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2017

[Urban ring Development Corporation Ltd.]

2017 [Urban ring Development Corporation Ltd.] [ GEOTECHNICAL ASSESSMENT REPORT ] [The detailed Geotechnical Investigation

[GEOTECHNICAL ASSESSMENT REPORT]

[The detailed Geotechnical Investigation conducted by TUSPL for various locations on Outer Ring road Surat, except inside Tapi River as per scope of work mentioned in the work order.]

Geotechnical Investigation Report

GI for proposed Urban Ring Development Project at Surat Gujarat.

TUSPL & JGG

GEOTECHNICAL INVESTIGATION REPORT

SITE

GI FOR PROPOSED URBAN RING DEVELOPMENT PROJECT AT SURAT GUJARAT

SUBMITTED TO,

URBAN RING DEVELOPMENT CORPORATIN LTD. (URDCL),

SURAT GUJRAT

SUBMITTED BY

M/s. TANDON URBAN SOLUTIONS PVT. LTD. (TUSPL)

MUMBAI

GEOTECHNICAL INVESTIGATION CONDUCTED BY

M/s JAY GAJANAN GEOTECHNICS(JGG) THANE (WEST)

Shailendra Khachane

Geotechnical Consultant

Page 1

Ph. No.: 8976269233

Geotechnical Investigation Report

GI for proposed Urban Ring Development Project at Surat Gujarat.

TUSPL & JGG

GEOTECHNICAL INVESTIGATION REPORT

Client

Site

:

:

URBAN RING DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION LTD.SURAT GUJARAT

Proposed Construction of Urban Ring Development Project at Surat

Gujarat

INTRODUCTION SCOPE FOR GEOTECHNICAL ASSESSMENT PURPOSE OF EVALUATION INVESTIGATION PROCEDURE AND STANDARD CODE PROVISIONS PLANNING TRIAL PIT DRILLING STANDARD PENETRATION TEST AND SOIL SAMPLING GROUND WATER LABORATORY TESTS LOGGING PROCEDURES :

4

6

6

8

8

9

9

10

11

11

11

RESULTS OF INVESTIGATION AND LABORATORY TESTING

 

13

SOIL LAYERS GROUND WATER TABLE:

14

16

DESIGN PARAMETERS FOR ELEVATED CORRIDOR CHEMICAL ANALYSIS (SOIL & WATER):

16

16

GEOTECHNICAL EVALUATION AND OPINION

 

18

FOUNDATION SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION METHOD DESIGN PARAMETERS PILES IN STRATIFIED SOIL

18

19

20

20

Shailendra Khachane

Geotechnical Consultant

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Ph. No.: 8976269233

Geotechnical Investigation Report

GI for proposed Urban Ring Development Project at Surat Gujarat.

TUSPL & JGG

SHALLOW FOUNDATION:

 

21

ANNEXURE

24

LOCATION PLAN OF BOREHOLES

 

24

BOREHOLE LOG COREBOX PHOTO

Annexure

25

ANNEXURE

56

SOIL / ROCK TEST RESULTS REFERENCES

Annexure

78

 

103

Shailendra Khachane

Geotechnical Consultant

Page 3

Ph. No.: 8976269233

Geotechnical Investigation Report

GI for proposed Urban Ring Development Project at Surat Gujarat.

TUSPL & JGG

Chapter 1

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Site investigations or sub-surface explorations are done for obtaining information about subsurface conditions at the site of proposed construction. Site investigation in one form or the other is required for every engineering project. Information about the surface and subsurface features is essential for the design of structures and for planning construction techniques.

Surat Urban Development Authority (SUDA) has taken up construction of Outer Ring Road in Surat. As town planning department of state government has approved 10 of the 11 town planning schemes for the development of roads. Now the SPV (special purpose vehicle) floated for the purpose will begin infrastructure planning. It will also start taking possession of the lands marked for the purpose. The SPV floated for this Rs 5,000 crore project is named Urban Ring Development Corporation Ltd. (URDCL). For a 66-km Outer Ring Road to be completed with the existing 34-km portion, new roads of 27.74 km length will be developed. Majority of this portion runs through the agricultural areas. Eight town planning schemes of SUDA and three of Surat Municipal Corporation (SMC), prepared on 500 meters on both sides of the proposed 200 feet road will see a development pattern that will be different from the city. This road would serve basically three major purposes of providing a bypass to industries at Hazira, link residential and commercial localities of Surat and Navsari and handle heavy traffic meant for Hazira.

As a statutory requirement & to identify required design parameters for safe design, TUSPL decided to carry out geotechnical investigation. Geotechnical investigation work consisted of Twenty boreholes. M/s JAY GAJANAN GEOTECHNICS, Thane

Shailendra Khachane

Geotechnical Consultant

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Ph. No.: 8976269233

Geotechnical Investigation Report

GI for proposed Urban Ring Development Project at Surat Gujarat.

TUSPL & JGG

(West) carried out fieldwork of Twenty boreholes from 28 th Aug, 2017 to 29 th Sept, 2017. Selected soil & rock samples were tested in Soil Laboratory of M/s JAY GAJANAN GEOTECHNICS, Thane (West) Laboratory test results were received on 14 th Oct, 2017.

This geotechnical investigation report is based on the data collected from Twenty boreholes data and from laboratory results and judgement of undersigned based on his experience. Scope of this investigation report is limited to defining design parameters and recommending appropriate founding system.

