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PARTIAL REPLACEMENT OF CEMENT WITH

MARBLE POWDER AND FINE AGGREGATES


WITH GLASS POWDER
A Project Submitted to

Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Kakinada


in partial fulfillment of the requirements

For the award of the degree of

Bachelor of Technology
in
Civil Engineering
By

1. P SAIKRISHNATEJA (14KQ1A01G2)
2. SK JILANIBAASHA (14KQ1A01G6)
3. A SUSHMA (14KQ1A01I0)
4. S RAMBABU (15KQ5A0113)

Under the Esteemed Guidance of


M RAMA HARSHITHA M.Tech
Assistant Professor

Department of Civil Engineering

2014 – 2018
Department of Civil Engineering

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the project report titled “PARTIAL REPLACEMENT
OF CEMENT WITH MARBLE POWDER AND FINE AGGREGATES WITH
GLASS POWDER”is being submitted by P SAIKRISHNATEJA (14KQ1A01G2),
SK JILANI BASHA (14KQ1A01G6), A SUSHMA (14KQ1A01I0),S RAMBABU
(15KQ5A01113) in B Tech IVyear II semester Civil Engineering, is a record bonafide
work carried out by them. The results embodied in this report have not been submitted
to any other University for the award of any degree.

Guide Head of Department


M RAMA HARSHITHA M.Tech, G GANESH NAIDU M.Tech, MISTE,(PhD)
Assistant Professor Associate Professor & HOD

Internal Examiner External Examiner


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

At the outset we thank the lord Almighty for the grace, strength and hope to
make our Endeavor a success.

We would like to place on record the deep sense of gratitude to the honorable
chairman M VENU GOPALB.E .M.B.A.D.M.MPACE Institute of Technology
andSciences for providing necessary facilities to carry the concluded project work

We express our gratitude to M SRIDHARB.E, secretary &correspondent of


PACE Institute of Technology & Sciences for providing us with adequate
facilitiesways and means we were able to complete this project work.

Our sincere thanks to the principal MR M SRINIVASAN M.E, M.Tech

PhD.PACEInstitute Of Technology & Sciences to carry out a part of the work inside

thecampus and hence providing us an utmost congenial atmosphere.

We are highly indebted to the Head of the department of civil engineering


stream G.GANESH NAIDU MTech MISTE,(PhD), PACE Institute of Technology
&Sciences for providing us the necessary expertise whenever necessary.

We would like to make our deepest appreciation and gratitude to


M RAMA HARSHITHA MTechAssistant Professor, Dept. of CivilEngineering for
his in valuable guidance, as guide and D SRINIVASARAOMTech,MISTE,PhD, Dept.
of Civil Engineering as projects coordinator , for his constructive criticism
andencouragement during the course of this project.
Grateful acknowledgement is made to all the staff and faculty members of Civil
Engineering Department, Pace Institute of Technology and Sciences,
Ongole. I would also like to extend my sincere thanks
to all my fellow graduatestudents for their time, in valuable suggestions and help.
DECLARATION

We hereby declare that the dissertation report work presented in this project
titled “PARTIAL REPLACEMENT OF CEMENT WITH MARBLE
POWDER AND FINE AGGREGATES WITH GLASS POWDER”is
submitted towardscompletion of main-project in B-Tech Civil Engineering at the
PACE Institute ofTechnology and Sciences, Valluru, Ongole. It is an authentic
record of my original work pursued under the guidance of M.RAMA HARSHITHA
M.TechAssistantprofessor, Dept. of Civil Engineering.

We have not submitted the matter embodied in this project for the award of
any other degree.

BY

1. P SAIKRISHNATEJA (14KQ1A01G2)
2. SK JILANIBAASHA (14KQ1A01G6)
3. A SUSHMA (14KQ1A01I0)
4. S RAMBABU (15KQ5A0113)
INDEX

Pg.no

List of tables
ABSTRACT 1
CHAPTER-I:INTRODUCTION

1.1 General 2

1.1.1 Influence of marble dust as partial replacement

Of cement in concrete 4

1.1.2 Influence of glass powder as partial replacement of

Fine aggregates in concrete 5

1.2 Scope oftheproject 6

1.3 Objective oftheproject 6

CHAPTER-II: REVIEW OF MARBLE DUST AND GlASS POWDER

2.1 Literature review of marbledust

2.1.1 General 8

2.1.2 Study on concrete properties using marble dustas

Partial replacement of cement 8

2.2 Literature review of glass powder 9

2.2.1 Study on concrete properties using glass powder as

Partial replacementfineaggregates 9

CHAPTER-III: INTRODUCTIONOFCEMENT CONCRETE

3.1 Properties of concrete inplasticstate 12

3.1.1 Definitionofworkability 13

3.1.2 Segregation 15

3.1.3 Bleeding 15

3.2 Propertiesofconcrete 16

3.3 Requirements ofgood concrete 16

3.4 Advantagesofconcrete 17
3.5 Disadvantagesofconcrete 17

CHAPTER-IV: EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAMME 18

4.1. General 19

4.2. Introduction of materials 20

4.2.1.1.Cement 21

4.2.1Physical tests on cement 22

4.2.2 Waste marble dust 26

4.2.3 Aggregates

a) Fine aggregates 27

b) Coarse aggregates 28

4.2.3.1 Tests on aggregates 31

4.2.3.2 Properties of aggregates 37

4.2.4 glass powder 43

4.2.5 Water 44

4.2.5.1 Mixing water 45

4.2.5.2 Impurities of water 46

4.2.5.3 Water for curing and washing 46

CHAPTER – V: MIX DESIGN

5.1 Design of concrete mix 48

5.2 Requirements of mix design 49

5.3 Factors to be considered in mix design 49

5.4 Mix proportion designations 51

5.4.1 Selection of water cement ratio 56

CHAPTER –VI: METHODOLOGY

6.1 Casting of specimens 60

6.1.1 Marble powder concrete mix 61

6.1.1.1 Casting of specifications with marble dust 61

6.1.2 glass powder concrete mix 62

6.1.3 Concrete replacement values for both marble and glass powder 63

6.2 curing of concrete 63


CHAPTER – VII: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

7.1 Result and Discussion 66

7.1.1. General 66

7.2 .compressive strength of concrete 66

7.2.1. General 67

7.2.2. Test procedure and result for compression strength 67

7.2.3. Compressive strength graph 68

7.3. Split tensile test 70

7.3.1. Split tensile test graph 70

CHAPTER – VIII: CONCLUSION 75

CHAPTER –IX : USEFUL CODES AND REFERENCES 78-80


LIST OF TABLES

Table Name Page no


Table-1 Components of Portland cement 20
Table-2 Setting time of Cement by IS code 22
Table-3 Standard specifications of cement types 24
Table-4 Grading limits for Coarse aggregatesIS:383 27
Table-5 Grading limits for fine aggregates IS:383 28
Table-6 Sieve analysis of fine aggregates 30
Table-7 Sieve analysis of coarse aggregates
7.1 For 20mm size aggregates 35
Table-8 Properties of glass powder 43
Table-9 Workability conditions 51
Table-10 Exposure conditions 52
Table-11 Water content and Sand content as per IS code 54
Table-12 Marble powder concrete mix 60
Table-13 glass powder concrete mix 61
Table-14 Concrete mix with both marble powder and Glass 62
powder
Table-15 Compressive Strength Test Result 67
Table-16 Spilt Tensile Test 69
LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURE NAME PAGE NO
Fig-3.1 Cement concrete mix by hand 10
Fig-3.1.3 Example of external bleeding 14
Fig-4.2.1 Cement 19
Fig-4.2.1.1(1) Le-Chatlier apparatus 22
Fig-4.2.1.1(2) Vicat apparatus 23

Fig-4.2.1.1(3) 90 microns sieve apparatus 23


Fig-4.2.2 Waste Marble Dust 25
Fig-4.2.3.1.1 Fine aggregates 27

Fig-4.2.3.1.2 Coarse aggregates 28


Fig-4.2.35.1(1) Sieve Analysis of fine aggregates 31
Fig-4.2.3.5.1(2) Pycnometer 32

Fig-4.2.3.5.2(b) Density basket of coarse aggregates 36


Fig-4.2.4 Glass powder 43
Fig-5.4 Water cement ratio 55

Fig-6.1 Casting of Specimens 59


Fig-6.1.1.1 Casting of Specimens with glass powder 61
Fig-6.2 Specimen during curing 63

Fig-7.2.2 Test setup For the Compressive Strength 66


Fig-7.2.3(i) Compressive strength 67

Fig-7.2.3(ii) Compressive strength 68

Fig-7.2.3(iii) Compressive strength 68


Fig-7.3 Spilt Tensile Test graph 69
ABSTRACT

Marble stone industry generates both solid and stone slurry and as per survey
solid waste generation is more in marble stone industry, in and about 40% of waste is
formed, that is around 68 million tonnes. So by dumping these wastes to the land may
cause environmental problem and Also effect the fertility of the soil. Therefore the
scientific and industrial community must take responsibility towards more sustainable
practices. There are many reuse and recycling solutions for industrial bi-product both at
an experimental and in practical applications. The physical, chemical and mechanical
properties of the waste are studied. In this present study, concrete mix was prepared
according to IS 10262:2009 and experimental studies were carried out to investigate the
strength properties of M25 concrete made with various mixes. Properties studied include
compressive strength and split tensile tests of hardened concrete. Marble dust used was
6%, 9%, 12%, 15% and 18% and also strength will be compared with conventional
concrete.

The resolution for taking up this investigation owing to the fact that now a days
natural aggregates confirming to Indian Standards is becoming scarcer and costlier due
to its non-availability in time because of law of land, illegal dredging by sand mafia and
accessibility to the river source during rainy season. Keeping this in view, this study was
undertaken to evaluate the effect of partial replacement of Fine aggregates with glass
powder in concrete. Experimental programme was conducted using 5% partial
replacement of fine aggregates with glass powder has taken for concrete of M25 grade
with 0.45 water cement ratio. In this study, set of cubes and beams were cast for
compressive and split tensile strength respectively. Concrete specimens were tested after
7, 14 and 28 days curing. It has been observed that 25% replacement of fine aggregates
with glass powder isadaptable.

Keywords: Marble dust ,glass powder, compressive strength, split tensile tests.

1
CHAPTER-I
INTRODUCTION

2
Introduction
1.1 General:
Concrete is by far the most widely used construction material today. The versatility and
flexibility in concrete, its high compressive strength and the discovery of the reinforcing
and prestressing techniques which help to make up for its load tensile strength have
contributed largely to its widespread use. We can rightly say we are in age of concrete.
But now a Days due to rapid growth in construction cement is very costly. Also due to
large growth in industrialization there is a large amount of wastes generated, which is
hazardous to environment and living beings. To overcome above problems wastes
generated can be used as alternative materials. Marble powder can be used as
replacement for cement.

Marble dust is produced from the marble processing plants during


the cutting, shaping and polishing. During this process, about 20-25% of the process
marble is turn into the powder form.India being the topmost exporter of marble, every
year million tons of marble waste form processing plants are released. The disposal of
this marble on soils causes reduction in permeability and contaminates the over ground
water when deposited along catchment area. Thus, utilizing these materials in
construction industry itself would help to protect the environment from dumpsites of
marble and also limit the excessive mining of natural resources of sand.

