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1.

General Principles
• Definition of Statutory Construction
1. Caltex v. Palomar (GR L-19650, 29 September 1966)
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• When does Statutory Construction come in?

2. National Federation of Labor (NFL) v. Eisma (GR L-61236, 31


January 1984)
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3. Paat v. CA (GR 111107, 10 January 1997)
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4. People v. Mapa (GR L-22301, 30 August 1967)
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5. Daoang v. Municipal Judge of San Nicolas (GR L-34568, 28
March 1988)
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6. Paras v. Comelec (GR 123169, 4 November 1996)
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2. Statutory Construcion vs. Judicial Legislation
• Statutory Construction, whose job is it?

7. Floresca v. Philex Mining (GR L-30642, 30 April 1985)


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8. Republic v. CA and Molina (GR 108763, 13 February 1997)
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• How must Legislative Intent be ascertained

9. Aisporna v. CA (GR L-39419, 12 April 1982)


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10. China Bank v. Ortega (GR L-34964, 31 January 1973)
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11. Board of Administrators of the PVA v. Bautista (GR L-37867, 22
February 1982)
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2. Literal Construction
• Case

12. Salvatierra v. CA (GR 107797, 26 August 1996)


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13. Kapisanan ng mga Manggagawa v. Manila Railroad Company (GR
L-25316, 28 February 1979)
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• When not favored

14. Abellana v. Marave (GR L-27760)


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15. Paras vs. Comelec, 264 SCRA 49, supra
2. Executive Construction
• Basic rule on Executive Construction

16. PAFLU v. Bureau of Labor Relations (GR L-43760, 21 August


1976)
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• When Executive Construction is not given weight

17. Philippine Apparel Workers’ Union v. NLRC (GR L-50320, 31


July 1981)
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18. IBAA Employees Union v. Inciong (GR L52415, 23 October
1984)
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19. Chartered Bank Employees Association v. Ople (GR L-44717, 28
August 1985)
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• What is the difference between a rule and an opinion

20. Victorias Milling v. Social Security Commission (GR L-16704, 17


March 1962)
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2. Subjects of Construction
• The Constitution

• How should the constitution be construed


21. Sarmiento v. Mison (GR 79974, 17 December 1987)
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22. Perfecto v. Meer (GR L-2348, 27 February 1950)
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23. Endencia v. David (GR L-6355-56, 31 August 1953)
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24. Nitafan v. Commissioner of Internal Revenue (GR L-
78780, 23 July 1987)
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• May the preamble be referred to in the construction of
Constitutional Provisions?

21. Aglipay v. Ruiz (GR 45459, 13 March 1937)


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• Are the provisions of the Constitution self-executing?

21. Manila Prince Hotel v. GSIS (GR 122156, 3 February


1997)
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• Statute
• Requirements for the publication of laws

27. Tanada v. Tuvera (GR L-63915, 24 April 1985)


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28. Tanada v. Tuvera (GR L-63915, 29 December 1986)

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• Ordinances

• Rule on Construction of ordinances vis-a-vis Statute


29. Primicias v. Urdaneta (GR L-26702, 18 October 1979)
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2. Interpretation of specific types of statutes
• Tax Laws

• How are tax refunds construed?


30. La Carlota Sugar Central v. Jimenez (GR L-12436, 31 May
1961)
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• Who has the burden of proof intax cases?

31. CIR v. CA (GR 115349, 18 April 1997)


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32. Mactan Cebu (MCIAA) v. Marcos (GR 120082, 11
September 1996)
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• Tax Sales construed

33. Serfino v. CA (GR L-40858, 15 September 1987)


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• Labor Laws

• Rule on the construction of labor laws

34. Manahan v. ECC (GR L-44899, 22 April 1981)


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35. Villavert v. ECC (GR L-48605, 14 December 1981)
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36. Del Rosario & Sons v. NLRC (GR L-64204, 31 May 1985)
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• Insurance

• Rule in the interpretation of insurance provisions

37. Ty v. First National Surety (GR L-16138, 29 April 1961)


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38. De la Cruz v. Capital Insurance (GR L-21574, 30 June
1966)
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• Ambiguous provision interpreted against insurer

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39. Qua Chee Gan v. Law Union and Rock Insurance (GR L-
4611, 17 December 1955)
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• Corporate Law

• Rule on the interpretation of Corporate Law provisions?

