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Cell Selection & Reselection

Slide 1

NokiaEDU
Cell Selection & Reselection
3G Radio Planning Specialist [WCDMA16]

RN31555EN16GLA0 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2016

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Cell Selection & Reselection

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For internal use


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Module Objectives

At the end of the module you will be able to:


• List the motivations for cell selection & reselection
• Explain the meaning of “Equivalent PLMN“
• Name the differences between access classes & cell access restrictions
• Explain the cell Selection criterion S
• Name the differences between cell selection with & without HCS
• Explain the Ranking criterion R

For internal use


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Cell Selection & Reselection

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Cell Selection & Reselection


• Motivation; PLMN Search/Selection
• Cell Status & Access Control
• States & State Transitions in RRC Idle mode
• Cell Selection; Selection S- & Ranking R-Criterion
- Cell Selection Criterion S
- Cell Reselection without HCS
- Priority based Cell Reselection (3GPP Release 8)
• Apendix
 HCS
 Cell Reselection with HCS

For internal use


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Cell Selection & Reselection: Motivation


Four different reasons for camping on a cell in the RRC idle mode are identified in TS 25.304:
1. The UE is capable to read the System Information, which is broadcasted on the BCCH (P-CCPCH). Hereby, the UE gains
also information of the Serving PLMN.
2. If access to the current cell is not barred, then the UE can use the cell to initiate an RRC (signalling) connection.
• The Access Network is accessed by common control channels (CCCH on PRACH).
• Initial access is done to register the UE at the network.
• Other reasons for accessing the network is to request transmission resources for user data transfer.
3. If the UE is registered, and there is a MTC, the serving core network elements know the Location Area and/or Routing Area,
in which the UE is camping.
• Paging is done with the PCH (on S-CCPCH).
• The UE receives the paging message, because it is monitors all paging occasions on the paging resources of its
paging class within the cell.
4. The UE can receive cell broadcast service CBS messages.

UE camping on a cell
UE
in RRC Idle Mode can:
• read System Information
• initiate RRC connections
• getting paged  MTC
• receive Cell Broadcast Service messages Network

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Cell Selection & Reselection: Motivation


NAS control
radio
indication
measurements CM requests
to user
manual mode
PLMN
selected
PLMN selection cell selection Registration Location
& reselection & reselection Area changes Registration
PLMN
available
automatic mode Location Registration
response

RRC tasks: if the UE is in the


if the UE is in the RRC RRC connected mode
• PLMN selection & reselection states:
idle mode
• Cell selection & reselection • CELL_FACH,
• CELL_PCH &
TS 25.304: • Location Registration LR • URA_PCH
Idle mode tasks
subdivided into 3 processes:

For internal use


TS 25.304: “UE procedures in idle mode“
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Cell Selection & Reselection: Motivation


• The UE tries to find a suitable cell to camp on.
• With a suitable cell, all network services are available.
• If it is unable to find such a cell, it attempts to camp on any – non-barred – cell.
• It enters an internal "limited service" state. In this state, only emergency calls can be carried out.
The same state is given, when no USIM was inserted in the UE or the Location Registration failed.
• The UE is also responsible for cell reselection in the RRC connected mode states CELL_FACH,

• CELL_PCH & URA_PCH.


• The purpose of camping on a cell are the same as in the RRC idle mode with the exception of RRC
connection establishment (because the RRC connection already exists).
• The Cell Reselection procedure is the same in the RRC idle & RRC connected mode.

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Slide 10

PLMN search
High quality Other found
PLMNs PLMNs

PLMN Id
PLMN Id
+ RSCP/RSSI
UE NAS

UE AS
UTRA: GSM:
If RSCP > -95 dBm If RSSI > -85 dBm

Search PLMNs
TS 25.304 & TS 43.022

RSCP: Received Signal Code Power


RSSI: Received Signal Strength Indicator
For internal use
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PLMN search:
• The UE shall scan all RF channels in the UTRA bands* to find available PLMNs.
• On each carrier, the UE shall search for the strongest cell and read its system information, in order to find out
which PLMN the cell belongs to.
• If the UE can read the PLMN identity, the found PLMN shall be reported to the NAS as a high quality PLMN (but
without the RSCP value), provided that the following high quality criterion is fulfilled:
• For an FDD cell, the measured primary CPICH RSCP value shall be greater than or equal to -95 dBm.
• Found PLMNs that do not satisfy the high quality criterion, but for which the UE has been able to read the
PLMN identities are reported to the NAS together with the CPICH RSCP value for UTRA FDD cells.
• The search for PLMNs on the rest of the carriers may be stopped on request of the NAS. The UE may
optimize this search by using stored information of carrier frequencies and optionally also information on cell
parameters, e.g. scrambling codes, from previously received measurement control information elements.
• For a GSM cell, a PLMN shall be understood to be received with high quality signal if the signal level is above -
85 dBm.
• Once the




• UE has selected a PLMN, the cell selection procedure shall be performed in order to select a suitable cell of
that PLMN to camp on.

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Slide 11

PLMN Selection
Switch on
in automatic PLMN selection operation mode

Last registered
PLMN

Home PLMN

other PLMN‘s in decreasing


User controlled PLMN signal quality order
list

Operator controlled PLMN


list
HPLMN Search Period Timer
6 .. 480 min; Default: 60 min other high quality PLMN‘s in
random order

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PLMN Selection:

For PLMN selection, 2 modes of operations were specified:


• Automatic mode
The UE detects available networks. It utilizes a list of PLMNs, which names PLMNs in a priority order. The PLMN with the highest
priority, which is available & which the UE is allowed to select is chosen for network registration.
• Manual mode
The UE scans the radio interface and indicates to the user available PLMNs. The UE attempts to register with the subscriber
selected network. If the subscriber does not select a (suitable) network, then the UE only offers limited services, i.e. emergency
calls.
Following data fields are stored on the 3G USIM or ME, playing a major role in the automatic PLMN selection process:
• IMSI: The MCC & MNC of the IMSI identify the HPLMN (stored on USIM)
• The last PLMN including RAT to which the UE was registered to (stored on ME)
• A PLMN list including RATs as preferred by the subscriber (stored on USIM)
• A PLMN list including RATs as preferred by the operator (stored on USIM)
• The list of equivalent PLMNs which were received in last registration (stored on ME)
• HPLMN search period timer (stored on USIM)
A list of PLMN identifiers associated with an access technology is listed on the USIM in a priority order.
If there is a PLMN identifier allowing more than one access technology, it is up to the UE implementation to determine the preferred
access technology.
Not only international roaming is possible, but also national roaming.
• Several national regulation authority enforced national roaming of UMTS subscribers in existing GSM networks in order to grant a
higher coverage to UMTS subscribers.
• If national roaming is allowed, the UMTS operator wants to avoid unnecessary roaming fees.
• In this case the UE must periodically search for the HPLMN. The “HPLMN Search Period” timer is used for that. “HPLMN Search
Period” timer can be set in a way, that no periodic search attempts are conducted.

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Slide 12

Cell Selection & Reselection


• Motivation; PLMN Search/Selection
• Cell Status & Access Control
• States & State Transitions in RRC Idle mode
• Cell Selection; Selection S- & Ranking R-Criterion
- Cell Selection Criterion S
- Cell Reselection without HCS
- Priority based Cell Reselection (3GPP Release 8)
• Apendix
 HCS
 Cell Reselection with HCS

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Cell status & special reservations

BCCH SIB3/4: Cell Access Restriction

Cell status &


special reservations: Access Control

Cell Access Class barred:


- acceptable (limited services*) (UE access classes 0..9 and 11..15)
- suitable (full service set)
- barred
- reserved#

* e.g. Emergency Call (Access Class = 10) in Network w/o Roaming Agreement # e.g. for operator use

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Cell Reservations and Cell Restrictions:


• If the operator wants to restrict access to a cell or to set cell reservations. 2 methods are identified:
1) Cell status and special reservations:
• This method is applied to control the cell selection and reselection process. It informs the UE, if a cell is suitable
for cell selection and re-selection.
2) Access control:
• In this method, a cell can be selected in the cell selection & re-selection process. But a UE is not allowed to send
an initial access message to the access network.
• This method is normally applied for load control reasons.
• The subscriber‘s access class(es) are determined on cell basis from the IMSI and parameters, broadcasted on the
BCCH. The subscriber‘s access class(es) is (are) stored on the USIM.
• Cell status and special reservations
• Acceptable cell: cell, which offers limited services (i.e. the origination of an emergency call) to the subscriber.
• Suitable cell: cell, where the full service set can be offered to the subscriber. This cell must fulfil a set of requirements, such
as being part of the selected PLMN. It must also fulfil the cell selection criterion S, which is covered later on in this chapter.
• Barred cell: cell, where the UE is not allowed to camp on.
• Reserved cell: cell, where "ordinary“ UEs are not allowed to camp on.
• The IE Cell Access Restriction is used to indicated cell status and cell reservations