Construction activities are taking place on huge scale all over the world and demand of
construction materials are increasing day by day. Production of concrete and utilization
of concrete has rapidly increased, which results in increased consumption of natural
aggregates and sand. Aggregate is one of the main ingredients in producing concrete
which covers 75% of the total for any concrete mix. Strength of concrete produced is
dependent on the properties of aggregates used .conventionally concrete is mixture of
cement, sand and aggregates since all the ingredients of the concrete are of geological
origin, the construction industries are in stress to identify alternative materials to
replace the demand of natural sand and aggregate. The key to achieving a strong,
durable concrete rests in the careful proportioning, mixing and compacting of the
ingredients. Every year 250-400 tons of stone wastes are generated on site. The stone
cutting plants are dumping the powder in any nearby pit or vacant spaces, near their
unit although notified areas have been marked for dumping. Thisleads to serious
environmental and dust pollution and occupation of a vast areas of land, especially after

3
the powder dries up so it is necessary to dispose the stone waste quickly and use in the
construction industry.

In the construction industry the widely used material is concrete. Fine aggregate is one
of the important constituent in it. Bricks being an integral part of the wall can be used
as recyclable construction material. Fire bricks are the products which are manufactured
from refractory grog, plastic and non-plastic clays of high purity. The different raw
materials are properly homogenized and pressed in high capacity presses to get the
desired shape and size. Finally these are fired in oil-fired kiln at a temperature of
13000c. Due to the exposure to continuous high temperature for a period of 10 to 15
days, some physical and mechanical properties are changed. They were physically
cleaned and mechanically crushed to a size gradation conforming to fine aggregates.
1.1.1.Influence of marble dust partial replacement of cement in
concrete:

This aims to focus on the possibilities of using waste materials from different
manufacturing activities in the preparation of innovative mortar and concrete. The use
of waste marble powder (dust) was proposed in partial replacement of cement, for the
production of Mortar and Concrete Mix. In particular, tests were conducted on the
mortars and concrete mix cured for different times in order to determine their
workability, flexural as well as compressive strength. Partial replacement of cement by
varying percentage of marble powder reveals that increased waste marble powder
(WMP) ratio result in increased workability and compressive strengths of the mortar
and concrete.

In the same way cube specimens and beams samples of M25 grade of concrete have
been tested in laboratory for which each percentage of marble powder i.e. 6%, 9%,
12%, 15% and 18%. Three properties of concrete namely workability, compressive
strength and flexural strength have been selected for study and evaluated according to
IS: 1199-1959 and IS: 516-1959 respectively. Before initiating the test properties of
materials were determined according to respective IS codes

4
1.1.2 Influence of glass powder as partial replacement of fine
aggregates in concrete

Resolution for taking up this investigation owing to the fact that nowadays
natural aggregate (coarse and fine) confirming to Indian Standards is becoming
scarcer and costlier due to its non-availability in time because of law of land,
illegal dredging by sand mafia and accessibility to the river source during rainy
season. Keeping this in view, this study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of
partial replacement of natural sand with glass powder in concrete. Experimental
programme was conducted using 5%
Partial replacement of fine aggregate with stone dust has been taken for concrete
of M25 grade with 0.45 water cement ratio. In this study, set of cubes and
beams were cast for compressive and split tensile strength respectively. Concrete
specimens were tested after 7 and 28 d moist curing. It has been observed that
12.5% replacement of fine aggregate with glass powder is adaptable.

1.2 Scope of the project:

The experimental investigation is planned as under:

1) To obtain mix proportions of control concrete by IS method

2) To conduct compression test on control concrete on standard IS specimen size


150*150*150mm.(cube)

3) To conduct Flexural test on control concrete on standard IS specimen size, Height


300 mm, diameter 150mm.(cylinder)

5
1.3 Objective of the project:

The objectives of this experimental project study are

 Developing mix design for normal concrete relevant to IS: 10262-2009.

 To study the strength properties of normal concrete of grade M25.

 To study the influence of partial replacement of cement with marble powder


and fine aggregates with a glass powder, and to compare it with the compressive
and tensile strength of ordinary M25 concrete.

 We are also trying to find the percentage of marble powder and brick dust
replaced in concrete that makes the strength of the concrete maximum.

6
CHAPTER-II
REVIEW OF MARBLE DUST AND GLASS POWDER

7
2.1 Literature review of marble dust:

2.1.1 General:

The aim of this research is to develop high strength concrete with the utilization of a
waste product MDP. MDP possesses good pozzolonic activity and is a good material
for the production of concrete. Also now a days one of the great applications of MDP
is in various structural fields as in reinforced cement concrete, which is gaining
popularity because of its positive effect on various properties of concrete. Here MDP
is marble dust powder.

2.1.2 Study on concrete properties using marble dust as partial


replacement of cement and also other aggregates:

A. Manju Pawaret.al (2014) A Study has been conducted on Periodic Research,


TheSignificance of Partial replacement of Cement with Waste Marble Powder. They
found that the effect of using marble powder as constituents of fines in mortar or
concrete by partially reducing quantities of cement has been studied in terms of the
relative compressive, tensile as well as flexural strengths. Partial replacement of cement
by varying percentage of marble powder reveals that increased waste marble powder
(WMP) ratio result in increased strengths of the mortar and concrete .Leaving the waste
materials to the environment directly can cause environmental problem. Hence the
result, The Compressive strength of Concrete are increased with addition of waste
Marble Powder up to25 % replace by weight of cement and further any addition of
WMP the compressive strength decreases. The Tensile strength of Concrete are
increased with addition of waste marble powder up to 25 % replace by weight of cement
and further any addition of WMP the Tensile strength decreases. Thus they found out
the optimum percentage for replacement of MDP with cement and it is almost 25 %
cement for both compressive & tensile strength.

B. V.M. Sounthararajanet.al (2013) A Study has been conducted on Effect of theLime


Content in MDP for Producing High Strength Concrete. They found that the MDP up
to 10% by weight of cement was investigated for hardened concrete properties.
Furthermore, the effect of different percentage replacement of MDP on the compressive
strength, splitting tensile strength and flexural strength was evaluated. It

8
can be noted that the influence of fine to coarse aggregate ratio and cement-tototal
aggregate ratio had a higher influence on the improvement in strength properties. A
phenomenal increase in the compressive strength of 46.80 MPa at 7 days for 10%
replacement of MDP in cement content was noted and also showed an improved
mechanical property compared to controlled concrete.

C. Corinaldesi V et al., (2010) Marble as a building material especially in palacesand


monuments has been in use for ages. However the use is limited as stone bricks in wall
or arches or as lining slabs in walls, roofs or floors, leaving its wastage at quarry or at
the sizing industry generally unattended for use in the building industry itself as filler
or plasticizer in mortar or concrete. The result is that the mass which is 40% of total
marble quarried has reached as high as millions of tons. This huge unattended mass of
marble waste consisting of very fine particles is today one of the environmental
problems around the world.

2.2 Literature review of Glass powder:

2.2.1 Study on concrete properties using Glass powder as partial


replacement fine aggregates:
[1] Rakesh Sakale et. al (2015) studied the replacement of fine aggregate by waste
in steps of 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% respectively by volume of cement and its effects on
compressive strength, split tensile strength, workability and flexural strength are
determined. It is found that the compressive, flexural and split tensile strengths of concrete
increase initially as glass powder increases and become maximum at about 20% and later
decrease. The workability of concrete reduces monotonically as the replacement
percentage increases. The replacement of cement up to about 20% by glass powder can be
done without sacrificing the compressive strength.
[2]Chikhalikar S.M. and Tande S.N(2012)There is a need to replace a part of fine
aggregate by waste glass powder to reduce the consumption of fine aggregate and the
environmental pollutionn can be checked to some extent. Recently the research has shown
that the waste glass can be effectively used in concrete as fine aggregate. Waste glass when
grounded to a very fine powder shows some cementitious properties because of silica
content. Therefore the glass powder to some extent can replace the cement and fine

9
aggregate, contributes for the strength development and also enhances durability of the
concrete

[3]VeenaV. Bhat, N.BhavanishankarRao(2014)Glass is an indeterminate material


with high silica content (SiO2) i.e.72% of waste glass when grounded to very fine powder
(600 micron) reacts with alkali in cement & cementations product that help to contribute to
the strength development.

[4]Idir R (2009)Demand for recycled glass has considerably decreasing in recent


years. Glass is cheaper to store than to recycle, as it is expensive for the recycling process.
There are several alternatives for the reuse of waste glass. According to previous studies, all
the applications, which require pre-conditioning and crushing of waste glass, are more or
less limited and unable to absorb all the quantities of waste glass available. In order to
provide a sustainable solution to glass storage, a potential and incentive way would be to
reuse this type of glass in concrete.

[5]R. Vadhiyan et al (2013) when glass powder is added as a fine aggregate; it


provides a large volume of hydration products. The added glass provider in concrete
changes the concrete paste structure. The resulting paste contains more of the strong
calcium silicate hydrate (CS-H) & less of the weak & easily hydroxides (CaOH)2, than
conventional cement paste.

[6]Vasudevan Gunalaan and Kanapathy pillay Seri Ganis (2013) Investigated the test
results at 7, 14, 28 days of curing of specimens containing waste glass powder as partial
replacement of fine aggregate and his results showed that the 20% of glass powder mix
amount shows a positive value of compressive strength at 28 days compare to other ratio
which 10% and 15% is not achievable even though have very little increment for 14 days
results.

10
CHAPTER – III

INTRODUCTION TO CEMENT CONCRETE

11
Introduction to cement concrete

Reinforced concrete is one of the most widely used modern building materials.
Concrete is an “artificial stone” obtained by mixing cement, sand, and aggregates with
water. Fresh concrete can be molded into almost any shape, giving it an inherent
advantage over other materials. It became very popular after the invention of Portland
cement in the 19th century; however, its limited tension resistance initially prevented
its wide use in building construction. To overcome poor tensile strength, steel bars are
embedded in concrete to form a composite material called reinforced concrete (RC).
The use of RC construction in the modern world stems from the wide availability of its
ingredients – reinforcing steel as well as concrete

Fig – 3.1 cement concrete mix by hand

3.1 Properties of concrete in plastic state:

Fresh concrete is that stage of concrete in which concrete can be moulded and it is in plastic
state. This is also called "Green Concrete". Another term used to describe the state of fresh
concrete is consistence which is the ease with which concrete will flow

Concrete has relatively high compressive strength, but significantly lower tensile
strength, and as such is usually reinforced with materials that are strong in tension
(often steel). The elasticity of concrete is relatively constant at low stress levels but

12
starts decreasing at higher stress levels as matrix cracking develops. Concrete has a
very low coefficient of thermal expansion, and as it matures concrete shrinks.

A freshly mixed concrete must posses the under mentioned properties

1. Good workability
2. No segregation
3. No bleeding

3.1.1 Definition of workability:

The internal work done required to overcome the frictional forces between concrete
ingredients for full compaction. It is obvious that no single test can evaluate all these
factors. In fact, most of these cannot be easily assessed even though some standard tests
have been established to evaluate them under specific conditions.

