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HEINRICH NEUHAUS ) The Art of Piano Playing ‘Teanlated by KA. LEIBOVITCH PRAEGER PUBLISHERS New York ‘Washington ‘This book is dedicated to my dear colleagues, the teachers and the pupils who are studying “the art of piano playing” BOOKS THAT MATTER Publ in he United State of Ame in 1973 Gy ite bisher Ioes 11 Fourth Nemes 4 New var NV tows gli eatin @ 1973 by Bari & Jenkin Ti A ihn opt ofthis pubeaton many be reproduced toed TRREMGM Sdn or ensmlae ip'any frm or by Shy sen sete, mecanin phono, recording Src ita pour pectnion 8 he Cpt ‘ Mase examples urbe: 2 52 5 2.85 8 7100 t SPekinclnge Hana Geigy Cologne ityar of Congres Catalog Card Numer: 72-9438 Printed in Geet Britain Contents Inbtion & Poet the Sond Bion # { Ia Lia of Pf 1 courven 1 The Anite Image of TSE Ecapsim 7 curren nA Word or Two about Rhytin 90 caurren nt On Tone o curren ty On Technine & (2) Genta Considerations & i Seas reason fy (3) On Freedom 3 ; (Blanco ao Teeaique ste $n Figeing {3 thepatar Coueren v Teacher and Pupil ‘eugeren vt Concert Activity cxarsax vt Ta Concution a6 Index o Introduction Heinrich Neuhaus was born in 1888 in Blzavetgrad (now Kirovograd) into funy of musicians. Both his father and mother were piano teachers. The father, Gustav Neuhaus, born in 18g in the Rhineland, had studied under Ferdinand Hiller ‘who, in tura, as a young man had known Beethoven. His ‘Bingted pianist,condvctorand teacher, st in Petersburg, Shier in Moss Horowie was one of his most famous me elated 10 manowghtwho became a lieiong friend. is parents could rarely spare the me to teach their son, Heinrich Neuhaus was, strictly speaking, selbcaught, pling the pianosnd improvising passionately since early child> Food, The main formative influence on his musical development ‘ne fom Felix Bamenfed, om his rare visits tohissistr’s home. ‘ieinsich Neuhaus made his frst public appearance at the age ofeleven, playing some Chopin Waltzes and an Impromptu, Tn tgoa he accompanied Misha Elman in a recital in Hlizavet- igrad, His int solo reital took place in Germany in roo and from then he gave several coer in Germany and Italy while dying under Gedowsky, frst in Berlin and then in Vienna, ftom where he returned Rusia atthe outbreak ofthe First World War. Tn 1928 he bogan teaching a the Moscow Conservatoire and ele to tenga the nous Mosaic Soa open from 1990197 iret of te Moxcow Conservatoire «port be relinquished so a8 to be able to devote himself entirely to teaching, forthe tale of which he had already sacrificed most of his career asa concert pianist. 2 ‘THE ART OF PIANO PLAYING Amongst his pupils were Radu Lupu, Emil Gills and Svintolay Richter who called him an art of unique genius, a treat teacher and fiend. Seldom have artistic gifts been 0 lovely matched by the qualides of sels devotion, deep Ihumanity, true culture and a great capacity for bestowing and. ‘winning fiends, He died on roth October 1964. This book beats witnes to his achievement 8 man, musician and teacher Preface to the Second Edition wrote my book a litle ata time, in between my work (my ‘work beng teaching and concert playing) and before sending it Dif the publisher I condeneed what Ihad writtenso thoroughly {hat aot more than hall ay original manuscript reached the printer But ow Ido not fel the energy to rewrite or add tomy Books ett come ont in dhe “unpolished” state in which i fist appeared. "Re the eginning T did not give much thought to the publica: tion of my notes, It was rather an unconstrained conversion ‘with acquaintances and pupils; hence dhe discrepancy between the syle of my book and what is usually expected from a work ‘on methodology. But then Tam not a theoretician and never ‘hal be, ‘Several persons considered that should not have made such frequent wl of foreign words and expresions. They are probably ant All of this could have een sid in Rusian, The aul es [the eonversatonal style of thee pages, for T ave since my thildhood known several languages aad been accustomed to ue Certain express in one particular language; and in writing ths book f put down my thoughts just as they came to me, ‘On page 124 1 have definitely made a mistatement(begin- ning with the words “A few words more about octaves”). Hesemay