accomplished by using your own credibility to strengthen your argument. Or you
can appeal to your audience’s emotions, reason, or sense of right and wrong.

Speeches that entertain use humor to influence an audience as in an after dinner speech. Once the
audience is warmed up, one main idea is presented, still on a light note. Note: This is the most difficult of
all presentations because it requires great ease and elegance and depends to a large degree on the
charisma of the speaker.

The three types often overlap. Therefore, it is important to isolate and understand the primary purpose of
your talk before you start preparation

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Identifying your Speaking Style

Generally speaking there are three different presentation styles:

The Cool Presenter captures the audience’s attention with clear-headed persuasiveness. During her
presentation things will be orderly and stay under control. These presenters are usually on a mission and
deliver their message with dramatic intensity. They draw on facts and figures to substantiate what is
being presented. Adjectives describing this presenter are analytical, logical, deliberate, rational,
intellectual and insightful.

The Hot Presenter can blow the roof off a building. You will probably either like or dislike this
presenter but no one ignores this kind. Her presentations are fast and furious, and often delivered with
rapid speech. She runs on adrenaline and pushes passions to the limit. The pause, the raising and
lowering of her voice, her body movements are all dramatic and enhance the points made. Hot presenters
are emotional, driven, charismatic, impulsive, and daring.

Dull Presenters are afraid to take risks so they remain bland and boring. You’ve likely endured a boring
speech at sometime. Dull presenters are safe but they don’t change much. Because they are so dull there
is minimal risk and it is easily forgotten. Dull seems to be the norm because so many people operate
within those boundaries. And few within an audience will tell a dull presenter that she is dull. Dull
presenters are cautious, predictable, ambivalent and boring.

There is no one best style since every presenter operates in all these zones but an inherent tendency will
pull one closer to one style than another. But the tendency for many is to drift toward the dull
periodically. This is usually due to laziness. To become a Cool Presenter takes a great deal of research
and preparation. The hot presenter involves more emotion than intellect. The Hot Presenter is a high-
risk, high-reward style involving a lot of action. The ideal is to have your presentation be a blend of hot
and cool, avoiding the dull

DELIVERING THE GOODS

There are four basic methods of delivering a speech:

(1) Reading a manuscript verbatim;


(2) Reciting a presentation from memory;
(3) Speaking impromptu; and
(4) Speaking extemporaneously.
 Reading a manuscript verbatim. A manuscript that is read has several disadvantages. Unless
the person who delivers the speech is extremely skilled the recitation will sound just as if it were
read and it will likely have a sing-song tone to it. Reading a manuscript also fails to give the
audience the eye contact necessary in order to keep attention. If you want to lose your audience
entirely pursue this mode!
 Reciting from memory. You comment every word of your speech to memory. You use no
notes and have no papers to place on the lectern. The speakers know each word of his/her
speech by heart each idea has been thoroughly examined beforehand and each word carefully put

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into place. She/he can even has a good idea of where appropriate gestures, facial expressions, and
movement will fit. These of course might not always true. The major problem with this method is
that the speaker usually end up spending so much time thinking of words in the speakers head
that he/she/ forget her/his message honestly. Consequently, the audience would get tired of the
speaker.
 Speaking impromptu. The impromptu speech is speaking at a gathering with little or no
preparation and without the use of notes. For many it might be likened to trial by fire, but it need
not be that bad. Impromptu speaking follows three basic rules:
(a) Have something important to say;
(b) Make your audience understand or believe it, and
(c) Speak simply, directly and meaningfully.
When you are asked to speak impromptu you are actually drawing on the years of experience
behind you. One advantage of speaking impromptu is that it automatically sounds natural and
spontaneous. Impromptu speaking is easy as long as you follow one rule: Know what you’re
talking about! And make sure you speak in complete sentences. You may think you speak in
complete sentences but you may often be guilty of speaking in fragments. In other words, no–
uhs, like maybe, em, you knows, or like sort of! Speaking in lucid, well-formed sentences
without any advance preparation is a real art.
 Speaking extemporaneously. Most of you will speak extemporaneously. The extemporaneous
talk is not totally off the cuff as in the impromptu speech. The extemporaneous presentation
includes brief notes and is carefully prepared and practiced in advance. However, the exact
wording is chosen at the time of delivery.

BASIC STRUCTURE OF SPEECH

Every speech is made up of basic elements of public speaking. Understanding and including each of those
elements can make a bad speech good, or a good speech great. Here's three of the most basic elements and
the considerations that each one should address.

1. INTRODUCTION. Most people don't pay enough attention to the introduction of a speech. The
introduction is one of the most important parts of the speech, because if you lose your audience at the
beginning, getting them back can be next to impossible. Here's some things that you should have in your
introduction.
 Attention. Arguably, the most important part of the introduction, you must get your audience's
attention. Ask a question, tell a joke, cite a quote, a startling statistic, any number of things can
serve the purpose well.
 Purpose. Why are you speaking to them? What will make listening worth their time? You might
present your purpose implicitly rather than explicitly, but you must present it somehow.
 Credibility. Many speakers neglect this part of an introduction, but depending on your topic, it
could be very important. Why are you qualified to talk on the things you are talking about? Do
not be arrogant, but be certain that your audience trusts and believes in you and your knowledge.
 Orientation. Is there any essential background your audience needs to know before you get to the
meat of your speech?
2. BODY. This is the main content portion of your speech. Exactly what you need to include will depend
on the purpose of your speech, but here are a few essential elements.
 Organization. Your audience needs to be able to follow you. Be certain that you have some sort
of pattern.

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 Transitions. Don't just jump from point to point, but smoothly move from one issue to the next.
Transitions are the 'bridges' of your speech. Without them, your audience will get disoriented and
you might leave them behind.
 Development. Your points should build on each other, combining into one grand whole. Go from
simple to more complex, ending with the most powerful.
 Climax. At some point, your speech should come to a head. Everything should come together,
your audience's emotions should be peaked right alongside you, and you should largely fulfill
your purpose in giving the speech. Developing a climax is, in my opinion, the hardest part of
speech writing (and the most powerful of the basic elements of public speaking).
3. CONCLUSION. Here, you should wrap up any loose ends. This is the final part of your speech, and
also the part your audience is most likely to remember. Be certain to include:
 A final closing example. Drive your point home with one more powerful demonstration.
 Call to action. What should your audience do now? If you weren't trying to persuade them to do
something, what is the most important point that they should take away from your speech?
 Why it mattered. Briefly recap what you said, reminding your audience why it mattered.

Read the passage. Then answer the questions below.


Tools of Persuasion
Persuasion is the art of convincing someone to agree with your point of view. According to the ancient
Greek philosopher Aristotle, there are three basic tools of persuasion: ethos, pathos, and logos.

Ethos is a speaker’s way of convincing the audience that she is a credible source. An audience will
consider a speaker credible if she seems trustworthy, reliable, and sincere. This can be done in many
ways. For example, a speaker can develop ethos by explaining how much experience or education she has
in the field. After all, you would be more likely to listen to advice about how to take care of your teeth
from a dentist than a firefighter. A speaker can also create ethos by convincing the audience that she is a
good person who has their best interests at heart. If an audience cannot trust you, you will not be able to
persuade them.