In the case of concrete, consistence is sometimes taken to mean the degree of wetness;
within limits, wet concretes are more workable than dry concrete, but concrete of same
consistence may vary in workability.

Because the strength of concrete is adversely and significantly affected by the presence
of voids in the compacted mass, it is vital to achieve a maximum possible density. This
requires sufficient workability for virtually full compaction to be possible using a
reasonable amount of work under the given conditions. Presence of voids in concrete
reduces the density and greatly reduces the strength: 5% of voids can lower the strength
by as much as 30%.

3.1.1.1 Factors effecting on workability:

1. Water-Cement ratio
2. Amount and type of Aggregate
3. Amount and type of Cement
4. Weather conditions
a) Temperature
b) Wind
5. Chemical Admixtures
6. Sand to Aggregate ratio

13
1. Water content or Water Cement Ratio:

More the water cement ratio more will be workability of concrete. Since by simply
adding water the inter particle lubrication is increased. High water content results in a
higher fluidity and greater workability but reduces the strength of concrete. Because
with increasing w/c ratio the strength decreases as more water will result in higher
concrete porosity. So, the lower the w/c, the lower is the void volume/solid volume,
and the stronger the hardened cement paste.

Increased water content also results in bleeding, hence, increased water content can also
mean that cement slurry will escape through the joints of the formwork (Shuttering)

2. Amount and type of Aggregate:

Since larger Aggregate sizes have relatively smaller surface areas (for the cement paste
to coat) and since less water means less cement, it is often said that one should use the
largest practicable Aggregate size and the stiffest practical mix. Most building elements
are constructed with a maximum Aggregate size of 3/4" to 1", larger sizes being
prohibited by the closeness of the reinforcing bars. Because concrete is continuously
shrinking for years after it is initially placed, it is generally accepted that under thermal
loading it will never expand to it's originally-placed volume. More the amount of
aggregate less will be workability.

 Using smooth and round aggregate increases the workability. Workability


reduces if angular and rough aggregate is used. 

 Greater size of Aggregate- less water is required to lubricate it, the extra water
is available for workability

3. Aggregate Cement ratio:
More ratio, less workability. Since less cement means less water, so the paste is stiff.

14
4. Weather Conditions:

1. Temperature

If temperature is high, evaporation increases, thus workability decreases.

2. Wind:

If wind is moving with greater velocity, the rate of evaporation also increase reduces
the amount of water and ultimately reducing workability.

3.1.2 Segregation:

Segregation can be defined as the separation of the constituent materials of concrete. A


good concrete is one in which all the ingredients are properly distributed to make a
homogeneous mixture. There are considerable differences in the sizes and specific
gravities of the constituent ingredients of concrete. Therefore, it is natural that the
materials show a tendency to fall apart.

Segregation may be of three types

1. Coarse aggregate separating out or settling down from the rest of the matrix.
2. Paste separating away from coarse aggregate.
3. Water separating out from the rest of the material being a material of
lowestspecific gravity.

A well made concrete, taking into consideration various parameters such as grading,
size, shape and surface texture of aggregate with optimum quantity of waters makes a
cohesive mix. Such concrete will not exhibit any tendency for segregation. The
cohesive and fatty characteristics of matrix do not allow the aggregate to fall apart, at
the same time; the matrix itself is sufficiently contained by the aggregate. Similarly,
water also does not find it easy to move out freely from the rest of the ingredients.

3.1.3 Bleeding:

Bleeding in concrete is sometimes referred as water gain. It is a particular form of


segregation, in which some of the water from the concrete comes out to the surface of
the concrete, being of the lowest specific gravity among all the ingredients of concrete.
Bleeding is predominantly observed in a highly wet mix, badly proportioned

15
and insufficiently mixed concrete. In thin members like roof slab or road slabs and
when concrete is placed in sunny weather show excessive bleeding

Fig – 3.1.3 Example of external bleeding

Reinforced concrete is the most common form of concrete. The reinforcement is often
steel, reber (mesh, spiral, bars and other forms). Structural fibresof various materials
are available. Concrete can also be pre stressed (reducing tensile stress) using internal
steel cables (tendons), allowing for beams or slabs with a longer span than is practical
with reinforced concrete alone. Inspection of existing concrete structures can be non-
destructive if carried out with equipment such as a Schmidthammer, which is
sometimes used to estimate relative concrete strengths in the field.

3.2 Properties of concrete:

Elasticity

The modulus of elasticity of concrete is a function of the modulus of elasticity of the


aggregates and the cement matrix and their relative proportions. The modulus of
elasticity of concrete is relatively constant at low stress levels but starts decreasing at
higher stress levels as matrix cracking develops. The elastic modulus of the hardened
paste may be in the order of 10-30 GPa and aggregates about 45 to 85 GPa. The concrete
composite is then in the range of 30 to 50 GPa.

Expansion and shrinkage

Concrete has a very low coefficient of thermal expansion. However, if no provision is


made for expansion, very large forces can be created, causing cracks in parts of
thestructure not capable of withstanding the force or the repeated cycles of
expansionand contraction. The coefficient of thermal expansion of Portland cement

16
concrete is0.000008 to 0.000012 (per degree Celsius) (8 to 12 micro strains/°C)(8-12
1/MK)

3.4 Advantages of concrete:

Some advantages of concrete are given below in brief.

 Concrete is economical when ingredients are readily available. 



 Concrete’s long life and relatively low maintenance requirements increase its
economic benefits. 

 It is not as likely to rot, corrode, or decay as other building materials. 

 Concrete has the ability to be molded or cast into almost any desired shape. 

 Building of the molds and casting can occur on the work-site which reduces
cost.

 Concrete is a non-combustible material which makes it fire-safe and able to
withstand high temperature
It is resistant to wind, water, rodents, and insects. Hence, concrete is often used for
storm shelters

3.5 Disadvantages of Concrete:

Concrete has some disadvantages too along the advantages stated above.

 Concrete has a relatively low tensile strength (compared to other building


materials),

 low ductility, 

 low strength-to-weight ratio, and

 Concrete is susceptible to cracking.

17

CHAPTER-IV
EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAMME

18
Experimental Programme
4.1 General:
This chapter deals with the mix design procedure adopted for control concrete and the
studies carried out on properties of various materials used throughout the experimental
work. Also the details of method of casting and testing of specimens are explained.

4.2 Introduction of materials:


The ingredients of concrete are:

 Cement

 Waste marble dust

 Aggregates

 Glass powder

 Water

4.2.1 Cement:

Cement is a binder, a substance used in construction that sets, hardens and adheres to
othermaterials, binding them together. Cement is seldom used solely, but is used to
bind sand and gravel (aggregate) together. Cement is used with fine aggregate to
producemortar for masonry, or with sand and gravel aggregates to produce concrete.

Cements used in construction are usually inorganic, often lime or calcium silicate
based, and can be characterized as being either hydraulic or non-hydraulic, depending
upon the ability of the cement to set in the presence of water (see hydraulic and non-
hydraulic lime plaster).

Fig 4.2.1 Cement


19
Ordinary Portland cement:

Portland cement is by far the most common type of cement in general use around the
world. This cement is made by heating limestone (calcium carbonate) with other
materials (such as clay) to 1450 °C in a kiln, in a process known as calcination whereby
a molecule of carbon dioxide is liberated from the calcium carbonate to form calcium
oxide, or quicklime, which then chemically combines with the other materials that have
been included in the mix to form calcium silicates and other cementitious compounds.
The resulting hard substance, called 'clinker', is then ground with a small amount of
gypsum into a powder to make 'ordinary Portland cement', the most commonly used
type of cement (often referred to as OPC). Portland cement is a basic ingredient of
concrete, mortar and most non-specialty grout. The most common use for Portland
cement is in the production of concrete. Concrete is a composite material consisting of
aggregate (gravel and sand), cement, and water. As a construction material, concrete
can be cast in almost any shape desired, and once hardened, can become a structural
(load bearing) element. Portland cement may be grey or white.

Table-1 Portland cement consists of the following components

Properties Portland Cement

Specific gravity kg/dm 3.10


BET – Specific surface(m2/g) 0.44

Chemical composition
SiO2 (%) 21.16
Fe2O3(%) 1.89
AlO3(%) 4.71
CaO(%) 68.08
P2O5(%) 0.28
MgO(%) 0.48
Na2O(%) 0.29
K2O(%) 0.48
Loss of ignition 2.39
Insoluble residue 0.81

20
The magnesia content is limited by the standard specifications not to exceed 2%
because higher magnesia contents may be detrimental to the soundness of the cement,
especially at late ages. Beyond that limit it appears in the clinker as free MgO (Pericles).
Pericles reacts with water to form Mg(OH)2, and this is the slowest reaction among all

other hardening reactions. Since Mg(OH)2 occupies a larger volume than the MgO and
is formed on the same spot where the Pericles particle is located, it can split apart the
binding of the hardened cement paste, resulting in expansion cracks commonly known
as magnesia expansion

Four major compounds in Portland cement are C2S, C3S, C3A, and C4AF.
The silicates, C3S and C2S, are the most important compounds, which are responsible
for the strength of hydrated cement paste. The presence of C3A in cement is
undesirable. C4AF is also present in cement in small quantities, and, compared with
the other three it does not affect the behavior of the cement significantly.
The most common use for Portland cement is in the production of concrete. Concrete
is a composite material consisting of aggregate (gravel and sand), cement, and water.
As a construction material, concrete can be cast in almost any shape desired, and once
hardened, can become a structural (load bearing) element. Portland cement may be grey
or white.

21
4.2.1.1 Physical tests on cement:

The following tests are usually conducted in laboratory

 Soundness test

 Setting time test

 Fineness test

 Compressive test

1. Soundness test:

This test is conducted to find free lime in cement, which is not desirable. Le Chatelier
apparatus shown in Fig. 1.6 is used for conducting this test. It consists of a split brass
mould of diameter 30 mm and height 30 mm. On either side of the split, there are two
indicators, with pointed ends. The ends of indicators are 165 mm from the center of the
mould.

Procedure to determine soundness of cement:

i) Place the mould on a glass sheet and fill it with the cement paste formed by gauging
cement with 0.78 times the water required to give a paste of standard consistency.
ii) Cover the mould with another piece of glass sheet, place a small weight on
this covering glass sheet and immediately submerge the whole assembly in water
at a temperature of 27 ± 2oC and keep it there for 24hrs.
iii) Measure the distance separating the indicator points to the nearest 0.5mm (say d 1).
iv) Submerge the mould again in water at the temperature prescribed above. Bring
the water to boiling point in 25 to 30 minutes and keep it boiling for 3hrs.
v) Remove the mould from the water, allow it to cool and measure the
distance between the indicator points (say d2 ).
vi) (d2 – d1 ) represents the expansion of cement.

