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Third Edition Neh pee] e] a) SLE Sette eG Celie) Machine Tool Design and Numerical Control Third Edition About the Author Dr. N. K. Mehta retired as Professor from IIT Roorkee (former University of Roorkee) in 2010 after serving in the Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering for almost 40 years. He also served as Counselor (Science and Technology) at the Embassy of India in Moscow from 1995 to 1998. Dr. Mehta has done extensive research in the areas of Machine Tool Design, Machining Science and Computer aided Manufacturing. He has more than 120 research papers to his credit and has supervised 12 PhD Thesis and over 50 M Tech dissertations. In addition, Dr. Mehia was Translation Editor of the Soviet Journal of Structural Mechanies and Design of Structures for four years and has translated nine text books and monographs in English. He was also the Conve- nor of the First International and Twenty second AIMTDR Conference in 2006. Dr. Mehta’s contribution to teaching and research has been widely acknowledged and he has been the recipi- ent of numerous awards and honours such as G. C. Sen Memorial Prize for Best Research Paper at the Tenth AIMTDR conference in 1982, the A. N. Khosla Research Prize and silver medal in 1984, Member Program Advisory Committee of Mechanical Engineering and Robotics of the Department of Science and Technol- ogy, Govt. of India and Member Core Advisory Group of R&D in Machine Tool sector constituted by the Principal Scientific Advisor to the Govt. of India, NZ NZ) t= Tata McGraw-Hill Published by the Tata MeGraw Hill Edueation Private Limited, 7 West Patel Nagar, New Delhi 110 008. Machine Tool Design and Numerical Control (3e) Copyright © 2012, by Tata McGraw Hill Education Private Limited. ‘No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise or stored in a database or retrieval system without the prior written permission of the publishers. The program listings (if any) may be entered, stored and executed in a computer system, but they may not be reproduced for publication. This edition can be exported from India only by the publishers, ‘Tata MeGraw Hil] Education Private Limited. ISBN (13): 978-1-25-900457-5 ISBN (10): 1-25-900457-0 Vice President and Managing Director-—MHE: Ajay Shukla Head—Higher Education Publishing and Marketing: Vibha Mahajan Manager: Sponsoring—SEM & Tech Ed.: Shalini Jha Editorial Researcher: Harsha Singh Copy Editor: Prevoshi Kundu Sr Production Manager: Satinder $ Baveja Production Executive: Anuj K. Shriwastava Marketing Manager—Higher Ed.: Vijay Sarathi General Manager Production: Rajender P Ghansela Production Manager: Reji Kumar Information contained in this work has been obtained by Tata McGraw-Hill, from sources believed to be reliable, However, neither Tata McGraw-Hill nor its authors guarantee the accuracy or completeness of any information published herein, and neither Tata McGraw-Hill nor its authors shall be responsible for any errors, omissions, or damages arising out of use of this information. This work is published with the understanding that Tata McGraw-Hill and its authors are supplying information but are not attempting to render engineering or other professional services. If such services are required, the assistance ofan appropriate professional should be sought. ‘Typeset at Tej Composers, WZ-391, Madipur, New Delhi 110063, and printed at Cover Printer: Cl aes ed In Memory of My Parents Contents About the Author ii Preface xi 1, INTRODUCTION TO MACHINE TOOL DRIVES AND MECHANISMS— 1 GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF MACHINE TOOL DESIGN 1.1 Working and Auxiliary Motions in Machine Tools 7 1.2. Parameters Defining Working Motions of a Machine Tool 3 1.3 Machine Tool Drives 19 1.4. Hydraulic Transmission and Its Elements 23 1.5. Mechanical Transmission and Its Elements 34 es for Undertaking the Design of a New Machine Tool 52 1.7, General Requirements of Machine Tool Design 54 1.8 Engineering Design Process Applied to Machine Tools 57 1.9 Layout of Machine Tool 60 Review Questions 65 References 67 1.6 Technico-economical Prerequi: 2. REGULATION OF SPEED AND FEED RATES 68 2.1 Aim of