Professional judgments and recommendations are presented in this report. They are based partly on evaluation of the technical information gathered, partly on historical reports and partly on our general experience with sub-surface condition in the area. We do not guarantee the performance of the project in any respect other than that our engineering work and the judgments rendered meet the standards and care of our profession. It should be noted that the borings/trial pits may not represent potentially unfavorable subsurface conditions between borings. If during construction soil conditions are encountered that vary from those discussed in this report or historical reports of if design loads and/or configuration change, we should be notified immediately in order that we may evaluate effects, if any, on foundation performance. The recommendations presented in this report are applicable only to this specific site. These data should not be used for other purposes.

Shailendra Khachane

Geotechnical Consultant

Page 5

Ph. No.: 8976269233

Geotechnical Investigation Report

GI for proposed Urban Ring Development Project at Surat Gujarat.

TUSPL & JGG

Chapter 2

2.0 SCOPE FOR GEOTECHNICAL ASSESSMENT

PURPOSE OF EVALUATION

The purpose of this evaluation was to assess subsurface conditions at the site and to provide geotechnical recommendations for project design based on anticipated and construction activities. Objective of the site investigation was to obtain the information that may be useful for one or more of the following purposes :

1. To select the type and depth of foundation for a given structure.

2. To determine the bearing capacity of soil/rock layer.

3. To establish the ground water level.

4. To select the suitable construction technique.

5. To predict potential foundation problems.

6. To ascertain the suitability of the soil as a construction material.

7. To collect and transport the selected samples of soil and rock in testing laboratory and conduct relevant tests to determine properties.

8. Recommendations for soil-related construction conditions such as site preparation, earthwork construction, excavation slopes, and difficult excavation.

Geotechnical investigation for construction of Outer Ring Road in Surat was carried out by drilling twelve boreholes to examine subsurface profile. Depth of boreholes to be drilled was determined using IS : 1892- 1979 section 2.3.2. The lateral extent of exploration and the spacing of boreholes depend mainly on the variation of the strata in horizontal direction. The scope of services included a site reconnaissance, site soil test, borings and soil sampling, laboratory soil testing, engineering evaluation of the field test data, and

Shailendra Khachane

Geotechnical Consultant

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Ph. No.: 8976269233

Geotechnical Investigation Report

GI for proposed Urban Ring Development Project at Surat Gujarat.

TUSPL & JGG

preparation of this report. Specifically, the scope of our engineering work for this site was to provide the following:

1. Soil nature and origin, including changes resulting from man’s activities

2. Depths, thickness, and composition of soil strata that will be appreciably stressed by the intended construction.

3. Depths to encountered groundwater, dense soil strata, and rock that could affect the proposed construction. Collect ground water sample from borehole for chemical analysis. Collect undisturbed soil samples from cohesive soil stratum.

4. Conduct standard penetration tests at an interval of 1.0 to 1.5 metres and collect disturbed soil samples.

5. To prepare a geotechnical investigation report by compiling data collected from field, borelogs, and results of laboratory tests.

6. Recommendations regarding foundation support of structure including allowable bearing pressures, estimated settlements, footing sizes and depths.

The scope of this investigation report did not include an environmental assessment or investigation for the presence or absence of hazardous or toxic materials in the soil or groundwater or surface water within or beyond the site. Any statements in this report or on the soil test, boring logs regarding odors, staining of soils, or other unusual conditions observed are strictly for the information of our client.

Shailendra Khachane

Geotechnical Consultant

Page 7

Ph. No.: 8976269233

Geotechnical Investigation Report

GI for proposed Urban Ring Development Project at Surat Gujarat.

TUSPL & JGG

Chapter 3

3.0 INVESTIGATION PROCEDURE AND STANDARD CODE PROVISIONS

PLANNING A subsurface exploration programme depends upon the type of structure to be built

and also upon variability of the strata at proposed site. Sub-surface explorations are

generally carried out in three stages.

A) Reconnaissance : Prior to our field exploration, the site and surrounding areas were

visually evaluated by M/S Jay Gajanan Geotechnics, engineer. His observations were

used in planning explorations, in determining areas of special interest, and in relating

site conditions to known geologic conditions in the proposed project area. Subsurface

exploration programme includes visit to a site and study the map and other relevant

records. The information about the following features is obtained:

i. general topography of the site.

ii. existence of underground water mains, power conduits, etc. at the site.

iii. existence of settlement cracks in structure already build near site.

iv. the evidence of landslides, creep of slope and shrinkage cracks.

v. the stratification of soil observed from deep cuts near the site.

vi. depth of ground water table as observed in wells and drainage pattern.

vii. type of vegetation existing at the site.

B) Preliminary Exploration : The aim of a preliminary exploration is to determine the

depth, thickness, extent and composition of each soil stratum at the site. The depth of

bedrock and the ground water table is also determined. The preliminary explorations

Shailendra Khachane

Geotechnical Consultant

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Ph. No.: 8976269233

Geotechnical Investigation Report

GI for proposed Urban Ring Development Project at Surat Gujarat.

TUSPL & JGG

are generally in the form of trial pits. Trial pits were not considered for these sub-

surface investigations.

TRIAL PIT Trial pits are excavated at the site to inspect the strata. The size of the pit should be

sufficient to provide necessary working space. IS : 4453 2009 recommends a clear

working space of 1.2 m x 1.2 m at the bottom of the pit. The depth of the pit depends

upon the requirement of the investigation. Shallow pits up to a depth of 3 m can be

made without providing any lateral support. For deeper pits especially below the

ground water table the lateral support in the form of sheeting and bracing system is

required. Tests pits can be excavated manually or mechanically. The sides of the pits

should be cleaned by chipping continuously in vertical bands or by other appropriate

methods so as to expose a clean face of rock or soil. Measurements should be taken and

recorded documenting the orientation, plan dimension, depth of the pit, and thickness

of each stratum exposed in the pit. Adequate precaution should be taken against

possible accidents due to caving of the ground.