22
Fig – 4.2.1.1(1) Le Chatelier apparatus

2.Setting time test:

Setting Time: Initial setting time and final setting time are the two important physical
properties of cement. Initial setting time is the time taken by the cement from adding
of water to the starting of losing its plasticity. Final setting time is the time lapsed from
adding of the water to complete loss of plasticity. Vicat apparatus is used for finding
the setting times Vicat apparatus consists of a movable rod to which any one of the
three needles shown in figure can be attached. An indicator is attached to the movable
rod. A vicatmould is associated with this apparatus which is in the form os split
cylinder.

Table – 2 Setting Time of Cement by IS Codes

Type of cement Referenced Indian Initial setting Final setting


standard time, mints (min) time, mints(max)
OPC(33) IS:269 30 600
OPC(43) IS:8112 30 600
OPC(53) IS:12269 30 600

23
Figure -4.2.1.1(2) Vicat apparatus

3 .Fineness test:

So we need to determine the fineness of cement by dry sieving as per IS: 4031 (Part
1) – 1996.The principle of this is that we determine the proportion of cement
whose grain size is larger then specified mesh size.
The apparatus used are 90µm IS Sieve, Balance capable of weighing 10g to the
nearest 10mg, A nylon or pure bristle brush, preferably with 25 to 40mm, bristle, for
cleaning the sieve.
Sieve shown in pic below is not the actual 90µm sieve. Its just for reference.

Fig – 4.2.1.1(3) sieve analysis

24
Procedure to determine fineness of cement:

i) Weigh approximately 10g of cement to the nearest 0.01g and place it on the sieve.
ii) Agitate the sieve by swirling, planetary and linear movements, until no more
fine material passes through it.
iii) Weigh the residue and express its mass as a percentage R1,of the quantity
first placed on the sieve to the nearest 0.1 percent.
iv) Gently brush all the fine material off the base of the sieve.
v) Repeat the whole procedure using a fresh 10g sample to obtain R2. Then
calculate R as the mean of R1 and R2 as a percentage, expressed to the nearest 0.1
percent. When the results differ by more than 1 percent absolute, carry out a third
sieving and calculate the mean of the three values.

4 Compressive strength test:

Compressive strength of cement is determined by compressive strength test on mortar


cubes compacted by means of a standard vibration machine. Standard sand (IS:650) is
used for the preparation of cement mortar. The specimen is in the form of cubes
150mm*150mm*150mm Here SRC – Sulphate Resisting Cement, PPC- Portland
Pozzolana Cement, RHPC – Rapid Hardening Portland Cement

Standard specifications:

Table – 3 Standard Specifications of Cement types

CEMENT COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH (MPa)


TYPE 1 Day 3 Day 7 Day 28 Day
OPC(33) - 16 22 33
OPC(43) - 23 33 43
OPC(53) - 27 27 53
SRC - 10 16 33
PPC - 16 22 33
RHPC 16 27 - -

25
Technical Discussions

 Strength tests are not made on a neat cement paste because of difficulties of
moulding and testing with a consequent large variability of test results. 

 Compressive strength is influenced by the cement type, or more precisely, the
compound composition and fineness of cement.

 It should be assumed that two types of cement meeting the same minimum
requirements will produce the same strength of mortar or concrete without
modification of mix proportions. 

4.2.2 Waste marble dust:

Marble powder is produced from the marble processing plants during the cutting,
shaping and polishing. During this process, about 20-25% of the process marble is turn
into the powder form. It was initially in wet form (i.e. slurry); after that it is dried by
exposing in the sun and finally sieved by IS-90 micron sieve before mixing in concrete
India being the topmost exporter of marble, every year million tons marble waste from
processing plants are released. The disposal of this waste marble on soils causes
reduction in permeability and contaminates the over ground water when deposited
along catchment area.

Fig – 4.2.2 Waste marble dust

26
Physical properties of white pearl marble:
• Colour - White

• Form - Powder

• Odour - Odourless
• Specific gravity - 2.68gm/cm

Chemical properties of marble dust:


1. Silica SiO2 – 39.04
2. Alumina Al2O3 – 2.88

3. Iron Oxide Fe2O3 – 2.86

4. Calcium Oxide CaO – 49.77


5. Magnesium Mg – 5.71

4.2.3 Aggregates:
Aggregates are the important constituents in concrete. They give body to concrete,
reduce shrinkage and effect economy. Earlier, aggregates were considered as
chemically inert materials but now it has been recognized that some of the aggregates
are chemically active and also that certain aggregates exhibit chemical bond at the
interface of aggregates and paste. The mere fact that the aggregates occupy 70-80% of
the volume of concrete.

Aggregates comprise as much as 60% to 80% of a typical concrete mix, so they must
be properly selected to be durable, blended for optimum efficiency, and properly
controlled to produce consistent concrete strength, workability and durability

4.2.3.1 Classification:
According to size the aggregates are classified as:

  Fine Aggregate
 Coarse Aggregate

4.2.3.1.1 Fine Aggregate:

It is the aggregate most of which passes 4.75 mm IS sieve and contains only so much
coarser as is permitted by specification. According to source fine aggregate may be
described as:

27
 Natural Sand–it is the aggregate resulting from the natural disintegration
ofrock and which has been deposited by streams or glacial agencies 

 Crushed Stone Sand–it is the fine aggregate produced by crushing
hardstone.

 Crushed Gravel Sand–it is the fine aggregate produced by crushing
naturalgravel. 

According to size the fine aggregate may be described as coarse sand, medium sand
and fine sand. IS specifications classify the fine aggregate into four types according to
its grading as fine aggregate of grading zone-1 to zone-4

Fig – 4.2.3.1.1 Fine aggregates

Table – 4 Grading limits for fine aggregates IS:383:1970

Sieve size % Passing by weight


3/8 in. (9.5mm) 100
No. 4(4.75mm) 95-100
No. 8 (2.36mm) 80-100
No. 16 (1.18mm) 50-85
No. 30 (0.6mm) 25-60
No. 50 (0.3mm) 10-30
No. 100 (0.15mm) 2-10

4.2.3.1.2 Coarse Aggregates: It is the aggregate most of which is retained on4.75


mm IS sieve and contains only so much finer material as is permitted by specification.
According to source, coarse aggregate may be described as:

28
 Uncrushed Gravel or Stone–it results from natural disintegration of rock

 Crushed Gravel or Stone–it results from crushing of gravel or hard stone. 

 Partially Crushed Gravel or Stone–it is a product of the blending of
theabove two aggregate.

According to size coarse aggregate is described as graded aggregate of its nominal size
i.e. 40 mm, 20 mm, 16 mm and 12.5 mm etc. for example a graded aggregate of nominal
size 20 mm means an aggregate most of which passes 20 mm IS sieves.

Fig – 4.2.3.1.2 coarse aggregates

Table – 5 Grading limits for coarse aggregates IS:383-1970

Sieve size (mm) % Passing by weight


9.5 100
4.75 35-100
2.36 80-100
1.18 50-85
0.6 25-60
0.3 10-30
0.15 2-10

The Important physical properties of aggregates:

1. Size and texture


2. Size gradation
3. Moisture content

29
4. Specific gravity

5. Unit weight
6. Durability

4.2.3.3 Strength of Aggregates:

Although the water / cementious material ratio is an important factor affecting the
strength of concrete, the aggregate properties cannot be ignored. The aggregate strength
is usually not a factor except in lightweight and high strength concrete. However,
aggregate characteristics other than strength, such as the size, shape, surface texture,
grading and mineralogy are known to affect concrete strength in varying degrees.

Durability properties notwithstanding, important coarse aggregate properties to


consider includes strength, stiffness, bonding potential, and absorption. Caution should
be exercised when using extremely stiff coarse aggregates, such as granite. Depending
on the desired concrete properties, stiff aggregates can be either beneficial or
detrimental. Several studies have found that using coarse aggregates with greater
stiffness can increase the elastic modulus while at the same time decrease the strength
capacity.

4.2.3.4 Good Qualities of an Ideal Aggregates:

An ideal aggregates used for the manufacture of concrete and mortar, should meet the
following requirements:

1. It should consist of natural stone, gravels and sand or in various


combinations for these materials
2. It should be hard strong and durable.
3. It should be dense, clear and free from any coating
4. It should be free from vegetable matters and other deleterious
substances
5. It should not contain flaky and elongated pieces

30
4.2.3.5 Tests on Aggregates:

4.2.3.5.1 Tests on fine aggregates:

1. Fineness modulus of fine aggregates

2. Specific gravity of sand

3. Bulking of sand

1.Fineness modulus of fine aggregates:

This method determines the fineness modulus of concrete fine aggregate used in
evaluation of natural and manufactured sands for portland cement concrete. The values
given in parentheses (if provided) are not standard and may not be exact mathematical
conversions. Use each system of units separately. Combining values from the two
systems may result in non conformance with the standard.

Table 6 :sieve analysis of fine aggregates

Sieve Wt of sand Cumulative wt % cumulative %


size(mm) retained on retained(g) wt retained cumulative
each sieve(g) wt passing
4.75 0 0 0 0
2.36 2 2 1 99
1.18 11 13 6.5 93.5
0.6 26 39 19.5 80.5
0.3 83 122 61 39
0.15 62 184 92 8
Pan 14 198 99 1
Fineness modulus = % cumulative retained/100
=272/100
=2.72

31
Fig – 4.2.3..1(1)Sieve analysis of fine aggregate

2.Specific gravity of sand:

Specific gravity is the ratio of the weight of aggregate maintained for 24+/-1/2 hours at
temperature 100oc to the weigh of equal volume of water displaced by saturated surface
dry aggregate and volume of water displaced by saturated surface dry aggregate and
volume of all pores both impermeable and permeable.

Specific gravity is useful for calculating void content in aggregate, if the aggregate is
dry it absorbs water which doesn’t take part in the reactions and also in lubrication of
particles. The workability is likely to be reduced and w/c ratio is also altered. It is,
therefore, always necessary to make allowance valve is the difference in the weight
between the saturated surface dry aggregate and very dry sample expressed as %of dry
aggregate.

32
Fig – 4.2.3.5.1(2) pcycnometer with conical cap

Procedure:
(I) Take 2 kg of aggregate. Sample larger than 10mm

(ii)Wash the sample thoroughly to remove finer particle and dust.

(iii) Place the sample in a wire basket and immerse it in distilled water at a temperature
between 22oC and 32oC with a cover of at least 5 cm of water above the top of the
basket.

(iv) Remove the entrapped air by lifting the basket containing the sample 25 mm above
the base of the tank and allowing it to drop per second, care being taken to see that the
sample is completely immersed in water during the operation.

(v) With the sample in water at a temper of 22 o C-32 o C (W).

(vi) Remove the basket and aggregate from water and allow To drain for a few
minutes.

(vii) Empty the aggregate from the basket to a shallow tray.

(viii) Immerse the empty basket in water jolt 25 times and than the weight in water
(w2).

(ix) Place the aggregates in oven at a temperature of 100 o C to 110 o C for 24+- 0.5
hours.