Speed and Feed Rate Regulation 68 2.2. Stepped Regulation of Speed: Design of Speed Box 69 23 Design of Feed Box 90 24 Machine Tool Drives Using Multiple-speed Motors 95 25. Special Cases of Gear Box Design 98 2.6 General Recommendaitions for Developing the Gearing Diagram 105 2.7 Determining the Number of Teeth of Gears /08 2.8 Classification of Speed and Feed Boxes 1/8 2.9 Stepless Regulation of Speed and Feed Rates 124 2.10 Kinematics of Machine Tools 40 Review Questions 163 References 166 3. DESIGN OF MACHINE TOOL STRUCTURES 167 3.1 Functions of Machine Too! Structures and their Requirements 167 3.2 Design Criteria for Machine Tool Structures 167 vill | Contents 3.3. Materials of Machine Tool Structures 170 3.4 Static and Dynamic Stiffness 175 3.5 Profiles of Machine Tool Structures 182 3.6 Basic Design Procedure of Machine Too! Structures 188 3.7 Design of Beds 197 3.8 Design of Columns 2/3 3.9 Design of Housings 2/6 3.10 Design of Bases and Tables 2/9 3.11 Design of Cross Rails, Arms, Saddles and Carriages 22/ 3.12 Designof Rams 222 3.13 Model Technique in Design of Machine Too! Structures 224 Review Questions 228 References 231 4. DESIGN OF GUIDEWAYS AND POWER SCREWS 233 4.1 Functions and Types of Guideways 233 4.2. Design of Slideways 234 4.3. Design Criteria and Calculations for Slideways 243 4.4 Guideways Operating under Liquid Friction Conditions 257 45S is 265 46 gn of Anti-friction Guideways 267 4.7 Combination Guideways 273 48 Protecting Devices for Sideways 274 4.9 Design of Power Screws 276 Review Questions 285 References 287 in of Acrostatic Slidews 5. DESIGN OF SPINDLES AND SPINDLE SUPPORTS 288 5.1 Funetions of Spindle Unit and Requirements 288 5.2 Materials of Spindles 289 5.3 Effect of Machine Tool Compliance on Machining Accuracy 290 54 Design Calculations of Spindles 294 5.5 Anti-friction Bearings 303 56 Sliding Bearings 310 Review Questions 332 References 333 Contents ix 6. DYNAMICS OF MACHINE TOOLS 6.1 Machine Too! Elastic System-cutting Process Closed-loop System 335 6.2 General Procedure for Assessing Dynamic Stability of Ees—Cutting Process Closed-Loop System 336 6.3. Dynamic Characteristics of Elements and Systems 339 64 Dynamic Characteristic of the Equivalent Elastic System 340 6.5. Dynamic Characteristic of the Cutting Process 352 6.6 Stability Analysis 366 6.7 Forced Vibrations of Machine Tools 378 Review Questions 383 References 385 7. CONTROL SYSTEMS IN MACHINE TOOLS. 7.1 Funetions, Requirements and Classification 386 7.2. Control Systems for Changing Speeds and Feeds 386 7.3. Control Systems for Executing Forming and Auxiliary Motions 396 7.4 Manual Control Systems 397 7.5. Automatic Control Systems 410 7.6 Adaptive Control Systems 4/5 References 418 8. NUMERICAL CONTROL OF MACHINE TOOLS 8.1 Fundamental Concepts, Classification and Structure of Numerical Control Systems 4/9 8.2 Manual Part Programming 440 8.3 Computer Aided Part Programming 465 Review Questions 486 References 493 9. EXTENSIONS OF NUMERICAL CONTROL— CNC, DNC, MACHINING CENTRES: 9.1 Distributive Numerical Control (DNC-1) 495 9.2 Computer Numerical Control (CNC) 495 9.3 Machining Centres 498 9.4 Direct Numerical Control (DNC-2) 501 9.5 CNC Programming 504 Review Questions 538 Index 335 386 419 494 543 Preface About the Book The first edition of the book was published in 1984 under the title, Machine Too! Design, when the subject was gaining popularity as a specialised course in engineering institutions in the country. The motivation for writing the book is to provide a basic text for undergraduate students that would also serve as a useful reference for postgraduate students and practicing engineers. The revision of the book for the second edition published in 1996 was undertaken with the limited objec- tive of incorporating the advances in numerical control in the intervening years. Therefore, the chapter on ‘Numerical Control of Machine Tools” was substantially modified and a new chapter on Extensions of Nu- merical Control — CNC, DNC, Machining Centers’ was added. To adequately, reflect the updated content, the title of the book was changed to Machine Tool Design and Numerical Control, In today’s ‘user-friendly age’, the revision for the third