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MHPT 21120 Anatomy

Introduction and Welcome

This is a subject guide handbook for year one semester two physiotherapy students. The
aim of this book is to create a common understanding and expectations between the
course coordinators and the students. Information regarding the mode of assessment for
each course has been specified to help orientate the students about the assignments and
exams. The learning objectives for each course explain the expectation of the course
coordinator of the students at the end of each topic discussed. Lecture topics, credit hours,
and course prerequisites has also been incorporated. The timetable provided is subject to
changes and it will be notified through the students’ notice board. It is the responsibility of
the student to regularly check the student board for changes in the timetable.

Physiotherapy is the skilled use of physiologically-based movement techniques,


supplemented when necessary by electrotherapy and other physical means for the
prevention and treatment of injury and disease. It is used to assist the process of
rehabilitation and restoration of function, including the achievement of personal
independence. The work of a Physiotherapist is therefore essential to ensure a good quality
of life of individuals ranging from children to the elderly with various disabilities and
rehabilitation needs and their integration in the community. Physiotherapists are therefore
of paramount importance in the effective operation of the health care, social welfare and
education systems.

Lectures, practical sessions and tutorials on Anatomy will take place across the semester
with mid semester assessments and final term examination. The practical sessions will
provide an opportunity for the students to apply the theoretical knowledge learnt during the
lecturers into hands-on practical skills and will further assist the students in acquiring the
necessary competence in physiotherapy practice.

School of Physiotherapy. 2 Semester 1/Year 1


MHPT 21120 Anatomy

Anatomy will have lectures preceding the tutorial and followed by the practical sessions.
Students are expected to take initiative to practice the skills and techniques taught during
the practical session. Active participation of the physiotherapy students is essential to meet
the objectives of the practical sessions. The students are required to wear lab coats during
the anatomy practical sessions.

We hope you enjoy the semester as much as we are going to and thrust that it will form a
valuable building block in your future careers.

V.Bhavani,
Manipulative Physiotherapist
Program Coordinator.

School of Physiotherapy. 3 Semester 1/Year 1


MHPT 21120 Anatomy

MHPT 21120 Anatomy

Credit Points 3

Coordinator Dr.R. Arulmoli

Email arulgene@gmail.com

Subject Coordinator M. Ramkumar

Email mram2112@gmail.com

Subject Synopsis: This is one of the core subjects for physiotherapy. This course aims to
explore structures of the body region and will include three main systems which are
musculoskeletal, cardio respiratory and neurology. The students are given adequate
exposure and are taught in a systematic manner so that they understand the organization
and the normal structure within these three systems.

School of Physiotherapy. 4 Semester 1/Year 1


MHPT 21120 Anatomy

Anatomy
Course Objectives

Upon completion of this course students will be able to:

1. Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of basic human anatomy.

2. Relate the structures and functions of human anatomy & the development

of the systems.

Learning Outcomes.

Upon completion of this course students will be able to:

1. Identify and describe the bones, muscles and nerves of the head and neck.

2. Identify the arteries and lymphatic system of the head and neck.

3. Identify the orbit, eye and lacrimal apparatus.

4. Identify the nasal cavity and the paranasal sinuses.

5. Identify the pharynx, larynx and related structures.

6. Identify all the cranial nerves that exist and its function.

7. Define, orientate and classifies the structures in the upper limb.

8. Identify and describe the joints, ligament and muscles of upper limb.

9. Identify and describe the joints, ligaments and muscles of the trunk.

10. Identify and describe the joints, ligaments and muscles of lower limb.

11. Define, orientate and classifies the structures in the lower limb.

12. Identify, classify and discuss about the vertebral column.

13. Identify, classify and discuss about the mediastinum and thorax.

School of Physiotherapy. 5 Semester 1/Year 1


MHPT 21120 Anatomy

Lecture Topics:

1. Upper limb Osteology and Muscles Acting Upon


2. Lower limb Osteology and Muscles Acting Upon
3. Histology of Bones, Ligaments and Muscles
4. Head, Face, Neck and Trunk Osteology and Muscles Acting Upon
5. Thorax and mediastinum.
6. The Nervous System – CNS and PNS.
7. Brachial and Sacral Plexus
8. Blood Vessels and Lymphatic System of Upper Limb and Lower Limb.
9. Histology of Muscle Tissue, Ligament and Bone
10. The Brain, Cranial Nerves, Brainstem and related structures.
11. Autonomic Nervous System and Spinal Tracts

Course Readings:

1. William, P. L & Warwick, R (1980) Gray’s Anatomy. (36ed) Churchill Livingstone.

2. .Palastanga, N., Field, D & Soames, R (1994) Anatomy and Human Movement.
Structures and Function (2nd Ed) Butterworth Heinemann.
3. Wynsburghe, D.V., Noback, C.R. Carola, R (1995) Human Anatomy and Physiology
(3rd Ed) McGraw – Hill, Inc.
4. Snell, R.S. (1997) Clinical Neuroanoatomy for Medical Students. (4th Ed) Lippincott –
Raven Publishers.
5. Moffat, D.B & Mottran, R.F (1987) Anatomy and Physiology for Physiotherapy
(2nd Ed) Blackwell Screws Ltd.

School of Physiotherapy. 6 Semester 1/Year 1


MHPT 21120 Anatomy

Mode of Assessment

Assessment for Anatomy Year 1 Semester 1

Continuous Assessment 40%


Assignment 20%
Test 10%
OSPE 10%
(Multistation examination)

Final Examination 50%


Section A: 30 MCQ test
Section B: 5 Short essay question –answer 4
Section C: 3 Long essay question – answer 2
Final OSPE 10%
(Multistation examination)

School of Physiotherapy. 7 Semester 1/Year 1


MHPT 21120 Anatomy

Introduction, Pectoral Girdle and the Shoulder Complex.

1. Introduction of Anatomy, Terminology including joint movement and the

components of musculoskeletal system.

2. Bones of the Pectoral Girdle (clavicle and scapula)

3. Shoulder Joint and the Muscles acting upon it.

4. Joints of the Pectoral Girdle

5. Muscles acting upon the Pectoral Girdle.

Learning Objectives: Upon completion of this topic, students are expected to:

1. Understand the terminology used in the context of Anatomy.

2. Describe the joints of the upper limb.

3. Able to identify the different joints that exist in the upper limb.

4. Identify the bones of the pectoral girdle.

5. Describe the muscles and ligaments attach to humerus.

6. Identify and understand the function of the muscles of the pectoral

girdle.

7. Able to describe and differentiate the clavicle, scapula, humerus

and the

joints of the pectoral girdle.

8. List the rotator cuff muscles and its role in shoulder movements.

9. Describe the musculoskeletal and median nerve of the front of arm.

School of Physiotherapy. 8 Semester 1/Year 1


MHPT 21120 Anatomy
10. Understand the structure of the shoulder joint and the muscles

acting upon it.

11. Recognize cutaneous nerves of the pectoral region, fascia, breast, pectoralis

major and minor muscles and Clavipectoral Fascia.

12. Identify and explain the boundaries and contents of axilla.

13. Describe the axillary artery from origin, course, its termination and its relations to

other structures and their respective branches.

14. Describe the important bony landmarks around the upper limb.

15. Identify and understand the function of muscles connecting scapula

to humerus.

16. Recognize and describe quadrilateral and triangular spaces.

17. Draw and describe the scapula and its anastomosis.

18. List and state the function of muscles and ligaments attached to

scapula.

19. Recognize and understand the role on of the cutaneous nerves and

muscles connecting the scapula to the trunk.

20. Describe the walls of axilla and its contents.

21. Describe the sternoclavicular joint and acromioclavicular joint .

22. List and state the function of the muscles connecting upper limb to

the thoracic walls and to the vertebral column.

23. List the contents of the anterior fascial compartment of upper arm

School of Physiotherapy. 9 Semester 1/Year 1


MHPT 21120 Anatomy
24. List the contents of the posterior fascial compartment of the upper

arm.