C) Detail Exploration : The purpose of detail exploration is to determine engineering

properties of soil in different strata. It includes an extensive boring programme,

sampling and testing. Field test such as vane shear test, SPT, PLT, Permeability test

(Whenever required by client) to be conducted to determine properties of soil in natural

state. The tests for the determination of dynamic properties are also carried out, if

required.

DRILLING Locations of the boreholes are indicated on the attached Boreholes Location Plan in the

Annexure 6.1. Onsite locations of boreholes were specified by client. The borings were

performed to maximum depths of 42.60 m below the existing ground surface

elevations. For drilling rotary type drilling rig was used. Rig was coupled with diesel

engine, tripod and all drilling accessories. Drilling rig have tripod with suitable

Shailendra Khachane

Geotechnical Consultant

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Ph. No.: 8976269233

Geotechnical Investigation Report

GI for proposed Urban Ring Development Project at Surat Gujarat.

TUSPL & JGG

arrangement for driving as well as extracting casing. It was also used for conducting

Standard Penetration Test (SPT), collection of Undisturbed Soil Sample (UDS) and

Disturbed or wash Soil Sample (DS).

Initially casing of adequate diameter to suit boring of 100 mm borehole was lowered

and boring was commenced. When rock was encountered, size of borehole was

changed to N x (76 mm) diameter. A core barrel and N x sized bits are used for drilling

and recovering rock cores. Recovered rock cores were numbered serially and preserved

in good quality sturdy wooden core boxes. Rock core recovery (CR) and Rock Quality

Designation (RQD) were computed for every run of length drilled. Rock samples have

been selected for laboratory test based on the probable founding elevation of the

proposed structure.

STANDARD PENETRATION TEST AND SOIL SAMPLING All soil sampling and Standard Penetration Testing (SPT) was performed in general

accordance with IS : 2131 - 1981 (Reaffirmed 2002) and ASTM Standards D 1586 and D

6151. The soil borings were advanced by rotary drilling methods. At regular intervals (1

to 1.5 m), soil samples were obtained with a standard split-spoon sampler. The sampler

was first seated 15 cm and then driven an additional 30 cm with blows of a 63.5 kg

hammer falling a distance of 75 cm. The number of blows required to drive the sampler

the final 30 cm was recorded and is designated the “standard penetration resistance” or

“N” value. Because the sampler may be damaged by driving it 12 to 18 inches into very

dense soils, it is driven a few inches into such materials and the penetration resistance

is expressed as the number of hammer blows versus the depth of penetration, e.g.

100/3”, 50/1”, etc. Penetration resistance, when properly evaluated, is an index of the

soil’s shear strength, density, and foundation support capability. SPT ‘N’ values are

correlated with the relative density of non-cohesive soils and consistency of saturated

cohesive soils.

Shailendra Khachane

Geotechnical Consultant

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Ph. No.: 8976269233

Geotechnical Investigation Report

GI for proposed Urban Ring Development Project at Surat Gujarat.

TUSPL & JGG

GROUND WATER Ground water table was observed after dewatering the borehole by suitable method

and waiting for time period of 24 hours to allow for recuperation of ground water.

Ground water samples were collected for chemical analysis [IS : 3025 (Part - 24 and 32)]

to determine their pH, Sulphate and Chloride content. This is useful to predict

corrosive effect of ground water on structures.

LABORATORY TESTS Lab tests were conducted (as per relevant IS code) on soil and rock samples to

determine their properties which may be used for design and geotechnical evaluation.

Sr.

Test Description

Relevant IS/ASTM code

No

A

Soil Tests

1

LL & PL

IS : 2720 (Part 20); ASTM D4318

2

Grain size analysis

IS : 2720 (Part 4); ASTM D422

3

Chemical Analysis Soil

IS : 2720 (Part 26, 27)

4

Chemical Analysis Water

IS:3025 (Part 32), 1988 Reaff.2009 IS:3025 (Part 11) 1988 IS:3025 (Part 24) 1986 Reaff.2009

B

Rock Tests

1

Water absorption

 

2

Porosity

IS 13030 - 1991,Reaff.2006

3

Dry density

4

Crushing strength (UCS)

IS 9143, 1979,Reaff.2006

5

Point load test

IS 8764, 1998,Reaff.2008

6

Modulus of Elasticity of Rock

IS 9221, 1979,Reaff.2006

Point load strength index is often used to predict uniaxial compressive strength. On

average, uniaxial compressive strength is 20 to 25 times point load strength. However,

the ratio can very between 15 and 50, especially for anisotropic rocks.

LOGGING PROCEDURES :

In logging the exploration pit/borehole, a vertical profile should be made parallel with

one pit wall or borehole. The contacts between geological units should be identified

and drawn on the profile, and the units sampled as recommended by geotechnical

Shailendra Khachane

Geotechnical Consultant

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Ph. No.: 8976269233

Geotechnical Investigation Report

GI for proposed Urban Ring Development Project at Surat Gujarat.