edition has been undertaken primarily to make the book more reader friendly and the changes are mostly based on the feedback from the reviewers and a survey carried out by the publisher. The important new features of this edition are summarised below: + A subsection on ‘Calculation of Machining Time’ has been added in Chapter 1. The highlight of this section is the inclusion of calculation of machining time of grinding operations which is usually not covered in text books. + A major section on ‘Kinematics of Machines Tools” has been added in Chapter 2, wherein the gearing diagrams of lathe, drilling machine and milling machine have been discussed to give the readera better understanding of the finer practical aspects of gear box design. A new attractive feature of this section is the discussion on thread cutting operation on lathe and operations using indexing head on milling machine based on fundamental principles, as distinct from the usual thumb rule type approach in most of the existing books. It is felt that this section will serve as useful base material for formulating design projects and independent assignments for final year students of mechanical and production engineering disciplines + In the second edition the design procedure of machine tool gear boxes was terminating with the calculation of gear teeth. This has been extended in the present edition, to its logical conclusion by adding a subsection on ‘Determination of Shaft and Gear Dimensions’ in Chapter 2. + A subsection on “Design of Lathe Bed’ has been added in Chapter 3 giving the detailed procedure supported with a solved example to provide practical illustration of the theoretical aspects for one specific case. This material will be helpful in formulating design projects and assignments not only for beds of various machine tools but also for other structural elements of machine tools such as bases, columns, tables etc. + A large number of solved examples have been added, especially in Chapters 1-3 in support of the elaboration of the new topics added in these chapters. In addition, new review questions have also been added in almost all the chapters. xil | Preface + A major curtailment has been undertaken in Chapter 8 on ‘Numerical Control of Machine Tools’ Previous edition contained a detailed description of the hardware of NC technology spread over seven subsections. Most of this technology has now become obsolete. It has, therefore, been thoroughly condensed and retained in one subsection only to the extent necessary for understanding the functioninglopcration of NC machine tools. + Enhanced pedagogy includes Solved Examples: 25 Review Questions: 130 Computer Programs for NC, CNC and DNC: 12 Structure of the Book The book is organised into 9 chapters. Chapter 1 is an introductory chapter that provides a review of the concepts of working and auxiliary motions in machine tools and calculation of machining time of various operations. It also gives an overview of the elements of hydraulic and mechanical transmissions employed in machine tools. A section on layout of machine tools is unique to this book and is extremely relevant in the context of increasing emphasis on modularity and reconfigurability in CNC machines. Chapter 2 deals with the description of the laws of stepped regulation of speed and feed in machine tools and goes on to provide in rigorous detail the procedures for the design of gear boxes for stepped control of speed and feed, covering the whole gamut of issues from selecting the optimum structural diagram and speed chart to the finalisation of gearing diagram and determination of shaft and gear dimensions. A separate sec- ion is devoted to design of gear boxes with multiple speed motors and special gear boxes with overlapping speeds, broken geometric progression, etc., which have been supported with multiple diagrams. Steeples regulation of speed and feed rates by electrical, hydraulic and mechanical methods is discussed in great detail. To strengthen the understanding of kinematics of machining operations, thread cutting on lathe and operations using indexing head on milling machine are described from first principles, as distinct from the thumb rule approach