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Containment treatments can be defined as a process to inhibit or to reduce the passage of the Commented [G4]: Inserted: the
contaminants in the soil or in the groundwater. There are many types of containment, namely, Commented [G5]: Inserted: The s
physical barrier through solidification of soil, hydraulic barrier through pump-and-treat wells,
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active barrier and finally electro kinetic barrier by using the array of cathodes and anodes. A
specific site is being said contaminated when the concentration of the listed compound exceeds Commented [G6]: Inserted: by
the threshold of the values specified. The soil is being formed through the process of weathering Commented [G10]: Deleted:to
of rocks which varies in its chemical composition. Hence, soil properties are being bounded by the Commented [G11]: Deleted:on
chemical variability of its particular constituents. There are vast conventional technologies that are
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able to be applied to the sandy soil, but not clayey soil. Clay minerals are being visualized as
natural nanomaterials which own more complex behavior. Clayey soil is considered difficult to be Commented [G12]: Deleted:k
treated due to its specific properties. Clayey soil can be treated by using electrokinetic remediation. Commented [G13]: Inserted: ,
The principle of electrokinetic remediation utilizes the application by directing low intensity of Commented [G14]: Inserted: c
direct current through the soil between the cathode and anode array. The current discharge will
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cause the charged species, such as ions and water to moves toward the electrodes. The positive
ions such as metal ions, for example, ammonium ions will move towards the electrodes while the Commented [G49]: Deleted:P
negatively charged ions, such as chloride, nitrate, fluoride will move towards the anode. The Commented [G50]: Deleted:k
current will create acid on the surface of anode and base on the front of the cathode. The acidic Commented [G16]: Inserted: c
condition will help the absorption of the metal contaminants at the cathode. Electrokinetic
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remediation makes use of the process of electroosmosis, ionic flow, electrophoresis and electro-
oxidation. The process of electrokinetic will change the diffuse double layer and it will help in the Commented [G18]: Inserted: or

contaminant removal. Electrokinetic may change the properties of the pollutants and also the Commented [G19]: Inserted: the
microbial communities. Electrokinetic also can be applied in soil remediation. Among the function Commented [G20]: Inserted: s
of electrokinetic are to remove metal and hydrocarbon. The electrokinetic process also able to Commented [G21]: Inserted: c
remove metal and PHA simultaneously. It also can be used during in-situ and ex-situ treatment.
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The in-situ treatment process of remediation in which it takes place at the site to treat the
contaminants in low permeability zones to overcome accessibility of contaminants or delivery of Commented [G52]: Deleted:k
the treatment. Ex-situ process is when the soil is being removed from the site and the contaminants Commented [G53]: Deleted:k
are being tested and treated in a laboratory. The electrokinetic process can be combined with other Commented [G22]: Inserted: c
processes too to increase its effectiveness. Among the combined applications are bioremediation
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or phytoremediation, electro-bioremediation, bio-electro-washing, electro-Fenton, and
mobilization-accumulation. Electrokinetic also provides the solution to treat the soil which Commented [G57]: Deleted:k
contaminated with heavy metals combined with hydrocarbon. Since metals and hydrocarbon are Commented [G23]: Inserted: c
particularly different in their chemical composition, they are hard to be treated simultaneously. Commented [G24]: Inserted: The e
But, electrokinetic is able to decontaminate organic and inorganic materials simultaneously.
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Electrokinetic is the only process whereby the organic (hydrocarbon) and inorganic (metal) can be
decontaminated in a single process. The simultaneous process includes the utilization of surfactant, Commented [G55]: Deleted:k
chelating agent, special electrode supply system and electrokinetic support. Electrokinetic Commented [G56]: Deleted:E
remediation advantages are it can be conducted in situ and ex-situ. The versatility of the treatment Commented [G26]: Inserted: The i
location also can be very effective in term of the cost. Electrokinetic can be used in saturated or
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unsaturated soils due to the insertion of pore fluid, and it can be applied in any soil stratification
or homogeneity of the soil itself. Soil that has low permeability such as clayey soil, electrokinetic Commented [G27]: Inserted: ,
is able to remove up to 90% of the heavy metal contaminants. The electrokinetic process can be Commented [G28]: Inserted: c
proposed to treat the soil which has large contaminants area, fast propagated contaminant, and Commented [G29]: Inserted: The e
groundwater flow. Electrokinetic has been proven to be cost-effective and efficient in removing
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contaminants in the soil with the advantages mentioned above, the electrokinetic process should
be later studied for further effectiveness. Commented [G31]: Inserted: c
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