TUSPL & JGG

consultant. Sampling should be made as per SP: 36 (Part 2) 1988 for disturbed samples and IS : 8763 1978 (sand), IS : 10108 1982 (fine grained soil) for undisturbed samples. Characteristics and type of soil or lithologic contacts should be noted. Variation within the geologic unit must be described and identified, and indicated on the pit /borehole log wherever the variation occurs. The sample locations should be shown in the respective log and their location written on a sample tag showing the station location and elevation. Ground water should also be noted on the exploration pit/borehole log.

Shailendra Khachane

Geotechnical Consultant

Page 12

Ph. No.: 8976269233

Geotechnical Investigation Report

GI for proposed Urban Ring Development Project at Surat Gujarat.

TUSPL & JGG

Chapter 4

4.0 RESULTS OF INVESTIGATION AND LABORATORY TESTING

A preliminary site model was developed using the information obtained from existing

data and the site visit. The model should be divided into zones of interest (i.e.,

geotechnical units) based on the necessary design parameters and objectives. This

model will obviously change as results of the detailed investigation are collected.

Following information was collected during the site reconnaissance stage.

Sr.

     

No

Checklist Item

Sub-Item

Description

1

Accessibility

   

Easy

2

Visit to site

Date and time

28

th Aug, 2017 to 29 th Sept, 2017

Visitors

M/s Jay Gajanan Geotechnics

Weather condition

Rainy

Temperature

28-32 0 Centigrade

3

Ground Cover

   

Grass

4

Existing Terrain

 

Flat ground

5

Site Hydrology

Surface water

 

conditions

 

None

Subsurface water

Encountered in boreholes at a depth of 0.50 to 4.40 m below existing ground level

6

Site Drainage

 

Existing drainage system

7

Soil and rock conditions

Surface soil

Black cotton soil & Brownish clay with Gravels

Subsurface soil

Dense sandy clayey strata with boulder rock

Rock features

Not Encountered in the borehole

8

Investigative

 

Twelve Boreholes

Operation

9

Prior information

 

Site Observations

Boreholes observations and laboratory testing results for proposed structure are

presented in this section. Boreholes were drilled up to maximum 42.0 m depth from

Shailendra Khachane

Geotechnical Consultant

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Ph. No.: 8976269233

Geotechnical Investigation Report

GI for proposed Urban Ring Development Project at Surat Gujarat.

TUSPL & JGG

the existing ground level. Ground water table were observed in all boreholes.

Fieldwork is summarised in the following table.

Table 4.1 Summary of Boreholes

Bore

Location

Occurrence

Final Depth of Borehole

Ground

Hole

of Rock

Water Table

No.

Strata

(m)

(m)

BH 1

Eklera

--

32.00

3.10

BH 4

Kharvasa Road

--

35.00

4.40

BH 6

Niyol Mohini Road

--

42.60

3.20

BH 13

Vadchha

 

21.60

3.50

BH 16

Chedcha

--

20.00

4.10

BH 18

Anand Nagar

--

10.00

2.50

BH 21

Vathan PungamRoad

--

20.00

0.50

BH 25

JD Motors Surat Kamrej

--

20.00

2.10

BH 29

Bharthana

--

20.00

0.50

BH 31

Bharthana village

--

20.00

3.10

BH 2A

Rajput Faliyu

--

20.00

4.40

BH 14

Surat Bardoli Road

--

20.00

3.20

Total

Borehole logs for the site are given in Annexure 6.3. Review of all available borehole

logs indicates that the subsurface profile consists of 4 layers. Following subsoil Layers

profile were inferred up to final depth of borehole & subsequent discussion on the lab

results.

SOIL LAYERS Data of the all boreholes logs were reviewed. Results of laboratory tests on selected soil

samples were also studied & following subsurface layers were identified for calculation

boreholes were drilled in present investigation for proposed structure.

twelve
twelve

purpose:

Layer I

:

Backfill Soil

Layer II

:

Medium dense to dense silty SAND

Layer III

:

Very dense silty SAND

Layer IV

:

Stiff sandy CLAY

1. Layer I: Black Cotton soil:

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Geotechnical Consultant

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Geotechnical Investigation Report

GI for proposed Urban Ring Development Project at Surat Gujarat.

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The first layer of the sub-surface profile is Black Cotton soil. This layer is observed in all the boreholes as the top layer. An initial thickness of 2.00 to 4.50m comprising of silty sand or clayey sand or clayey silt.

2. Layer II : Medium Dense to dense Silty SAND:

The second layer of the subsurface profile is medium dense to dense silty SAND. This layer is encountered below the black cotton layer in boreholes. The layer is observed at

depths ranging from 2.50 m to 6.00 m BGL in these boreholes. SPT ‘N’ values ranging from 8 to 18 reveal medium dense to dense relative density of this layer. Laboratory grain size and consistency limit tests conducted on some samples from this layer gave the Soil Classification: SM-SC, SM, SC

3. Layer III : Very dense silty SAND

The third layer of the subsurface profile is very dense silty SAND. The layer is encountered at depths ranging from 6.50 m to 30 or 40 m BGL & borehole were terminated into this stratum. SPT ‘N’ values ranging from 26 to Refusal reveal the very

dense relative density of this layer. Laboratory tests for this layer gave the Soil Classification: SM

4. Layer IV: Stiff Sandy CLAY

The fourth layer of the sub-surface profile is stiff sandy CLAY. This layer ranges from 6.50 to 20 m BGL and the thickness ranges from 10 to 15.00m. These soils are characterised by their high compressibility, low co-efficient of consolidation and a very low shear strength. SPT ‘N’ values ranging from 40 to Refusal reveal the stiff

consistency of this layer. Laboratory test for this layer gave Soil Classification : CH,

CI

Shailendra Khachane

Geotechnical Consultant

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Ph. No.: 8976269233

Geotechnical Investigation Report

GI for proposed Urban Ring Development Project at Surat Gujarat.

