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2015 International Conference on Circuit, Power and Computing Technologies [ICCPCT]

Performance Analysis of OFF-GRID Solar Photo


Voltaic System

Ajan.A K.Prem Kumar


Electrical and Electronics Engineering Research and Development wing
Christ University Faculty of Engineering ANERT
Bangalore, India Trivandrum, India
ajan.a@mtech.christuniversity.in

Abstract—Day by day the demand for electrical energy is [6]. Every system should be studied based on certain
increasing. We can’t rely on conventional energy sources for performance parameters for making it more generalized [7].
meeting this increasing demand as they are depleting. So it is Grid connected energy storage is an alternative to fight back
necessary to find an alternative method to harness the energy against the problems occurring due to the intermittencies [8]-
that we are lacking. Solar energy generation seems to be a [9]. For reduction of losses in grid connected system
promising technology for this dilemma. It is environmental intelligent PV modules are being proposed [10]. Some
friendly and infinite source of energy. Photovoltaic systems can benchmarks should be set for the comparison of PV system
be broadly classified into two-an on-grid system or an off-grid and another system running parallel to it [11]. [12]-[13]
system. The energy generated from a solar PV system is based on
Evaluates the impact of PV system on power grid. [14]-[16]
several factors like irradiance, types of solar PV used and
Explains the development of a MATLAB/Simulink model for
temperature. Analyzing the existing system efficiency is of prime
importance for the characterization of the problems and for the
photo voltaic arrays. The major difference between a
improvements. This study deals with the performance analysis of standalone and a grid tied system is the lack of a storage
an on-grid and off-grid system. The analysis is carried out by system. While the standalone system stores the surplus energy
modeling an existing system in MATLAB/SIMULINK which is to the storage system the grid tied system directly injects the
already in operation. It can be extended to analyze the grid power that is being produced, to the main grid. It enables the
stability. This study aims the quantification of various user to make revenue by injecting power to the grid. This
performance parameters like power output, losses in the system, study aims to the development of a 5KW solar PV system
system efficiency and the total energy transfer. which is already in operation which can be further used to
analyze the performance of the system under varying climatic
Keywords—ON-grid systems, MATLAB/SIMULINK, Modeling, conditions. The whole paper can be divided in to two parts. In
Performance analysis the first part the modeling of various components is explained.
The second part consists of the simulation results and the
I. INTRODUCTION discussions.
Worldwide researches are happening in the areas of smart
grids and integration of distributed generation to the smart II. MODELING OF COMPONENTS
grids. Many renewable sources such as solar, wind, and tidal is A. Modeling of a Photo Voltaic module
being exploited for the energy generation. Solar is a clean and
infinite source of energy. The output of a solar module is Due to advancement in manufacturing process the cost of solar
depends upon various factors such as irradiance and PV modules is showing a descending trend. A module is made
temperature. The overall system efficiency depends on the up of several tiny cells and an array is created by grouping of
performance of various components in the system such as PV modules [17]-[18]. A solar photovoltaic cell is a p-n junction
module, MPPT, charge controller, battery and the inverter. [1] formed from a semiconductor material (usually silicon)
Explains about the invention of the solar cell, its timely [19].When the cell is exposed to solar radiation the electron
development, how insolation is affecting the output and how it hole pairs are generated in the cell. The electron hole pairs
depends on various factors like global position, time, season experiences a drift due to the internal electric field of the cell
and atmospheric conditions. [2] Discusses about the design, [20]. If the terminals of the cell are shorted a current will flow
development, and installation of a 100 KW utility and grid through the circuit. If the cell is open circuited the current
connected solar PV power plants for rural applications in generated is shunted through a diode which is connected in
India. The interconnection of the solar PV system to the grid parallel with the cell [21]-[23]. The following figure shows the
having lots of challenges since it is intermittent in nature [3]. equivalent circuit diagram and characteristics of a solar cell
Now days there is an increasing interest in the solar PV [24]. When the cell is open circuited the Voltage at the
systems due to the developments and researches happening in terminals is known as open circuit voltage of the cell and
this field [4]. The reliability of the grid connected systems can when the cell is short circuited the current through the cell is
be improved using tie switches [5]. There are some certain called short circuit current. In this model the IV characteristics
guidelines for evaluating grid connected PV system topologies

978-1-4799-7075-9/15/$31.00 ©2015 IEEE


2015 International Conference on Circuit, Power and Computing Technologies [ICCPCT]

is obtained by varying the load resistance from maximum to Is=Diode reverse saturation current, A
zero in a small period of time. Irs=Diode reverse saturation current
I=Output current from the module, A
Ish=Shunt current, A
V=Output voltage from the module, V
N=Diode ideality factor
C=Number of cells in a module
Ns=Number of modules in series
Eg=Energy gap of silicon, 1.12eV
Np=Number of modules in parallel

The series resistance Rs and the shunt resistance Rsh used to


represent the series drop and the shunt leakage current. Ideally
the Rs should be zero and Rsh should be infinite. The increase
Fig 1. Equivalent circuit of a solar cell
in Rs results in increased losses in the module and reduces the
output power. The reduction in the Rsh causing the Voc to drop
[14]. The cell ideality factor is a factor which tells how closely
a cell follows an ideal diode equation [27]-[28].
Matlab/Simulink is used for the simulation of the SSI-3M6-
240 Polycrystalline model. The following data shown in table
I which is obtained from the module data sheet is used for the
simulation. The values of the Rs and Rp are chosen iteratively.