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Slide 14

Cell status & special reservations


suitable for selection & reselection
Cell “barred”
UE reads from
IE Cell Access Restriction

Case Cell Barred Cell reserved Cell reserved


for operator for future extension

1 not barred not reserved not reserved

2 not barred not reserved reserved

3 not barred reserved ---

Cell Barred
WCEL; 0 (Barred),
4 barred
suitable for AC 11 or 15 in HPLMN
otherwise “barred”
Tbarred
if cell after Tbarred still
---

Cell Reserved
---

Not suitable – not even for emergency call


IntraFreq_Cell_Reselect_Ind
Intra-freq. Cell reselection allowed
when cell barred?
x
1 (Not Barred) best, check again wether for operator use WCEL; 0 (allowed), 1 (Not
barred WCEL; 0 (reserved), allowed)
WCEL; 10, 20, 40, 80, 160, 1 (Not reserved)
For internal use 320, 640, 1280 s
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• Cell status and special reservations


• The UE must read following 3 information elements in the IE Cell Access Restriction in
order to learn cell‘s status & cell‘s reservations:
• cell barred
• cell reserved for operator use, and
• cell reserved for future extensions.
• 4 cases can be distinguished:
• Case 1: The cell is suitable for selection & re-selection both in the RRC idle mode & RRC
connected mode.
• Case 2: The UE behaves as if cell status "barred" is indicated.
• Case 3: If a UE is in the HPLMN & assigned to access class 11 or 15, then it is allowed to
select & re-select this sell. If it belongs to another access class, it behaves as if the cell
status is “barred“.
• Case 4: The UE is not allowed to select & re-select this cell. Not even emergency calls are
allowed. In the IE Cell Access Restriction an IE "Intra-frequency cell re-selection
indicator" can be used to inform the UE, whether is has to re-select a cell on the same or
on a different frequency band, if the cell selection and re-selection criteria are fulfilled.

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Slide 15

Access Control

Access Class
irrelevant
for access
suitable cell

suitable cell
UE RRC connected

I ignore all Access Class


Access Control normally related cell access
used for load reasons: restrictions when selecting a
Overload Control feature cell to camp on

UE RRC Idle Access Class only relevant


for access
(from RRC IDLE)

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2) Access Control
• Access Control is normally used to for load reasons. It limits the access on the common control channels.
• Access class restrictions are broadcasted via the BCCH
• In the cell selection and re-selection process, the UE ignores cell access restrictions.
• A change of the access class while the UE is camping on the cell, is not triggering a cell re-selection by the UE.
• If the UE is in the RRC idle state, it checks access class restrictions before it sends an RRC CONNECTION REQUEST message.
• If the UE is already in the RRC connected state, there are no access class restrictions valid for the UE.
• Access class restrictions do also not apply, if the UE must enter the RRC connected mode after an Inter-RAT cell re-selection
to UTRAN.

3) Emergency Call
• Access class restrictions for emergency calls can be imposed by the operator. The UEs get informed by emergency call
access class restrictions, when read on the IE “Access class barred list”:
• Access classes 0 to 9 are barred
• This is the case, when access class 10 is barred in the above mentioned IE. This includes also UEs with no USIM
(no IMSI).
• Access class 11 to 15 are barred
• UE of access class 11 to 15 is not allowed to initiated an emergency call, when in the above IE access class 10 is
barred and its own class (11 to 15). Otherwise, emergency calls are allowed for these phones .

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Slide 16

RAN2480 Automatic Access Class Restriction


• In severe overload conditions the access to the network is limited for a number Barred AC
of UE access classes
• The access class for every ordinary UE is randomly chosen digit from range
between 0 and 9 and it is stored in the (U)SIM card
• Number of access classes is automatically and dynamically set to a barring
state due to overload from the following triggers: Public Subscribers
• High received total wideband power
• Increased length of the NRT scheduling queue
• CN specific overload received by the RNC
• RNC overload trigger due to failed RNTI allocation
• The access restriction level is cell based and depends from the trigger and for
which domain (PS or CS) the access restriction level is raised
- Emergency Calls
• The number of access classes which are restricted is automatically increased or
decreased as the overload condition continues or relaxes - PLMN Use
• The feature is particularly beneficial during mass events, so when there are - Security Services
many subscribers in a small area - Public Utilities
- Emergency Services
- PLMN Staff

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RAN2480 Automatic Access Class Restriction – Example


Overload detected Overload continues so Barred Access Classes are cycled to Overload recovers so the
and one Access the number avoid specific UE from being barred number of barred Access
Class barred of barred Access for long periods of time Classes is reduced and
Classes is increased released

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Slide 18

Cell Selection & Reselection


• Motivation; PLMN Search/Selection
• Cell Status & Access Control
• States & State Transitions in RRC Idle mode
• Cell Selection; Selection S- & Ranking R-Criterion
- Cell Selection Criterion S
- Cell Reselection without HCS
- Priority based Cell Reselection (3GPP Release 8)
• Apendix
 HCS
 Cell Reselection with HCS

For internal use


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Slide 19

States and State Transition in the RRC Idle Mode

UE Cell Selection Process CN

NAS controls
NAS:
• RAT(s) information associated with the selected PLMN
• forbidden registration areas
PLMN • list of equivalent PLMNs
selection

AS:
attempts
to find AS controls
suitable correspondent
cells procedures camped all network
YES normally
services available
suitable
cell
camped limited services
found *NO
acceptable cell
on any* cell e.g. Emergency Call

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States and State Transition in the RRC Idle Mode:

• Cell Selection Process


• The NAS protocol layers in the UE are responsible for PLMN selection.
• When a PLMN has been selected, the lower layers are responsible to find a cell of this PLMN which is suitable to camp on.
• So how far is the Non-Access Stratum controlling the cell selection process?
• It provides information about the RAT(s), which are associated with the selected PLMN.
• It holds a list of PLMNs, which are equivalent to the selected PLMN. Please note, that many operators with 2
access technologies identify the CN with different network identifiers. But they can support an inter-RAT
Handover between the 2 networks (which is physically only one).
• It holds a list of forbidden Registration Areas.
• The Access Stratum (AS) manages the interaction between the UE and the RAT. Among others, it is responsible to find a
suitable cell, on which the UE can camp on.
• As soon as the AS has found a suitable cell, it commands the UE to camp on this cell.
• It informs the higher layer NAS protocols about this, so that these can start the registration procedure. If the UE
was successfully registered with the serving CN elements, the UE enters the internal state Camped normally .
• If the UE is not capable to find a suitable cell to camp on within the selected PLMN, it enters the internal state
Any cell selection.
equivalent PLMN per LAC; ePLMN per LAC feature that enables the operator to have different equivalent PLMN lists for each location
area and international mobile subscriber identity range

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Slide 20

States and State Transition in the RRC Idle Mode (adopted from TS 25.304)

For internal use


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States and State Transition in the RRC Idle Mode:

• The UE receives from the System Information (on the P-CCPCH) a wide range of PLMN and cell relevant information.
• If initial registration was done successfully, it can also receive paging information on one of the S-CCPCHs and initiate a MOC setup on
behalf of the NAS.
• The AS must inform the NAS about relevant changes in the system information after the cell selection and re-selection process. For
instance, the UE may have entered a new routing area after a cell reselection, which enforces the UE‘s NAS to start the Routing Area
Update procedure.
• Cell re-selection may be based on different measurement methods in the RRC idle & RRC connected mode.
• In the RRC idle mode, 3 different UE states can be identified:
• Camped normally state
• When a UE camps normally on a cell, all network services are available to the phone.
• The UE is responsible to perform a Cell reselection evaluation process to determine, whether there is a better
cell to camp on. If so, a cell reselection takes place.
• It can also happen, that the UE does not find a suitable cell (any more). This is the case, when the subscriber is
leaving the mobile communication supply area. If this happens, the UE enters the internal state Any cell
selection, where it attempts to find at least a cell, where limited network services (e.g. emergency calls) are
available.
• The UE also enters the Any cell selection state, when the NAS registration procedure failed. When the UE
attempts to access the cell, it leaves the Camped normally state and enters the Connected mode state.