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GROUND WATER TABLE:

Ground water table was encountered at depths ranging from 0.5 m to 4.40 m depth

below existing ground level depth. Ground water table was recorded after stabilisation

of ground water.

DESIGN PARAMETERS FOR ELEVATED CORRIDOR The sub-soil strata at proposed site comprises of eight types of layers (based on field

tests & laboratory test result data). Description of each layer along with various

engineering parameters is as under

Layer

Description

Classification as

Relative Density/

per IS : 1498-1970

Consistency

I

Black Cotton Soil

-

-

II

Silty Sand

SM-SC, SP-SC, SM,

Medium dense to dense

SC

III

Silty Sand

SP-SC, SM

Very dense

IV

Sandy Clay

-

Soft

V

Silty Clay

CH

Medium stiff to stiff

VI

Silty Sandy Clay with

CH, CI

Very stiff to hard

gravel

VII

Completely weathered

CI, CH, GM

-

rock

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS (SOIL & WATER):

In civil engineering projects, large quantity of different materials are used and it is

necessary to test these materials according to certain set patterns within desirable

frequency of testing in order that the quality of final product is maintained. Soil

laboratory testing of the soil/ rock samples collected & Chemical analysis of soil &

water were carried out in laboratory of M/s JAY GAJANAN GEOTECHNICS, Thane

(West). Layer wise laboratory tests results were given in the respective tables.

Shailendra Khachane

Geotechnical Consultant

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Geotechnical Investigation Report

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TUSPL & JGG

A. Quality of water for construction use is determined in the laboratory. This test is

done as per clause 3.1.1 of IS 3025.

B. Soil chemical analysis test was done as per clause 3.1.1 of IS 2720 (Part 26, 27)

Following are the tests required for quality of water for construction purpose:

1. pH value test

2. Limits of acidity test

3. Limits of alkalinity test

4. Percentage of solids

a) Chlorides

b) Suspended matter

c) Sulphates

d) Inorganic solids

e) Organic solids

The pH value of water shall not be less than the following concentrations represent the

maximum permissible values (of deleterious materials in water):

Percentage of solids: Maximum permissible limits of solids when tested in accordance

with IS 3025 & IS 456-2000 shall be as under:

Table 4.2 Permissible Limit for Solid as per IS 456-2000

Types of solids

 

Permissible Limits

Organic solids

200

mg/liter

Inorganic solids

3000

mg/liter

Sulphates

400

mg/liter

 

2000

mg/liter for concrete not containing embedded

Chlorides

steel, and

500

mg/liter for reinforced concrete work

Suspended matter

2000

mg/liter

The physical and chemical properties of ground water shall be tested along with soil

investigation and if the water is not found conforming to the requirements of IS 456

2000, the tender documents shall clearly specify that the contractor has to arrange good

quality water construction indicating the source.

Shailendra Khachane

Geotechnical Consultant

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Ph. No.: 8976269233

Geotechnical Investigation Report

GI for proposed Urban Ring Development Project at Surat Gujarat.

TUSPL & JGG

Chapter 5

5.0 GEOTECHNICAL EVALUATION AND OPINION

After

recommendation.

detail

studying

twelve

bore

logs,

following

two

option

for

foundation

1. Friction pile foundation

2. Open Foundation is recommended for this structure.

FOUNDATION SYSTEM Review of subsoil profile shows that upper three strata can not support multi storied

residential complex. Therefore, pile foundation is recommended for this structure.

Piling through this stratum by either conventional chisel-bailor method or by Rotary

piling method is possible.

A. PILE FOUNDATION

The installation process and method of installations are equally important factors as of

the design process of pile foundations. Two main types of pile installation methods;

i. Installation by conventional percussion (chisel-bailor or Drop Hammer Method),

and

ii. Rotary drilling method.

Drop Hammer Method : This early form of drilling uses the dynamic energy of a

dropping weight to fragment the rock. The rate of penetration is largely dependent on

the weight of the chisel, the drop height, the number of unit blows and the shape and

material of the chisel point.

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Geotechnical Consultant

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Geotechnical Investigation Report

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Rotary Drilling Method : Rotary bored techniques offer larger diameter piles than any

other piling method and permit pile construction through particularly stiff or hard

strata. Construction methods depend on the geology of the site. In particular, whether

boring is to be undertaken in 'dry' ground conditions or through water-logged but

stable strata - i.e. 'wet boring'. In some cases there may be a need to employ drilling

fluids (such as bentonite suspension) in order to maintain a stable shaft. Rotary bored

piles are constructed using either self erecting hydraulic rigs or crane mounted boring

rigs.

Where boreholes are required to penetrate considerable depths of unstable soil, the

installation of long, temporary casing is a time-consuming process. By employing a

bentonite suspension of around 6% by weight bentonite, the borehole walls may be

effectively supported. However, a positive head of bentonite slurry above the

groundwater table, of at least 1.5 m is required.

CONSTRUCTION METHOD All piles were constructed in the following manner:

1. Install liner up to weathered rock to support the Very dense, yellowish

White/Yellowish brown, silty fine SAND and stiff clay mixed with sand &

boulder strata.

2. Drill pile to design depth by suitable method.

3. Install reinforcement cage to the design level as instruction by structural

consultant.

4. Ensure proper tip zone cleaning by circulating fresh water after lowering

reinforcement cage.