presented in most of the existing books. In Chapter 3, the functions and requirements of the machine tool structures are discussed along with the design criteria and their application to individual structural elements such as beds, bases, columns etc, As- pects of design related to selection of the shape of structural elements and their strengthening with ribs and stiffeners are discussed in detail with lot of supporting data. In view of the complexity of their configuration and force system, it is seldom possible to analytically arrive at an exact design solution for structural elements of machine tools. Model techniques are therefore an essential part of the validation of their design and the fundamentals of these techniques are discussed at the end of the chapter. The description of the functions and classification of guide ways are dealt in Chapter 4. The design cri- teria of slideways are discussed and the detailed procedure of slideways design for stiffiness and wear resis- tance based on average and maximum pressure is presented, Selection of slideway profiles and techniques of clearance adjustment and protection are presented and explained with the help of simple sketches. The design of hydrodynamic guideways, hydrostatic guideways, aerostatic guideways and anti-friction guideways is described in detail, supported with analysis as well as the relevant design data and curves. Design of sliding friction and rolling friction power screws is also included in this chapter. Chapter 5 discusses the functions and requirements of machine tool spindles and an analyses the effect of the compliance of spindles and their supports on machining accuracy. A major portion of this chapter is devoted to the design of sliding bearings, hydrodynamic and hydrostatic journal bearings and aerodynamic Preface xill and aerostatic bearings, supported with analysis and the relevant design data and curves. Issues specific to machine tools such as functional requirements, appropriate combinations of bearings for different machine tools and pre loading of bearing are discussed in detail The initial thrust of Chapter 6 is on establishing the study of the dynamic behaviour of a machine system. The latter can be looked upon as a closed loop system in which the machine tool elastic system (MTES) and cutting process (CP) are the interacting elements. The dynamic cutting force models of Tlusty, Tobias and Kudinov are discussed and compared. Stability analysis of single and multiple degree of freedom systems with and without mode coupling is described, Regenerative chatter and the response of MTES-CP system under forced vibrations are also discussed. Dynamics of machine tools is a difficult topic, but by adopting a logical approach based on fundamental principles of control theory, it has been made easy to understand. Chapter 7 discusses the functions, requirements and classification of machine tool controls and goes on to describe the speed and feed changing mechanisms with simple centralised control, preselective control and selective control, For manual control systems, anthropometric and functional anatomy data has been systematically compiled for ergonomic design of control members such as push buttons, knobs, toggles, cranks, levers, hand wheels, ete., and also for the location of displays and control members. The highlight of this chapter is the detailed compilation of data for ergonomics design of control members which is not only unique to this book but also sets it apart from any other text book on machine tool design. Chapter 8 elaborates on the fundamental concepts of numerical control and classification of numerically controlled machine tools. It provides an overview of the NC hardware technology to the extent necessary for understanding the functioning and operation of NC machine tools. A major portion of this chapter is devoted to manual part programming for point-to-point, positioning- cum-straight cut and continuous path systems. The concept of computer aided part programming has been discussed and the APT programming system has been covered in reasonable detail, Both the manual and APT part programming systems have been illustrated with sample problems with