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Slide 21

States and State Transition in the RRC Idle Mode

For internal use (adopted from TS 25.304)


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States and State Transition in the RRC Idle Mode:

• Any cell selection state


• In this state, the UE tries to find an acceptable cell.
• That means, it attempts to offer to the subscriber at least limited services – the emergency call.
• Consequently, in this state, the cell search is done without regard of the PLMN identity.
• The UE also looks for an acceptable cell in every RAT, it supports.
• The UE stays in this state till it has finally found an acceptable or suitable cell to camp on.
• The UE (AS) informs the NAS about it.
• The UE enters also this state, if a NAS registration failed.

• Camped on any cell State


• Only limited services – the mobile originated emergency call – are offered to the subscriber.
• The UE is responsible to perform a Cell reselection evaluation process to determine, whether
there is a better cell to camp on. If so, a cell reselection takes place.
• It also regularly tries to find a suitable cell.
• Hereby it evaluates all RATs it is capable to support.

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Slide 22

Cell Selection & Reselection


• Motivation; PLMN Search/Selection
• Cell Status & Access Control
• States & State Transitions in RRC Idle mode
• Cell Selection; Selection S- & Ranking R-Criterion
- Cell Selection Criterion S
- Cell Reselection without HCS
- Priority based Cell Reselection (3GPP Release 8)
• Apendix
 HCS
 Cell Reselection with HCS

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Slide 23

Cell Selection Criterion S (in the FDD mode)

Qqualmeas (dB) S-Criterion


Squal > 0 (CPICH Ec/N0) fulfilled:
Squal >0 AND
Srxlev > 0
QqualMin
-24...0; 1; -18 dB
SIB 11/12

Squal = Qrxlevmin Qrxlevmeas (dBm)


CPICH Ec/No – CPICH RSCP
QqualMin
Pcompensation
Srxlev =
suitable Srxlev > 0
Qrxlevmeas
cell? AdjsQrxlevmin
– Qrxlevmin
-115...-25; 2; -115
– Pcompensation dBm
SIB 11/12

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Cell Selection Criterion S:

• Cells, which are suitable for (initial) cell selection & reselection (so that the UE can camp on them) are
• determined by the UE based on the cell selection criterion S.
• It is fulfilled, when Srxlev > 0 AND Squal > 0 in the FDD mode, and
• Srxlev > 0 in the TDD mode.
• Squal delivers the cell Selection quality value (dB):
• The UE determines it according to this formulary: Squal = Qqualmeas – Qqualmin
• The UE measures the received signal quality Qqualmeas of the cell. It is based on CPICH Ec/N0 (dB) for FDD cells. (CPICH Ec/N0 is
averaged.)
• A cell is not suitable for cell selection & re-selection, if the measured received signal quality level is below Qqualmin.
• Srxlev (dB) stands for the cell selection receive level value:
• UE determines: Srxlev = Qrxlevmeas - Qrxlevmin – Pcompensation
• Qrxlevmeas is the cell RX level measured by the UE, based on the CPICH RSCP for FDD cells, and the averaged received signal
level for GSM cells. (All values get averaged!)
• Qrxlevmin is set by the operator as min. required RX level in the cell, which is sent to the UE via the BCCH.
• If the UE determines the cell‘s RX level value Qrxlevmeas and Qrxlevmin calculated the Srxlev accordingly, it may have good RX level which
means, that a good DL connection can be established.
• But the UE‘s own output power capability has to be taken under consideration. This is done with
• Pcompensation = max(UE_TXPWR_MAX_RACH – P_MAX, 0) (dB)
• In order to access a cell, the UE has to use the common channel PRACH.
• The operator determines the max. cell radius by limiting the maximum TX power level, a UE can use on the PRACH. This is the
UE_TXPWR_MAX_RACH (dBm).
• UE_TXPWR_MAX_RACH can range – according to the specifications - between –50 dBm and 33 dBm.
On the other hand, there is the UE‘s max. RF output power, given by P_MAX (dBm).

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Slide 24

Cell Selection Criterion S


Cell size defining parameters:
• Qrxlevmin
• Qqualmin
Srxlev = Qrxlevmeas – Qrxlevmin– Pcompensation

I am
outside 

I am inside, but 
have not enough UEtxPowerMaxPRACH
power WCEL; -50..33 dBm; 0.1; 21 dBm
SIB3/4

-50 .. 33 dBm AdjsQrxlevmin:


Pcompensation WCEL; -115...-25; 2; -115 dBm
= max(UE_TXPWR_MAX_RACH – P_MAX, 0)

For internal use


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Slide 25

(Initial) Cell Selection Process


Once a suitable cell is found this cell is selected

Squal = Qqualmeas – Qqualmin > 0


Srxlev = Qrxlevmeas – Qrxlevmin – Pcompensation > 0

or Stored Information Cell


Initial Cell Selection
Selection
(scan RF channel)
carrier, even Scr.Code may be
stored in UE

I have to find
a suitable cell

For internal use


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(Initial) Cell Selection Process:

• There exist two cell selection procedures:

• Initial Cell Selection


• The UE has to find a suitable cell of the PLMN, which was selected by the NAS.
• To do so, the UE scans all radio frequency carriers of UTRA. Hereby, the UE focuses its cell search to the strongest cell on each
carriers.
• As soon as the UE has found a suitable cell, it selects it.
• In contrast to the initial cell selection procedure “stored information cell selection“, this procedure does not require
knowledge in advance, which of the scanned radio frequency bands holds UTRA carriers.
• Stored Information Cell Selection
• To speed up the cell selection process – for instance, when the UE is switched on again – information about UTRA carriers,
even cell parameters such as cell scrambling codes can be stored in the UE.
• The UE uses this information to find a suitable cell of the PLMN, which was selected by the NAS.
• If the cell selection based on stored information in the UE fails – e.g. the selected PLMN cannot be found – the UE continues
the cell selection process based on the Initial Cell Selection procedure.
• Both for Initial Cell Selection and Stored Information Cell Selection, a cell is only suitable for the UE to camp on, if it fulfils the cell
selection criterion S:
• Srxlev > 0 AND Squal > 0 in the FDD mode, and
• Srxlev > 0 in the TDD mode.

RN31555EN16GLA0 23
Cell Selection & Reselection

Slide 26

Cell Selection When Leaving the RRC Connected Mode


• Active Set cells as candidates for cell selections; if
not suitable, then
• stored information cell selection Squal > 0
Srxlev > 0

For internal use


26 RN31555EN16GLA0 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2016

Cell Selection When Leaving the RRC Connected Mode:

• The subscriber just has terminated a call, i.e. the UE was in the RRC connected mode, dropping back
into the RRC idle mode.
• Which cell is then a candidate cell for the UE to camp on?
• Candidate cells are the ones, the UE was connected immediately before call termination.
• But these cells must be suitable cells.
• If none of these cells are suitable – or fulfils the criterion S - , the UE starts the Stored
Information Cell Selection procedure.
• There is a difference, when the UE returns to the RRC idle mode after an emergency call on any PLMN.
• Here, candidate cells to be selected to camp on are cells, to which the UE was connected to
immediately before it terminated the emergency calls.
• These cells have to be only acceptable cells.
• But if none of these cells are acceptable, the UE has to start looking for acceptable cells, while
it is in the internal state Any cell selection.

RN31555EN16GLA0 24
Cell Selection & Reselection

Slide 27

Cell Reselection in the RRC Idle and RRC Connected Mode


• As soon as a UE camps on a cell, it must periodically look for a better cell to camp on.
• But what is a “better” cell?
• On the BCCH, parameters for cell reselection are broadcast. If a cell meets the cell selection criteria of these
parameters, it is a better cell to camp on. The cell re-selection may result in the change of the UTRA carrier or even
the RAT.
• If the UE camps normally on a cell, it is responsible to
• monitor the BCCH and to obtain the system information;
• listen to its paging channel and its paging channel resource;
• perform serving cell measurements periodically;
• perform neighboring cell measurements as far as this is required by the cell re-selection evaluation procedure;
• conduct the cell re-selection evaluation procedure, when BCCH information has changed or internal threshold
measures indicate it.;
• execute a cell reselection, if a better cell has been found after the cell re-selection evaluation process;
• Move the UE to the internal state Any cell selection, if no suitable cell can be found.
• The UE performs its measurements based on the BCCH.
• The BCCH also delivers the neighborhood list to the UE. Given this information, the UE decides,
• on which RATs and frequency bands it has to perform its measurements
• which cells are candidate cells for measurements within one frequency band and RAT (HCS), and
• ranks the cells to determine the best suitable cell for cell reselection.

