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Electrical and electronic principles A Darlington pair of transistors is used to

switch higher:
The type of charge possessed by an
electron is: current

molecular II. Tools and test equipment

The base–emitter voltage of an NPN An ohmmeter can be used to measure:

transistor when fully switched on is:
plug lead resistance
Technician A says to check a switch
Inductive sensors usually produce a: measure the voltage at the input supply
and the output. Technician B says to
square wave
check a twin filament bulb use an
The SI unit for power is the: ohmmeterto measure the resistance of the
filaments. Who is right?
Both A and B
An electrical device, which restricts the
flow of electrical current, is called: When looking at a waveform on an
oscilloscope screen, the vertical scale
an electrode represents:

The SI unit of electrical resistance is the: voltage

ohm When measuring voltage, the term mV

Ohm’s law states: ‘The current passing
through a wire at constant temperature is millivolts
proportional to the …’:
A good multimeter, when set to read
length of the circuit voltage, will have an internal resistance
that is:
When comparing the current passed
through a high resistance and the current high
passed through a low resistance, the
current through a high resistance will be: A four-gas analyser will measure:

lower carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide,

hydrocarbons, oxygen.
A component, which makes use of the
magnetic effect of an electric current in a Diagnostic procedures should always be:
vehicle electrical system is: logical
an alternator rotor
The output of most lambda sensors is a The gases given off by a lead-acid battery
voltage that varies between: nearing the end of its charge are:

0.2 and 0.8V 2. oxygen and hydrogen

III. Electrical systems and circuits A lead-acid battery should be topped up

The output of a closed loop system has:
distilled water
no effect on the input
The electrolyte for a fully charged lead-
A cable described as 14/0.3 will carry up acid battery has a relative density of
to: approximately:
5.75 A 1.280
A typical colour of a wire that is a main The duration of a high rate discharge test
supply, according to the European code should not exceed about:
30 seconds
When a battery is disconnected, the earth
When discussing the amount of resistance lead should always be disconnected first
offered by a conductor, Technician A says because:
the greater the length of the conductor
the smaller the resistance. Technician B it reduces the chance of a short circuit
says the greater the cross-sectional area of
the conductor the greater the resistance. Connecting and disconnecting the battery
Who is right? leads with electrical systems switched on
may cause:
A only
damage to electronic components
A relay can be thought of as a:
When using a high rate discharge test on
4. heating device a 40 amp/hour capacity battery the
current should be set to about:
A latching device may be used on an
electrical connector in order to: 120 amps

reduce resistance An ideal charge rate for a battery is:

IV. Batteries 2. 1/10th of the amp/hour capacity

A 12 volt lead-acid battery has: When discussing the reasons why a

change from 12V to 42V batteries is likely
cells connected in series, plates connected in the future, Technician A says this will
in parallel
produce an increase in power for an The charging voltage of an engine
increased range of accessories. Technician running at approximately 3000 rev/min
B says this will provide an increase in should be:
power but also an increase in
14.2 volts
maintenance. Who is right?

3. Both A and B Rotor windings are connected and

supplied by:
V. Charging systems
brushes and slip rings
The purpose of a rectifier in an alternator
is to: An alternator has been dismantled and
the rotor slip rings are blackened with
change AC to DC voltage carbon deposits. Technician A says clean
them with a soft cloth and alcohol.
‘Star’ and ‘Delta’ are types of: Technician B says the rotor must be
regulator winding replaced. Who is right?

Technician A says an alternator rotor B only

uses semi conductor components to When fitting a new rectifier pack it is
rectify the direct current to alternating usual to:
current. Technician B says a stator
winding for a light vehicle alternator will unsolder the connections
usually be connected in a ‘star’
formation. Who is right? VI. Starting systems

A only The purpose of the pull-in winding in the

operating solenoid of a pre-engaged
The three auxiliary diodes in a nine-diode starter motor is to:
alternator provide direct current for the:
hold the pinion in mesh
vehicle auxiliary circuits
Technician A says a spring is used to hold
The purpose of the regulator in the a pre-engaged starter pinion in mesh
charging system of a vehicle is to control: when cranking the engine. Technician B
says a holding coil holds the pinion in the
generator output
engaged position during starting. Who is
The function of the zener diode in the right?
electronic control unit of an alternator is A only
to act as a:
A one-way clutch in a pre-engaged starter
voltage amplifier motor:

starts the motor to turn the engine

Technician A says permanent magnet a voltmeter connected across the solenoid
starter motors are suitable for large diesel contacts
engines because of their low speed and
high torque. Technician B says Solenoid windings may be checked for
permanent magnet starter motors are resistance with a:
suitable for small petrol engines because resistance tester
of their high speed and low torque. Who
is right? VII. Ignition systems