Pathos is a speaker’s way of connecting with an audience’s emotions. For example, a speaker who is
trying to convince an audience to vote for him might say that he alone can save the country from a terrible
war. These words are intended to fill the audience with fear, thus making them want to vote for him.
Similarly, a charity organization that helps animals might show an audience picture of injured dogs and
cats. These images are intended to fill the viewers with pity. If the audience feels bad for the animals, they
will be more likely to donate money.

Logos is the use of facts, information, statistics, or other evidence to make your argument more
convincing. An audience will be more likely to believe you if you have data to back up your claims. For
example, a commercial for soap might tell you that laboratory tests have shown that their soap kills all
7,000,000 of the bacteria living on your hands right now. This piece of information might make you more
likely to buy their brand of soap. Presenting this evidence is much more convincing than simply saying
“our soap is the best!” Use of logos can also increase a speaker’s ethos; the more facts a speaker includes
in his argument, the more likely you are to think that he is educated and trustworthy.

Although ethos, pathos, and logos all have their strengths, they are often most effective when they are
used together. Indeed, most speakers use a combination of ethos, pathos, and logos to persuade their
audiences. The next time you listen to a speech, watch a commercial, or listen to a friend try to convince
you to lend him some money, be on the lookout for these ancient Greek tools of persuasion.

1) As used in paragraph 2, what is the best antonym for credible?

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A. unintelligent B. boring C. dishonest D. amazing

2) Amy is trying to convince her mother to buy her a pair of $200 shoes. She says: “Mom, the shoes I
have are really old and ugly. If I don’t get these new shoes, everyone at school is going to laugh at me. I
will be so embarrassed that I will want to die.” What form of persuasion is Amy using here?

A. pathos B. ethos C. logos D. a combination of ethos, pathos, and logos

3) According to the passage, logos can build ethos because

A. an audience is more easily convinced by facts and information than simple appeals to emotions like
pity or fear
B. an audience is more likely to trust a speaker who uses evidence to support his argument
C. a speaker who overuses pathos might make an audience too emotional; audiences who are too
frightened or too sad are unlikely to be persuaded
D. a speaker can use misleading or false information to make his argument seem more convincing

4) Gareth is running for mayor. He tells his audience: “Under our current mayor, there have been 15,000
new cases of unemployment. If he stays in office, who knows how many more people will lose their jobs?
The number could go up even higher. When I was the CEO of Magnatech, I helped to create over 1,000
new jobs. I can do the same thing for this city if you vote for me.” Which form of persuasion is Gareth
using here?

I. pathos II. logos III. ethos

A. I only B. I and II only C. II and III only D. I, II, and III

5) According to the passage, the most effective tool of persuasion is

A. ethos, because you cannot persuade an audience that does not trust you
B. logos, because it can also be used to build ethos
C. a combination of ethos, pathos, and logos
D. pathos, because human beings are most easily persuaded by emotion

6) Imagine you wanted to convince an uninformed person to take a political position that is the same as
yours. What issue would you try to talk to this person about? How would you include ethos, pathos, and
logos in your persuasion? Make your case below.
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________

7) Some persuasive programming involves only ethos, some involves only pathos, and some involves
only logos. Which of these single-tactic persuasion types do you find most effective? Which one are least
effective? Why?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
8) Sometimes ethos, pathos, and logos can be used to make people believe things that are not entirely
true. Can you think of an example? How can people avoid being tricked by faulty persuasion tactics?

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_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________

READING COMPREHENSION 3

Read the following Passage and answer the questions that follow it.

The Fastest Growing Career

1. Where will the job of the future be? Many students who are not certain about their career path may be
asking this question. If you already know what field you want to work in, you might want to stick to your
plan. However, if you are one of the many students who are still confused about which career to pursue,
here are the jobs that will have the most growth in the number of people employed over the next decade.

2. The highest percentage of growth will be among computer scientists, computer engineers, computer
support specialists and system analysts. These are the best career opportunities for people with bachelor’s
or master’s degree in engineering or science. On the average, these occupational categories will grow by
106 percent. Personality types most suitable for these professions are those that are investigative in
nature. These occupations often involve working with ideas and require a lot of time thinking. They
require people to search for facts and figure out problems.

3. The second -highest percentage of growth will take place among database administrators and desktop
publishing specialists. These are highly desirable and attractive career options for people with a
bachelor’s or master’s degree in business administration. In addition, people who have special artistic
talents and enjoy working with computers will find these professions very rewarding. The average
growth rate in these occupational categories in the next ten years will be 75 percent.

4. The third-highest growth rate will be among personal care home health aids and human service workers
with associate’s degrees (two-year degrees). As the United States population continues to grow older over
the text decade, this field will increase by 55 percent. Within these groups, the highest-paid jobs for
people with associate’s degree will be respiratory therapists, cardiovascular technologists and nuclear
medicine technologists, with average growth rates of around 31 percent. For each of these jobs, employers
expected applicants to have a strong background in science and mathematics. Those in personal care
and human service occupations should be able to listen to and understand verbal information and, most
importantly, they should be able to communicate written information and medical instructions to their
clients.

5. In summary, the fastest growing careers for the 21st century will be in occupational areas related to
computer science and health and human services. We live in an information age where speed and
knowledge, as well as interpersonal relationship and the ability to provide the needed human service, are
the essence of life. All these occupations and skills represent the vital force or energy that drives the
economy.

A. Guess the contextual meaning of each of the following words/phrases.

1. Pursue (para. 1)
2. Figure out (para. 2)

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3. Talents (para. 3)
4. Background (para. 4)
5. Essence (para. 5)
6. Vital (para. 5)
B. Indicate what the reference words/nouns of the following pronouns mentioned in the
text are.

7. ‘These’ (para. 2) refers to ____________________.

8. ‘These’ (para. 3) refers to _____________________.

9. ‘They’ (para. 4) refers to _____________________.

10. ‘All these’ (para. 5) refers to _________________.

C. Answer each of the following comprehension questions.

11. List some of the essential skills/abilities/talents needed by

a) Computer engineers and scientists

b) Database administrators and publishing specialists

c) Health and human service providers

12. The highest-paid professions within the associate’s degree are


_______________________________________________________________________.

13. The top skills required to become a human service professional are
________________________________________________________________________

14. According to the writer, __________________________________________ are the forces that drive
the economy in the 21st century.

15. What are the fastest growing careers in Ethiopia?

Say true if the statement is correct and false if it is incorrect according to the given passages.

16. A person who is studying computer science will have more career opportunity than a person who is
studying health science.

17. A person who is studying engineering will have less career opportunity than a person who is studying
medicine.

18. The writer of the passage recommends people to change their professions/careers.

PASSIVE VOICE GRAMMAR

The passive voice is used when focusing on the person or thing affected by an action.
 The Passive is formed: Passive Subject + To Be + Past Participle

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The house was built in 1989.