step-by-step explanation of the part programs. The concluding chapter, i., Chapter9 deals with the extensions of numerical control, namely computer numerically controlled (CNC) machine tools, machining centres and direct numerical control (DNC). A major portion of this chapter is devoted to CNC part programming for machining centres as well as turning centres. The programming concepts of tool diameter compensation, tool length off set, ete., are taken one at- a-time and illustrated with suitable programming examples. Advanced programming features sueh as mirror imaging and canned cycles are discussed and illustrated with complete programs for sample parts, In addition, the present edition also contains new and improved solved examples, computer programs and. chapter-end review questions to help students understand the concepts in a better way. Acknowledgements I would like to thank my M.Tech student Ganesh Jagdale and Ph.D. student Vikas Upadhyay for their as- sistance in collecting and collating the reference material and for agreeing to be the sounding boards who helped me to fine tune the new material for this edition from the viewpoint of a student, I would like to take this opportunity to express my deep gratitude to Shri Rajesh Kumar for typing the text and drawing the tech- nical figures for the new material of this edition and for always being by my side and providing technical and secretarial assistance to me over the years much beyond the call of duty. I would also like to thank the following reviewers for reviewing this book: xiv | Preface Dinesh Khanduja National Institute of Technology, Kurukshetra Haryana A. P. Harsha Institue of Technology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi Utiar Pradesh Ashish Banerjee Jadavpur University, Kolkata West Bengal L. Bhaskara Rao Vellore Institute of Technology Univers Vellore Tamil Nadu A. Venugopal National Institute of Technology, Warangal Andhra Pradesh T, Rangaswamy Malnad College of Engineering, Hassan Karnataka Lam especially thank ful to the editorial team of Tata McGraw Hill for their sincere help and guidance during the development of this book. I would like to personally thank Ms Harsha Singh, Ms Preyoshi Kundu and Mr Anuj Shriwastava who put so much energy and effort in bringing this book to its final stage. In the end, I must confess that the response received from the readers for the earlier editions is both hum- bling and gratifying. | am grateful to them for their continuous support of my modest contribution to the teaching and practise of machine tool design and numerical control. I sincerely hope that the changes incor- porated in the current edition will add more value to the book and will continue to provide useful service to students, teachers and practising engineers for many more years to come. NK Menta INTRODUCTION TO MACHINE 1 TOOL DRIVES AND MECHANISMS— GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF MACHINE TOOL DESIGN The machine tool is a machine that imparts the required shape to a workpiece with the desired accuracy by removing metal from the workpiece in the form of chips. In view of the extremely vast range of shapes that are in practise imparted to various industrial components, there exists a very large nomenclature of machine tools. Machine tools can be classified by different criteria as given below. 1. By the degree of automation into (machine tools with manual control, (i) semi-automatic machine tools, and (iii) automatic machine tools. By weight into (i) light-duty machine tools weighing up to It. (ii) medium-duty machine tools weighing up to 10t, and (ili) heavy-duty machine tools weighing greater than 10+. 