(x) Remove it from the oven and cool it and find the weight. (w2)

33
Calculations

Apparent Specific Gravity = (Weight of a substance/ wt of an equal vol of water)=


w3/(w3- (w1-w2))

Result

S specific gravity of given coarse aggregate=2.56

3.Bulking of sand:

The increase in moisture of sand increases the volume of sand. The reason is that
moisture causes film of water around sand particles which results in the increase of
volume of sand. For a moisture content percentage of 5 to 8 there will be an increase in
volume up to 20 to 40% depending upon sand. If the sand is more fine there will be
more increase in volume. This is known as bulking of sand.

To calculate the percentage of bulking of sand, the following test procedure can be used.

1. A simple container is taken and it is filled with 2/3 of the sand to be tested.
2. The height of sand is measured, for example say 200 mm.
3. Now, the sand is taken out of container. Care should be taken to see that there is no
remains of sand should be there in the container during this transition

4. Now the same container is filled with water.


5. Pour the sand in to the container filled with water and stir the sand with a rod.
6. Again, the height of sand is measured, say 160 mm.

34
4.2.3.5.2 Tests on Coarse aggregates:

The following tests are conducted on coarse aggregate

a. Fineness modulus test


b. Specific gravity coarse aggregate

a) Fineness modulus test:

Fineness modulus of coarse aggregates represents the average size of the particles in
the coarse aggregate by an index number. It is calculated by performing sieve analysis
with standard sieves.

Coarse aggregate means the aggregate which is retained on 4.75mm sieve when it is
sieved through 4.75mm. To find fineness modulus of coarse aggregate we need sieve
sizes of 80mm, 40mm, 20mm, 10mm, 4.75mm, 2.36mm, 1.18mm, 0.6mm, 0.3mm and
0.15mm.

Table – 7.1 for 20mm size aggregates

Sieve Wt retained(g) Cumulative wt % cumulative %


size(mm) retained(g) Wt retained cumulative
wt passed
25 0 0 0 100
20 404 404 202 79.8
10 1596 2000 100 0
4.36 0 0 0 0
Pan 0 0 0 0

Fineness modulus = % wt cumulative retained +500)/100

=(120.2+500)/100

=6.20

35
b) Specific gravity of coarse aggregate:

IS:2386 (PART 3) of 1963 gives various procedures to find out the specific gravity of
different sizes of aggregate.

A sample of aggregate not less than 2kg is taken. It is thoroughly washed to remove the
finer particles and dust adhering to the aggregate. It is then placed in a wire basket and
immersed in distilled water at a temperature between 22degrees c to 32degrees c.
immediately after immersion, the entrapped air is removed from the sample by lifting
the basket containing it 25mm above the base of the tank and allowing it to drop 25
times at the rate of about one drop per second. During the operation the care is taken
that the basket and aggregate is remain completely immersed in water. They are kept in
water for a period of 24+/-1/2 hours. The basket and aggregate are then weighed at a
temperature of 22 c to 32 c.

Procedure:

1. A balance or scale of capacity not less than 3 kg, readable and accurate to 0.5 g and
of such a type and shape as to permit the basket containing the sample to be suspended
from the beam and the weighed in water.

2 A well ventilated oven thermostatically controlled to maintain a temperature of 100


o
C to 110 o C.

3. A wire basket of not more than 6.3 mm mesh or a perforated container of


convenient size.

4. A stout water tight container of convenient size.

5. Two dry soft absorbent cloths each not less than 75×45 cm

6. A shallow tray of area no less than 650 cm2

7. An air tight container of capacity similar to that of the basket.

Results:

1. The specific gravity obtained for 10mm aggregates from test results is 2.71
2. The specific gravity obtained for 20mm aggregates from test results is 2.87
The specific gravity of coarse aggregate from IS code is 2.9

36
Fig – 4.2.3.5.2(b) Density basket of coarse aggregates

4.2.3.6 Properties of Aggregates:

The intent of this content is to familiarize the personnel responsible for aggregate
testing with

1. Related physical properties


2. Chemical properties

4.2.3.6.1 Physical properties:

Absorption, Porosity and Permeability:

An important property of aggregates is the internal pore characteristics. What make up


this characteristic are the absorption, porosity and permeability of the aggregate. The
size, number and continuity of the pores has an effect on its strength, its resistance to
abrasion, texture of the surface, gravity, bonding capabilities as well as its resistance to
freezing and thawing. The ratio of the volume of the pores to the total volume of the
particle is what makes up the porosity. Absorption is the particle’s ability to absorb
water. Permeability is the particle’s ability to let water pass through it.

Texture of the Surface:

The pattern and the roughness or smoothness of the aggregate is the surface texture. It
plays a substantial role in creating a bond between the aggregate and the cementing
material. For example, when the surface of an aggregate has a rough texture, it gives
the cementing material something to grip and this produces a stronger bond. The texture
of the surface also plays a role in the workability of hot mix asphalt.

37
Strength and Elasticity:

The strength of an aggregate is measured in terms of its ability to endure forces that
may push or crush while it is being used. Elasticity refers to how much the particle can
stretch. High levels of both these properties are required in the base and surface. The
rate at which the concrete disintegrates is minimized while the stability of the
compacted material is maximized by these properties.

Density and Specific Gravity:

The weight per unit of volume of a substance makes the density while specific gravity
is the ratio of the density of the substance to the density of water. The density and the
specific gravity of an aggregate particle depend on the density and specific gravity of
the minerals making up the particle and also on how porous the particle is.

Voids in the Particles:

Voids are natural pores that are present in the aggregate particles. These pores are filled
with air and water. These voids affect the specific gravity as well as the absorption of
the aggregates. They may not be visible but most aggregates have pores. The voids that
are present between the particles have an effect on the design of hot mix asphalt or
portland cement concrete.

Hardness of the Minerals:

The resistance of the aggregate to abrasion and degradation is controlled by the


hardness of the minerals which the aggregate particles are made up of and the firmness
with which the grains of the particles are cemented or locked together. Minerals that
have a low degree of hardness compose soft aggregate particles. The weaker the
particles are, the poorer the cementation.

Shape of the Particles:

The shape of the aggregate particles affects the workability and strength of both
portland cement concrete and hot asphalt mixes. It also has an effect on how much
asphalt is needed for the mix. Crushed stone or crushed gravel are considered to be the
best types of aggregates to use for strength. When crushed aggregates that have irregular
or angular particles are used, they interlock or bind closer when they are compacted or
consolidated.

38
Crushed stone or gravel aggregates make the asphalt or concrete mix difficult to place.
To make them easier to work with, both angular and round particles are used in many
mixes.

Aggregate Particle Coatings:

There is a layer that covers the entire or part of the surface of an aggregate which is
known as a coating. The coating may be natural, like mineral deposits that are formed
in sand or gravel by ground water. It could also be artificial like dust that is formed by
crushing and handling of the particles.

Generally it is required that aggregates are washed to remove the coating that is left on
the particles. This is necessary as the coating could prevent a good bond to form
between the aggregate surface and the cementing agent. The bonding agent that is
required in the mixture could also increase due to these coatings.

In the future, it is thought that aggregates will be supplied more from recycled or waste
materials. To make sure that there is no decrease in the quality and performance of the
products, the challenge will be to process and test these materials. The goal would be
to make sure that such materials have the fundamental chemical, physical, and
mechanical characteristics that guarantee high performance and workability.

Undesirable physical components:

Particles which undesirable physical characteristics include but are not limited to the
following

1. Non- durable soft or structurally weak particles


2. Clay lumps or clay balls
3. Flat or elongated particles
4. Organic matter contaminates
5. Light weight chart

4.2.3.6.2 Chemical Properties:

The chemical properties of aggregates have to do with the molecular


structure of the minerals in the aggregate particles.
1. Composition
2. Reactions with asphalt and cement

39
Composition:

The chemical composition of aggregate is significant in determining the difference


between limestone and dolomite. Limestone is a rock consisting mainly or wholly of
calcium carbonate and has a tendency to polish smooth under traffic. Therefore,
limestone is limited to use in low traffic-volume surface courses. Dolostone under
traffic maintains a higher-friction, skid-resistant surface and is used on higher traffic
volume locations. Dolostone is a carbonate rock which consists largely of calcium
magnesium carbonate. The word dolomite is the mineral calcium magnesium carbonate
Ca Mg (Co3)2. Dolostone uses an elemental magnesium (Mg) content testto determine
if a rock source is dolomite. An elemental magnesium content of 10.3 percent or above
is required for dolomite aggregates. Some aggregates have minerals that are subject to
oxidation, hydration, and carbonation. These properties are not particularly harmful,
except when the aggregates are used in portland cement concrete. As might be expected,
iron sulphides, ferric and ferrous oxides, free lime, and free magnesia in industrial
products and wastes are some of the common substances. Any of these substances may
cause distress in the portland cement concrete and give the concrete an unsightly
appearance.

Reactions with Asphalt and Cement:

There are several types of substances found in mineral aggregates which may have a
negative effect on the cementing and overall performance qualities of asphalt and
cement. Most are rarely significant but various organic substances may retard
hardening, reduce strength development or cause excessive air entrainment in Portland
cement concrete. These organic substances include, but are not limited to, mica, iron
oxide, lightweight chart, shale, coal, and ignite.

4.2.3.7 General characteristics:

Aggregates have three primary uses in highway construction:

1) As compacted aggregates in bases, sub bases and shoulders

2) As ingredients in hot mix asphalt

3) As ingredients in Portland cement concretebe used as special backfill material,


riprap, mineral filler.

40
4.2.3.8 Compacted Aggregates:

Compacted aggregates without the addition of a cementing material may be used as a


base or sub base for hot mix asphalt and Portland cement concrete pavements. Portland
cement concrete pavements are rigid pavements. For these types of pavements, the
purpose of the base may be to improve drainage, to prevent pumping,
or to cover a material that is highly susceptible to frost. Consequently, gradation and
soundness are the primary considerations in selecting or evaluating aggregates for bases
under rigid pavements.

The load-carrying capacity is a primary factor in the selection of aggregates for hot
mix asphalt pavements. A hot mix asphalt pavement does not carry the load; help from
the underlying base courses is required. In addition to gradation requirements, the
aggregates are required to also possess the strength to carry and transmit the applied
loads.

Aggregates are sometimes used to make up the entire pavement structure. In this type
of pavement, aggregates are placed on the natural soil to serve as a base course and
surface course. Again, the primary requirement is the gradation.

In many instances, compacted aggregates are also used to construct roadway shoulders
and beams. In these applications, gradation and stability are very important.

4.2.3.9 Aggregate for hot mix asphalt:

In this we uses hot mix asphalt in a number of different ways. In all cases the aggregates
used should meet five requirements:

1) Strong, tough and durable

2) The ability to be crushed into bulky particles, without many flaky particles, slivers
or pieces that are thin and elongated

3) Low porosity

4) Low permeability

5) Correct particle size and gradation for the type of pavement

41
4.2.3.10 Aggregate for Portland cement concrete:

There are many uses of portland cement concrete in highway construction. Some of the
major uses of aggregates are in rigid-pavement slabs, bridges, concrete barriers,
sidewalks, curbs, slope walls, and other structures. Aggregates in portland cement
concrete are required to always be physically and chemically stable. Other factors to
be considered include:

1) The size, distribution, and interconnection of voids within individual particles

2) The surface character and texture of the particles

3) The gradation of the coarse and fine aggregates

4) The mineral composition of the particles

5) The particle shape

6) Soundness abrasion resistance

7) Water absorption

4.2.3.11 Other aggregates:

There are other uses for aggregates in highway construction. The requirements are
somewhat different from the ones already discussed; however, in most cases, gradation
as a controlling factor is common to all applications.