For internal use


27 RN31555EN16GLA0 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2016

RN31555EN16GLA0 25
Cell Selection & Reselection

Slide 28

Cell Selection & Reselection


• Motivation; PLMN Search/Selection
• Cell Status & Access Control
• States & State Transitions in RRC Idle mode
• Cell Selection; Selection S- & Ranking R-Criterion
- Cell Selection Criterion S
- Cell Reselection without HCS
- Priority based Cell Reselection (3GPP Release 8)
• Apendix
 HCS
 Cell Reselection with HCS

For internal use


28 RN31555EN16GLA0 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2016

RN31555EN16GLA0 26
Cell Selection & Reselection

Slide 29

Cell reselection without HCS


• Normal re-selection process (without HCS) follows simplified procedure
- Measurement criteria w/o HCS
- S-criteria Neighbor list
from BCCH
- R-criteria
Measurement criteria
Measured
neighbors
S – criteria
Suitable
neighbors
R – criteria
UseOfHCS
WCEL;
0: HCS not used; Best ranked cell
1: HCS in use
SIB 11/12
Cell Re-selection
if not serving cell

For internal use


29 RN31555EN16GLA0 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2016

RN31555EN16GLA0 27
Cell Selection & Reselection

Slide 30

Cell Reselection (w/o HCS): Measurement Rules


• As part of the network planning process, the operator has to determine the threshold values, which trigger the cell re-selection process
by the UE.
• The operator has also to decide, whether to use the HCS. The BCCH is used to inform the UE about the use of HCS.
• If HCS is not used, the UE‘s measurements are based on following rules, which can be found in the specification TS 25.304 (replace
Sx by Squal for FDD cells and by Srxlev for TDD):
• Intra-Frequency measurement threshold Sintrasearch
• If this parameter is not sent in the serving cell, the UE must always perform intra-frequency measurements. If it is transmitted
and Sx > Sintrasearch, the UE does not perform intra-frequency measurements. If Sx <= Sintrasearch, it performs intra-frequency
measurements.
• Inter-Frequency measurement threshold Sintersearch
• If this parameter is not sent in the serving cell, the UE must always perform inter-frequency measurements. If it is transmitted
and Sx <= Sintersearch, it must perform inter-frequency measurements, but if Sx > Sintersearch, there is no need to perform this type
of measurement.
• Inter-RAT measurement threshold SsearchRAT m
• If this parameter is not sent in the serving cell, the UE must always perform inter-system measurements. If it is transmitted and
Sx > SsearchRAT m, it won‘t conduct measurements on cells of radio access technology “m”. But if Sx <= SsearchRAT m, it has to do
these measurements.
• Sintrasearch, Sintersearch, and SsearchRAT m can get integer values ranging from –32 to 20 (step size 2) in the FDD mode. Negative values
are set to 0 by the UE.

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RN31555EN16GLA0 28
Cell Selection & Reselection

Slide 31

Cell Reselection: Measurement Rules


SsearchRAT m Sintersearch Sintrasearch Sx=Squal (in FDD mode)

Intra- Squal =
frequency, Intra-frequency, Intra- no need to CPICH Ec/No
frequency measure
Inter-freqency, Inter-frequency - qQualMin
neighbor cells
Inter-RAT

EC/N0 = -14 dB -10 dB -8 dB

Example: Nokia SintraSearch:


Qqualmin = -18 dB, WCEL; 0...20; 2; 10 dB
When to perform
Sintrasearch = 10dB, SinterSearch: measurements
Sintersearch = 8dB, WCEL; 0...20; 2; 8 dB
Ssearch_RAT = 4dB serving cell
Ssearch_RAT: QqualMin:
WCEL; 0...20; 2; 4 dB WCEL; -24...0; 1; -18 dB
For internal use
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RN31555EN16GLA0 29
Cell Selection & Reselection

Slide 32

Cell Reselection: R-Criterion


• After checking the measurement thresholds, the UE has detected suitable cells to camp on.
• Now it has to select the best of the remaining candidate cells for cell re-selection.

• For that, a cell-ranking criterion R was specified:


• Rs = Qmeas,s + Qhysts (for the serving cell)
• Rn = Qmeas,n - Qoffsets,n (for candidate neighboring cells for cell reselection)

• The serving cell and the remaining candidate cells are ranked according to criterion R.
• The cell ranked with the highest value R is the best cell for the UE to camp on.
• Qhysts gives a hysteresis value to make the serving cell more attractive and thus delay the cell re-selection.
It exists in two versions:
• If the quality measure is based on CPICH Ec/No, Qhyst2s is used in (FDD cell only); otherwise the hysteresis value
Qhyst1s is used (if the quality measure for FDD cells is based on CPICH RSCP, for TDD cells and GSM cells).
• It ranges between 0 and 40 (step size 2).
• The value Qoffset is an offset given for each individual neighboring cell, which ranges between –50 and 50
dB, with default set to 0.
• Qoffset2 when Ec/No is used
• Qoffset1 when RSCP is use

For internal use


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RN31555EN16GLA0 30
Cell Selection & Reselection

Slide 33

Cell Reselection (w/o HCS): R-Criterion


Rs = Qmeas,s + Qhysts
Rn = Qmeas,n - Qoffsets,n Rn > Rs  Cell Reselection
WCDMA & GSM cells;
Qmeas

RxLev: 1st Ranking


Qmeas,n
Adjg,s,iQoffset1 Rn
HOPx; -50.. 50; 1; 0 dB
Qmeas,s
Qhysts

Qhyst1 Treselection:
WCEL; 0.. 40; 2; 0 dB Time Neighbor cell must be
ranked better before Reselection
WCELL; 0..31; 1; 2s

Rs
Qoffsets,n
Treselection
Qmeas = Ec/No or RSCP
Ec/No  Qhyst2 FDD cells & Ec/No: AdjisQoffset2 Qhyst2
RSCP  Qhyst1 nd
2 Ranking HOPS; -50.. 50; 1; 0 dB WCEL; 0.. 40; 2; 2 dB
Rs / Rn: Serving / Neighboring cell value

For internal use


33 RN31555EN16GLA0 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2016

Cell Reselection: R-Criterion:


If a neighboring cell was ranked with the highest value R, will the UE start the cell re-selection?
• If it is a GSM or TDD cell, then the UE performs the cell re-selection process to this cell.
• If it is an FDD cell, it depends on the used quality measure.
• There are 2 options: CPICH RSCP or CPICH Ec/No.
• The UE learns from the system information, which quality measure to use.
• If the quality measure CPICH RSCP is used, the UE perform the cell re-selection.
• If the quality measure Ec/No is used, the UE has to make a second ranking; it performs cell re-selection to the FDD
cell, which is ranked best in the second ranking process.
Is the cell re-selection initiated immediately after the UE ranks a neighboring cell to be the best?
• If so, we could face a ping-pong effect – a UE often performing cell reselection between two neighboring cells.
• To avoid this, the operator uses the time interval value Treselection, (value: 0 - 31 s).
• Only when a cell was ranked Treselection seconds better then the serving cell, a cell reselection takes place.
• Additionally, a UE must camp at least 1 s on a serving cell, before the next cell re-selection may take place.
How often are the cell re-selection criteria evaluated?
• This is done at least once every DRX cycle for cells, for which new measurement results are available.

RN31555EN16GLA0 31
Cell Selection & Reselection

Slide 34

Cell Selection & Reselection


• Motivation; PLMN Search/Selection
• Cell Status & Access Control
• States & State Transitions in RRC Idle mode
• Cell Selection; Selection S- & Ranking R-Criterion
- Cell Selection Criterion S
- Cell Reselection without HCS
- Absolute Priority based Cell Reselection (3GPP Release 8)
• Apendix
 HCS
 Cell Reselection with HCS

For internal use


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RN31555EN16GLA0 32
Cell Selection & Reselection

Slide 35

Absolute Priority vs Hierarchical Structure reselection


 Absolute Priority-based Reselection (APR) mechanism is a simplified version of prioritized reselection available so far
in form of Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS).
 Both mechanisms are standardized by 3GPP (25.304) and exclude each other. When APR is configured the HCS
cannot be used & vice versa.
 HCS is more complicated mechanism with priorities defined on cell level.
 APR use layer priorities (frequency layer for WCDMA/LTE and frequency groups for GSM).
 APR can be used for unconditional reselection to other layer or RAT (e.g. to LTE) or conditional, depending on new
thresholds settings (mechanism useful in inter-frequency scenarios).