Ibe forgiven! I simply prevaicated and T confiss fe eely. 1 prevaricated in the sense in which one poet uses the ‘word, taking ito mean not an untruth, but rather asuperfuous ‘Rion to truth, Lean only explain this regreable incident by ‘hc fuct that T suffered so much fom “sympathetic” fingers (the tniddte fingers which catch on the keys between the thumb and ‘th finger when playing an octave) that T exaggerated the meaning of the “hoop” and in spite of my own practice, T at ‘THE ART OF PIANO PLAYING niscprescnted the postion ofthe wrist which shouldbe slighty Tuieds This how all pianists play, including myself, My revaication’” was duc to a desire to avoid the cacophony ‘Chased by the midale fingers, but I overdid it and the result was fale statement. I beg the reader to take this correction into ‘One of the faults of my book isthe insufficient number of examples and ofthe considerations and advice that they would fave called forth This particularly true ofthe chapters on fhythm, tone, and even technique T could have given hundreds GPecamples dat could have been useful to learners. But the ‘adder has doubtless noted that T tried rather to prompt him {think further and independently and felt that this small book ‘Should and could only guide the reader’ thinking “Another faule of my book ie that I have not indicated by fa dgle word my attitude towards moder music, with the Seton oftome earsory references to Shostakovich, Prokofiev, Seyetanowkl and a few others. In our rapidly changing times Br vey difieatt to come to aay final concusions—even for SnexlE that do not claim to be of general significance. My Sun pereption of certain phenomena and my opinions of tem Gre Ghen ‘contradictory. For instance, che phenomenon of ‘odecaphiony and serial musi often seems to me to resemble in {eben penciples a complicated and interesting game of ‘Patence. Por some moments this music can give me a certain Particular kin of pleasure, but only fora few moments (for Eatanee in Webers). Thinking of the weaker adepts of this ‘tend T cannot help feeling that for them this is means of {venting music (or ather something similar to music) although they haven talent nor even a musical ear Thanks fo generous Delgous, propaganda and advertisements, they achieve certain Pending in the world which they would not have achieved ‘eherwis. But the question of dodecaphony is closely related to Shany general problems of twenteth-centary music it is very Comyleated and fo be quite honest still not quite clear to me, ‘Nova few more words about Use way this book was writen. {Tevote it for about three weeks a yeas! Usually when T was on holiday In winter when Tovas submerged by my teaching work nd in addition gave recitals which I had to prepare, I had titer dhe time nor the inclination to put down on paper my PREFACE i views on the art ofthe piano, particularly since I spoke about it Pires anm or other all day and every day in class, Now the Je Neton has changed. ‘The trouble with my hand the result of sett pulyneuriti is becoming increasingly serious adits pow Rea bar’ ance [have had to stop playing altogether. Even at ome: for myoch, Ino longer play; Tam too distresed by my Felples Hand and afterall one ean read music with one's eyes, ecen to the radio or to records, To be quite honest T think that even teaching is now inadvisable for me and T am thinking ding very soon, To work with pianist only a conductor, sete te demomrate my intention and advice by showing hae T mean on the piano, as I used to before, is really 00 Tpetaag and canst nether me, nor (probably) sy papi Be havi said good-bye to the piano (but not, of cour, 1 pee) and paryalo to teaching, donot feel very inclined 0 ee abou its Hu my book T tied most of all (as in all my Whang work) to awaken a love of music. I do not know bow Ae Tink aucceeded, but sill I decided not to add anyshing ‘ae antl to my book and to allow the second edition ‘0 same dhe same “unpolished” sate a the original, merely sepeet ing 2 few mistakes, So much has been written on this ‘SEhjet that one book more or lest docs not really matter. ‘PSGlal ead with a aightly amended version of the Latin sayings (No) fc quod pts, frian ale poets (i (008 do) Matt could let those who can do beter). Met yay