4.2.4 Glass powder:

Glass powder is an extremely fine powder made from ground glass. It can be used in a
number of industrial and craft applications and is often available through suppliers of glass
and industrial supplies. High precision machining equipment is necessary to prepare it, as it
needs to be very uniform, with an even consistency. Costs vary, depending on the level of
grind and the applications.
Some companies use recycled glass to make their glass powders, while others may use
specially made glass. The process can involve dry or wet grinding to achieve particles of the
desired size. Pigments can be added to make colored glass powders, and companies can also
work with colored glass if they want to make powders of a particular color, like blue. The
finished product can be hazardous and must be handled with care.

42
Properties are mentioned in below table:

s.no property Glass powder


1 Colour Grayish white
2 Specific gravity 2.63
3 fineness 2.16

s.no Glass powder


1 compound composition
2 SiO2 68.9
3 Al2O3 0.9
4 Fe2O3 0.6
5 CaO 14.5
6 MgO 1.8
7 K2O 0.8
8 Na2O 12.22

Table 8 Properties of Glass powder

Fig.4.2.4Glass powder

4.2.5 Water:
Three simple ingredients can be blended and proportioned numerous ways to make
concrete: aggregate, cement and water. In concrete, the single most significant
influence on most or all of the properties is the amount of water used in the mix. In
concrete mix design, the ratio of the amount of water to the amount of cement used
(both by weight) is called the water to cement ratio (w/c). These two ingredients are
responsible for binding everything together.

The water to cement ratio, or w/c ratio, largely determines the strength and durability
of the concrete when it is cured properly. The w/c ratio refers to the ratio of the weights

43
of water and cement used in the concrete mix. A w/c ratio of 0.4 means that for every
100 lbs of cement used in the concrete, 40 lbs of water is added.

For ordinary concrete (sidewalks and driveways), a w/c ratio of 0.6 to 0.7 is considered
normal. A lower w/c ratio of 0.4 is generally specified if a higher quality concrete is
desired. The practical range of the w/c ratio is from about 0.3 to over 0.8. A ratio of 0.3
is very stiff (unless super plasticizers are used), and a ratio of 0.8 makes a wet and fairly
weak concrete. For reference, a 0.4 w/c ratio is generally expected to make a concrete
with a compressive strength of about 5600 psi when it is properly cured. On the other
hand, a ratio of 0.8 will make a weak concrete of only about 2000 psi.

4.2.5.1 Mixing water:

Batch water discharged into the mixer from municipal water supply, reclaimed
municipal water, or water resulting from concrete production operations. This is the
main source of mixing water in concrete.

During hot-weather concreting, ice may be used as part of the mixing water. The ice
should be completely melted by the time mixing is completed.

Water added by the truck operator. ASTM C94 (AASHTO M 157) allows the addition
of water on site if the slump is less than specified, provided the maximum allowable
water-cement ratio is not exceeded and several other conditions are met.

Free moisture on aggregate can represent a substantial portion of the total mixing water.
It is important that any water brought in by the aggregate be free of harmful materials.

Water contained in admixtures. Water contained in admixtures must be considered part


of the mixing water if the admixture’s water content is sufficient to affect the water-
cementious materials ratio by 0.01 or more.

Non-potable water and water resulting from concrete production operations can be used
as mixing water in concrete provided the acceptance criteria given in ASTM C1602 are
met. Water recovered from processes of concrete production includes:

(1) Wash water from mixers or that was a part of a concrete mixture

(2) Water collected in a basin as a result of storm water runoff at a concrete


production facility

44
(3) Other water that contains quantities of concrete ingredients. The solids content in
recycled water generally ranges from 2½ to 10 percent. The maximum permitted solids
content for water to be used in concrete is 50,000 parts per million, or 5 percent, of the
total mixing water and should be tested in accordance with ASTM C1603

4.2.5.2 Impurities of water:


The impurities present in water may be categorized into following categories:

(A) Dissolved Impurities

(i) Dissolved gases:

O2, CO2, H2S etc.

(ii) Inorganic salts:

(iii) Cations: Ca++, Mg++, Na+, K+, Fe++, Al+++


etc. (iv)Anions: CO3–, Cl–, SO4–, NO3– etc.

(v) Organic salts.

(B) Suspended Impurities

(i) Inorganic: Clay and sand.

(ii) Organic: Oil globules, vegetables, and animal material.

(C) Colloidal Impurities Finally divided clay and silica Al(OH) 3, Fe(OH)3, organic
waste products, colouring matter, amino acids etc.

(D) Microscopic Matters Bacteria, algae, fungi etc.

4.2.5.3 Water for curing and washing:

Curing of concrete plays a major role in developing the microstructure and pore
structure of concrete. Curing of concrete means maintaining moisture inside the body
of concrete during the early ages and beyond in order to develop the desired properties
in terms of strength & durability. A good curing practice involves keeping
the concrete damp until the concrete is strong enough to do its job. Curing is the process
of controlling the rate and extent of moisture loss from concrete to ensure an
uninterrupted hydration of Portland cement after concrete has been placed and finished
in its final position. Curing also ensures to maintain an adequate temperature of

45
concrete in its early ages, as this directly affects the rate of hydration of cement and
eventually the strength gain of concrete or mortars

46
CHAPTER – V
MIX DESIGN

47
MIX DESIGN

5.1 Design of concrete mix:

Introduction:

The process of selecting suitable ingredients of concrete and determining their relative
amounts with the objective of producing a concrete of the required, strength, durability,
and workability as economically as possible, is termed the concrete mix design. The
proportioning of ingredient of concrete is governed by the required performance of
concrete in 2 states, namely the plastic and the hardened states. If the plastic concrete
is not workable, it cannot be properly placed and compacted. The property of
workability, therefore, becomes of vital importance.

Methods of Concrete Mix Design:

Concrete mix design is a well established practice around the world. All developed
countries, as well as many developing countries, have standardized their concrete mix
design methods.

Some of the prevalent concrete mix design methods are:

a) ACI Mix Design Method


b) USBR Mix design practice
c) British Mix design Method
d) ISI Recommended guidelines
Since ACI mix design method is an originator for all other methods

Concrete Mix design:

The important criteria kept in view while designing the concrete mix are strength,
durability and workability of concrete. The mix proportions were carried theoretically
based on IS recommendations.

48
Materials used:

53-grade OPC is used throughout the investigation. Locally available sand is used as
fine aggregates and crushed granite stone with maximum 20mm is used as coarse
aggregates are used for mixing the concrete and curing the specimens.

5.2 Requirements of Mix Design:

The requirements which from the basis of selection and proportions of mix
ingredients are:

1. The minimum compressive strength required from structural consideration


2. The adequate workability necessary for full compaction with the compacting
equipment available.
3. Maximum water-cement ratio and/or maximum cement content to give
adequate durability for the particular site conditions.
4. Maximum cement content to avoid shrinkage cracking due to temperature
cycle in mass concrete.

5.3 Factors to be considered in Mix Design:

Concrete mix design is defined as the appropriate selection and proportioning of


constituents to produce a concrete with pre-defined characteristics in the fresh and
hardened states. In general, concrete mixes are designed in order to achieve a defined
workability, strength and durability.

The selection and proportioning of materials depends on:

•The structural requirements of the concrete


•The environment to which the structure will be exposed

•The job site conditions, especially the methods of concrete production, transport,
placement, compaction and finishing

•The characteristics of the available raw materials


The various factors affecting the choice of concrete mix design are:

49
1. Compressive strength of concrete:

It is one of the most important properties of concrete and influences many other
describable properties of the hardened concrete. The mean compressive strength
required at a specific age, usually 28 days, determines the nominal water-cement ratio
of the mix. The other factor affecting the strength of concrete at a given age and cured
at a prescribed temperature is the degree of compaction. According to Abraham‟s law
the strength of fully compacted concrete is inversely proportional to the water-cement
ratio.

2. Workability of concrete:

The degree of workability required depends on three factors. These are the size of the
section to be concreted, the amount of reinforcement, and the method of compaction to
be used. For the narrow and complicated section with numerous corners or inaccessible
parts, the concrete must have a high workability so that full compaction can be achieved
with a reasonable amount of effort. This also applies to the embedded steel sections.
The desired workability depends on the compacting equipment available at the site.

3. Durability of concrete:

The durability of concrete is its resistance to the aggressive environmental conditions.


High strength concrete is generally more durable than low strength concrete. In the
situations when the high strength is not necessary but the conditions of exposure are
such that high durability is vital, the durability requirement will determine the water-
cement ratio to be used.

4. Maximum nominal size of aggregate:

In general, larger the maximum size of aggregate, smaller is the cement requirement
for a particular water-cement ratio, because the workability of concrete increases with
increase in maximum size of the aggregate. However, the compressive strength tends
to increase with the decrease in size of aggregate. IS 456:2000 and IS 1343:1980
recommend that the nominal size of the aggregate should be as large as possible.

50
5. Grading and type of aggregate:

The grading of aggregate influences the mix proportions for a specified workability and
water-cement ratio. Coarser the grading leaner will be mix which can be used. Very
lean mix is not desirable since it does not contain enough finer material to make the
concrete cohesive. The type of aggregate influences strongly the aggregate-cement ratio
for the desired workability and stipulated water cement ratio. An important feature of a
satisfactory aggregate is the uniformity of the grading which can be achieved by mixing
different size fractions.

6. Quality Control at site:

The degree of control can be estimated statistically by the variations in test results. The
variation in strength results from the variations in the properties of the mix ingredients
and lack of control of accuracy in batching, mixing, placing, curing and testing. The
lower the difference between the mean and minimum strengths of the mix lower will
be the cement-content required. The factor controlling this difference is termed as
quality control.

5.4 Mix Proportion Designations:

Each mix is designed for a specific type of work, method of placement, and finishing.
Varying the amount of sand, rock, or water in a mix will produce different placing and
finishing characteristics and may also affect the quality of the finished product. Cement
and air contents will affect the strength and durability of the concrete.

51
Table-9 Workability condition

Placing conditions Degree of Slump(mm) Compaction


workability factor
Shallow sections pavements using
pavers very low <25 0.75
Mass concrete: lightly reinforced
sections in slabs, beams, walls,
columns, floors, hand placed Low 25-75 0.80
pavements, canal lining
Heavily reinforced sections in
slabs, beams, walls, columns Medium 50-100 0.85
Slip form work Medium 75-100 0.90
In-situ piling Very high >150

DEGREE OF QUALITY CONTROL:

Careful supervision during concrete manufacture is necessary for all concreting


operations such as batching, mixing, transporting, laying, compacting and curing.
Following precautions should be taken during concreting operation.

1. The concrete mix should be designed in the laboratory with the materials to be
used on site.

2. As far as possible concrete should be batch by weight. If weight batching is not


possible, then volume batching may be permitted through proper supervision in the
presence of engineer in charge.