 APR used  APR & HCS used  HCS used


Absolute WCDMA, f2, prio=5
Priorities WCDMA f1, prio=4
GSM, group1, prio=3

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RN31555EN16GLA0 33
Cell Selection & Reselection

Slide 36

Absolute Priority vs legacy cell ranking based reselection


– initiation of neighbor cells measurements
Absolute priority-
Legacy ranked-based
reselection
based reselection
Current cell Current cell
Squal [dB] Squal [dB]
No reselections Higher priority layer reselections
(signal of the current cell is good enough) (Inter-freq or inter-RAT)
Sintrasearch Sintrasearch
Intra-freq reselections Legacy intra-freq reselections
(measurement stared below Sintrasearch) (rank-based)
Sintersearch Spriority
Inter-freq reselections search2
(measurements stared below Sintersearch)
Equal/lower priority layer
SsearchRAT
Inter-RAT reselections reselections
(inter-freq or inter-RAT)
(measurements started below SsearchRAT)

For internal use


36 RN31555EN16GLA0 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2016

APR: Higher prioritized cells/layers are measured always and can be reselected also in areas
with good coverage of current layer (e.g. macro).

RN31555EN16GLA0 34
Cell Selection & Reselection

Slide 37

Layer Priorities 1/2


 When with Nokia RAN2881 (WCDMA and GSM Layer Priorities) APR is used in the network the operator
can assign each IF WCDMA layer (carrier) or group of GSM frequencies with a number indicating how much
it is preferred compared to other layers. The layer preferences applies to idle mode and PCH/URA-PCH.

 Eight priority levels are available, 0 being the lowest & 7 the highest.

 Same RAT layers may share the same priority but it is not allowed for layers in different RATs.

Shared priorities in
 Different
in layers
priorities
 layers of same RAT  Shared priorities in layers of
different RATs

WCDMA, f1, prio=4 (macro) WCDMA, f1, prio=5 (macro) WCDMA, f1, prio=3 (macro)

WCDMA, f2, prio=5 (macro) WCDMA, f2, prio=5 (macro) WCDMA, f2, prio=5 (macro)

WCDMA, f3, prio=6 (micro) WCDMA, f3, prio=6 (micro) WCDMA, f3, prio=6 (micro)

GSM, group1, prio=3 GSM, group1, prio=3 GSM, group1, prio=3

For internal use


37 RN31555EN16GLA0 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2016

Nokia RAN2881: WCDMA and GSM Layer Priorities:


• The feature implements 3GPP mechanism for inter-freq or inter-RAT cell reselection using
layers priorities, alternative to HCS.
• The implemented mechanism supports idle mode and connected mode (PCH,URA)
priority-based reselection WCDMA to WCDMA and WCDMA to GSM.
• The operator is able to set priorities for IF layers or GSM frequencies (or groups).
• Prioritization of WCDMA and GSM layers (LTE via RAN2067/RAN3069) is done via eight
distinct priority levels (0÷7).
• Priorities are broadcasted in SIB19 messages (first time introduced in RU20 by RAN2067).
• The feature requires 3GPP Rel-8 compliant UEs & implements Rel-8 reselection criterions.

RN31555EN16GLA0 35
Cell Selection & Reselection

Slide 38

Layer Priorities 2/2


 The ARP mechanism is intended only for reselection of inter-freq WCDMA or inter-RAT cells.
Reselection of intra-freq cells use legacy cell ranking-based mechanism.

 In APR reselection the UE searches the IF/inter-RAT layers in their priority order, looking for a suitable cell. Higher priority layers
are considered first. If no cell is found then IF WCDMA equal priority layers are checked. If still no result, the lower priority layers
are tried (WCDMA or inter-RAT).

 APR may be applied to 1) IF WCDMA & GSM or 2) only IF WCDMA or 3) only GSM layers. In 2) the cell ranking reselection is
used for GSM, in 3) for WCDMA.

Cell ranking
based
reselection WCDMA, f1, prio=5 (macro) WCDMA, f1, prio=5 (macro)

WCDMA, f2, prio=5 (macro) WCDMA, f2, prio=5 (macro) WCDMA, f2, prio=5 (macro)

WCDMA, f3, prio=6 (micro)


Priority
based
reselectio GSM, group1, prio=3 GSM, group1, prio=3 GSM, group1, prio=3
n

For internal use


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RN31555EN16GLA0 36
Cell Selection & Reselection

Slide 39

Absolute Priority general mechanism – reselecting higher


priority layer cell
 When APR is in use & UE camped on WCDMA cell, the higher priority layers are considered first for inter-freq or inter-RAT
neighbors search.

 UE always periodically measures neighbor cells on higher prioritized layers, irrespectively of current cell received power/RSCP
or quality/EcNo (only the rate of measurements is influenced).

 The neighbor cell on higher priority layer is reselected if its signal (Srxlev) by at least T reselection (WCEL:Treselection or
WCEL:TreselectionPCH) time is good enough, that is above threshold Thresh x,high (HOPI:AdjiThreshigh or
HOPG:AdjgThreshigh).*

 The neighbor with highest signal level (Srxlev) is selected in case more then one are available on prioritized layer (3GPP
Release 8).

Treselection
Srxlev
[dB] Current cell

AdjxThreshigh
Reselect high High priority
priority cell layer cell

For internal use time


39 RN31555EN16GLA0 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2016

* HOPL:AdjlThreshold & reselection of LTE layer is covered by RAN2067 LTE Interworking


feature

RN31555EN16GLA0 37
Cell Selection & Reselection

Slide 40

Absolute Priority general mechanism – reselecting higher


priority layer cell
 Higher priority IF WCDMA or inter-RAT cell is reselected when:

Nokia: RAN2881
a) Srxlevnon-servingCell > HOPx: AdjxThreshigh

or*
Nokia: RAN3069
b) Squalnon-servingCell > HOPL: AdjLThreshigh2

by at least WCEL: Treselection or WCEL: TreselectionPCH (idle or PCH/URA)

* Note: the criteria (b) is:


• applicable only to LTE neighbors (3GPP SIB19 does not include the quality threshold for IF WCDMA layers)
• available with RAN3069 enabled (RU50 extensions to RAN2067) & applied when both AdjLThreshigh2 & AdjLThreshlow2 are
broadcasted
For internal use
40 RN31555EN16GLA0 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2016

RAN3069: RSRQ-based LTE Reselection:


• This feature supports UE priority based cell reselection from WCDMA to LTE
• The operator is able to set priorities for different Radio Access Technologies (RATs)
• Priorities are communicated to UE via SIB19 broadcast message
• System Information Block number 19 (enabling LTE cell reselection) is introduced by 3GPP Release 8
• 3GPP Release 9 introduces quality based reselection
• Additional, signal quality related thresholds are supported by RAN3069 RSRQ-based LTE Reselection
• SIB19 message contains quality threshold (LTE RSRQ minimum required level)
• UE performs reselection based on RSRQ criterion
• UE does not try to camp on LTE cell if quality thresholds are not met (even if signal level threshold is good enough - RSRP)
• No service interruption is possible
UE reselect to LTE cell only if signal quality threshold is exceeded.
RAN2067: LTE Interworking enables cell reselection from 3G to LTE:
In the LTE rollout phase the coverage is typically limited, and UEs easily run out of the LTE coverage, especially in an idle mode.
• This feature enables the LTE cell reselection when the UE is in an idle mode, Cell_PCH state, or URA_PCH state in the WCDMA layer. The
operator sets priorities for each LTE frequency for the LTE-capable UEs. When the coverage is available, the UE selects to camp on the
LTE in accordance with operator's preferences.
• In an idle mode, URA_PCH state, and Cell_PCH states, the UE camped in WCDMA measures periodically all higher priority RATs. Also
lower priority RATs are measured when the WCDMA quality decreases below the threshold.
• With this feature the operator can define the absolute priority for each LTE frequency. LTE layer priorities can be the same or different
between different LTE layers, and the UE compares these priorities to WCDMA own-cell absolute priority (serving cell absolute priority)
that is provided. If the LTE absolute priority is higher than the WCDMA own-cell absolute priority, UE prefers the LTE layer over the
serving WCDMA layer.
• The operator also defines thresholds below which measurements on the lower-priority RATs are started and the reselection is executed.