am preparing anew book aad ope that t wil be more “polished” than this ope. sn, eEUHAUS 1 Henrich Neuhaus died on roth October 19 before being abe to cary ou thi iter, In Lieu of a Preface ‘To begin with—s few simple statements which T shall develop later, TT 'Hefore beginning to learn an instrument, the learner, whether a child) adolesent or adult, should. already be ‘pital in posesion of eome music; He shoul, so to speaks his rind, keep i in his heart and lear it with is finer, The ele meet of en at air the cate of person sled, msi Hives ful fein is brain ‘elore ie even to cyboard or draws a bow across the [aings Taner why Mozart ar inal child could “at once” play the piano and the violin 2 Pecy peeformance—the problems of performance willbe the main subject of thee pages—conssts of three fundamental Hlement: the work performed (dhe mosic), the performer and {he istrument, Only a complete mastery f these three elements {had fist of al, che music) can ensure a good artiste perform= ite. Thesimplest example ofthe"triple” nature of performance Ji the performance of piano composition by aso pianist (oF & Sonate for violin solo, or ello slo, et.). These simple things Rane to be said because in actual teaching there ae very foquent cases where emphasis i channelled in some particular ‘neeion asa ent of which one of the three elements is bound Daler; but specially (and this saddest of al) one secs that he conten, be, the muse Ruel (what we call, “the artistic mage”) sr not given its due, attention being focused mainly on the techaical mastery of dhe instrument. Another error {ch less Fesquent among instrumentalists—conssts of under- ‘aimating the difficulty of completely mastering an instrument 2 "THE ART OF PIANO PLAYING inorder eve the case of msc thi sla nvitbly edo inmperecr playing fom the “mueal” peat of ew, paying tated by amar, {A fow words about technique, The clearer the goal (ihe content, muse, pefeeton of performance), the clearer the ‘nea f ating ie This an ano al dos not reais [rol Isl have cecaon to ster to it moe than once The oat” determines the "how" alubough in the long ran the “how” determines the “what (his Ba dale fw). My reo of eaching, rie, cont of evan tha the Pager Soul as early a8 posible (afer a preliminaty acquaintance with the comport and mastering i if nly roughly) arp ‘hat we call ihe atic image", tat he content, eating, the poste mie, Te Sates ofthe my and beable © cd ad death SST MST (esung fe ‘planing it what seis he i dealing vith Acar under Standing eth goal enables the player fo uxfor toaialn ‘Land ernbady fin his performsncr; and that at “ech sigue! Eeeboek = cei tee page there wil be roquntrefrence to the “content, a2 hirtehcally the mod important principle of pertrmasce, and since { bree thet he word “Content” (or "frac image” or “poctic sens” ec) can with frequent ie inate the young plana, 1 imaged poate prot on his Part: "Content, erring content! But tT can manage to wel all the double thirds, sath and octaves and ether feted dificil in the Paganini Brahm Variation without fengring abou the muse, then I hal Have eontent, but ST fpltsh or play wrong nots there wen't be any ‘conte bite, gt! Golden words! One wae whet said about swe "pee a style ato perfect ideas, Anyone who doe Tita once ages wth tis pst salvation” This the tro ging ey pp ta vend te” ogre and that yrs ‘Bea at Ay improvement afechnguc ban improveneat Star foal and conseuenty helps to reveal te “one he Hidden meanings in oder words isthe material, the real body sein ge nba ples mi dept nt *Sicutiefea IN LIEU OF A PREFACE 2 of art, The touble i that many who play the piano take the word “technique” to mean only velocity, cvenne, bravur {ometimes mesning "Bashing nd ashing’ in oer Words feparate ements of technique and not teigu ar owl sit twas undemtood by the Grcks and ag any art understands i ‘Technique = rexre is something infinitely more complex and dificult: Such qualities as velocity, preesion and even faules reading ofthe notes do notin themselves ensure an artic Performance which & achieved only by real, thorough and Fnaplred work. That is why with very ied people iti 0 Alfie to draw a disGnetion between work at technique and ‘work at nu oven they happen to repeat the same passage a