40. Home Insurance v. Eastern Shipping Lines (GR L-34382,


20 July 1983)
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• Naturalization Laws

• Rule on the construction of Naturalization Laws

41. Co v. Republic (GR L-12150, 26 May 1960)


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42. Lee Cho (@ Sem Lee) v. Republic (GR L-12408, 28
December 1959)
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• Agrarian Reform Laws

• Rule on the construction of Agrarian Reform Laws

43. Guerrero v. CA (GR L-44570, 30 May 1986)


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• Rules of Court

• Rule on the construction of the provisions of the Rules of Court

44. Bello v. CA (GR L-38161, 29 March 1974)


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• Expropriation Laws

45. City of Manila v. Chinese Community of Manila (GR 14355, 31


October 1919)
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• Election Laws

45. Villanueva v. Comelec (GR L-54718, 4 December 1985)


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• Wills

• Rule on the interpretation of wills


47. In RE Tampoy (GR L-14322, 25 February 1960)
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2. Particular Latin Rules
• Mens legislatoris

48. Matabuena v. Cervantes (GR L-28771, 31 March 1971)


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• Dura Lex Sed Lex

48. People vs. Mapa, 20 SCRA 1164, supra


49. People v. Santayana (GR L-22291, 15 November 1976)

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• Expressio Unius est exclusio alterius

48. People v. Estenzo (GR L-35376, 11 September 1980)

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• Ejusdem generis

• When do we apply this rule?


52. Mutuc v. Comelec (GR L-32717, 26 November 1970)
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• Casus Omissus

• Casus omissus pro omisso habendus est (restrictive rule)

52. People v. Manantan (GR L-14129, 31 July 1962)


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• Permissive rule

52. Lopez v. CTA (GR L-9274, 1 February 1957)


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• Noscitur a sociis

55. Sanciangco v. Rono (GR L-68709, 19 July 1985)


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56. Caltex Phil. vs. Palomar, 18 SCRA 247, supra
2. Construction of words and phrases
• “May” and “Shall”

55. Capati v. Ocampo (GR L-28742, 30 April 1982)

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• “Of” and “May”

55. GMCR vs. Bell Telecommunications, 271 SCRA 790 [1]


• “Principally” and “Exclusively”

55. Alfon v. Republic (GR L-51201, 29 May 1980)

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• “Previously”

55. Rura v. Lopena (GR L-69810-14, 19 June 1985)

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• “Every”

55. NHA vs. Juco, 134 SCRA 172 [2]


• Surplusages

55. Demafiles vs. Comelec, GR L-28396, 29 December 1987 [3]


• Punctuations

55. Arabay vs. CFI of Zamboanga del Norte, 66 SCRA 617 [4]
• Other examples

55. People vs. Mejia, 275 SCRA 127 [5]


2. Special over general
• What is the rule regarding conflicting provisions of the same statute?
55. Manila Railroad Co. v.Collector of Customs (GR 30264, 12 March
1929)

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56. Almeda vs. Florentino, 15 SCRA 514 [6]

• What is the rule regarding conflicting provisions of different statutes?

55. Laxamana v. Baltazar (GR L-5955, 19 September 1952)

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56. Butuan Sawmill v. City of Butuan (GR L-21516, 29 April 1966)

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56. Arayata vs. Joya, 51 PHIL 654 [7]

• What is the rule in case of conflict between a special provision of a


general law and a general provision of a special law?

55. City of Manila vs. Teotico, 2 SCRA 267 [8]


56. David vs. Comelec, 271 SCRA 90 [9]

3. External Aids

• Origin of the State


71. US vs. De Guzman [10]
• Legislative debates

71. Roman Catholic Archbishop of Manila v. SSC (GR L-


15045, 20 January 1961)
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• Contemporaneous acts of the legislature

71. David vs. Comelec, 271 SCRA 90, supra

2. Presumptions

• In favor of validity of legislative acts

74. NHA vs. Reyes, 125 SCRA 245 [11]


• In favor of beneficial operation of statutes
74. Paat vs. CA, 265 SCRA 167, supra

2. Repeals

• Rule on retroactivity of repeals

74. Tac-an vs. CA, 137 SCRA 803 [12]


• Implied Repeals

74. Villegas v. Subido (GR L-31711, 30 September 1987)


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