RN31555EN16GLA0 38
Cell Selection & Reselection

Slide 41

Absolute Priority general mechanism – reselecting lower


or equal priority layer cell
 Lower priority layers are measured when current cell signal is below/equal to WCEL:Sprioritysearch1 or quality is below/equal
to WCEL:Sprioritysearch2.

 First the IF WCDMA neighbors are searched on equal priority layers. If not found, then neighbors on lower priority layers are
evaluated (IF or inter-RAT). The search is triggered only when current cell signal dropped below min required level
(WCEL:Threshservlow) or UE lost the network.
The neighbor can be reselected when its signal by at least Treselection (WCEL:Treselection or WCEL:TreselectionPCH) time is
good enough. That is its Srxlev is above Threshx,low threshold (HOPI:AdjiThreshlow or HOPG:AdjgThreshlow.

 When more neighbors on certain priority layer fulfils APR reselection condition then one with highest signal (Srxlev) is selected.

Reselect low/equal
Srxlev priority cell
[dB] Treselection Low priority
layer cell

Threshservlow
AdjxThreshservlow Current cell

time
For internal use
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RN31555EN16GLA0 39
Cell Selection & Reselection

Slide 42

Absolute Priority general mechanism – reselecting equal


priority layer cell
 Equal priority IF WCDMA cell is reselected when:

a) SrxlevServingCell < WCEL: Threshservlow

and
Srxlevnon-serving,x > HOPI: Threshlow

by at least WCEL: Treselection or WCEL: TreselectionPCH (idle or PCH/URA)

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RN31555EN16GLA0 40
Cell Selection & Reselection

Slide 43

Absolute Priority general mechanism – reselecting lower


priority layer cell
 Lower priority IF WCDMA or inter-RAT cell is reselected when:
Nokia: RAN2881
a) SrxlevServingCell < WCEL:Threshservlow
and
Srxlevnon-serving,x > HOPx:Threshlow
or*
b) SqualServingCell < WCEL:Threshservlow2
and
Squalnon-serving,x > HOPL:Threshlow2
Nokia: RAN3069
by at least WCEL: Treselection or WCEL: TreselectionPCH (idle or PCH/URA)

* Note: the criteria (b) is:


• applicable only to LTE neighbors (3GPP SIB19 does not include the quality threshold for IF WCDMA layers)
• available with RAN3069 enabled (RU50 extensions to RAN2067) and applied when both AdjLThreshigh2 & AdjLThreshlow2 are
broadcasted
For internal use
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RN31555EN16GLA0 41
Cell Selection & Reselection

Slide 44

Srxlev metric in WCDMA cell selection & APR reselection


procedures
 In 3GPP terminology Srxlev is a metric based on received P-CPICH power and determines how much the
received RSCP is better then minimum level (WCEL:Qrxlevmin broadcasted in SIB3) required for cell
selection (how far the UE is from entering „out of coverage” state):
Cell selection
Srxlev = RSCPP-CPICH _ServingCell – WCEL:QrxlevMin – max(WCEL:UEtxPowerMaxPRACH – UE_PWR_MAX,0)

 The APR reselection mechanism use SrxlevservingCell & Srxlevnon-serving metrics comparing signal level with
minimum required on given layer. That is indicating how far the UE camped on current cell is, or on target
layer would be, from entering „out of coverage” state:
Absolute Priority Reselection
SrxlevservingCell = RSCPP-CPICH _ServingCell – WCEL:QrxlevMin

Srxlevnon-serving,FDD = RSCPP-CPICH_non-ServingCell ,FDD – HOPI:AdjiQrxlevminFDD

Srxlevnon-serving,LTE = RSRPnon-ServingCell ,LTE – HOPL:AdjLQrxlevminEUTRA

Srxlevnon-serving,GSM = RXLEVnon-ServingCell _GSM – HOPG:AdjgQrxlevmin

• The min required signal levels for neighboring frequency layers/groups are broadcasted in SIB19.
For internal use
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RN31555EN16GLA0 42
Cell Selection & Reselection

Slide 45

Squal metric in WCDMA cell selection & APR reselection


procedures
 Squal is a relative metric and determines how much the received CPICH Ec/No is better then the minimum
level (WCEL:QqualMin broadcasted in SIB3) required for cell selection. In other words, how far the UE is from
entering „out of coverage” state due to signal quality reason:
Cell selection
Squal = Ec/NoP-CPICH _ServingCell – WCEL: QqualMin

 The APR reselection mechanism use SqualServingCell and Squalnon-serving metrics comparing current and
neighbor quality with minimum level required on the layer. That is indicating how far UE on current layer is, or
would be on the target layer, from entering „out of coverage” state:
Absolute Priority Reselection
SqualServingCell = Ec/NoP-CPICH_ServingCell – WCEL: QqualMin
Squalnon-serving,FDD = Ec/NoP-CPICH_nonServingCell,FDD – HOPI: AdjiQqualminFDD
Squalnon-serving,LTE = RSQRnonServingCell,LTE – HOPL: AdjLQqualminEUTRA

 The minimum quality levels required for neighboring frequency layers are broadcasted in SIB19.
For internal use
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RN31555EN16GLA0 43
Cell Selection & Reselection

Slide 46

SIB19 Content – in Nokia Solution


 Priority based reselection is signaled in SIB19, if enabled by license(s) & cell level parameter(s).
 In RU20 the LTE priority list and UTRAN serving cell info is broadcast (RAN2067).
 In RU50 also IF & GSM priorities and parameters can be included

utra-PriorityInfoList
gsm-PriorityInfoList
eutra-FrequencyAndPriorityInfoList

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RN31555EN16GLA0 44
Cell Selection & Reselection

Slide 47

Cell Selection & Reselection


• Motivation; PLMN Search/Selection
• Cell Status & Access Control
• States & State Transitions in RRC Idle mode
• Cell Selection; Selection S- & Ranking R-Criterion
- Cell Selection Criterion S
- Cell Reselection without HCS
- Priority based Cell Reselection (3GPP Release 8)
• Apendix
 HCS
 Cell Reselection with HCS

For internal use


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RN31555EN16GLA0 45
Cell Selection & Reselection

Slide 48

Cell Reselection in the RRC Idle and RRC Connected


Mode
HCS in use: HCS not in use:
measurement measurement
thresholds thresholds

S-Criterion S-Criterion
fulfilled fulfilled

H-Criterion
for fast for slow
moving UEs moving UEs

cells with cells with if no Cell


lower HCS highest HCS with H>0
priority than Priorities & accept all
in serving cell neighbors
H>0

R-Criterion R-Criterion R-Criterion


cell ranking cell ranking cell ranking

For internal use


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RN31555EN16GLA0 46
Cell Selection & Reselection

Slide 49

Hierarchical Cell Structures HCS


Priority

3
3 2
3
1
2 3
3 3
2

Typical:
• smallest cell  highest HCS priority
• different layer  different frequency

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49 RN31555EN16GLA0 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2016

Hierarchical Cell Structures HCS:


• The radio access network may be designed using hierarchical cell structures.
• Numbers in the picture describe different layers in the hierarchy.
• The highest hierarchical layer, i.e. typically smallest cell size, has the higher
priority (number 3 in the figure).
• The HCS priority of each cell is given in system information

• Normally, different layers are created using different frequencies.


• However, in some scenarios, different layers can use the same frequency.
• Different frequencies can also be used on the same hierarchical layer e.g. in order
to cope with high load in the system.
• In order to cope with UEs travelling fast through smaller cells (e.g. through
micro or pico cells), the cell reselection procedure can be performed towards
bigger cells on lower priority layers e.g. to macro cells so as to avoid
unnecessary cell reselections.