5. Concrete the pile from bottom upward using tremie.

6. When concreting was going up to ground level, temporary casing (if used) was

removed immediately. If the casing was required to be kept in place overnight, it

would be removed in the morning.

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Geotechnical Consultant

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Geotechnical Investigation Report

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TUSPL & JGG

DESIGN PARAMETERS After studying the sub-surface stratification of the boreholes and considering the type

of proposed structure, bored cast in-situ pile foundations (by rotary drilling method)

are most suitable for founding the structure. The minimum diameter of the pile should

be 450 mm, 600 mm, 800 mm or 1000 mm. Pile capacity calculated as per IS 2911 Part II

2010, Please see the attached sample calculation for more information

Rock socketed piles can be designed to carry compressive loads in side wall shear only

or end bearing only, or a combination of both. The most important factors that

influence the design procedure are the strength, degree of fracturing and modulus of

deformation of rock mass, the condition of the walls and base of the socket and the

geometry of the socket.

After studying the sub-surface stratification of the boreholes and considering the type

of proposed structure, bored cast in-situ pile foundations are most suitable for

founding the structure. The minimum diameter of the pile should be 1000 mm. For pile

load capacity calculation purpose as per IS 2911 Part II 2010.

PILES IN STRATIFIED SOIL

In stratified soil/C-φ soil, the ultimate load capacity of piles should be determined by

calculating the skin friction and end-bearing in different strata by using appropriate

expressions given in

a. PILES IN GRANULAR SOILS

The ultimate load capacity (Qu) of piles, in kN, in granular soils is given by the

following formula:

in kN, in granular soils is given by the following formula: A p = cross-sectional area

Ap = cross-sectional area of pile tip, in m2;

D = diameter of pile shaft, in m;

γ = effective unit weight of the soil at pile tip, in kN/m 3

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Nγ= bearing capacity factors depending upon and Nq = the angle of internal friction, φ at pile tip; PD = effective overburden pressure at pile tip, in kN/m 2 (see Note 5); ∑ = summation for layers 1 to n in which pile is installed and which contribute to positive skin friction; Ki = coefficient of earth pressure applicable for the i th layer (see Note 3); PDi = effective overburden pressure for the i th layer, in kN/m 2 ; δi = angle of wall friction between pile and soil for the i th layer; and Asi = surface area of pile shaft in the it h layer,in m 2 .

b. PILES IN COHESIVE SOILS

The ultimate load capacity (Qu) of piles, in kN, in cohesive soils is given by the

following formula:

in kN, in cohesive soils is given by the following formula: A p = cross-sectional area

A p = cross-sectional area of pile tip, in m2; Nc = bearing capacity factor, may be taken as 9; c p = average cohesion at pile tip, in kN/m2; ∑= summation for layers 1 to n in which the pile is installed and which contribute to positive skin friction; α i = adhesion factor for the i th layer depending on the consistency of soil,(see Note); c i = average cohesion for the i th layer, in kN/m2; and

A si = surface area of pile shaft in the i th layer,in m 2 .

SHALLOW FOUNDATION:

Due to extensive research in the topic of bearing capacity, numerous methods of analysis have been developed. The research started by Terzaghi (1943) and was followed by Skempton (1951), Meyerhof (1951), Hansen (1961), De Beer and Ladanyi (1961), Meyerhof (1963), Hansen (1970),

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Vesic (1973, 1975), and others. The most popular and widely used bearing capacity equations in practice today are the Terzaghi and AASHTO equations. When physical characteristics such as cohesion, angle of internal friction, density etc. are available, the bearing capacity shall be calculated from stability considerations. Established bearing capacity equations shall be used for calculating bearing capacity. A factor of safety of between 2.0 to 3.0 (depending on the extent of soil exploration, quality control and monitoring of construction) shall be adopted to obtain allowable bearing pressure when dead load and normal live load is used. The following are the two methods used to calculate bearing capacity of the soil strata

I. Presumptive Bearing Capacities from IS 1904 - 1978

For different types of soils, IS 1904 (1978) has recommends the following bearing

capacity values. The presumptive bearing values (allowable) as given in the following

Table may be assumed for uniform soil in the absence of test results.

Minimum Depth of Foundation as per IS: The minimum depth of foundation shall be

1.5 m for exterior footing of permanent structures in cohesive soils and 2 m in

cohesionless soils.

Presumptive Bearing Capacities from IS 1904 - 1978

Type of Rock

Safe /Allowable Bearing Capacity kN/m 2

/Allowable Bearing Capacity T/m 2

   

3240

 

324.0

Soft Rock

 

440

 

44.0

Coarse Sand

 

440

 

44.0

Medium Sand

 

254

 

25.4

Fine Sand

   

100

   

10.0

 

Soft Shale/ Stiff clay

 

440

 

44.0

Soft Clay

 

100

 

10

Very Soft Clay

 

50

 

0.50

Considering the Fine Sand i.e. Medium Dense to Dense Sand Mixed with boulders and

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has an average thickness layer is more than 4.50 m, the presumptive Safe Bearing

Capacity at 4.00 m depth will be 100 kN/m 2 i.e. 10 T/m 2 as this presumptive bearing

capacity is on higher side.

Presumptive Safe Bearing Capacity in T/m 2

Bore

Location

Minimum Depth

Safe /Allowable Bearing Capacity

Hole

of footing in m

No.