3. During mixing the mixer should be charged to its full capacity. The materials should
be fed in proper sequence. The speed of the mixer should be range from 15 to
20 revolutions per minute. The mixing time should not be less than 2 minutes in any
case. Segregation should be avoided while unloading the concrete from the mixer.

4. Workability of concrete is an important property of concrete while concrete is in its


fresh state. Therefore slump test or compaction factor test should be performed to check
workability of concrete. About three tests should be carried out for every 25 m3
of concrete.

52
CONCRETE MIX DESIGN BY INDIAN STANDARD METHOD

b) Mix design:

M25 GRADE CONCRETE: (IS 10262:2009, IS 10262:1989, IS 456:2000)

1. TARGET STRENGTH FOR MIX PROPORTIONING

Fck =fck + 1.65 s, where

Fck = target average compressive strength at 28 days,

fck = characteristic compressive strength at 28 days, and

s= standard deviation.

From Table I, standard deviation, s =4 N/mm²

Target strength =25+ 1.65 x 4 =31.6 N/mm²

2. SELECTION OF WATER-CEMENT RATIO

Adopted maximum water cement ratio =0.45

From Table 5 of IS 456,for every severe expose maximum water cement ratio is

0.45

0.45<0.50, hence O.K

3. SELECTION OF WATER CONTENT:

From Table 2 of IS 10262:2009, maximum water content for 20 mm aggregate = 186 litres

4.CALCULATION OF CEMENT CONTENT :

Adopted w/c Ratio = 0.45

Cement Content = 186/0.45 = 413.33 kg/m³

From Table 5 of IS 456, Minimum cement content for ‘Very severe’ exposure conditions
260kg/m³
53
413.33 kg/m³> 260 kg/m³, hence ok.

5.PROPORTION OF VOLUME OF COARSE AGGREGATE AND FINE


AGGREGATECONTENT:

From Table 3. Of IS 10262:2009,Volume of coarse aggregate corresponding to 20


mm size aggregate and fine aggregate (Zone Ⅱ) for water-cement ratio of 0.50=0.62
In the present case water-cement ratio is 0.45. Therefore volume of coarse aggregate
is required to be increased to decrease the fine aggregate content. As the water-cement
ratio is lower by 0.05. The proportion of volume of coarse aggregate is increased by
0.01 (at the rate of ±0.01 for every ± 0.05 change in water-cement ratio).
Therefore. Corrected proportion of volume of coarse aggregate for the water-
cement ratio of 0.45 = 0.63.

Therefore, volume of coarse aggregate = 0.63 m³

Volume of fine aggregate content =1- 0.63 =0.37 m³.

6. MIX CALCULATION:

The mix calculations per unit volume of concrete shall be as follows:

a) Volume of concrete = 1 m³

b) Volume of cement = [Mass of cement] \{[Specific Gravity of Cement] x 1000}

=413.33/{3.15*1000}
=0.131 m³

c) Volume of water = [Mass of water] / {[Specific Gravity of water] x 1000}


=(186/1) x 1000
= 0.186 m³

d) volume of aggregates = 1-(0.131+0.186)


= 0.683m³

e) Mass of coarse aggregates = e x volume of coarse aggregates x specific gravity of


coarse aggregates x 1000
= 0.683 x 0.63 x2.6 x1000
54
= 1118.75 kg/m³
f) Mass of fine aggregates = e x volume of fine aggregates x specific gravity of
coarse aggregates x 1000
= 0.683 x 0.37 x 2.51x1000
= 634.30 kg/m³

MIX PROPORTIONS FOR TRAIL NUMBER :

Cement = 413.33 kg/m³


Water = 186 litres
Coarse Aggregate = 1118.75 kg/m³
Fine aggregate = 634.30 kg/m³
Water- cement ratio = 0.45

Proportions of Materials :

Materials Quantity
per 1m3 cube per 150x150x150 mm3 cube
Cement 413.33kg 1.39kg
Fine aggregate 634.30kg 2.14kg
Coarse aggregate 1118.75kg 3.77kg
Water 186kg 0.62kg

Usual way of expression:

Cement fine aggregate coarse aggregate Water


1 1.53 2.70 0.45

55
CHAPTER – VI
METHODOLOGY

Methodology

56
6.1 Casting of specimens:
The cement and sand were first added and mixed thoroughly in the dry state until
homogeneity was achieved. The dry coarse aggregates were added to the mixture and
again mixed thoroughly for 3 min. after mixing all the ingredients, concrete specimens
were cast using steel moulds and compared with a table vibrator in three layers. For
each mix, six 150*150*150* mm cubes and cylinders of 150mm diameter and 300mm
length were produced for measurement of the compressive strength and split tensile
strength respectively.

Fig 6.1 Casting of specimen

Fig – 6.1 Casting of Specimens

57
6.1.1 Marble Powder Concrete Mix:

In the same way cube specimens and beams samples of M25 grade of concrete have
been tested in laboratory for which each percentage of marble powder i.e. 6%, 9%,
12%, 15% and 18%. Three properties of concrete namely workability, compressive
strength and flexural strength have been selected for study and evaluated according to
IS: 1199-1959 and IS: 516-1959 respectively. Before initiating the test properties of
materials were determined according to respective IS codes. The properties are shown
in Table 5.1.1

Table 12: Marble Powder concrete mix

Material by weight

% Marble Dust Cement(kg) Waste marble (kg)


6% 18.45 1.17
9% 17.91 1.71
M25 12% 17.28 2.34
15% 16.74 2.88
18% 16.11 3.51

6.1.1.1 Casting of Specifications with Marble Dust:

Marble powder were added in concrete in step of 6%, 9%, 12%, 15% and 18%. For
each percent ofmarble dust replacing cement, 3 cubes and 2 cylinders for 7 days,14
days and 28 days. However, there is a slight decrease in compressive strength value
concrete mix when 18% marble granule is used as compared with that of 15% marble
granule mix.

58
Fig – 6.1.1.1 Casting of Specimens with Marble dust

6.1.2 Glass powder Concrete Mix:

The present experimental study was undertaken to replace the fine aggregates in
concrete with glass powder and to check the compressive strength and split tensile
strength of concrete for M25 grade concrete. In the present work cubes and cylinders
were tested for different percentage of glass powder replacing fine aggregates in
concrete for M25 grade concrete. In the experimental study stone dust, the cubes were
tested for 7,14 and 28 days compressive strength 5% replacement of fine aggregate by
glass powder in M25 grade concrete.
Table 13 Brick Dust Concrete mix

Mix Materials by weight


% Glass powder Fine Glass powder(kg)
aggregates(kg)
5% 19.62 0.981
5% 19.62 0.981
M25 5% 19.62 0.981
5% 19.62 0.981
5% 19.62 0.981

6.1.3 Concrete replacement values for both marble and glass powder:
59
Glass powder is fixed at 5% and changing the percentage of marble powder weight in
concrete as a partial replacement of Cement (6%, 9%, 12%, 15% and 18%). For each
percent of marble dust replacing cement, 3 cubes and 2 cylinders for 7 days,14 days
and 28 days.

Replacement Wt of Wt of the Wt of glass Wt of fine Wt of coarse Water


% 0f marble marble cement powder(gm) aggregates aggregates content
powder powder (kg) 5% (kg’s) (kg’s) (ml)
(gm’s)

6% 0.13 2.05 109 2.071 4.36 981

9%
0.19 1.99 109 2.071 4.36 981

12%
0.26 1.92 109 2.071 4.36 981

15%
0.32 1.86 109 2.071 4.36 981

18%
0.39 1.79 109 2.071 4.36 981

Table 14 – concrete mix with both marble dust and glass powder

6.2 Curing of Concrete:

Cubes must be cured before they are tested. Unless required for test at 24 hours, the
cube should be placed immediately after demoulding in the curing tank or mist room.
The curing temperature of the water in the curing tank should be maintained at 27-
30°C. If curing is in a mist room, the relative humidity should be maintained at no less
than 95%. Curing should be continued as long as possible up to the time of testing.
Marking cubes for identifying.

60
Fig – 6.2 Specimens during curing:

In order to provide adequate circulation of water, adequate space should be provided


between the cubes, and between the cubes and the side of the curing tank. If curing is
in a mist room, there should be sufficient space between cubes to ensure that all surfaces
of the cubes.

61
CHAPTER – VII
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

7.1 Result and Discussion:


62
7.1.1 General:

This chapter deals with the observation of the results from the various tests conducted
on concrete for use as reducing the quantities concrete. The results are compared with
the control of different Concrete mixes for the various percentage replacement levels
of cement with marble dust and Fine aggregate with Stone aggregate.

The strength characteristics of concrete containing marble dust and brick dust are
discussed in this chapter. Tests were performed on hard concrete cured under Standard
laboratory conditions, and compressive and spilt tensile strengths were observed at
Curing ages of 7, 14 and 28 days.

7.2 Compressive strength of Concrete:

7.2.1 General:

The main function of the concrete in structure is mainly to resist the compressive forces.
When a plain concrete member is subjected to compression, the failure of the member
takes place, in its vertical plane along the diagonal. The vertical cracks occur due to
lateral tensile strain. A flow in the concrete, which is in the form of micro crack along
the vertical axis of the member will take place on the application of axial compression
load and propagate further due to the lateral tensile strain.

7.2.2 Test procedure and results for compressive strength:

Test specimens of size 150×150×150 mm were prepared for testing the compressive
Strength of both controlled as well as marble dust and brick dust based concretes. The
Modified mixture with varying percentage of brick dust and marble dust as a partial
Replacement of sand and cement were prepared and cast into cubes. Compressive
strength test results at curing ages of 7 ,14and 28 days for control mix as well as for the
Modified mixes are shown in the Table 6.2.2. For testing in compression, no cushioning
Material was placed between the specimen and the plates of the machine.

The load was applied axially without shock till the specimen was crushed. Fig 7.2.2
shows the test setup for the compressive strength. Three specimens for each mix were

63
tested and the corresponding values were observed and average values were taken for
discussion. Table 7.2.2 shows the variation of compressive strength with varying %
replacement of cement with marble dust, and fine aggregates with brick dust. Variations
with both materials being used as replacement of cement and fine aggregates in the
concrete.

Fig – 7.2.2 Test setup for the Compressive Strength

64
7.2.4 Compressive strength graph:

Compressive Strength Test Result for marble dust used as partial replacement
of cement:

% of Replacement 7 days 14 days 28days


(KN) (KN) (KN)
620
6% 510 605

9% 680 657 730

12% 762 692 854

15% 585 574 672

18% 430 419 638

Table :Compressive strength values

Compressive strength of concrete for 7 Days

900
Compressive strength for 7 days
800 762

700 680 6% 9%
Compressive strength (KN/m²)

585
600 12% 15%
510
500 18%
430
400

300

200

100

0
Replacement percentage

65
Compressive strength of concrete for 14 Days

800
Compressive strength for 14 days
692
700 657
605
600 574 6% 9%
Compressive strength (KN/m²)

500 12% 15%


419
400 18%

300

200

100

0
Replacement percentage

Compressive strength of concrete for 28 Days

900 854
800
Compressive strength for 28 days
730
700 672
620 638
Compressive strength (KN/m²)

600 6% 9%
500 12% 15%
400
18%
300
200
100
0
Replacement percentage

66
The concrete mix is prepared for M25 grade and cement is replaced by marble dust and
fine aggregate with a glass powder as certain percentage. These are the graphs which
shows the 7 days, 14 days and 28days strength of the concrete mix, graph also says,
there is increase in strength as compared to conventional concrete. However there is a
decrease in compressive strength value concrete mix when 5% glass powder is used
and cement is replaced partially with a marble powder up to 15%.