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Slide 50

Cell Selection & Reselection

• Motivation; PLMN Search/Selection


• Cell Status & Access Control
• States & State Transitions in RRC Idle mode
• Cell Selection; Selection S- & Ranking R-Criterion
- Cell Selection Criterion S
- Cell Reselection without HCS
- Priority based Cell Reselection (3GPP Release 8)
• Apendix
 HCS
 Cell Reselection with HCS

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Cell reselection with HCS


• Normal re-selection process (without HCS) follows procedure UseOfHCS
WCEL;
- Measurement criteria without HCS 0: HCS not used;
1: HCS in use
- S-criteria SIB 11/12

- H-criteria
- R-criteria
• HCS specific H-criteria defines whether priorities are applied in re-selection

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Slide 52

Cell reselection with HCS UseOfHCS


Neighbor list WCEL;
0: HCS not used;
from BCCH 1: HCS in use
SIB 11/12
Measurement criteria
with HCS Measured
neighbors
S – criteria
Suitable HCS_PRIO*
neighbors 0 (lowest)..
7(highest); step: 1
H – criteria SIB 11/12

Neighbors Prioritized
to rank neighbors
R – criteria
Best ranked cell

Re-selection if not serving cell


* Adjg,i,sHCSpriority
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Cell Reselection with HCS: Measurement Rules


• The UE gains from the BCCH system information, that HCS is used. Then the UE knows, that it has to perform following
threshold based measurements rules (replace Sx by Squal for FDD cells and by Srxlev for TDD cells):
• intra-frequency & inter-frequency threshold based measurement rule :
“IF (Srxlevs  SsearchHCS) OR (if FDD AND Sx  Sintersearch)
THEN measure on all intra-frequency & inter-frequency cells
ELSE
IF (Sx > Sintrasearch)
THEN measure on all intra-frequency & inter-frequency cells, which have higher
HCS priority level than the serving cell unless measurement rules for fast-
moving UEs are triggered
ELSE measure on all intra-frequency and inter-frequency cells, which have equal
or higher HCS priority level than the serving cell unless measurement rules
for fast-moving UEs are triggered
ENDIF
ENDIF“ (cited from TS25.304 V3.11.0, chap 5.2.6.1.2)
• If HCS is used and if Sintrasearch or SsearchHCS or Sintersearch (in FDD) are not sent for the serving cell, UE performs
measurements on all intra-frequency and inter-frequency cells. SsearchHCS can get integer values ranging from -1 to 91 (step
size 2) in the FDD mode. Negative values are set to 0 by the UE.

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Cell Reselection with HCS: Measurement Rules


if Srxlevs > SsearchHCS BCCH SI: HCS used
(i.e. RSCP > - 115 dBm)
Sx = Squal (in FDD mode)
SsearchRAT m Sintersearch Sintrasearch
EC/N0 = -14 dB -10 dB -8 dB

Srxlev =
search Qrxlevmeas –
Equal & search Qrxlevmin
search ALL
higher HCS higher HCS priority Qrxlevmin:
Intra- &
priority Intra- & WCEL; -119...-25;
Inter- Frequency
Intra- & Inter- Inter- Frequency 2; -115 dBm
Frequency SIB 11/12
if Srxlevs ≤ SsearchHCS OR Squal ≤ Sintersearch
Squal =
if Srxlevs ≤ SsearchHCS CPICH Ec/No
SsearchHCS Example: Nokia
- QqualMin
(i.e. RSCP < - 115 dBm): WCEL; -1..91; def.: -1 dB* Sintrasearch = 10 dB,
search ALL SIB3 Sintersearch = 8 dB, QqualMin:
Intra- & Inter-frequency cells Ssearch_RAT = 4 dB, WCEL; -24...0;
SsearchHCS = -1 dB 1; -18 dB
SIB 11/12
*negative values are set to 0 by UE
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Slide 55

Cell Reselection with HCS: Measurement Rules


• HCS is used in the serving cell, what kind of inter-RAT measurements are conducted?
• (replace Sx by Squal for FDD cells and bySrxlev for TDD cells):

• Inter-RAT threshold-based measurement rules


“IF (Srxlevs <= SHCS,RATm) or (if FDD and Squal <= SSearchRATm)
THEN UE shall measure on all inter-RAT “m“ cells
ELSE
IF (Sx > Slimit,SearchRATm)
THEN UE need not measure neighboring cells in RAT “m”
ELSE UE shall measure on all neighboring cells in RAT “m”, which have equal or
higher HCS priority level than the serving cell unless measurement rules for
fast-moving UEs are triggered
ENDIF
ENDIF“ (cited from TS25.304 V3.11.0, chap 5.2.6.1.2)

• If HCS is used and if SHCS,RATm is not sent for the serving cell, UE performs measurements on all Inter-
RATm cells.

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Cell Reselection with HCS: Measurement Rules


if Srxlevs > SHCS,RATm HCS;
Inter-RAT measurements? Sx = Squal
(i.e. RSCP > - 115 dBm) (in FDD mode)
SsearchRAT m Slimit_searchRAT m Sintersearch Sintrasearch
EC/N0 = -14 dB -16 dB

Srxlev =
search
search Qrxlevmeas –
search ALL Intra- & search all
Equal & search Qrxlevmin
Intra- & Inter-frequency Intra- & higher HCS higher HCS priority Qrxlevmin:
Inter- Frequency &
Inter- priority Intra- & Inter- WCEL; -119...-25;
+ Equal & higher
Intra- & Inter- Frequency 2; -115 dBm
Inter-RAT HCS priority Frequency SIB 11/12
Frequency
Inter- RAT
Squal =
Ssearch_RAT: Slimit_SearchRAT# CPICH Ec/No
WCEL; 0...20; 2; 4 dB WCEL; 0..20; 2; 2 dB - QqualMin
SIB3 Example: Nokia
QqualMin:
if Srxlevs ≤ SHCS_RATm Sintrasearch = 10 dB, Sintersearch = 8 dB, WCEL; -24...0;
SHCS_RAT
(i.e. RSCP > - 115 dBm): Ssearch_RAT = 4 dB, Slimit, searchRAT = 2 dB, 1; -18 dB
-1..91; 2; -1 dB*
search ALL Inter-RAT cells SIB3 SsearchHCS = -1dB, SHCS_RAT = -1dB SIB 11/12

* negative values are set to 0 by UE


For internal use # Threshold for skipping inter-RAT measurement rules in HCS

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Slide 57

Measurement Rules: HCS & fast moving UEs


NCr: WCEL; 1..16; 1; 8; SIB3
TCrmax: WCEL; not used, 30, 60, 120, 180, 240 s; 60s; SIB3
NCR/TCRmax TCrmaxhyst: WCEL; not used; 10..70; 10; SIB3

NCR = cell reselections threshold


TCRmax = duration for evaluating
the # of cell reselections
TCrmaxhyst: Cell reselection
hysteresis for reverting from UE
high-mobility measurements

time
measurement rules for fast moving UE TCrmaxHyst measurement rules for
slow moving UEs slow moving UEs
measurement rule for fast moving UEs

measures neighboring cells with equal or lower priorizes cells with lower HCS priority
HCS priority for re-selection

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Measurement Rules with HCS & fast moving Ues:


HCS is introduced, so that slow moving UEs are served in cells with high priority, which have often a small radius (micro or pico cells). On
the other hand, fast moving UEs should remain on cells with low priority, which often have a large cell radius (macro cells). By doing
so, too many re-selection shall be avoided. For fast moving UEs, following intra-frequency, inter-frequency & inter-RAT measurement
rules apply:
• NCR is a threshold value for the number of cell re-selections.
• TCRmax is a time period.
If there are more than NCR cell reselections during TCRmax, then high-mobility has been detected (UE).
• In this state, the UE measures on all neighboring cells, which have equal or lower HCS priority than serving cell. Candidate
cells for re-selections fulfil the S-criterion. If there are several candidates for cell re-selection, the UE prioritises re-selection
neighboring cells on lower HCS priority level before neighboring cells on same HCS priority level.
What happens, if the number of cell re-selections no longer exceeds NCR during the time period TCRmax?
• Then, for the time period TCrmaxHyst, the high speed cell re-selection rule is applied.
• Afterwards, the UE must apply the normal (low speed) threshold based measurement rules for HCS.
According to the specifications, following parameter values are possible:
• TCRmax: Enumerated (not used, 30, 60, 120, 180, 240), in seconds. Default value is set to ’60s’.
• NCR : is an integer value ranging from 1 to 16. Default value is 8.
• TCrmaxHyst : Enumerated (not used, 10,20, 30, 40,50, 60, 70), in seconds. Default: not used.

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Slide 58

Cell Reselection: H-Criterion (slow moving UE)


• HCS is in use. Which cells are potential candidates for cell re-selection?
• Here, we use the quality level threshold criterion H.
• It is applied for all neighboring cells, i.e. Intra-frequency cells, Inter-frequency cells & Inter-RAT cells. H values are defined for the
serving & neighboring cells:
• Hs = Qmeas,s – Qhcss (for the serving cell)
• Hn = Qmeas,n - Qhcsn – TOn * Ln (for candidate neighboring cells for cell re-selection)

• Qmeas is the quality of the Rx signal at the UE.


