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Kolorimetrija

Kolorimetrija predstavlja tehniku kojom se dobija kvantifikacija i fizički opis ljudske


percepcije boje tako što se pomoću merljivih parametara boja smešta u definisani koordinatni
prostor. Koordinatni prostor boja korišćen u ovom ispitivanju je CIELAB 1976 koji je
obuhvata tri komponente: L* - svetlina koja uzima vrednost od 0 (crno) do 100 (difuzno belo),
a* koja definiše položaj boje na skali od zelene (negativne vrednosti) do ljubičasto-crvene
(pozitivne vrednosti) i b* koja definiše položaj boje na skali od plave (negativne vrednosti) do
žute (pozitivne vrednosti).

Identifying Color Differences Using L*a*b* or L*C*H* Coordinates

How Closely Does the Sample Match the Standard?


Even if two colors look the same to one person, slight differences may be found when
evaluated with a color measurement instrument. If the color of a sample does not match the
standard, customer satisfaction is compromised and the amount of rework and costs increase.
Because of this, identifying color differences between a sample and the standard as early in
the production process as possible is important.
Color difference can be defined as the numerical comparison of a sample's color to the
standard. It indicates the differences in absolute color coordinates and is referred to as Delta
(Δ). These formulas calculate the difference between two colors to identify inconsistencies
and help users control the color of their products more effectively.
To begin, the sample color and the standard color should be measured and the values for each
measurement saved. The color differences between the sample and standard are calculated
using the resulting colorimetric values.
Identifying Color Differences Using CIE L*a*b* Coordinates
Defined by the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE), the L*a*b* color space was
modeled after a color-opponent theory stating that two colors cannot be red and green at the
same time or yellow and blue at the same time. As shown below, L* indicates lightness, a* is
the red/green coordinate, and b* is the yellow/blue coordinate. Deltas for L* (ΔL*), a* (Δa*)
and b* (Δb*) may be positive (+) or negative ( -). The total difference, Delta E (ΔE*),
however, is always positive.
ΔL* (L* sample minus L* standard) = difference in lightness and darkness (+ = lighter, - =
darker)
Δa* (a* sample minus a* standard) = difference in red and green (+ = redder, - = greener)
Δb* (b* sample minus b* standard) = difference in yellow and blue (+ = yellower, - = bluer)
ΔE* = total color difference
To determine the total color difference between all three coordinates, the following formula is
used:
ΔE* = [ΔL*2 + Δa*2 + Δb*2]1/2
Let's compare Apple 1 to Apple 2 (see Figure 1).
Looking at the L*a*b* values for each apple in Figure 1, we can objectively determine that
the apples don't match in color. These values tell us that Apple 2 (sample) is lighter, less red,
and more yellow in color than Apple 1 (standard). If we put the values of ΔL*=+4.03, Δa*=-
3.05, and Δb*=+1.04 into the color difference equation, it can be determined that the total
color difference between the two apples is 5.16.
5.16 = [4.03*2 + -3.05*2 + 1.04*2]1/2
Identifying Color Differences Using CIE L*C*H* Coordinates
The L*C*h color space is similar to L*a*b*, but it describes color differently using
cylindrical coordinates instead of rectangular coordinates. In this color space, L* indicates
lightness, C* represents chroma, and h is the hue angle. Chroma and hue are calculated from
the a* and b* coordinates in L*a*b*. Deltas for lightness (ΔL*), chroma (ΔC*), and hue
(ΔH*) may be positive (+) or negative ( -). These are expressed as:
ΔL* (L* sample minus L* standard) = difference in lightness and darkness (+ = lighter, - =
darker)
ΔC* (C* sample minus C* standard) = difference in chroma (+ = brighter, - = duller)
ΔH* (H* sample minus H* standard) = diference in hue
Let's compare Apple 1 to Apple 2 (see Figure 2).

Looking at the L*C*h values for each apple in Figure 2, we can objectively determine that the
apples don't match in color. Like the L*a*b* values, these values tell us that Apple 2 (sample)
is lighter and duller in appearance than Apple 1 (standard). The positive ΔH* value of +1.92
indicates Apple 2 falls counterclockwise to Apple 1 in the L*C*h color space. This tells us
that Apple 2 is less red than Apple 1.
Color measurement instruments, such as colorimeters and spectrophotometers, can detect
differences indiscernible to the human eye and then instantly display these differences in
numerical terms. After identifying color differences using L*a*b* or L*C*h values, it should
be decided whether the sample is acceptable or not using tolerance limits.