Inunded times) Teall one. The ancient ruth epetiion isthe mother of tuition, is a law for the weakest af well as the strongest talents; in this sense they are-on an equal foting {although the rents oftheir work wil ofcourse, be diferent), Te is well known that Lisst would sometimes repeat a part Cuan deal bie over a hundred times When Svatoay Richter played me Prokofie’s Ninth Sonata (dedicated t him) for the fet time, I could not help noticing that one very dificil, polyphonic and very ively it (in the third movement, Some ten bats, not more) came off parculaly wel. He sid ine: “E it . ‘This the right method forgive splendid eels, The pant ‘wor aatang dhe best peasble rev, without putting it off {il some later occasion, Once, in talking with a pupil, «gil who worked rather languily and wasted lot of ie, T used the following metaphor from daly if: suppose you want to bol ‘ket of ater. You have to put the ketion the stove and not fake it off until it boil, But you bring the water up to a temperature af about 4o" or 50°, then turn of the fame, do something ce, then you remember the ketle—the water having ‘cooled in the meanvhile—you begin all over again and 30 08 Several times until you are 0 fed up with the whole ching hat ‘you wait the time required forthe ketde to bole In this way, Sou lore lot of time and lower eosderably your “working Say “Mastery ofthe art of working, of learning compesitions— which tone of the reliable erteria of pianats maturity—is characterized by an unwavering determination apd an ability 4 ‘THE ART OF PIANO PLAYING ‘ot to waste time, The greater the pat played inthis proces by > ‘wlipower (ging straight to the gol) and concentration, the Detter the rele, The greater the pasivity and inertia the greater the tine needed for learning a composition, while {terest init inevitably fags, All this is well known, but to repeat itis not urles, (On technique se Chapter IV aswell as ‘many other pages in this book, We did agree that regres art.) “t In order to epeak and to be entitled w be heard it is ‘xential not only to know how to speak, but fist of all to have Something to say. Ie is as simple ax twice two makes four, yet itis fot dificnlt go show that hundreds and even thousands are ‘constantly guilty of breaking this role, "Aacholat* once said that in Greece everyone cull speak well, and that in France everyone can write well, Yet the truly great Greek orators and French writer can be counted on ones fingers and in this case they are the ones we are interested in. ‘Anton Rubinstein uted toy (not without a certain wistulnes) that in our day “everyone” can play well, Well, why not It is bby no means a bad thing tis beter tha “everyone” should be able to play well than to play badly. But Rubiasten's words ‘with their wisfol expt, have by no means lost thet Thave since my youth had a feling which persists to this day: everytime I come in contact with a very great man, whether trrter, poet, musician or painter Toitoyor Pushin, Beethoven ‘of Mictlangel, Tam convinced that fr me the most important thing is that thi man ie great, that through bis art Tee a man fof tremendous stature and that t some extent (in a way of speaking) its immaterial to me whether he expresses himself in rose or poetry in marble or sound. When I was aboat fifteen T ‘yas sorry that Beethoven bad not tured is music into plilosophy for I thought such philosophy would be better than that of Kant or Hegel mote profound, more right, more human, [- T should like ¢o tell here about one of my childish whims, which coincided in time with the thoughts Ihave just described Niewsche, 3, ced haf say tha atthe time I knew very Hide about Kant sand specially aboot Vga, whereas my bnowlege of Beethoven was ‘aly oe. IN LIEU OF A PREFACE 5 (orhen T was about fiften), Thinking about art and science, bout their matwal relationship and contradictions, Teame to the conclusion, for some reson of other, that mathematics and Imusic are situated at the extreme poles ofthe human spirit, chat these two antpades limit and determine che whole spiritual and Creative activity of man and that situated between them is ‘verything that mankind has created in the fel of seience and fart I waso cariod away by that thought that I began t write