7.3.1.1 Split Tensile Strength:

The cylinder is placed horizontally between the loading surfaces of compression testing
machine and the load is applied till failure of the cylinder. Packing material such as
plywood is used to avoid any sudden loading. During the test the platens of the testing
machine should not be allowed to rotate in a plane perpendicular to the axis of cylinder.
The Split tensile strength is computed from the following formula .

2𝑝
T =
𝜋𝐿𝐷

7.3.1.2 Split Tensile Test Results & graphs:

% of 7 days 14 days 28days


Replacement (KN) (KN) (KN)

2.92 3.20 3.91


6%

9% 3.11 3.90 4.00

12% 3.13 4.00 4.04

15% 3.16 4.02 4.27

18% 2.52 3.00 3.30

Table: split tensile values

67
Split tensile strength Graph of concrete for 7 days

3.13 Split Tensile Strength for 7 Days


3.11 3.16
3.5 2.92
Compressive strength (KN/M²)

3
2.52 6%
2.5
9%
2 12%
1.5 15%
18%
1
0.5
0
7 days
Replacement percentage

Split tensile strength Graph of concrete for 14 days

Split Tensile Strength for 14 Days


4.5 4.02
4
Compressive strength (KN/M²)

3.9
4
3.5 3.2 6%
3
3 9%
2.5 12%
2 15%
1.5 18%
1
0.5
0
14 days
Replacement percentage

68
Split tensile strength Graph of concrete for 28 days

4.27 Split Tensile Strength for 28 Days


4.5 4.04
3.91 4
Compressive strength (KN/M²)

4
3.5 3.3
6%
3
9%
2.5 12%
2 15%
1.5 18%

1
0.5
0
28 Days
Replacement percentage

Flexural Strength:
The bearing surfaces of the supporting and loading rollers are wiped clean before loading.
The prisms are placed in the machine in such a manner that the load is applied to the upper
most surface along the two lines spaced 13.30 cm apart. The axis of the specimen is aligned
with the axis of the loading device. The load is applied at a rate of 180 kg/min without shock
on the specimen till it fails and the maximum load (P) applied to the specimen during test is
noted.

𝑝𝑙
Fbt = 𝑏𝑑²
Where, P = maximum load at failure in N, and
L = length of the beam specimen (400mm)
b = Width of the beam specimen in mm,
d = Depth of beam specimen in mm

69
Flexural strength Results &Graphs :

% of 7 days 14 days 28days


Replacement (KN) (KN) (KN)

3.07 4.00 5.33


6%

9% 3.17 4.20 5.43

12% 3.20 4.50 5.63

15% 3.30 4.30 5.73

18% 2.70 3.50 4.70

Flexural St

strength of concrete for 7 Days

3.23.3 Flexural Strength for 7 Days


3.5
3.073.17
Compressive strength (KN/M²)

3 2.7
2.5 6%
9%
2 12%
1.5 15%
18%
1

0.5

0
7 Days
Replacement percentage

70
Flexural Strength of Concrete for 14 Days :

4.5
Flexural Strength for 14 Days
5 4.3
Compressive strength (KN/M²)

4.5 4.2
4
4
3.5
3.5 6%
9%
3
12%
2.5
15%
2
18%
1.5
1
0.5
0
14 Days
Replacement percentage

Flexural Strength of concrete for 28 Days :


5.63 5.7 Flexural Strength for 28 Days
6
5.4
Compressive strength (KN/M²)

5
5 4.7
6%
4
9%
12%
3
15%
2 18%

0
28 Days
Replacement percentage

71
Discussion:
Compression Test:

Mechanical behavior of concrete cubes prepared without chemical admixtures was


studied by compressive tests (Grade M25 and curing time of 7 days, 14 days and 28
days). It can be noticed that 5% replacement of fine aggregate with glass powder in
mild condition and 15% replacement of cement with marble dust in mild condition, are
showing increase in compressive strength.

Tensile Strength Test:

Mechanical behavior of cylindrical specimens prepared without chemical admixtures


was studied by tensile strength test. (Grade M25),curing times of 7 days ,14 days and
28 days and the results obtained are reported. It is noticed that 5% replacement of fine
aggregate with glass powder in mild condition and 15% replacement of cement with
marble dust in severe conditions, are showing increase in tensile strength.

To determine the tensile strength of concrete in an indirect way. This test is


performed in accordance with IS: 5816-1970

The concrete mix is prepared for M25 grade and cement is replaced by
marble dust and fine aggregate with a brick dust as certain percentage. These are the
graphs which shows the 7 days, 14 days and 28days strength of the concrete mix, graph
also says, there is increase in strength as compared to conventional concrete.

Scope of Future Work:


This project was mainly focused on the partial replacement of Portland slag cement
with MDP at different percentage in concrete. Research may be conducted on other
properties and uses of MDP in the near future to make this product a precious building
material to improve the quality of building construction industry. Other types of study
that can be included with MDP may be listed below; here MDP is Marble Dust Powder

a) MDP concrete as an acoustic building structure.

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b) The chemical attack on MDP concrete structure.

c) The durability of MDP concrete as an underwater structure.

d) Earthquake effect on MDP concrete structure for low cost building.

e) MDP concrete with plasticizer for higher grade of concrete.

f) Study of MDP concrete varying the water cement ratio.

g) Only the basic study of use of MDP in concrete production is investigated; therefore,
further investigation is required on the study of durability of concrete made by MDP
blended cement.

h) Further study can be done for determining the deflections and durability of
concrete containing MDP.

i) Further study on the seepage characteristics of the MDP concrete.

j) In future the flexural strength of beam may be observed by increasing the sizes of
beam.
k) The characteristics strength of concrete can be studied with control mix of MDP &
glass powder.
l) To study the behavior of MDP concrete under biaxial and multi axial stresses.

m) To study the factors affecting dry shrinkage and creep of MDP concrete.

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CHAPTER – VIII
CONCLUSION

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CONCLUSION

The following conclusions can be made from the results of compressive strengths and
from the analysis of the graph

a. The compressive strength and split tensile strength of concrete for M25 with
glass powder as fine aggregates and cement replaced with a marble dust were
found to be comparable with the concrete made with the river bed sand.
b. The increase in compressive strength of concrete with 12% replacement of
cement with a marble powder and 5% replacement of fine aggregates with brick
dust were found to be given better strength.
c. Glass powder can affectively be used in plain cement concrete in place of fine
aggregates.
d. Non availability of sand at reasonable costs as fine aggregate in cement concrete
for various reasons, search for alternative material brick dust qualifies itself as
a suitable substitute for sand at very low cost.
e. Crushed glass powder is a free chemical impurities such as chlorides and
sulphates which improves the property of concrete like strength and durability.
f. Effective utilization of glass powder in concrete can save the waste of quarry
works, and also produces a ‟greener” concrete.

g. In the study compressive strength of specimen is increased with addition of


marble dust compared to conventional concrete up to 12% and there is a
sudden decrease in strength for 15% concrete.

h. Split Tensile and Flexural strength of concrete is observed to be higher and


varying from 12% to 15%.

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CHAPTER – IX
USEFUL CODES AND REFERENCES

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Useful Codes

 IS 383:1970 – Specification for coarse and fine aggregates from natural

sources for concrete



 IS 2386:1963 Methods of test for aggregates for concrete

 IS 650:1991 Specification for standard sand for testing of cement

 IS 516:1959 Method of test for strength of concrete

 IS 2386(Part 1):1963 Methods of test for aggregates for concrete Part

3 Specific gravity, density, voids, absorption and bulking.



 ASTM C39 Compressive strength of cylindrical concrete specimens

 ASTM C192 Making and curing concrete test specimens in the laboratory.

 IS 10262:2009 recommended Guidelines for concrete mix design

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References

1. Pooja.J.Chavhan et al Int. Journal of Engineering Research and Applications


ISSN:2248-9622 vol.4, April 2014.
2. Concrete Technology – M.S.Shetty. Design Of Concrete Mixes - N.Krishna Raju.
3. BaharDemire (2010), “The effect of the using waste marble dust as fine sand on the
mechanical properties of the concrete”.
4. “International Journal of Civil and Structural Engineering Volume 1, No 4, (2011).”
By Baboo Rai, Khan Naushad H , Abhishek Kr , TabinRushad S, Duggal

5. Valeria Corinaldesi, Giacomo Moriconi, andTarun R. Naik (2005)


“Characterization Of Marble Powder for Its Use In Mortar And Concrete
6. Manju Pawar et.al (2014) Feasibility and need of use of waste marble powder in
concrete
production. ISSN No. 2349-943435.PP 1-6.
7. V.M.Sounthararajan and A. Sivakumar (2013) Effect of the lime content in marble
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8. Corinaldesi V, Moriconi G, Naik TR, (2010), ―Characterization of marble powder
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concrete .ISSN 2319 –7757.PP14-16.
10. Candra Aditya, Abdul Halim Chauliah, FatmaPutri, Waste Marble Utilization from
Residue Marble Industry as a Substitution of Cement and Sand within Concrete Roof
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No.8, pp.: 501-506 ISSN: 2319-6890) (online), 2347-5013(print) 01 Aug2014
10. Prof. Veena G. Pathan1, Prof. Md. Gulfam Pathan2 Feasibility and Need of use of
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11. IS:383-1970, Specification for Coarse and fine aggregate from natural sources for
concrete, Bureau of Indian standard, New Delhi.
12.IS:2386(Part I to V)-1963, Methods of Test for Aggregates for Concrete, Bureau
of Indian standard, New Delhi.
13.IS:1489(Part I)-1991, Specification for Portland pozzolana cement (Fly ash
based), Bureau of Indian standard, New Delhi.

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14.IS:1199-1991, Methods for sampling and analysis of concrete, Bureau of Indian
standard, New Delhi.
15.IS:9103-1999, Concrete Admixtures - specification, Bureau of Indian standard, New
Delhi.
16.IS:10262-2009, Guidelines for concrete mix design proportioning, Bureau of Indian
standard, New Delhi.
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[1] “Design of Concrete Mixes”,byN.KrishnaRaju,CBS Publishers &


Distributors,Delhi, 1993.

[2] “Concrete Technology-theory and practice”, by M S Shetty, S. Chand Company


Ltd, Delhi, First multicolour illustrative revised edition, reprint 2015.

s[3]. “Concrete Technology”by A R Santhakumar, Oxford university press, Delhi,


first published 2007.

Website:
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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marble
[2] http://www.tunisianindustry.nat.tn/en/download/CEPI/IMCCV02.pdf

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