• For FDD cells, this value is calculated from the averaged CPICH Ec/No or CPICH RSCP.
• For TDD cells, it results from the averaged P-CCPCH RSCP.
• For GSM cells, the UE determines it from the averaged received signal level.
• There are two measurement options for FDD cells. The UE derives the measurement quality (Ec/No or RSCP) from UTRAN.
• A cell fulfils the quality level threshold criterion H, if its H-value is equal or larger then zero.
• The value Qhcs is used to determine the UE “distance“ from the Node B before the cell becomes a candidate for cell re-selection; its
value depends on the measurement method. The specification default value is 0.
TOn = TEMP_OFFSETn * W(PENALTY_TIMEn – Tn)
0 if HCS_PRIOn = HCS_PRIOs
Ln = 1 if HCS_PRIOn <> HCS_PRIOs
0 for x < 0
W(x) =
1 for x >= 0

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Slide 59

Cell Reselection: H-Criterion (slow moving UE)


• TEMP_OFFSETn introduces an additional offset to the H (and R) criterion, but only for a certain period of
time, which is specified by the parameter PENALTY_TIMEn.
• This timer is set for each neighboring cell.
• A timer is started from value zero, when one of the following conditions is fulfilled:
• if HCS_PRIOn <> HCS_PRIOs and Qmeas,n > Qhcsn

• if HCS_ PRIOn = HCS_PRIOs and


i) for serving FDD and neighbor FDD cells if the quality measure for cell selection and
reselection is set to CPICH Ec/No in the serving cell, and:
Qmeas,n > Qmeas,s + Qoffset2s,n
ii) for serving FDD and neighbor FDD cells if the quality measure for cell selection and
reselection is set to CPICH RSCP in the serving cell, and for all other serving and neighbor cells:
Qmeas,n > Qmeas,s + Qoffset1s,n (from TS25.304 V3.11.0, chap 5.2.6.1.4)

• The timer Tn is only in use, when one of the above conditions is fulfilled.
• If a cell-reselection takes place, and the cell, for which this timer was triggered is still a neighboring cell, and
the above conditions are fulfilled with the threshold values of the new cell, then the timer continues to run.
Otherwise, it‘s use is stopped. If no condition is fulfilled, the value TOn is set to zero.

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Slide 60

Cell Reselection: H-Criterion (slow moving UE) HCS_PRIO*


0 (lowest)..
• According to the specifications, following parameter values are possible: 7(highest); step: 1
• HCS_PRIO gives a cells priority. SIB 11/12
• TEMP_OFFSET value depends on the measurement method.
• If in the FDD mode, CPICH Ec/No is used, then its value are 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, or infinitive;
Otherwise, its values are 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, or infinitive.
• PENALTY_TIMEn is an integer value of either 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, or 60 seconds.
• The default value is 0.

• The H-selection criterion:


• The UE has determined all neighboring cells, which fulfil the S-criterion.
• Then, it determines all cells of the highest HCS_PRIO, which fulfil the quality level threshold criterion
H  0.
• Only these cells are ranked by the UE.
• If no cell fulfils the quality level threshold criterion H >=0, then all cells will be ranked by the UE,
independent of their HCS priority level. This rule also applies, when no HCS is in use.

* Adjg,i,sHCSpriority

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Slide 61

Cell Reselection: H-Criterion (slow moving UE) Qhcs:


Quality
threshold level
Hs = Qmeas,s – Qhcss for HCS
HCS is in use: measurement WCEL; -24..0;
Candidates thresholds Hn = Qmeas,n - Qhcsn – TOn * Ln 0.5; -24 dB
for cell re-selection? TOn: temporary Offset during Penalty Time
H-Criterion !  next slide
S-Criterion
fullfilled Ln = 0, if HCS_Prion = HCS_Prios
= 1, if HCS_Prion ≠ HCS_Prios

H-Criterion
for fast for slow no cells with
moving UEs cells with moving UEs H>0
H>0
cells with
lower HCS only cells accept all
priority than with Neighbors
in serving cell highest HCS (same as HCS
priorities &
H>0 not in use)
R-Criterion
cell ranking R-Criterion R-Criterion
cell ranking cell ranking

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Slide 62

Cell Reselection: H-Criterion (slow moving UE) & TOn


Adjg,i,sTempOffset;
HOPx; 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18,
Adjs,i,gPenalty_Time: Hs = Qmeas,s – Qhcss 21, Infinity; 3 dB;
HOPx; 0..60; 10; 0 s temp. offset during
Hn = Qmeas,n - Qhcsn – TOn * Ln Penalty Time used when
Ln = 0, if HCS_Prion = HCS_Prios
= 1, if HCS_Prion ≠ HCS_Prios neighbor has different
TOn = TEMP_OFFSETn * W(PENALTY_TIMEn – Tn) priority than serving cell

PENALTY_TIMEn PENALTY_TIMEn
Qmeas,n - Qhcsn

0 time
TOn TOn
H-Criterion:
H>0

Example:
HCS_PRIOn ≠ HCS_PRIOs
TOn = 0 TOn = 0  Ln = 1

Start Stop Start


Tn Tn Tn
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Slide 63

Cell Reselection with HCS: R-Criterion


• After checking the measurement thresholds, the UE has detected suitable cells to camp on.
• If HCS is in use, it has reduced the candidate cells for cell reselection to those with highest priority and H >= 0 (given a slow
moving UE).
• But which of the remaining candidate cells is the best one for cell re-selection?

• For that, a cell-ranking criterion R was specified:


• Rs = Qmeas,s + Qhysts (for the serving cell)
• Rn = Qmeas,n - Qoffsets,n - TOn * (1 – Ls) (for candidate neighboring cells for cell reselection)

• The serving cell and the remaining candidate cells are ranked according to criterion R.
• The cell ranked with the highest value R is the best cell for the UE to camp on.
• Qhysts gives a hysteresis value to make the serving cell more attractive and thus delay the cell re-selection. It exists in two
versions:
• If the quality measure is based on CPICH Ec/No, Qhyst2s is used in (FDD cell only); otherwise the hysteresis value
Qhyst1s is used (if the quality measure for FDD cells is based on CPICH RSCP, for TDD cells and GSM cells).
• It ranges between 0 and 40 (step size 2).
• If HCS is applied in the serving cell, TOn is calculated as described on the preceding pages.
• If HCS is not applied, then this temporary offset term is not used when calculating Rn.

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Slide 64

Cell Reselection with HCS: R-Criterion and TOn


temp. offset used only
Rs = Qmeas,s + Qhysts when neighbor has
Rn = Qmeas,n - Qoffsets,n - TOn * (1 – Ls) same priority than
serving cell
TOn = TEMP_OFFSETn * W(PENALTY_TIMEn – Tn)
Qmeas

PENALTY_TIMEn PENALTY_TIMEn

TOn

TOn
Qmeas,s

TOn = 0 TOn=0 Example:


Start Stop Start HCS_PRIOn = HCS_PRIOs
Tn Tn Tn  Ln = 0

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Slide 65

Cell Reselection with HCS: R-Criterion


Rs = Qmeas,s + Qhysts Rn > Rs  Cell Reselection
Rn = Qmeas,n - Qoffsets,n - TOn * (1 – Ls)

Qhyst1
Qmeas

WCDMA & GSM; WCEL; 0.. 40; def.: 0 dB


RxLev: 1st Ranking Qmeas,n
Adjg,s,iQoffset1 Rn
Qmeas,s HOPx; -50.. 50; def.: 0 dB
Qhysts

Rs
Qoffsets,n
Treselection: Adji&sQoffset2
WCEL; 0..31; 1; 2s HOPx; -50.. 50; 1; 0 dB
Example: HCS_PRIOn ≠ HCS_PRIOs  Ln = 1 Qhyst2
FDD cells & Ec/No:
2nd Ranking WCEL; 0.. 40; 2; 2 dB

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Slide 66

References
For this course module, following 3GPP specifications were used:

• TS 23.122, Non-Access-Stratum (NAS) functions related to Mobile Station (MS) in idle mode
• TS 25.133, Requirements for support of radio resource management (FDD)
• TS 25 304, User Equipment (UE) procedures in idle mode and procedures for cell reselection in
connected mode
• TS 25.331, Radio Resource Control (RRC) protocol specification

Nokia WCDMA RAN Parameter Dictionary

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NokiaEDU

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