ferent” om the subject. I mention these childish thoughts because (I crave the reader's indulgence) it seems to me even ow that mathematics and music are two poles of the human Spire and perhapa,sémy lf had been diferent, I would have Coutinued fo reflect and wonder on the subject. In pie ofthe fact tha this is merely a childish fancy, theres 4 particle of truth in i and T only mentioned it beease now, ‘with my tremendous teaching experience, I know too well how ‘often even talented pupil, able to cope with their task, fil to realize with what tremendous manifestation ofthe human spirit they are dealing. Obviously this does not make for an artistic ‘performance; inthe bert of cases they stagnate at the level of| [good workmanship. T hope that in secing such words a “great, “of tremendous stature the reader wil not sagpect me of being a follower of CGasige {On Heres, Here-Warsip andthe Herein Fst). The ol theory of the hero and the ered ded, lang with may past {lusions We know too well thatthe so-p arousing boredom in every true pianist and musician, All artistic methodology should be interesting and educational both for the teacher and the pupil, forthe beginner and the sccompliahed performer, otherwise it ean hardly be justified. For the sake of convenience, I agree temporarily to ignore my ‘doubts concerning the appropriateness ofthe expresion “work on the artiste image” and accept tits face value. Then et us Season 2 work on the atte image begin a 20 ‘THE ART OF PIANO PLAYING in lsh”, that the image conjured up by imagination, emotion, Jiner hearing and aesthetc and intellectual understanding becomes a performance, T'do not mean by thie that work on & ‘composition does not add anything to one’s intial perception land intent; Far from it.The relationship between these to ‘vents the same as between a law and fs implementation ot between willing and carrying out, I only want to aay that if there is no “law”, no “il, there is p20 imple- ‘mentation. This isthe erus, the nerve centre which the teacher, side and edueationist must try to influence; obviously, if the Seal at sa he mene ea gee " fepsbe tat ch comaclor, 2 Sales, Sortie GPR scan carey aa rea aad sin a Fiendly newt “The concen Be daa om ll hse emieratons i ‘obvious: “work on the artistic image” ean be succesfl only iit {s the result of the pupi's continuous development musically, intellectually and artistically and consequent also pianistcally; ‘without this there ean be no “implementation”, no “embod ‘ment. And that means developing his ear, giving him a broad knowledge of musical Hterature, making him live with one comporer fora long time at a stretch, until he has thoroughly ‘assimilated him (the pupil who knows five Beethoven sonata is not the same man af the one who knows twenty-five sonata hhere quantity. tums into quality); ie me memorize music by reading the score ching the, a, im oFder to develop his imagination and his ear; teaching Hiro cmaoede-datngash the orm the thems t miaiood dit form, the thematic H qj CoapAOT RE Jeg (ay neering ies at fed pupil, nine oF ten years old, can play a Mozart or Beethoven sonata wel, he hould be able to tly in wordy a great deal that ssubstantive about what goes on in that sonata from the point of view of murieal and theoretical analysis). Tt means using every means to arouse (Wf necessary, ie i this ‘ality not inherent tothe pupil his profesional ambition: the best; developing his imagination by the we of apt metaphor, poetic similes, by analogy with natural pheno- ‘mena or events in life particulary spiritual, emotional ie. Te ‘means supplementing and interpreting musial language (but Al ds) a ANALYS S itow be Study ? ARTsTIG HAGE OF MUSICAL COMPOSITION 2: ‘without, God forbid, fling into banal “Illustrations”; using very means to develop in him a love of other forms of ar pparucularly poetry, patting and architecture, and, most Fenportat of all—maling hin feel (and the earlier the better) the ethical dignity of the arts, his obligation, is respons Dilies and his ight, iaving ead this chapter ofr, the reader might perhaps ask: “Wel, he has't said anything specie about working on the Sage afterall”, My reply is "Come to miy clay sit with us a ‘month or two and you wil get such a helping of the