 It is often used in business when the object of the action is more important than those who
perform the action.
For Example:
We have produced over 20 different models in the past two years. Changes to: Over 20 different
models have been produced in the past two years.
 If the agent is important (the person, company or thing that does the action) , use "by"
For Example: Tim Wilson wrote "The Flight to Brunnswick" in 1987. Changes to:"The Flight to
Brunnswick" was written in 1987 by Tim Wilson.
 Only verbs that take an object can be used in the passive voice.
Passive Voice Structure
Active Voice Passive Voice
They make Fords in Cologne. Fords are made in Cologne. Present Simple
Susan is cooking dinner. Dinner is being cooked by Susan Present Continuous
"Dubliners" was written by James
James Joyce wrote "Dubliners". Past Simple
Joyce.
They were painting the house when I The house was being painted when I
Past Continuous
arrived. arrived.
They have produced over 20 models Over 20 models have been produced
Present Perfect
in the past two years. in the past two years.
They are going to build a new factory A new factory is going to be built in Future Intention with
in Portland. Portland. Going to
I will finish it tomorrow. It will be finished tomorrow. Future Simple
EXERCISE

Ex. 1. Put the sentences into the Passive Voice.


1. The secretary has recently brought this letter.
2. Jack has just spilled the milk.
3. My little brother has broken this cup.
4. She has dusted the room carefully.
5. He felt better when he had reached the post office, bought a registered envelope and posted the
letter.
6. By the time the director came she had typed the letters.
7. They went home after they had finished the work.
8. He wondered why we had not visited him before.
9. Car has been lent to me for the week.
10. They will have passed the exams by the end of June.
11. Somebody had cleaned my shoes and brushed my suit.
12. Previous climbers had cut steps in the ice.
13. We shall have finished this report by 6 o’clock.
14. Somebody had slashed the picture with a knife.
15. The burglars had cut an enormous hole in the steel door.
16. Someone has already told her to report for duty at six.
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17. Compare clothes which we have washed with clothes which any other laundry has washed.
18. The author will have written a special edition for children by the end of the year.
19. Have they bought the books?
20. Nobody have noticed the girl.
21. Have you given the children their milk?
22. What have you done about it?
23. They have built the house in record time.
24. By the time he came we had done it all.
25. They have proved the scientific theory to be false.

Ex. 2. Underline all the passives.


Acid rain is caused by burning coal and oil. When either fuel is burned, it releases poisonous gases which
are carried up into the atmosphere and sometimes transported long distances.

Over 3000 research projects have been carried out to look into acid rain, and a decision to tackle the
problem has been taken in most of the western European countries. Measures have been taken in
Scandinavia and in Central Europe to stop the pollution before it is dumped on the environment: and a
diplomatic campaign has been launched to countries that the problem has to be considered as a major
ecological threat.

“Five years ago this issue was not being treated seriously,” says one of the leading environmental groups,
“but now that damage has been reported in large areas of forest and Lakeland our politicians are being
forced to take action. This problem must be solved quickly: if governments do nothing, they will be faced
in two or three years time with the accusation that they have allowed our forests to die.” A major
international initiative to combat acid rain is expected in the near future.

Ex. 3. Complete the text with expressions given below.

had been given had been told had never been taught was offered was given (twice)
was promised was shown wasn’t being paid was sent

I’ll never forget my first day at that office. I __(1)__ to arrive at 8.30, but when I got there the whole
place seemed to be empty. I didn’t know what to do, because I __(2)__ no information about the building
or where I was going to work, so I just waited around until some of the secretaries began to turn up.
Finally I __(3)__ a dirty little office on the fifth floor, where I __(4)__ a desk in a corner. Nothing
happened for an hour; then I __(5)__ some letters to type on a computer by one of the senior secretaries.
This wasn’t very successful, because I __(6)__ how to use a computer. (in the letter I __(7)__ when I
__(8)__ the job, I __(9)__ computer training, but they’d obviously forgotten about this.) By lunchtime
things hadn’t got any better, and I decided that I __(10)__ enough to put up with the nonsense, so I
walked out and didn’t go back.

Ex. 4. Write in the correct form of the verbs in the passive voice (present or past simple).

1. In the USA, obesity __________ (consider) a serious health problem.


2. Many years ago, fried fish __________ (make) popular in the UK by the Portuguese.
3. Nowadays, children __________ (teach) to eat healthily at school.
4. Tomatoes __________once __________ (think) to be poisonous by the Italians.
5. __________fast food __________ (sell) in Portuguese schools?

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6. Bananas __________only __________ (bring) to the British markets in the 20th century.
7. Smoking __________ (not/ allow) in public facilities.
8. Last year, more than £3 billion __________ (spend) in Indian restaurants in England.
9. Before Columbus got to America, potatoes __________ (not/ grow) in Europe.
10. __________orange juice still __________ (deliver) in the UK?
Answer

1. is considered, 2.was made, 3. are taught, 4. were thought, 5. is sold, 6. were brought, 7. is not
allowed, 8. were spent, 9. weren’t grown, 10. is delivered

Choose the most correct way of saying the same thing in the PASSIVE VOICE:

1. They were interviewing her for the job.


She ________________ for the job.
A. was being interviewed B. was interviewed C. has been interviewed
2. Tom is writing the letter.
The letter ________________ by Tom.
A. was written B. is being written. C. has been written
3. Everyone understands English.
English ________________ by everyone.
A. is understood B. has been understood C. was understood
4. The employees brought up this issue during the meeting.
This issue ________________ by the employees during the meeting.
A. has been brought up B. is brought up C. was brought up
5. The professor told him not to talk in class.
He ________________ by the professor not to talk in class.
A. has been told B. was told C. was being told
6. They say that women are smarter than men.
Women ________________ to be smarter than men.
A. were being said B. were said C. are said
7. The fire has destroyed the house.
The house ________________ by the fire.
A. has been destroyed B. was being destroyed C. is destroyed
8. She would have told you.
You ________________ by her.
A. would have been told B. would be told C. were being told
9. She would reject the offer.
The offer ________________ by her.
A. will have been rejected B. would be rejected C. will be rejected
10. This surprises me.
I ________________ by this.
A. would have been surprised B. will be surprised C. am surprised
Passive and active exercises
EXERCISE-1
Directions: Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verb (ACTIVE OR PASSIVE) in
parentheses.
1. The Amazon Valley is extremely important to the ecology of the earth. Forty percent of the
world’s oxygen (produce) __________ there.
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2. Right now Robert is in the hospital. He (treat) __________ for a bad burn on his hand and arm.
3. The game (win, probably) __________ by the other team tomorrow. They’re a lot better than we
are.
4. There was a terrible accident on a busy downtown street yesterday. Dozens of people (see)
__________ it, including my friend, who (interview) __________ by police.
5. Frostbite may occur when the skin (expose) __________ to extreme cold. It most frequently
(affect) __________ the skin of the cheeks, chin, ears, fingers and toes.
6. In my country, certain price, such as the price of medical supplies, (control) __________ by the
government. Other prices (determine) __________ by how much consumers are willing to pay for
a product.
7. Yesterday a purse-snatch (catch) __________ by a dog. While the thief (chase) __________ by
the police, he (jump) __________ over a fence into someone’s yard, where he encountered a
ferocious dog. The dog (keep) __________ the thief from escaping.
8. The first fish (appear) __________ on the earth about 500 million years ago. Up to now, more
than 20,000 kinds of fish (name) __________ and (describe) __________ by scientists. New
species (discover) __________ every year, so the total increases continually.
9. Richard Anderson is a former astronaut. Several years ago, when he was 52, Anderson (inform)
__________ by his superior at an aircraft corporation that he could no longer be a test pilot. He
(tell) __________ that he was being relieved of his duties because of his age. Anderson took the
corporation to court for age discrimination.
10. In 1877, a network of lines (discover) __________ on the surface of Mars by an Italian
astronomer, Giovanni Schiaparelli. The astronomer (call) __________these lines “channels” but
when the Italian word (translate) __________into English, it become “canal” as a result, some
people thought the lines were waterways that (build) __________ by some unknown creature. We
now know that the lines are not really canals. Canals (exist, not) __________on Mars.
11. Carl Gauss (recognize) __________as a mathematical genius when he was ten. One day a
professor gave him an arithmetic problem. Carl (ask) __________ to add up all the numbers from
1 to 1000 (1+2+3+…..1000). It (take) __________ him only eight seconds to solve the problem.
How could he do it so quickly? Carl could do it quickly because he (know) __________ that each
pair of numbers 1 plus 100, 2 plus 99, 3 plus 98, and so on to 50 plus 51 equal 101. So he
(multiply) __________ 50 times 101 and (come) __________ up with the answer: 5,050.
12. Captain Cook, a British navigator, was the first European to reach Australia’s east coast. While
his ship was lying off Australia, his sailors (bring) __________ a strange animal on board. Cook
wanted to know the name of this unusual creature, so he (send) __________ his men ashore to
ask the native inhabitants. When the natives (ask) __________in impromptu sign language to
name the animals, they said “Kangaroo.” The sailors, of course, believed “Kangaroo” was the
animal’s name. Years later, the truth (discover) __________ “Kangaroo” means “what did you
say?” but today the animal (call, still) __________ a kangaroo in English.
EXERCISE 2
Directions: Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verb (ACTIVE OR PASSIVE) in
parentheses.
1. Yesterday our teacher (arrived) arrived five minutes late.
2. Our morning paper (read) ___________by over 200,000 people every day.
3. Last night my favorite TV program (interrupt) ___________by a special news bulletin.
4. That's not my coat. It (belong) ___________to Louise.
5. Our mail (deliver) ___________before noon every day.
6. The "b" in "comb" (pronounce, not) ___________. It is silent.
7. A bad accident (happen) ___________on Highway 95 last night.
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8. When I (arrive) ___________at the airport yesterday, I (meet) ___________ by my cousin and a
couple of her friends.
9. Yesterday I (hear) ___________ about Margaret's divorce. I (surprise) ___________by the
news. Janice (shock) ___________
10. A new house (build) ___________ next to ours next year.
11. Roberto (write) ___________this composition last week. That one (wire) __________by
Abdullah.
12. Radium (discover) ___________by Marie and Pierre Curie in 1898.
13. At the soccer game yesterday, the winning goal (kick) ___________by Luigi. Over 100,000
people (attend) ___________the soccer game.
14. A: Do you understand the explanation in the book?
B: No, I don't. I (confuse) ___________ by it.
15. A: Where are you going to go to school next year?
B: I (accept) ___________ by Shoreline Community College.
16. A: I think football is too violent.
B: I (agree) ___________with you. I (prefer) ___________baseball.
17. A: When (your bike, steal) ___________ ?
B: Two days ago.
18. A: (you, pay) ___________your electric bill yet?
B: No, I haven't, but I'd better pay it today. If I don't, my electricity (shut off) _________ by the
power company.
19. A: Did you hear about the accident?
B: No. What (happen) ___________?
A: A bicyclist (hit) ___________by a taxi in front of the dorm.
B: (the bicyclist, injure) ___________?
A: Yes. Someone (call) ___________an ambulance. The bicyclist (take) ___________to City
Hospital and (treat) ___________ in the emergency ward for cuts and bruises.
B: What (happen) ___________to the taxi driver?
A: He (arrest) ___________for reckless driving.
B: He's lucky that the bicyclist (kill, not) ___________.
20. The Eiffel Tower (be)___________ in Paris, France. It (visit) ___________ by millions of people
every year. It (design) ___________ Alexander Eiffel (1832-1923). It (erect) ___________in
1889 for the Paris exposition. Since that time, it (be) ___________the most famous landmark in
Paris. Today it (recognize) ___________ by people throughout the world.

EXERCISE 3
Directions: Complete the sentences with the correct forms of the verbs in parentheses.

Almost everyone (1. enjoy) enjoys visiting a zoo. Today zoos are common. The first zoo (2. Establish)
____________ around 3500 years ago by an Egyptian queen for her personal enjoyment. Five hundred
years later, a Chinese emperor (3. establish) ____________ a huge zoo to show his power and wealth.
Later zoos (4. establish) ____________for the purpose of studying animals.

Some of the early European zoos were dark holes or dirty cages. At that time, people (5. disgust)
____________by the bad conditions and the mistreatment of the animals. Later, these early zoos (6.
replace) ____________ by scientific institutions where animals (7. study) ____________ and in good
condition. These research centers (8. become) ____________the first modern zoos.

As early as the 1940s, scientists (10. understand) ____________ that many kinds of wild animals faced
extinction. Since that time, zoos (11. try) ____________to save many endangered species, but relying on
zoos to save species such as the rhinoceros is not enough. In the 1980%t he number of rhinos in the world
(12. reduce) ____________from 10,000 to 400. Many rhinos (13. kill) ____________ by poachers, but
many also (14. die)___________ in captivity. Zoo breeding programs for rhinos have not been successful.
The best method of conservation (15. be) ____________to leave them in their natural habitat. By 1999,
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there (16. be) ____________ more than 13,000 rhinos again living in the wild. These rhinos (17. save)
____________ from extinction by the strong conservation methods of local communities, government
agencies, and private landowners. Wildlife biologists still fear that some subspecies of the rhino in Africa
and Indonesia (18. become) ____________extinct in the near future. Some scientists (19. believe)
____________ that half of all animal species in zoos will also be in danger of extinction by the middle of
this century.

Because zoos want to treat animals humanely and encourage breeding, today animals (20. Put)
____________ in large, natural settings instead of small cages. They (21. watch) ____________carefully
for any signs of disease and (22. feed) ____________a balanced diet. Most zoos (23. have)
____________ specially trained veterinarians and a hospital for animals.

They also have specially trained keepers. Food (24. prepare) ____________ in the zoo kitchen. The food
program (25. design) ____________ to satisfy the animals' particular needs. For example, some snakes
(26. feed) only once a week, while some birds (27. feed) ____________ several times a day. Today zoo
animals (28. treat) ____________well, and zoo breeding programs are important in the attempt to save
many species of wildlife.

EXERCISE 4
Directions: Complete the sentences with any appropriate tense, active or passive, of the verbs in
parentheses.

In prehistoric times, huge herds of horses (1. live) lived throughout the Americas. But then, for some
unknown reason, they (2. disappear) _____________ completely from North and South America. Even
though the early horses (3. die) _____________ out in the Americas, they (4. survive) _____________ in
Asia.

Long ago, horses (5. domesticate)* _____________ by central Asian nomads. At first, horses (6. use) in
war and in hunting, and oxen (7. use) _____________ for farming. Later, horses also (8. become)
_____________ farm animals.