(m)

T/m 2 (m)

BH 1

Eklera

   

BH 4

Kharvasa Road

BH 6

Niyol Mohini Road

BH 13

Vadchha

BH 16

Chedcha

BH 18

Anand Nagar

4.50

10

BH 21

Vathan PungamRoad

BH 25

JD Motors Surat Kamrej

 

BH 29

Bharthana

BH 31

Bharthana village

BH 2A

Rajput Faliyu

BH 14

Surat Bardoli Road

BH 2A Rajput Faliyu BH 14 Surat Bardoli Road SHAILENDRA C KHACHANE B.E (Civil) , M.E

SHAILENDRA C KHACHANE

B.E (Civil), M.E (Geotech)

Geotechnical Consultant

16 th Oct, 2017

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Chapter 6

6.0 ANNEXURE

ANNEXURE-1: LOCATION PLAN OF BOREHOLES

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ANNEXURE-2: BOREHOLE LOG

at Surat Gujarat. TUSPL & JGG ANNEXURE-2: BOREHOLE LOG Shailendra Khachane Geotechnical Consultant Page 25 Ph.

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ANNEXURE-3: COREBOX PHOTO & SITE PHOTOS

TUSPL & JGG ANNEXURE-3: COREBOX PHOTO & SITE PHOTOS Figure 1 Borehole BH 1 Core box

Figure 1 Borehole BH 1 Core box Photo

& SITE PHOTOS Figure 1 Borehole BH 1 Core box Photo Figure 2 Borehole BH 2A

Figure 2 Borehole BH 2A Core box Photo

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Ring Development Project at Surat Gujarat. TUSPL & JGG Figure 3 Borehole BH 4 Core box

Figure 3 Borehole BH 4 Core box Photo

TUSPL & JGG Figure 3 Borehole BH 4 Core box Photo Figure 4 Borehole BH 6

Figure 4 Borehole BH 6 Core box Photo

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Ring Development Project at Surat Gujarat. TUSPL & JGG Figure 5 Borehole BH 13 Core box

Figure 5 Borehole BH 13 Core box Photo

TUSPL & JGG Figure 5 Borehole BH 13 Core box Photo Figure 6 Borehole BH 14

Figure 6 Borehole BH 14 Core box Photo

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Ring Development Project at Surat Gujarat. TUSPL & JGG Figure 7 Borehole BH 16 Core box

Figure 7 Borehole BH 16 Core box Photo

TUSPL & JGG Figure 7 Borehole BH 16 Core box Photo Figure 8 Borehole BH 18

Figure 8 Borehole BH 18 Core box Photo

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Ring Development Project at Surat Gujarat. TUSPL & JGG Figure 9 Borehole BH 21 Core box

Figure 9 Borehole BH 21 Core box Photo

TUSPL & JGG Figure 9 Borehole BH 21 Core box Photo Figure 10 Borehole BH 25

Figure 10 Borehole BH 25 Core box Photo

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Ring Development Project at Surat Gujarat. TUSPL & JGG Figure 11 Borehole BH 29 Core box

Figure 11 Borehole BH 29 Core box Photo

TUSPL & JGG Figure 11 Borehole BH 29 Core box Photo Figure 12 Borehole BH 31

Figure 12 Borehole BH 31 Core box Photo

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ANNEXURE-4: SOIL / ROCK TEST RESULTS

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TUSPL & JGG

Ring Development Project at Surat Gujarat. TUSPL & JGG Shailendra Khachane Geotechnical Consultant Page 85 Ph.
Ring Development Project at Surat Gujarat. TUSPL & JGG Shailendra Khachane Geotechnical Consultant Page 85 Ph.

Shailendra Khachane

Geotechnical Consultant

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Ph. No.: 8976269233

Geotechnical Investigation Report

GI for proposed Urban Ring Development Project at Surat Gujarat.

TUSPL & JGG

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Ring Development Project at Surat Gujarat. TUSPL & JGG Shailendra Khachane Geotechnical Consultant Page 86 Ph.

Shailendra Khachane

Geotechnical Consultant

Page 86

Ph. No.: 8976269233

Geotechnical Investigation Report

GI for proposed Urban Ring Development Project at Surat Gujarat.

TUSPL & JGG

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Ring Development Project at Surat Gujarat. TUSPL & JGG Shailendra Khachane Geotechnical Consultant Page 87 Ph.

Shailendra Khachane

Geotechnical Consultant

Page 87

Ph. No.: 8976269233

Geotechnical Investigation Report

GI for proposed Urban Ring Development Project at Surat Gujarat.

TUSPL & JGG

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Ring Development Project at Surat Gujarat. TUSPL & JGG Shailendra Khachane Geotechnical Consultant Page 88 Ph.

Shailendra Khachane

Geotechnical Consultant

Page 88

Ph. No.: 8976269233

Geotechnical Investigation Report

GI for proposed Urban Ring Development Project at Surat Gujarat.

TUSPL & JGG

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Ring Development Project at Surat Gujarat. TUSPL & JGG Shailendra Khachane Geotechnical Consultant Page 89 Ph.

Shailendra Khachane

Geotechnical Consultant

Page 89

Ph. No.: 8976269233

Geotechnical Investigation Report

GI for proposed Urban Ring Development Project at Surat Gujarat.

TUSPL & JGG

Ring Development Project at Surat Gujarat. TUSPL & JGG Shailendra Khachane Geotechnical Consultant Page 90 Ph.
Ring Development Project at Surat Gujarat. TUSPL & JGG Shailendra Khachane Geotechnical Consultant Page 90 Ph.

Shailendra Khachane

Geotechnical Consultant

Page 90

Ph. No.: 8976269233

Geotechnical Investigation Report

GI for proposed Urban Ring Development Project at Surat Gujarat.