specie? ‘hat wil last you along time. Ta order to give these notes the desired specie quality, Ishould supplement them with number- Jess musical exampley detailed dexcriptions of the work done ‘with the pupil or pupil on any pardcular composition (or ometimes il for one and a alo two hous ‘yera cngl page of ore fy appeas at the begining ‘of my Work With = PUP, Dit then this chapter would grow to the sae of a thick volume. T cannot quote here even small portion ofthe advice I give a pupil or learning and mastering a Compositions such advice naturally comes before the artistic image. But I will mention two or three things T tll my pups. suggest tothe pupil that he should study a piano compost tion, ier the note at a conductor studio a score, that fy not coaly ara whale (this should be dane firs of al otherwise there io cmp ie ft cmpastion oem mage) abo in deta, tl compeniion apart o-scr is ‘omponeit ements, the harmonic stactire, the polyphonic Structure; king separately the main eentett—for insane, econiary™elements—for instance, the ‘accompaniment; to dwell particularly on the decisive “tarings” of compodiiot—such as (in the case of sonata) the tana- tion to the second subject or to the recapitulation or coda, fn other words onthe main landnarks of the formal structure, et. ‘Working inthis wa, the pupil discovers amazing things there stands revealed to him a beauty not recognized at fine but ‘hich abounds inthe works of great composers. Moreover, he Degins to understand that composition that i beautiful as a sent in every det hat ach ich etal a & fense, a ogi, an expresivenes, ‘whole T recommend that much more elt hou rat. a i frnens 2 wpe ‘THE ART OF PIANO PLAYING to sch work than tothe wml pacing of the let and ight ands separately, which Tad in certain special eases (i ecosry ust os “emergency exif a building ae necemary inca offireor some other trouble} Tf compost has been Ikamed, mastered, memorize, in fact ian pupil cll i “coma off whats the parcular wok which remain Co be done to ge the peformance a truest value? What nt te done to male the perbrnance emotionaly moving, ttreng, to make i reach the hearer? (Cwoud semi the fender the tid or our tine tat soce people ean achive {his immediatly, while others have to work hard to achieve ft trihin the imi Ue aii) Thaow the answer vil bei i 7) ae ae 1a a Pace ie te ee cims ohana eae eetmee pee basse a ao a a etna oa spate tene septa a ree grat men oe a a re re Ta ee econo ee oe gee mn oe eee ee ees oe ee es ora hieig ead a St ine ek ey ‘eis falings mane ingens, his longings more acuteand. give FE ae ching which sew isl such an objective ceases to be mere teaching and becomes felueaton, Yet iti not always the kind of teaching one finds ven among outstanding teachers. Amazing and inimitable as ‘vas Godowky, yet with ome pupils (particularly private pupils Twho paid in inverse ratio to their talent) he worked in a + Of coun, there are pops whom I strongly urge to practe cect gpatey- an Perey ex thre be web ‘aly in addin to the Work Ihave described above. ARTISTIC IMAGE OF MUSICAL COMPOSITION 23 completely formal, not to say, formalist manner. Frequently jn the course of such a leson Godowsky only verote a few dynam and tempo indications on the musi, of indicated the fingering in a couple of cases, made a few comments that resembled prescriptions and set the work tobe done fr the next time, AIL this in a dispassionate, cold, businealike manner. ‘There was no attempt t see deeper into the heart and mind of the pupil, to alter him, to shake his tedious guts to set before him some dificult emotional or auseal problem none of thi He showed neither joy, nor gre neither anger nor approval: only at times when & pupil's playing was rally too uninteresting for uninteligent, he would lt fll asareasc remark or make Joke not devoid of venom. But his prestige and authority were ‘uch thatthe pupils accepted even such a lesson as something Significant and precious "He was great today!” exclaimed & Aelighted American after Godowsky had indicated the fingering fn two notes and scen him tothe door with a pleasant joculat remark, ‘True, at the Mestre lesions which were atended by many people, including really talented pupils (eight to nine “player i. eal Mestoselaler