Horses (9. reintroduce) ___________ into the Americas by Spaniards early in the fifteenth century.
Spanish explorers (10. come) _____________ in ships to the New World with their horses on board.
When the explorers (11. return) _____________ to Spain, they (12. leave) some of their horses behind.
These (13. develop) _____________ into wild herds. Native American tribes in the western plains (14.
begin) __________ to use horses around 1600. Wild horses (15. capture) _________ and (16. tame)
___________ for use in war and in hunting.

In the 1800s, there were several million wild horses in North America. By the 1970s, that number had
become less than 20,000. The wild horses (17. hunt)_____________ and (18. kill) ___________
principally for use as pet food. Today in the United States, wild horses (19. protect) __________ by law.
They (20. can kill, not) _____________ for sport or profit. What is your opinion? (21. Wild horses,
should protect) _____________ by law?

*People domesticate (tame) animals,

Answer for Exercise 1

1. is produced 8. appeared ……have been named ……described


2. is being treated ……are being discovered …..are discovered
3. will probably be won/is probably 9. was informed ……was told
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going to be won 10. was discovered ……called ……was translated


4. saw ……was interviewed ……had been built ……don’t exist
5. is exposed ……affects 11. was recognized ……was asked ……took ……knew
6. is controlled ……are determined ……came
7. was caught ……was being 12. brought ….. sent ……were asked ……were
chased ……jumped ……kept discovered ……is still called

Answers for Exercise 2


1. Enjoyed 12. Was discovered
2. Is read 13. Was kicked …..attended
3. Was interrupted 14. Am confused
4. Belongs 15. Have been accepted
5. Is delivered 16. Agree …..prefer
6. Is not pronounced 17. Was your bike stolen
7. Happened 18. Have you paid …..will be …..is going to be shut off
8. Arrived ….. was met 19. Happened ….. was hit ….. was the bicyclist injured
9. Heard …..was surprised …..called/ was taken ….. (was) treated …..happened
…..was shocked …..was arrested …..wasn’t killed
10. Will be built/is going to be 20. Is ….. is visited …..was designed …..was erected …..has
built been …..is recognized
11. Wrote…..was written

Answer for Exercise 3


1. Enjoys 15. Is
2. Was established 16. Were
3. Established 17. Were saved (also possible; have been saved
4. Were established 18. Will become
5. Were disgusted 19. Believe
6. Were replaced 20. Are put
7. Were studied 21. Are watched
8. (were) kept 22. Are fed
9. Became 23. Have
10. Understood 24. Is prepared
11. Have been trying/ have tried 25. Is designed
12. Was reduced 26. Are fed
13. Were killed 27. Are fed
14. Died 28. Are treated

Answer for Exercise 4


1. Lived 12. Left
2. Disappeared 13. Developed
3. Died 14. Began
4. Survived 15. Were captured
5. Were domesticated 16. (were) tamed
6. Were used 17. Were hunted
7. Were used 18. (were ) killed
8. Became 19. Are protected
9. Were reintroduced 20. Cannot be killed
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10. Came 21. Should wild horses be protected


11. Returned

CONDITIONAL CLAUSES
The first conditional
USE
• The first conditional refers to the future. It is used when there is a possibility that the if-event might
happen.
If it rains, we'll go to the cinema. (= It might rain: it might not)
If the sun shines, we'll go to the beach. [ = The sun might shine: it might not)
Note: going to is sometimes used in the first conditional to describe a future plan:
If it rains, we're going to visit my mother.

FORM
if + present simple Future
If you drop it, it'll break.
If you come at ten, we'll be ready.
If you phone me, I'll pick you up at the park.

or future if + present simple


It'll break If you drop it.
We'll be ready If you come at ten.
I'll pick you up later If you phone me.
Practice
Write these sentences, putting the verbs in brackets into the present simple or the future simple.
1. If the train's late, we (walk).
If the train's late, well walk.
2. She (call) you if she (have) time.
She'll call you If she has time.
3. If it costs too much, I (buy) a smaller one.______________________________________
4. If the doctor can't see me, I (go) somewhere else.________________________________
5. If the class (be) full, we (find) another one. _____________________________________
6. What will we do if the taxi (not come)? ______________________________________
7. Will you phone me if there (be) any problems? _________________________________
8. I (ask) Peter if I (see) him tomorrow. ________________________________________
9. I (go) next week, if 1 (can) get a train ticket. ___________________________________
10. If I (have) to, I (complain) to the manager. ____________________________________

ANSWER
1. we'll walk
2. she'll call ... she has
3. I'll buy
4. I'll go
5. is ... we'll find
6. doesn't come
7. are
8. I'll ask ... I see
9. I'll go ... I can
10. I have to ... I'll complain

The second conditional


USE
• The second conditional refers to the present or future.
The if-event is cither
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a) hypothetical;
If I worked in that factory, I'd soon change things, (but I don't work in that factory)
If I spoke French, my job would be a lot easier, (but I don't speak French)
b) unlikely:
If she left her husband, she might be happier, (but T don't think she's going to leave her husband)
FORM
if + past simple would/could/might + infinitive
If T lived by the sea, I would do a lot of swimming.
If they asked me to work for them. I might accept.

or would/could/might + infinitive if + past simple


I would do a lot of swimming if I lived by the sea.
I might accept if they asked me to work for them.
Notes
• The 'past' here is actually the subjunctive, which is the same as the past simple except for two forms - I
and he/she + were:
If I were you, I'd change my job.
If John were here, he wouldn't be very happy.
• In conventional English, these two forms can be replaced by the past:
If I was you, I'd change my job.
If John was here, he wouldn't be very happy.
• would is often shortened to 'd.
Practice
Write these sentences, putting the verbs in brackets into the correct tense.
1. If you drove more carefully, you (not have) so many accidents.
If you drove more carefully, you wouldn't have so many accidents.
2. If he (get up) earlier, he'd get to work on time.
If he got up earlier, he'd get to work on time.
3. If we (have) more time, I could tell you more about it.____________________________.
4. If you (sell) more products, you'd earn more money. ____________________________.
5. I could help you if you (trust) me more. _______________________________________.
6. His car would be a lot safer if he (buy) some new tyres. _________________________.
7. The children would be better swimmers if they (go) swimming more frequently._______.
8. I wouldn't mind having children if we (live) in the country. _______________________.
9. If I (be) you, I wouldn't worry about going to university. ________________________.
10. If I (have) any money, I'd give you some. _____________________________________.
ANSWER

1. you wouldn't have


2. he got up
3. we had
4. you sold
5. you trusted
6. he bought
7. they went
8. we lived
9. I were/was you
10. I had

First and second conditional


CONTRAST
Some students get confused by the difference between the first and second conditional. Look at these two
sentences;
a) If she works harder, she'll pass her exams.
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b) If she worked harder, she'd pass her exams.


The difference between the two sentences can be found by asking the question, 'Is she going to work
harder?' In sentence a) the answer is, 'Maybe - and maybe not'. The answer to sentence b) is, 'Probably
not'. The difference is the idea in the speaker's mind of what is going to happen. The if-event in a first
conditional sentence is more likely to happen than the if-event in a second conditional.