TUSPL & JGG

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Ring Development Project at Surat Gujarat. TUSPL & JGG Shailendra Khachane Geotechnical Consultant Page 91 Ph.

Shailendra Khachane

Geotechnical Consultant

Page 91

Ph. No.: 8976269233

Geotechnical Investigation Report

GI for proposed Urban Ring Development Project at Surat Gujarat.

TUSPL & JGG

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Ring Development Project at Surat Gujarat. TUSPL & JGG Shailendra Khachane Geotechnical Consultant Page 92 Ph.

Shailendra Khachane

Geotechnical Consultant

Page 92

Ph. No.: 8976269233

Geotechnical Investigation Report

GI for proposed Urban Ring Development Project at Surat Gujarat.

TUSPL & JGG

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Ring Development Project at Surat Gujarat. TUSPL & JGG Shailendra Khachane Geotechnical Consultant Page 93 Ph.

Shailendra Khachane

Geotechnical Consultant

Page 93

Ph. No.: 8976269233

Geotechnical Investigation Report

GI for proposed Urban Ring Development Project at Surat Gujarat.

TUSPL & JGG

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Shailendra Khachane

Geotechnical Consultant

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Ph. No.: 8976269233

Geotechnical Investigation Report

GI for proposed Urban Ring Development Project at Surat Gujarat.

TUSPL & JGG

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Ring Development Project at Surat Gujarat. TUSPL & JGG Shailendra Khachane Geotechnical Consultant Page 95 Ph.

Shailendra Khachane

Geotechnical Consultant

Page 95

Ph. No.: 8976269233

Geotechnical Investigation Report

GI for proposed Urban Ring Development Project at Surat Gujarat.

TUSPL & JGG

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Ring Development Project at Surat Gujarat. TUSPL & JGG Shailendra Khachane Geotechnical Consultant Page 96 Ph.

Shailendra Khachane

Geotechnical Consultant

Page 96

Ph. No.: 8976269233

Geotechnical Investigation Report

GI for proposed Urban Ring Development Project at Surat Gujarat.

TUSPL & JGG

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Ring Development Project at Surat Gujarat. TUSPL & JGG Shailendra Khachane Geotechnical Consultant Page 97 Ph.

Shailendra Khachane

Geotechnical Consultant

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Ph. No.: 8976269233

Geotechnical Investigation Report

GI for proposed Urban Ring Development Project at Surat Gujarat.

TUSPL & JGG

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Ring Development Project at Surat Gujarat. TUSPL & JGG Shailendra Khachane Geotechnical Consultant Page 98 Ph.

Shailendra Khachane

Geotechnical Consultant

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Ph. No.: 8976269233

Geotechnical Investigation Report

GI for proposed Urban Ring Development Project at Surat Gujarat.

TUSPL & JGG

Ring Development Project at Surat Gujarat. TUSPL & JGG Shailendra Khachane Geotechnical Consultant Page 99 Ph.
Ring Development Project at Surat Gujarat. TUSPL & JGG Shailendra Khachane Geotechnical Consultant Page 99 Ph.

Shailendra Khachane

Geotechnical Consultant

Page 99

Ph. No.: 8976269233

Geotechnical Investigation Report

GI for proposed Urban Ring Development Project at Surat Gujarat.

TUSPL & JGG

Ring Development Project at Surat Gujarat. TUSPL & JGG Shailendra Khachane Geotechnical Consultant Page 100 Ph.
Ring Development Project at Surat Gujarat. TUSPL & JGG Shailendra Khachane Geotechnical Consultant Page 100 Ph.

Shailendra Khachane

Geotechnical Consultant

Page 100

Ph. No.: 8976269233

Geotechnical Investigation Report

GI for proposed Urban Ring Development Project at Surat Gujarat.

TUSPL & JGG

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Shailendra Khachane

Geotechnical Consultant

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Geotechnical Investigation Report

GI for proposed Urban Ring Development Project at Surat Gujarat.

TUSPL & JGG

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Geotechnical Consultant

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Geotechnical Investigation Report

GI for proposed Urban Ring Development Project at Surat Gujarat.

TUSPL & JGG

REFERENCES

1 SP 36 (Part -2) – 1988, ‘Field Testing of Soils for Civil Engineering Purposes.’

2 IS : 1498 - 1970 Visual classification Reconnaissance exploration

3 IS : 2720 (Part 3) - 1980, Unit Weight .’

4 IS : 2720 (Part 22) - 1972, ‘Organicmatter content. ‘

5 IS : 2720 (Part 2) - 1973, ‘Natural moisture content. ‘

6 IS : 272D (Part 5) - 1970, ‘Liquid and plastic limits .’

7 IS : 2131 1963, Standard Penetration test.’

8 IS : 8763 - 1978, ‘Undisturbed soil sampling for sand .’

9 IS : 10108 - 1982, ‘Undisturbed soil sampling for fine grained soils. ‘

10 IS : 9640 - 1980, ‘SPT sampling.’

11 IS : 4453 1967, ‘Trail Pits. ‘

12 IS-1892, ‘Code of practice for Subsurface Investigation of Foundations.’

13 IS-2720 (Part-26) - 1987, ‘Determination of pH value for soils. ‘

14 IS-3025 (Part 24 and 32), ‘Chemical analysis of ground water.’

15 Dr. K R Arora, (2003), ‘Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering’, 6 th Ed., Standard publisher and distributor.

16 Foundation Design Manual, N. V. Nayak, 5th Edition, 1996

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Geotechnical Consultant

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