3. By the degree of specialisation into (i)_general-purpose machine tools—which can perform various operations on workpieces of differ ent shapes and sizes, (ii) single-purpose machine tools—which can perform a single operation on workpieces of a par- ticular shape and different sizes, and (iii) special machine tools—which can perform a single operation on workpieces of a particular shape and size 1.1. WORKING AND AUXILIARY MOTIONS IN MACHINE TOOLS For obtaining the required shape on the workpiece, it is necessary that the cutting edge of the cutting tool should move in a particular manner with respect to the workpiece. The relative movement between the workpiece and cutting edge can be obtained either by the motion of the workpiece, the cutting tool, or by a combination of the motions of the workpiece and cutting tool. These motions which are essential to impart the required shape to the workpiece are known as working motions. Working motions are further classified into two categories: 1. Drive motion or primary cutting motion 2. Feed motion 2 | Machine Too! Design and Numerical Control Working motions in machine tools are generally of two types: rotary and translatory. Working motions of some important groups of machine tools are shown in Fig. 1.1. Shaping —> Milling Grinding Fig. 1.1 Working motions for some machine tools 1. For lathes and boring machines drive motion—rotary motion of workpiece feed motion—translatory motion of cutting tool in the axial or radial direction 2. For drilling machines drive motion—rotary motion of drill feed motion—translatory motion of drill 3. For milling machines drive motion—rotary motion of the cutter feed motion—translatory motion of the workpiece 4. For shaping, planing, and sloting machines drive motion— reciprocating motion of cutting tool feed motion—intermittent translatory motion of workpiece 5. For grinding machines drive motion—rotary motion of the grinding wheel, feed motion—rotary as well as translatory motion of the workpiece. Besides the working motions, a machine tool also has provision for auxiliary motions. The auxiliary mo- tions do not participate in the process of formation of the required surface but are nonetheless necessary to make the working motions fulfil their assigned function. Examples of auxiliary motions in machine tools are clamping and unclamping of the workpiece, idle travel of the cutting tool to the position from where cutting is to proceed, changing the speed of drive and feed motions, engaging and disengaging of working motions, ete. Introduction to Machine Too! Drives and Mechanisms 3 | In machine tools, the working motions are powered by an external source of energy (electrical or hydraulic motor). The auxiliary motions may be carried out manually or may also be power-operated depending upon the degree of automation of the machine tool. In general-purpose machine tools, most of the auxiliary mo- tions are executed manually. On the other hand, in automatic machines, all auxiliary motions are automated and performed by the machine tool itself. In between these two extremes, there are machine tools in which the auxiliary motions are automated to various degrees, i.e., some auxiliary motions are automated while others are performed manually. PARAMETERS DEFINING WORKING MOTIONS OF 1.2 AMACHINE TOOL ‘The working motions of the machine tool are numerically defined by their velocity. The velocity of the pri- mary cutting motion or drive motion is known as cufting speed, while the velocity of feed motion is known as feed. ‘The cutting speed is denoted by v and measured in the units m/min. Feed is denoted by s and measured in the following units: mu/rev in machine tools with rotary-drive motion, e mmvtooth in machine tools using multiple-tooth cutters, e.g, milling machines, . lathes, boring machines, ete., 1. 2. 3. _mm/stroke in machine tools with reciprocating-drive motion, e.g., shaping and planing machines, and 4, mm/min in machine tools which have a separate power source for feed motion, e.g., milling machines, In machine tools with rotary primary cutting motion, the cutting speed is determined by the relationship, di y= eo min ay 1000, where d = diameter of workpiece (as in lathes) or cutter (as in milling machines), mm n= revolutions per minute (rpm) of the workpiece or cutter In machine tools with reciprocating primary cutting motion, the cutting speed is determined as m/min (12) 10007, where L =length of stroke, mm T, = time of cutting stroke, min If the time of the idle stroke in minutes is denoted by T,, the number of strokes per minute can be deter- mined as 1 T.