Check
Circle the correct answer to the questions below.
1. 'If Mary found out what was happening, she'd be very angry.'
Is Mary going to find out what's happening?
A Maybe (B) Probably not
2. 'If Mary finds out what's happening, she'll be very angry.'
Is Mary going to find out what's happening?
A Maybe (B) Probably not
3. 'If they sacked him, the factory would go on strike.'
Are they going to sack him?
A Maybe B Probably not
4. 'If they sack him, the factory will go on strike.'
Are they going to sack him?
A Maybe B Probably not
5. 'What would you do if someone told us to leave?
Is someone going to tell us to leave?
A Maybe B Probably not
6. 'What will you do if someone tells us to leave?'
Is someone going to tell us to leave?
A Maybe B Probably not
7. 'If they don't agree with me, I'll go to the director.'
Are they going to agree with me?
A Maybe B Probably not
8. 'If they didn't agree with me, I'd go to the director.'
Do they usually agree with me?
A Maybe B Yes C No
9. 'If I don't like your ideas, I'll say so.'
Am I going to like your ideas?
A Maybe not B Probably
10. 'If I didn't like your ideas, I'd say so.'
Do I usually like your ideas?
A Maybe B Yes C No

ANSWER

1B 2A 3B 4A 5B 6A 7A 8B 9A 10B

Zero conditional
There is another conditional which is often called zero conditional.
USE
• If has the same meaning as when here.
The zero conditional is used:
a) For instructions:
 If you select reverse gear, the car goes backwards.
 If the camera is on, a red light appears.
b) For general truths:
 If he's got no money, he doesn't go oat.
 Lie always says hello if he sees you.
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FORM
if + present simple present simple
If you press the button, the machine switches off.
If you go in the best seats, you get a free drink.

or present simple if + present simple


The machine switches off if you press this button.
You get a free drink if you go in the best seats.

Put the verbs into the correct tense.


1. Water (freeze) if the temperature falls below zero.
Water freezes if the temperature falls below zero,
2. If he's angry, his face always (go) bright red.___________________________________.
3. If you put your money in a savings account, you (get) ten per cent interest.___________.
4. If the microphone isn't working, you (can, not) hear what he's saying.________________.
5. The radio (not work) if the batteries are flat.____________________________________.
6. If there (be} only a few students, we usually close one of the classes.________________.
7. The machine (not work) if it doesn't have enough oil.____________________________ .
8. If a balloon is filled with hot air, it (rise).______________________________________.
9. If water (boil), it changes into steam._________________________________________.
10. The machine stops automatically if something (go) wrong.________________________.
ANSWER

1. freezes 2. goes 3. get 4. can't 5. doesn't work 6. are 7. doesn't work 8. rises 9. boils 10. goes
Complete the following conditional sentences with suitable phrases.

1. OK, OK, I’ll lend you the money as long as you pay me back next week.(pay back)
2. What would you do if your car __________ miles from anywhere? (break out/run out of)
3. If you __________ woolen clothes in hot water, they shrink. (wash)
4. Quite frankly, I think you’re going to fail the exam unless you __________ harder. (work)
5. I know he’s hardly ever around these days but if you __________ him, tell him to get back in
touch. (see)
6. But supposing our train is late, how _____ we _____ the airport on time? (get)
7. I can’t get off to sleep at night unless I __________ a hot drink.(have)
8. If my boyfriend spoke to me like that, I __________ his face.(slap)
9. You can borrow my video camera on condition that you __________ it properly. (use/look after)
10. If you drop a cat, it always __________ on its feet. (land)
11. I’d apply for that job as an interpreter if __________ better French. (speak)
12. Should __________ further information, please contact our publicity officer. (require)
13. I’m going to take a big pullover in case __________ very cold. (get/turn)
14. I’m sure you __________ those headaches all the time if you wore your glasses more often.
(get/have)
15. Provided there __________ no more objections, we’ll continue with the next point on the agenda.
(are/have)
16. Suppose I __________ on the desert island, how would you survive? (shipwreck/strand)
17. I’d go and see the doctors with that rash if I __________ you. (are)
18. We should be able to pay tennis on Friday afternoon unless__________ , of course.(rain)
19. Should __________ in the neighborhood, feel free to call in. (be/find)
20. I’d pay a lot more sport if I __________ so much work to do.( do/have)

ANSWER

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1. Pay back 11. Spoke/could speak


2. Broke down/ran out of petrol 12. You require (any)
3. Wash 13. It gets/turns
4. You work 14. Would not get/have
5. (should) see him 15. There are/you have
6. Will we get to 16. You were shipwrecked/stranded
7. I have 17. I were /I was
8. I’d slap 18. It rains/’s raining
9. You use/look after it 19. You be/find yourself
10. Lands 20. Didn’t (always) have

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REPORTED SPEECH

Reported Statements

 When do we use reported speech? Sometimes someone says a sentence, for example "I'm going
to the cinema tonight". Later, maybe we want to tell someone else what the first person said.

We use a 'reporting verb' like 'say' or 'tell'. If this verb is in the present tense, it's easy. We just put 'she
says' and then the sentence:

 direct speech: “I like ice cream”


 reported speech: She says she likes ice cream

We don't need to change the tense, though probably we do need to change the 'person' from 'I' to 'she', for
example. We also may need to change words like 'my' and 'your'.

But, if the reporting verb is in the past tense, then usually we change the tenses in the reported speech:

 direct speech: “I like ice cream”


 reported speech: She said she liked ice cream

Tense Direct Speech Reported Speech


present simple “I like ice cream” She said (that) she liked ice cream.
present
“I am living in London” She said she was living in London.
continuous
She said she had bought a car OR She said she
past simple “I bought a car”
bought a car.
past continuous “I was walking along the street” She said she had been walking along the street.
present perfect “I haven’t seen Julie” She said she hadn’t seen Julie.
past perfect* “I had taken English lessons She said she had taken English lessons before.

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before”
Will “I’ll see you later” She said she would see me later.
would* “I would help, but..” She said she would help but...
Can “I can speak perfect English” She said she could speak perfect English.
could* “I could swim when I was four” She said she could swim when she was four.
Shall “I shall come later” She said she would come later.
should* “I should call my mother” She said she should call her mother
might* "I might be late" She said she might be late
She said she must study at the weekend OR She
Must "I must study at the weekend"
said she had to study at the weekend

REPORTED SPEECH: CHANGE OF TIME AND PLACE


Time/place references change when using reported speech
Changes in time and place words

now then, at that time


today that day
tomorrow the following day, the next day, a day later
yesterday the previous day, the day before
next month the following month, the next month, a month later
next year the following year, the next, year, a year later
last month the month before, the previous month, the preceding month
last year the year before, the previous year, the preceding year
in two days weeks) two days from then, two weeks from then
five days ago five days before, five days earlier
five weeks ago five weeks before, five weeks earlier
here there

Example
here tomorrow there the next day
"I will see you here tomorrow", she said She said that she would see me there the next day
Today that day
"I saw him today", she said. She said that she had seen him that day.
Yesterday the day before
"I saw him yesterday", she said. She said that she had seen him the day before.
The day before yesterday two days before
"I met her the day before yesterday", he said. He said that he had met her two days before.
Tomorrow the next/following day
"I'll see you tomorrow", he said He said that he would see me the next day.
The day after tomorrow in two days time/ two days later
"We'll come the day after tomorrow", they said. They said that they would come in two days time/
two days later.
Next week/month/year the following week/month/year
"I have an appointment next week", she said. She said that she had an appointment the following
week.
Last week/month/year the previous/week/month/year
"I was on holiday last week", he told us. He told us that he had been on holiday the previous
week.
Ago Before

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"I saw her a week ago," he said. He said he had seen her a week before.
this (for time) That
"I'm getting a new car this week", she said. She said she was getting a new car that week.
this/that (adjectives) The
Do you like this shirt?" he asked He asked if I liked the shirt.
here There
He said, "I live here". He told me he lived there.