Upper Limb: The Elbow, Wrist and Hand Complex

Learning Objectives: Upon completion of this topic, students are expected to:

1. Draw and label the elbow and wrist joint.

2. Describe the Radius and Ulna with the important muscle

attachments.

3. List and state the function of the important muscles and ligament

attachments to radius and ulna.

4. List and describe the 5 superficial muscles and 3 deep muscles of

the front

of the forearm.
5. Describe the vessels and nerves of the front of the forearm.
6. Identify, draw and describe the boundaries and contents of the
cubital fossa.
7. Recognize flexor retinaculum and the structures passing in relation
to other structures around the region.
8. Identify and understand the function of the palmar aponeurosis.

School of Physiotherapy. 10 Semester 1/Year 1


MHPT 21120 Anatomy
9. Describe and list the structures passing in relation to the carpal
tunnel.
10. Identify the structures passing beneath the flexor retinaculum
11. Identify the structures passing anterior to the flexor retinaculum.
12. Identify and describe the vessels, nerves and cutaneous nerve
supply of the forearm and palms.
13. Identify the superficial, intermediate and deep muscle groups of the
forearm.
14. Identify the contents of the lateral fascial compartments of the
forearm.
15. Identify the contents of the posterior compartments of the forearm.
16. Identify and understand the role of the intrinsic muscles of the hand
and identify the surgical spaces of the palm and forearm.
17. State the muscles acting upon the elbow and wrist joint.

18. Identify and describe the carpal, metacarpal and phalanges.

19. List the important muscles attached to anterior and posterior

surface of bones of the hand.

20. Describe the orientation of the muscles acting upon the elbow and

wrist.

21. The nerves and arteries around the elbow, forearm and wrist.

22. Describe the cutaneous nerves of the back of the arm, forearm and

hand.

23. Recognize and describe the vessels anastomosis around the

elbow joint.

School of Physiotherapy. 11 Semester 1/Year 1


MHPT 21120 Anatomy
24. Locate and understand the function of the muscles of the back of

forearm, extensor retinaculum and the boundaries of the anatomical snuff box.

25. Identify and state the important structure passing through the elbow

and wrist joint.

26. Identify and describe the importance of carpal tunnel with its clinical

significance.

27. Identify the bones that comprise the hand and wrist.

28. Locate the axillary lymph nodes and understand its function.

29. Describe the axillary vein formation, its course and termination and

also its tributaries in the upper limb.

Brachial Plexus, Nerves and Blood Vessels of the Upper Limb

Learning Objectives: Upon completion of this topic, students are expected to:

1. Draw and label the Brachial Plexus.

2. Be able to describe the roots, trunks, divisions, cords and terminals of

School of Physiotherapy. 12 Semester 1/Year 1


MHPT 21120 Anatomy
brachial plexus.

3. Brachial plexus formation, relations to other structures and its branches.

4. State the branches of the brachial plexus found in the axilla.

5. Able to understand the pathway of the brachial plexus in relation to the neck and

pectoral region.

6. Able to identify structures in proximity to the brachial plexus

7. Able to state and describe the pathway of the important blood vessels and

nerves around the upper limb.

8. Explain the brachial artery origin, course, termination, its relations to other
structures and its branches in the front of the arm.
9. Able to identify the lymphatic vessels of the upper limb.

The Hip, Knee and Sacrum

Learning Objectives: Upon completion of this topic, students are expected to:

1. List the muscles acting upon the hip joint

2. Describe the articulation and the arterial supply of the hip joint

3. Discuss the stability of the hip joint.

School of Physiotherapy. 13 Semester 1/Year 1


MHPT 21120 Anatomy
4. Understand the trendelenburg sign and its cause.

5. State the significance of sciatic nerve.

6. Identify the gluteal region and the important structures around the gluteal region.

7. List the 3 hip bones that form the acetabulum and describe these bones individually.

8. Identify inguinal and femoral triangle.

9. Describe the femur and the muscles and ligaments attach to it.

10. List the muscles of the gluteal region.

11. Identify the structures present in the gluteal region.

12. List the deep structures present in the gluteal region

13. Describe the nerve that passes through the gluteal region and its course till the foot.

14. Identify the important arteries of the gluteal region.

15. List and state the function the anterior fascial compartment of the thigh.

16. Identify the contents of he medial fascial compartment of the thigh.

17. List and state the functions of the content of posterior fascial compartment of the

thigh.