and about twenty Hoptanten ‘who were only ented to he present but not to play, fe was ‘guite different. But Tnever noticed him attempting to liberate theatomic energy” ofa pupilor anything ofthe kind; apparestly in his heart of hearts he did noe greatly believe (and here we rust admit a certain degece of wisdom) in the almightiness of teaching. And inspite of my boundless admiration for Godow= sky, that great master, I believe that to teach ashe sometines Aid is no longer poste in our country nowadays (I rind, ofcourse, the teacher who ia great master musician, one who has received the gift of knowing.) T believe that the task of consolidating and developing the talent ofa pupil, and not merely of teaching him to "play wel”, in other words, of making him more intelligent, more snstve, sore honet, more equitable, more senda (I won't go on!) is ‘areal task which ifr fly atainabl, fy none the les dictated by the time we live in and hy art itelh and is at all dimes ialectcally justified. * May my incomparable late teacher forgive me for esc tie tnd crs reneged ot bytes by oe es 4 ‘THE ART OF PIANO PLAYING In actual fact, I had already said allthis when T spoke of the 5% profit” which I was willing to accept, but I wanted t0 make my mesning clearer. Bu, to come back to my question: it ible (and, iso, how) to make a pupil who “plays well” Ronin et, mane FG ESS {eat his audience, make it “outstanding” (meaning, eiflerent fom the average), ete? L would repy:¢yt is posible; iis posible to a certain extent, it imes to make him [Slee excep rene real Senay exelent omct on cto wo ean be geiscs noe na ae mover “trey beter oer ins ble moon shan never atl” How? By aiming not only a his intellual but abo a i emo Eat alli The main ema he apa ere Slopes in ante that they Atndentnd oniy the intleetual pet of artic acy, or {nther the procs of soning which i part ef and tr Teatoring and intelectual ade simel at inaening that ‘Sesion wile completely fogeaing the otber side, this IBesaventa X, which thy tapped not knowing todo That why al methodology aor at any ta Upto now) so empty tha why it neiaiy bog an ons hie tothe lipo the realy well normed, thee who are Seively engaged in are ‘One ofthe main demands Tmake for achiving but in & performance ates in.exresign, These Er small wordy 0 well Kaown and appre a0 Obvious ong to dee for ty are comple and thei ening i fname hs would sain ake up several page so all ‘sini the hope tat the reader wl etal them Nel Int wil fel ther tremendous and deciveiporeance when they are pot into ce ‘kth work thats done ia my clas ented, tothe west fo bly, on mi nd it embodiment in ps paying in ter wor onthe rat inge dom plano technique. at ftacher it wortles “however lever he beh content 0 {aleabout “image “content “nod, ies poet aad {hike sito the coneret, material embodiment of hi fying in tone in pre, meance, and perfection of plano trig Sian wots ithe teacher wh ses only he ARTISTIC IMAGE OF MUSICAL COMPOSITION 25 piano playing, piano technique, and has but a vague ides ofthe fie, tense and ite structure, "To give atleast some specific example of our work in las on the “artiste image” plus music, plus piano technique, Tsball describe how T worked. with & pupil studying Beethoven’ Sonata quae! una Fantasia op. 27 in € sharp minor. One short page of Beethoven is amply suicient to give the reader a clear Picture of similar work in connection with any piano composi- ‘And so the pupil is playing the so-called “Moonlight” sonata, ‘Usually isthe second movement, Allegretto in D flat major, which gives nse to specially diferent views and the reason is ‘obvious: the fst movement, which isan expression of utmost Sorrow, and the third, which sn expression of dispai (dpe) are more clearly defined stronger in their shattering expression than the feting, “modest, refined and at the same dime tervibly simple, almost weightiss Allegretto I the rendering of Insufiienly sensitive pupils the “comforting” (in the sense of| consolation) mood of the second movement easily turns into a he composition. "The eae ofthis an exceavely dry staccato Bet (and the same in similar places) and also excesively fast tempo. have heard such an interpretation dozens, iPnot hundreds, ‘of times, In such eases T usually remind