1. A only The ignition component that steps up

voltage is the:
2. B only
3. Both A and B
Setting spark plug gaps too wide will
4. Neither A nor B cause running problems because the
The effect of a planetary gear set fitted firing voltage will:
between the motor and drive pinion increase and the spark duration will
modifies the speed and torque characteristics decrease

A voltmeter is connected between the A spark is created as the coil primary

main starter terminal and earth. On winding is:
cranking the engine the reading should 1. switched on
2. switched off
no more than 0.5V below battery voltage
3. charged
A voltmeter connected between the
starter motor body and the battery earth 4. stabilized
terminal should have a reading during
Cruising conditions require the ignition
engine cranking of:
timing to be:
not more than 12.6 volts
When fitting a phosphor bronze bush to a
An inductive pulse generator in an
starter motor it is necessary to:
ignition distributor will NOT produce an
lubricate the bearing with grease before output voltage when the engine is:
1. running
The condition of starter solenoid contacts
2. cranking
can be determined by operating the
starter switch with: 3. stopped
4. over revving 4. the engine management system
switches in pre-set values to keep the
With the ignition switched on, a Hall vehicle driveable A ‘hot running’ engine
effect pulse generator in an ignition must be fitted with a:
distributor will produce an output voltage
when the: 1. hot spark plug

1. engine is running 2. cold spark plug

2. engine is cranking 3. taper seat spark plug

3. Hall chip is shielded 4. washer seat spark plug

4. Hall chip is not shielded Changes in pressure to a MAP sensor are

converted in many cases to a:
Technician A says a pulse shaper is used
to shape the AC output from a pulse 1. variable voltage output
generator to a square wave pattern.
2. variable current output
Technician B says a Schmitt trigger is
used to shape the AC output from a pulse 3. steady state reading
generator to a square wave pattern. Who
is right? 4. steady waveform reading

1. A only VIII. Electronic fuel control

2. B only The ratio, by mass, of air to fuel that

ensures complete and clean combustion
3. Both A and B is:
4. Neither A nor B 14.7 : 1
A vehicle fitted with a system known as Exhaust gas products that are NOT
‘Limp Home’means that if a fault harmful to the environment are:
1. carbon dioxide and water
1. and you are in an ambulance, it is what
you have to do if it breaks down … On an engine fitted with Electronic Fuel
Injection, engine load may be determined
2. the engine management system switches by a:
to just enough engine cylinders to keep you
going throttle position sensor

3. the driver will not even notice and the The type of petrol injection system which
vehicle will keep going as normal makes use of a single injector that sprays
fuel towards a throttle is termed a:
multi-point system The main ECU ‘input’ parameters for
calculating ignition timing and injector
An injector pulse width, in milliseconds, duration are:
is commonly:
speed and temperature
A throttle potentiometer provides
Technician A says the speed of flame information relating to:
spread in a diesel engine is affected by the
air charge temperature. Technician B throttle position and driver intention
says the speed of flame spread in a diesel
engine is affected by atomization of the One design feature of an inlet manifold
fuel. Who is right? that ensures all cylinders are supplied
with the same volume and air flow
A only characteristics is the:

A valve fitted to the fuel rail in a length and diameter

petrol/gasoline injection system is used to:
Atomization and distribution of fuel is
replace fuel after changing the filter generally improved if the air:

Increased nitrogen oxides are formed pressure is reduced

when combustion:
A catalytic converter is fitted close to the
temperatures are low exhaust manifold because:

The function of a lambda sensor fitted in exhaust heat aids chemical reactions
an exhaust system is to monitor:
Measurement of exhaust emissions, just
oxygen after starting the engine from cold, gives a
higher than specification reading. The
Technician A says reduction in CO, NOx reason for this is:
and HC has been achieved by reducing
lead in fuel. Technician B says reduction combustion temperature is always higher
in CO, NOx and HC has been achieved by after start-up
using engine management systems.Who is
right? A function that switches off the injectors
during certain conditions is known as:
Neither A nor B
over-run fuel cut-off
IX. Engine management
An EGR system usually operates during:
Gasoline direct injection systems allow
high vacuum conditions
mixture in the cylinder to be:

A correctly functioning lambda sensor One safety hazard associated with gas
will give readings between: discharge lamps is related to the:

0.2–0.8 volts use of high voltages

X. Lighting fundamentals The headlights of a vehicle fail to

illuminate when switched on. An initial
In a conventional incandescent bulb the visual check shows the wiring to be OK
filament is made from: and the relay ‘clicks’. Technician A says
tungsten the fault is poor relay earth connection.
Technician B says check the relay output.
In a headlamp the bulb’s filament Who is right?
position relative to the reflector ensures:
B only
the correct beam direction
Correct headlamp beam alignment is
An asymmetric headlight gives a: necessary because:
diverging beam pattern 1. it is a legal requirement

Technician A says dim-dip lighting is 2. it ensures efficient operation

achieved with a simple series resistor.
Technician B says dim-dip Lighting is 3. road safety is improved
achieved by switching on and off 4. all of the above
fast.Who is right?
Checking the stoplight switch can be done
Neither A nor B
by removing the wires and:
The main advantage of using light bridging them with a jumper wire
emitting diodes (LEDs) in vehicle lighting
is: XI. Auxiliaries

1. the variety of colours available When checking the operation of a relay,

an audible click is heard when the switch
2. that they produce whiter light is operated. If there is no supply out from
3. their long life the relay this indicates:

4. all of the above 1. that the relay is faulty

The wattage of a stoplight bulb is 2. an open circuit supply

normally: 3. a faulty switch
6W 4. all of these
The operating frequency of an electronic 4. none of the above
flasher unit is:
Off-screen parking of wiper blades
1. 0.5Hz reduces:

2. 1.5Hz 1. current draw

3. 2.5Hz 2. voltage drop

4. 3.5Hz 3. aerodynamic drag

The wattage of an indicator bulb is 4. aerodynamic drop

The delay time in a wiper control unit is
2. 6W set by a resistor and:

A wiper motor may use three brushes in 1. an inductor

order to:
2. a transistor
1. increase torque
3. a diode
2. allow two speed operation
4. a capacitor
3. allow three speed operation
A front screen wiper system can have:
4. provide intermittent operation
1. only one motor
A thermal trip may be incorporated in a
2. two motors
wiper motor in order to:

1. park the blades 3. no motors

2. protect the motor 4. all of the above

3. provide intermittent operation A vehicle horn produces sound because a

tone disc is made to vibrate by:
4. slow the blades in heavy rain
1. electrostatics
When the two main brushes of a wiper
2. electroplating
motor are connected together via the limit
switch, delay unit contacts and the wiper 3. electrocuting
switch, this causes:
4. electromagnetism
1. fast speed operation
XII. Instrumentation
2. slow speed operation
When checking an NTC type temperature
3. regenerative braking sensor, Technician A says remember
resistance increases as temperature 2. door position by signals from switches
increases. Technician B says remember
3. brake pad wear by contact wires in the
resistance decreases as temperature
friction material
increases. Who is right?

1. A only 4. all of the above

2. B only One reason for using a dual resistance

system is:
3. Both A and B
1. if one resistor breaks down the other will
4. Neither A nor B still operate

One characteristic of a thermal type fuel 2. so that the circuit itself is checked
gauge is its:
3. it reduces the operating temperature of the
slow moving needle resistors

The component which prevents changes 4. so the current flow in the circuit is
in the system voltage affecting a gauge increased
reading is called a:
The basic functions available on a trip
voltage stabilizer computer include:

An air-cored gauge uses the same 1. average fuel consumption, trip distance,
principle as: elapsed time

1. a compass needle lining up with a 2. trip distance, elapsed time, fuel remaining
magnetic field
3. elapsed time, fuel remaining, estimated
2. wind pushing a windmill blade time of arrival

3. a bi-metal strip moving the needle when 4. fuel remaining, estimated time of arrival,
heated date and time

4. none of these Technician A says advantages of LEDs

are that they last a very long time and
The instrument which uses pulses from only draw a small current. Technician B
the ignition primary circuit is a: says a disadvantage of LEDs is that they
tachometer only produce red, yellow or green light.
Who is right?
A vehicle condition monitoring system
can monitor: 1. A only

1. bulb operation by monitoring current 2. B only

drawn by the lights
3. Both A and B

4. Neither A nor B

Backlighting of a liquid crystal display

(LCD) is used in order to:

be able to read the display