Reported Questions

Normal word order is used in reported questions, that is, the subject comes before the verb, and it is not
necessary to use 'do' or 'did':

Direct Question Reported Question


“Where is the Post Office, please?” She asked me where the Post Office was.
“What are you doing?” She asked me what I was doing.
“Who was that fantastic man?” She asked me who that fantastic man had been.
"Where does Peter live?" She asked him where Peter lived.
"where is Julie?" She asked me where Julie was.

Yes / no questions: This type of question is reported by using 'ask' + 'if / whether + clause:

Direct Question Indirect Question


"Do you speak English?" He asked me if I spoke English.
"Are you British or American?" He asked me whether I was British or American.
"Is it raining?" She asked if it was raining.
"Have you got a computer?" He wanted to know whether I had a computer.
"Can you type?" She asked if I could type.
"Did you come by train?" He enquired whether I had come by train.
"Have you been to Bristol before?" She asked if I had been to Bristol before
"Do you like chocolate?" She asked me if I liked chocolate.
“Do you love me?” He asked me if I loved him.
“Have you ever been to Mexico?” She asked me if I had ever been to Mexico.
“Are you living here?” She asked me if I was living here.

REPORTED REQUESTS AND ORDERS

 Make reported requests or orders. Start each sentence with 'she asked me' or 'she told me'. It's the
same day, so you don't need to change the time expressions.

Reported Requests

There's more! What if someone asks you to do something (in a polite way)? For example:

 Direct speech: "Close the window, please" or: "Could you close the window please?" or:
"Would you mind closing the window please?"

All of these requests mean the same thing, so we don't need to report every word when we tell another
person about it. We simply use 'ask me + to + infinitive':


Reported speech: She asked me to close the window
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Here are a few more examples:

Direct Request Reported Request


“Please help me” She asked me to help her.
“Please don’t smoke” She asked me not to smoke.
“Could you bring my book tonight?” She asked me to bring her book that night.
“Could you pass the milk, please?” She asked me to pass the milk.
“Would you mind coming early tomorrow?” She asked me to come early the next day.
"Please help me carry this" She asked me to help her carry this.
"Please come early" She asked me to come early.
"Please buy some milk" She asked me to buy some milk.
"Could you please open the window?" She asked me to open the window.
"Could you bring the book tonight?" She asked me to bring the book tonight.
"Can you help me with my homework, please?" She asked me to help her with her homework.
"Would you bring me a cup of coffee, please?" She asked me to bring her a cup of coffee.
"Would you mind passing the salt?" She asked me to pass the salt.
"Would you mind lending me a pencil?" She asked me to lend her a pencil.
"I was wondering if you could possibly tell me the time?" She asked me to tell her the time.

*To report a negative request, use 'not':

 Direct speech: "Please don't be late"


 Reported speech: She asked us not to be late.

Reported Orders

And finally, how about if someone doesn't ask so politely? We can call this an 'order' in English, when
someone tells you very directly to do something. For example:

 Direct speech: "Sit down!"

In fact, we make this into reported speech in the same way as a request. We just use 'tell' instead of 'ask':

 Reported speech: She told me to sit down

Direct Order Reported Order


"Do your homework!" She told me to do my homework.
"Don't smoke!" She told me not to smoke.
"Don't be late!" She told me not to be late.
"Go to bed!" She told me to go to bed.
"Tidy your room!" She told me to tidy my room.
"Wait here!" She told me to wait here.
"Don't do that!" She told me not to do that.
"Eat your dinner!" She told me to eat my dinner.
"Don't make a mess!" She told me not to make a mess.

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“Don’t worry!” He told her not to worry.


“Be on time!” He told me to be on time.
“Don’t smoke here!” He told us not to smoke there.
"Do the washing-up!" She told me to do the washing-up.

Common Reported Speech Transformations

Direct speech Indirect (Reported) speech


He said, "I live in Paris." He said he lived in Paris.
He said, "I am cooking dinner." He said he was cooking dinner.
He said, "I have visited London twice." He said he had visited London twice.
He said, "I went to New York last week." He said he had gone to New York the week before.
He said, "I had already eaten." He said he had already eaten.
He said, "I am going to find a new job." He said he was going to find a new job.
He said, "I will give Jack a call." He said he would give Jack a call.
Finish the sentences using Reported speech. Always change the tense, although it is sometimes not
necessary.

Example: Peter: "I cleaned the black shoes yesterday."


Peter told me that _________________________________

Answer: Peter told me that he had cleaned the black shoes the day before.

1. Emily: "Our teacher will go to Leipzig tomorrow."


Emily said that________________________.
2. Helen: "I was writing a letter yesterday."
Helen told me that________________________.
3 Robert: "My father flew to Dallas last year."
Robert told me that__________________________________________.
4. Lisa: "Tim went to the stadium an hour ago."
Lisa said that__________________________________________..
5. Patricia: "My mother will celebrate her birthday next weekend."
Patricia said that__________________________________________..
6. Michael: "I am going to read a book this week."
Michael said to me that__________________________________________..
7. Jason and Victoria: "We will do our best in the exams tomorrow."
Jason and Victoria told me that_______________________________________..
8. Andrew: "We didn't eat fish two days ago."
Andrew remarked that__________________________________________..
9. Alice: "I spent all my pocket money on Monday."
Alice complained that__________________________________________..
10. David: "John had already gone at six."
David said that__________________________________________..

Answers
1. Emily said that their teacher would go to Leipzig the next day.
2. Helen told me that she had been writing a letter the day before.
3. Robert told me that his father had flown to Dallas the year before.
4. Lisa said that Tim had gone to the stadium an hour before.
5. Patricia said that her mother would celebrate her birthday the following weekend.
6. Michael said to me that he was going to read a book that week.
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7. Jason and Victoria told me that they would do their best in the exams the next day.
8. Andrew remarked that they hadn't eaten fish two days before.
9. Alice complained that she had spent all her pocket money on Monday.
10. David said that John had already gone at six.

Reading Comprehension 4

Read the following Passage and answer the questions that follow it.

The Cost of Tourism in the Cook Islands

1. In theory, tourism brings sustainable economic benefits to a country. But who gains the wealth
generated? In recent times tour operators have brought a large number of tourists to the Cook Islands to
enjoy their beauty and the traditional lifestyle. Local people meet this demand in the form of profit
generation. Can it be argued that tourism in the Cook Islands has brought wealth and well-being for the
majority of the local population? Tourism is also promoted as creating jobs and fostering social relations,
and in particular a better understanding between nations. However, there is, according to one researcher,
“a growing body of empirical evidence that the so-called ‘benefits’ of tourism are often greatly
outweighed by the substantial long-term social and environmental cost incurred.” In the case of the Cook
Islands, tourism’s economic and social benefit unfortunately is unrealized ideals and instead it has put
stresses and strains on both the country’s economy well-being and its social values.