the pupil of Lise’ apt description, now famous, of this Allegreto: ‘diner and acter to show him thatthiimageds not accidental, Alter ale could have sid: a smile amidst a flood of tears ot something sl 6 ‘THE ART OF PIANO PLAYING that it renders with amaaing accuracy not only the spirit, but lo the form of the composition since the fist bars of the melody Eee recall the opening of a flower, and the following bars (see ms, ex 1) the leaves drooping on the stem, Please remember that I never “urate” music, i. in the ‘casein point Ido not say chat the music represents the flowers Tay that ican erate the spiritual and visual impresion given by lower, tan symbolize it and call forth in imagination the image of a flower. Any muse is that particular music only, A'= A, by virte ofthe fice that musie a complete language, a lear expresion, that i has a definite immanent meaning and hhence its pereeption and understanding do not need any ‘ditional explanations or interpretations in word or pietire ‘Our understanding can be helped by a number of disciplines: theory of muse, harmony, counterpoint, form analysand these disciplines are constantly developing and heir ramifca- tons increase asi the ease for every type of knowledge which increase with every new matter learned. But we have in our braine a "photocel” (T think that everyone knows this miracle gadget) which can translate the phenomena of given word of| Perception into another. Afterall, the curve traced om a film produces a sound! Surely the human eprit ir not poorer ot Auller than the apparatus thas created! Tha is why for people ‘who have the git of creative imagination all music in its tatiety ds programme mae (even the so-called pure music ‘devo of programme) and atthe same time does not need any programme, since i exprees in its own language the whole of Such are the antinomiss oLaus.ast— Let us go back to the lewon, Sometimes Liss words—ae fear ere dots ebies—would make me ponder over the role ARTISTIG IMAGE OF MUSICAL COMPOSITION 27 of the flower in art. T would give pupils examples fom archi tecture, sculpture snd painting. T would show chem musical Dhrate and melodies ia which the image ofthe Hower could be perecived through the natare of the msi, as inthe Beethoven Allegreto, For the flower lives also in music as in other ats ince its not only the “experience” of the lower, its fragrance, its enchanting poetic quality, but its whole form, is structure, the flower as an image, ta phenomenon that cannot fil to be expressed aso in the tonal ar, since that art gives expresion without excepdion to everything that man ean experience, live ‘hough, think and feel. "Many regard it 8 paradox and even smile contemptuously when 1, as 8 musician, express my atitade to knowledge by saying that everything that can be leaned is musical "They argue: can it be sid chat Mendeleyews? periodical tables are musical? Of course, the periodical tables are a lave of chemistry, whereas Beethoven sonata is musi, the expressian ‘of musical signs, A = A. Butsurely itis clear that the peviodical tables as a discovery, as a tremendous achievement of the Ihuman mind, asa method of knowing nacue (to which artists sre sometimes more lately bound than the sient who probe it) go far beyond the strict mits of chemistry and the musician ‘who has mastered them iPhe hasan inclination for “associative Felatonshipe for thinking in broad analogies (without yielding fo the temptation of thoughtdew amateur comparisons —which {eas in identical with"illustration”)—uch a mcian will more than once remember them, while probing the boundless laws of| his art (uch, too, was my case when I wa sixteen o seventeen). ‘But thsi noe alll The power of music over te human mind, its omnipresence, would be unexplainable fit were not rooted inthe very nature of man, For everything that we do or thik, ‘whether the most insignificant setion or the most portentous, ‘whether it buying potatoes in the market or studying Philosophy—everything is tinted by the colour of a sub- Conscious spectrum, everything without exception is endowed ‘with emotional overtones which may even be undicernible to + Otome iyn the cof pepe mater hac sot apoly to the rest 1 ifdan chemist (1834-1907) who dicovered the Periodic Lave,