18. Describe the femoral sheath and its clinical significant.

19. Describe the femoral artery.

20. Describe the adductor canal.

21. Able to describe and discuss the tibia and fibula.

22. Able to identify and discuss the sacroiliac joint in term of stability and function.

23. Describe the articulation of the knee joint

24. List the bursae of the knee joint.

25. Describe the movements of th knee joint.

School of Physiotherapy. 14 Semester 1/Year 1


MHPT 21120 Anatomy
26. Identify the extracapsular and intracapsular ligaments of the knee joint.

27. Describe patella, tibia and fibula.

28. Identify and describe the popliteal fossa with the important structures passing

through the fossa.

29. Describe the boundaries of the popliteal fossa.

30. List te muscles of the anterior fascial compartments of the leg.

31. Identify the contents of the lateral and posterior fascial compartment of the leg.

32. Identify and describe the structures around the hip, knee and sacroiliac joint.

33. Able to define the involuntary conjoint rotation in the knee joint.

34. Describe the locking and unlocking mechanism of the knee joint

35. Able to understand the significance of coxa vara angle.

36. List the ligaments around the hip, knee and sacroiliac joint.

The Knee, Foot and Ankle Complex

Learning Objectives: Upon completion of this tutorial, students are expected to:

1. Describe the meniscus and its role in the knee joint.

2. Describe the attachments oft eh cruciate ligaments and the clinical significance of it.

3. List the bony structures of the foot.

School of Physiotherapy. 15 Semester 1/Year 1


MHPT 21120 Anatomy
4. Muscles attached to the dorsal and plantar aspect of the foot.

5. Structures passing anterior to the extensor retinacula

6. List the structures passing beneath the extensor retinacula

7. Identify the structures passing behind the medial malleolus beneath flexor retinacula.

8. List the muscles of the sole of the foot from first layer t the fourth layer.

9. Describe the articulation of the ankle joint.

10. Describe the contributing factors to the maintenance of the medial longitudinal arch

of the foot.

11. List the bones that form the medial longitudinal arch, lateral longitudinal arc and

transverse arch.

12. Describe arches of the foot.

13. List the tendons and muscles around the ankle joint.

14. List the muscles acting upon the knee

15. List the intrinsic muscles of the foot.

16. List the layers in the muscles around the plantar region of the foot.

17. Define Ankle Joint and list the muscles acting upon the ankle joint.

18. State the muscles acting upon the ankle joint.

Ankle, Foot, Lumbar -Sacral Plexus and the Vessels of the Lower Limb

Learning Objectives: Upon completion of this topic, students are expected to:

1. Draw and label the lumbar and sacral plexus.

2. Identify the nerves of the lower limb

School of Physiotherapy. 16 Semester 1/Year 1


MHPT 21120 Anatomy
3. List and discuss on the pathway of the blood vessels and lymphatic vessels of the

lower limb.

Histology of Muscle Tissue, Ligament, Bone and the Skull

Learning Objectives: Upon completion of this topic, students are expected to:

1. Identify the muscle histological appearance.

2. Identify the characteristics of a muscle tissue

3. Differentiate the ligament and bone histological appearance.

4. Differentiate the muscle, bone or ligaments characteristics histologically.

5. Discuss about the osteology of the skull

Mid Semester Break

The Skull and Mandible , Face and Temporomandibular Joint

Learning Objectives: Upon completion of this topic, students are expected to:

1. List the bony structures that consist of the skull and mandible.

2. List and differentiate the important structures around the skull and mandible.

School of Physiotherapy. 17 Semester 1/Year 1


MHPT 21120 Anatomy
3. List and identify the facial muscles

4. Identify and discuss the function of the mastication muscles

5. Describe the component of temporomandibular joint.

6. List the arterial and sensory nerve supply of the nerves of the face

7. List the bones of the face

Vertebral Column, Trunk Muscles and the Pelvic Floor

Learning Objectives: Upon completion of this topic, students are expected to:

1. List the joints that consist of the vertebral column.

2. Describe the intervetebral disc with drawing and labeling.

3. List the muscles that stabilize the trunk.

4. List the pelvic floor muscles and its function.

5. List the blood supply and the nerve supply of the vertebral column.

6. List and draw the bones of the vertebral column.

7. Nerves of neck - cervical plexus, brachial plexus, phrenic, vagus (and its inferior

ganglion), spinal accessory, sympathetic trunk (and its superior, middle and inferior

(stellate) ganglia, hypoglossal nerves.

8. Nerves of the face and scalp - sensory components of V, motor roots of VII, cervical

plexus.

9. Joints, bones, ligaments and movements of Vertebral Column and Pelvis.

10. Identify the features typical to all vertebrae and those features unique to each type of

vertebrae (including sacrum and coccyx)

11. Describe the origin, insertion, function and position of the intercostal muscles, as

well as of the intercostals VAN

School of Physiotherapy. 18 Semester 1/Year 1


MHPT 21120 Anatomy
12. Describe the structure and function of intervertebral discs and vertebral ligaments

Respiratory Cage and its Muscles, the Mediastinum

Learning Objectives: Upon completion of this topic, students are expected to:

1. Define the parts of the axial and appendicular skeleton

2. Describe and identify the bones of the thorax (sternum, ribs, clavicle, scapula) and

their major bony landmarks

3. Describe the posterior and anterior articulations of the ribs

4. Identify the bones of the respiratory cage and the

5. Distinguish between true, false and floating ribs, as well as describe features of

typical and atypical ribs

6. Thoracic Wall and Movements, Thoracic organs Abdominal Walls and Pelvic Organs

7. Describe the location of the breast including identifying underlying muscles, arterial

supply and innervations.

8. Describe the structure of the developed female breast

9. Describe the structure and function of the glands associated with the developed

female breast.

10. Identify the surface anatomy of the thorax and understand the positional
significance of each structure

The Pleura, Lung and Heart

Learning Objectives: Upon completion of this topic, students are expected to:

1. Differentiate the lobes of the lung

School of Physiotherapy. 19 Semester 1/Year 1


MHPT 21120 Anatomy
2. Describe and draw the lobes of the lung.

3. Define and state the function of lung pleura.

4. Describe the heart and its chambers.

The Structure of a Nerve, Meninges, Blood Supply to Brain

Learning Objectives: Upon completion of this topic, students are expected to:

1. List the contents of Vertebral Canal, Meninges and Spinal Cord.

2. Draw the structure of a nerve and label the important anatomical structure of the

neuron.

3. Describe the blood supply to the brain

4. List the meninges of the brain and its function.

Brainstem, Cranial Nerves, Cerebrum and Autonomic Nervous System

Learning Objectives: Upon completion of this topic, students are expected to:

1. Describe the brainstem and its function.

2. List the 12 cranial nerve and its function.

3. Describe the cerebrum and state the function of the lobes exists.

4. State the component and the function of the autonomic nervous system.

School of Physiotherapy. 20 Semester 1/Year 1


MHPT 21120 Anatomy

Cerebellum, Diencephalon, Ventricles and CSF, Spinal Cord and its tract

Learning Objectives: Upon completion of this topic, students are expected to:

1. State and describe cerebellum and its function

2. State the function of the diencephalon.

3. State the number of ventricles and its function.

4. The function of the CSF.

5. State the structure of the spinal cord and its main function.

6. Describe and discuss about the spinal tracts for both ascending and descending.

School of Physiotherapy. 21 Semester 1/Year 1


MHPT 21120 Anatomy

Published by

School of Physiotherapy
Aimst University
08100 Bedong,
Kedah,Malaysia
Website: www.aimst.edu.my
Telephone: 04-4298000 Ext – 1058 /1060

School of Physiotherapy. 22 Semester 1/Year 1

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