+T; Generally, the time of idle stroke 7; is less than the time of cutting stroke; if the ratio 7./T; is denoted by K, the expression for number of strokes per minute may be rewritten as 1 K n= == __ (13) TA+T/T.) T+ K) Machine Too! Design and Numerical Contro! Now, combining Eqs (1.2) and (1.3), the relationship between cutting speed and number of strokes per minute may be written as follows: n-L(K +1) aa) 1000K ‘The feed per revolution and feed per stroke are related to the feed per minute by the relationship, Sy —sen as) where 5», = feed per minute s = feed per revolution or feed per stroke n = number of revolutions or sirokes per minute ‘The feed per tooth in multiple-tooth cutters is related to the feed per revolution as follows: Zz (16) wheres = feed per revolution feed per tooth of the cutter Z = number of teeth on the cutter ‘The machining time of any operation can be determined from the following basic expression: a eain (17) Sm where 7, = machining time, min L = length of machined surface, mm 5, = feed per minute 1.2.1 Calculation of Machining Time ‘As mentioned above, the machining time of various operations is determined using Eq. (1.7), wherein 5), is found from Eq. (1.5) for single point tools and Eq, (1.6) for multiple tooth cutters. Further, for a given work- tool pair, an optimum cutting speed is specified for which the corresponding rpm or strokes/min is calculated using Eq. (1.1) and Eq. (1.4), respectively. In may further be noted that for a given length | of'a workpiece, the actual tool travel is greater on account of the need to provide an approach of AI for safe entry of tool (on commencement of machining) and over travel of A2 for safe exit of tool (on completion of the machining cut). Generally, 41 and A2 are taken equal to 2-3 mm, The difference in the formulae of machining time calculation for various operations arises from the individual process geometry, which is reflected in the corresponding tool travel. Hence, the calculation of tool travel for various operations is described below. In the figures of all the operations discussed below | indicates the tool position at the commencement of cut and Tat the end of cut. Operations on Lathe (a) Turning operation on workpiece held between centres (Fig. 1.2) length of tool travel L =/-+ Al + A2 +43 where length of workpiece Al = approach; generally equal to 2-3 mm over travel; generally equal to 2-3 mm tcot ; where fis depth of cut and @ is principal or side cutting edge angle; for straight edged tools ¢ = 90°, hence A3 =0 Introduction to Machine Too! Drives and Mechanisms 5 23 Fig. 1.2 Turning operation on workpiece supported between centres (b) Turning operation on workpiece clamped in chuck (Fig. 1.3) length of tool travel L =/+ Al + A3 where = length of machined surface Al and A3 are the same as in turning of workpiece held between centres Fig. 1.3. Turning operation on workpiece clamped in chuck 6 | Machine Too! Design and Numerical Contro! (©) Facing operation (Fig. 1.4) length of tool travel L = D/2 + Al + A2 + A3 where D = diameter of workpiece Al = approach; generally equal to 2-3 mm 2 =over travel; generally equal to 1-2 mm is essential to ensure that a protruding stem is not left attached to the face of the machined workpiece A3 =rcot $; where fis depth of cut and @ is principal or side cutting edge angle; for straight edged tools @= 90°, hence A3 = 0 The length of tool travel for parting and grooving operations is determined ina similar manner. 43 yo > lat aay Fig. 1.4 Facing operation NID (d) Boring operation in partial length of workpiece; hole od to be enlarged to @D (Fig. 1.5) length of tool travel L =/+A1 + 03 where 1 = length of bore Al =approach; generally equal to 2-3 mm 43 =rcot g; where sis depth of cut and g is principal or side cutting edge angle; for straight edged tools $= 90°, hence A3 = 0 Introduction to Machine Too! Drives and Mechanisms 7 Fig. 1.5. Boring operation in partial length of workpiece (c) Boring operation in full length of workpiece; hole od to be enlarged to @D (Fig. 1.6) length of tool travel L =/-+ Al + A2 +3 where 1 = length of bore A2 = over travel; generally equal to 2-3 mm Al and A3 are the same as in boring operation in partial length of workpiece a3. Ay Mt A3 L 4.8 Boring operation in full length of workpiece 8 | Machine Too! Design and Numerical Contro! Example 1.1 