TABLE I. SPECIFICATIONS OF THE SSI-3M6-240

Peak Power(Pmax,W) 240


Max Power Voltage(Vmp) 30.06
Max Power Current(Imp) 8.01
Fig 2. Characteristics of a solar cell
Open Circuit Voltage(Voc) 37.20
The following equations [25]-[26] are used to model the PV Short Circuit Current(ISc) 8.52
module.
Number of cells (C) 60
Vt
K
1 Short circuit current temperature +.06%/oC
coefficient(α)
I Open circuit voltage temperature -.36%/ oC
Irs V 1 2
KCT
coefficient(β)

V I
Ish 3
R
B. Modeling of MPPT
V I Maximum Power Point tracker is used to extract maximum
Id e NV CN 1 IsNp 4 possible power from the solar PV modules. MPPT tracks the
variations in the power output and sets the module operating
point to deliver the maximum possible power output. In this
I IphNp Id Ish 5 analysis a Perturb and Observe algorithm based MPPT is
modeled. But one disadvantage of this method is under rapidly
I
Voc Vt ln 6 varying conditions the performance is poor. Fig.3 describes
I
the P&O algorithm [29]-[30].
Iph Gk Isc K1 Top Tref 7
C. Modeling of a Boost converter
A boost converter is a DC-DC converter which is used [31] to
Where boost the output voltage of the module to a higher voltage to
Gk=Solar irradiance ratio facilitate the charging of a 48V battery. The system under study is
Vt=Thermal voltage having a 48 V battery bank (24 Nos of 2V cells connected in
K=Boltzmann’s constant 1.38e-23 series). During the lower radiation time the voltage is low and
Top=Operating temperature in Celsius during the higher radiation time the voltage is high. For charging
Tref= Reference temperature 25oC the battery the 48 V or above is required. This problem can be
q=Charge of an electron 1.6e-19C solved by boosting the voltage during the lower radiation time to
2015 International Conference on Circuit, Power and Computing Technologies [ICCPCT]

facilitate the battery charging. The boost converter consists of an F. The complete model of the existing system
inductor, diode, capacitor and a switch. The values of the Fig.6 shows the complete simulation model which is
components are designed accordingly. The duty cycles generated developed.
by the MPPT controls the switching operation.

Fig 6. The complete simulink model


III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
The various results obtained during the simulation are
given below.
A. Validation of the Photo Voltaic model with the data sheet
Table I shows the data obtained from the data sheet of the
module. Fig.7 shows the obtained characteristics from the
Fig 3. Flow chart of perturb and observe MPPT simulation. From the Fig.7 it can be observe that, the
D. Modeling of a regulator maximum power of 240W is obtained from the model
corresponding to the Vmp and Imp specified by the
The boost converter output found drastically varying according to manufacturer’s data sheet.
the variation in the irradiation. In order to provide a constant DC
voltage to charge the battery a regulator with high efficiency is
needed. A CUK converter along with a PI controller feedback is
used for this purpose. The CUK converter is a DC-DC converter
derived by the combination of a buck boost converter. By the help
of the CUK converter the rapidly varying voltage is regulated to a
constant value.
E. Modeling of a Battery bank
The battery model exists in the Simulink library is configured
according to the performance curve of the battery which is being
used [33]. Fig.4 and Fig.5 shows the performance curves of the
actual battery and the modeled battery respectively.
Fig 7. Characteristics obtained from the simulation

B. Variations in output power of the module according to the


change in the parameters
Fig.8 shows the variations of characteristics according to the
changes in the irradiation.Fig.9 shows the effect of series
resistance on the characteristics.Fig.10, Fig.11, Fig.12 shows
the effect of series resistance, shunt resistance and ideality
factor on the characteristics of the module.
Fig 4.Performance Curves obtained from the data sheet

Fig 5. Performance curves of the battery model in simulink


Fig 8. Effect of irradiation on the characteristics
2015 International Conference on Circuit, Power and Computing Technologies [ICCPCT]

website is used to give input to the solar PV model. The Fig.13


shows the variation of the irradiation from 7AM-6PM plotted
using a signal builder and can be used as to give input to the
panel model.Fig.14 shows the variation in irradiation and the
corresponding curves of voltage, current and the power.

Fig 9. Effect of temperature on the characteristics

Fig 13. Varying solar irradiation

Fig 10.Effect of series resistance on the characteristics

Fig 14. Variations in irradiation, voltage, current and power


C. Effect of MPPT
Fig.15 shows the switching signals generated by the MPPT
Fig 11.Effect of shunt resistance on the characteristics
which is used to control the switching of the DC-DC
converter. It has been observed that a significant improvement
in the energy transfer is achieved by the use of MPPT.

Fig 12.Effect of ideality factor on the characteristics


Fig 15.Duty cycle generated by the MPPT
From the simulation results it is evident that the power output D. DC-DC converter output
of the module is proportional to the solar irradiation. The
Fig.16 shows the output of the DC-DC converter. From the
increase in the temperature and series resistance will reduce
figure it has been observed that as the voltage increases
the yield. As the shunt resistance decreases the amount of
leakage current increases and the power output decreases. The current decreases. The power output will remains the same. By
module which having higher ideality factors having more the effect of the DC-DC converter the voltage is boosted even
yield. The solar radiation data obtained from the NASA during the lower irradiation time in order to felicitate the
battery charging.
2015 International Conference on Circuit, Power and Computing Technologies [ICCPCT]

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