2. Turning first to the alleged economic benefits of tourism, we can see that in the case of the Cook
Islands, there is a variety of sources of income from tourism receipts. According to a 1991 survey, after
beach activities and natural scenery (62%), visitors in Cook Islands are looking for entertainment and
folklore and cultural experiences (27%). Tourists contribute to the local economy by sp ending money on
travel to and around the country, as well as on accommodations, food, entertainment and souvenirs.
Result from the same survey revealed that close to 90% of tourists surveyed stayed in hotels and similar
accommodations. Also, close to 70% of the total tourists’ expenditure was on accommodations,
restaurants and bars, with a further 16% 0n transport, tours and entertainment. Tourists are thus helping to
create jobs which are based on making them feel welcome and at the same time they put cash into the
economy directly by paying for services.

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3. There are down sides, however. The Cook Islands does not have the capacity to own and maintain
businesses such as large airline companies or tourist hotels. They are owned by other countries such as
New Zealand or multinational conglomerates. The cost of travel and accommodation, which constitutes a
large part of tourists’ expenditure, goes directly to the foreign-owned airlines and hotels. These outside
interests draw the bulk of the profit they created out of the country. Little of it reaches the local economy.
According to Milne (1987), oversea operators receive approximately 60% of tourist receipts, while local
Europeans receive 23%, with the remaining 17% flowing to the Cook Islands owned enterprises. It is
likely that these disproportionate shares of control of tourist dollars will have spin off effects on the social
fabric. As Milne claims, “the crucial factor in determining the level of social impacts is the degree to
which local participation in the ownership and control of the industry is determined.”

4. The creation of jobs is often claimed to be one of the positive side effects of tourism. However,
according to Milne, although 95% of the total population is Cook Island Maoris, they fill only 53% of the
managerial and supervisory positions in the industry. Europeans, on the other hand, fill 47% of these
positions, despite comprising less than 5% of the country’s population. Again there is clearly imbalance
between local and non-local participation in the economic benefits of tourism in terms of who does what
job. This mirrors the imbalance in ownership of operator sources described in the previous paragraph.
Another unintended negative effect is that tourism employment is seen as easy money when compared to
traditional island occupations like cropping. It attracts labor away from cropping, another important
source of income for the economy.

5. Turning to the supposed social benefits of tourism, we can also see some discrepancies beneath the
surface ideals. To take advantage of any other money the tours are prepared to spend, Cook Islanders
court tourists with their own enterprises. But tourists have their own set of image about the culture before
they even set foot in the country, and when they arrive they seek to affirm these images. Tourists usually
want only to see what is pleasant and enjoyable whether or not they are experiencing truly authentic
features of a society. The cost in cultural terms is borne out further by another reality lying behind the
ideal. Tourism is claimed to draw different cultures together. However, what often results from this
cultural mixing of first and third world population is cultural envy. With increased exposure to western
lifestyles local people start to emulate aspects of western culture such as consumerism and consumption
of alcohol, with expected negative results.

6. It is worth considering what economic benefits might be found in less social damaging and
economically more effective forms of the industry. Recent studies show that it is possible to establish
appropriate model for sustainable tourism development. These studies indicate that neglecting the social
dimension is in opposition to the principles of sustainable development. In such cases development
proposals serve only the power and wealth of ‘big men” at the expense of the wider indigenous
community. The Cook Islands could perhaps avoid the reinforcement of similar existing power relations
if tourist planning was more under the control of those affected by it. Control the Cook Islands tourism
industry by local people, training of local people and advice from those outsiders working alongside in a
partnership mode could mean that tourism brings many more benefits and few costs.

A. Choose the best answer.

1. According to paragraph one, which one of the following is not an alleged advantage of tourism?
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A. Tourism incurs great and long -lasting social and environmental costs.

B. Tourism creates job opportunities.

C. Tourism brings wealth and well- being for the local people.

D. Tourism fosters social relationships.

2. As stated in paragraph 2, which one of the following is not the main benefit of tourism in Cook
Islands?

A. economic benefits C. payment for transport, tour and entertainment

B. job opportunities D.’ A’ and ‘B’

3. In paragraph 3, the writer mainly argues that

A. the extent of the indigenous people’s participation in the ownership and control of the industry
determines the level of negative social impact.

B. tourism in Cook Islands benefits foreigners rather than the local people.

C. large businesses are owned by New Zealand and multinational conglomerates.

D. the cost of travel and accommodation is very high in Cook Islands.

4. In paragraph 4, the writer states that in Cook Islands tourism

A. does not create many job opportunities. C. negatively affects the existing labor force.

B. creates imbalance of economic benefits. D. All of the above are correct

5. According to paragraph 5, in Cook Islands

A. tourism draws different cultures together

B. tourism offers very little financial turns to the local people in comparison with the social cost it incurs.

C. tourists are more attracted by the local people’s lifestyles.

D. tourists are more interested in materials produced locally.

6. Tourism in Cook Islands could be made more beneficial and less damaging through

A. giving advice and training to the big men in a partnership mode.

B. making tourism planning and tourism industry under the control of the local people.

C. mainly reinforcing the power and wealth of the big men.

D. neglecting the social dimension of development and peoples’ relation to their environment.

7. In the passage, the writer argues that

A. tourism has no significant economic benefit to a country.


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B. indigenous people, like the people of the Cook Islands, do not benefit much from tourism as it is
claimed.

C. indigenous people never benefit from tourism.

D. foreigners should not get any benefit from tourism industry.

B. Based on the information in the passage, say whether each of the following statements is true or
false.

8. Tourists in Cook Islands spend their money on something that benefits the indigenous people.

9. In Cook Islands beach activities and natural scenery constitute the highest sources of income from
tourism.

10. The Cook Islands have the economic potential to own and maintain huge businesses necessary for
tourism.

11. Local Europeans, operators and Cook Islands enterprise owners receive60%, 23% and 17% of tourism
receipts respectively.

12. Cook Islanders have occupied as many managerial and supervisor positions as they deserve to occupy.

C. Reference Questions: Indicate what each of the following pronouns/adjectives/ refers to in the
passage.

13. ‘Their’ (Para. 1, line 3) refers to _____________________________


A. tourists C. benefits
B. tour operators D. Cook Islands
14. ‘Them’ (Para. 2, line 10) refers to ____________________________
A. jobs C. tourists
B. services D. accommodations
15. ‘They’ (Para. 3, line 2) refers to _____________________________
A. hotels C. accommodations
B. foreign-owned airlines D. outside interests
16. ‘It’ (Para. 4, line 9) refers to ________________________________
A. tourism employment C. cropping
B. unintended negative effect D. participation
D. Vocabulary in Context
The words/ phrases/ are taken the reading text. Guess their contextual meanings.

17. incurred (para.1) 22. easy money (Para. 4)


18. receipts (para.2) 23. borne out (Para. 5)
19. down sides (Para. 3) 24. emulate (Para. 5)
20. bulk (Para. 3) 25. costs (Para. 6)
21. mirrors (Para. 4)

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