Determine the machining time for turning a shaft from $70 mm to $64 mm over a length of 200 mm at n= 600 rpm ands = 0.4 mmv/rey. The turning tool has principal cutting edge angle $= 45°, Depth of eut = Length of travel L = 200 + reot @ + Al + A2 Assuming Al and A2 = 2 mmeach L =200+3x1+2+2=207 mm Machining Time - —207__ ~ 08625 mm. 00 x 0.4 Example 1.2 A ring has to be cut out from a pipe of outside diameter D 250 rpm and feed 0.14 mm/rev. Calculate the machining time. 100 mm and inside diameter d = 84 mm at Length of travel in a pipe cutting operation is =P=4 artnn Assuming Al = A2=2mm p= 100-84 1349-19 2 Machining time T,,, = a 12 = 0.342 mm, 2500.14 Operations on Drilling Machine Drilling operation (Fig. 1.7) length of tool travel L =/ + Al + A2 + A3 where 1 = height of the workpiece Al = approach; generally equal to 2-3 mm A2 = over travel; generally equal to 2-3 mm A3 = (di2) cot 6, where dis drill diameter and 2¢ is the lip angle of the drill ‘The length of tool travel for counter boring and reaming operations can be determined in a similar manner. Introduction to Machine Too! Drives and Mechanisms 9 | Sr, ° e 33 at a 4 2 or <*> 22 " 38 Fig. 1.7 Drilling operation Example 1.3 Calculate the machining time for drilling a 930 through hole in a 30 mm thick plate at a speed of 30 m/min and feed 0.1 mm/tooth. Length travel =30+ Al +A2+ $ cot Assuming Al =A2=2mm and @=60° (half of lip angle) L = 3042424 52 cot 60° = 42.66 mm The rpm of the drill is 1000 30 _ 1000 Feed per revolution of drill = 2 x feed per tooth because a drill has two cutting teeth Therefore, s,= 2% 0.1 = 0.2 mm/rev Hence, feed per minute s,, = 4° x02 = 2% mm/min 7 7 Machining time Ty, = 22.66 0.67 min. 40 | Machine Too! Design and Numerical Contro! Operations on Milling Machine In all the milling operations described below. Al = approach; generally equal to 2-3 mm A2 = over travel; generally equal to 2-3 mm (a) Horizontal milling machine: Plain milling operation (Fig. 1.8) length of cutter travel L=/+ Al +A2+A3 where 1 = length of the workpiece 3 =BC= JOC? - OB? = JR? - OB? = {R?-(R-1)* = JR?- (R240 -2R0) = y2Rr—? = D-1 Fig. 1.8 Plain milling operation (b) Vertical milling machine: Symmetrical face milling operation (Fig. 1.9) length of cutter travel L= J+ Al +A2+ 3 where 1 = length of the workpiece A3 =AB= 0A -OB=R- JOC? = BC? = R- we -(2) 2 =05(D— D> - B?) Introduction to Machine Too! Drives and Mechanisms 14 Fig. 1.9 Symmetrical face milling operation Dives (€) Vertical milting machine: Asymmetrical face milling operation B > — (Fig. 1.10) length of cutter travel L= 1+ Al +A2 + 03 where 1 = length of the workpiece 3 =AB= Jos —oB? = R= (B-8 = VR?— R?— B+2BR = /B(D-B) L D Fig. 1.10 Asymmetrical face miling operation, B > = (a) Vertical milling machine: Asymmetrical face milling operation B < 2 erie 1.11) length of cutter travel L= 1+ AL +A2 +43 42 | Machine Tool Design and Numerical Controt where 1 = length of the workpiece A3 =AB= OA? - 08? = JR? -(R- BY = JR? R?- B?+2BR = JB(D— B) D Fig. 1.11 Asymmetrical face miling operation, B < > Example 1.4 A200 mm long job is to be machined by a plain milling cutter of diameter D = 40 mm and 10 teeth. If the cutting speed is 30 m/min and feed is 0.08 mm/tooth, calculate the machining time for a depth of cut of 4 mm. Assume suitable approach and over travel. Length of travel L = 200 + i(D=0) + Al +2 Assuming Al =A2=2mm cach L = 200+ ,a(40-4) +2+2=216 mm The rpm of the milling cutter is n= 1000v _ 1000 x30 nD mx40 Feed per minute s,, =s;x2*7” = 0.08 x 10 x 100% 3 ~ 191.0 mm/min 7x40 Machining time T,, 1.13 min. Introduction to Machine Too! Drives and Mechanisms 13 Operations on Shaping Machine (Fig. 1.12) Ir AQ, le a At Fig. 1.12 Shaping operation Machining time = on where BY =B+B1+ 62 +B3 B = width of workpiece BI =approach, generally equal to 2-3 mm B2 = over travel, generally equal to 2-3 mm B3 =tcot 6: where ris depth of cut and dis principal or side cutting edge angle; for straight edged tools 9= 90°, hence A3 = 0 s = feed per stroke n= strokes/min which is found from Eq. (1.4) The machining time of planing and slotting operations can be determined in a similar manner. Example 1.5 A100 mm wide and 200 mm long surface is to be machined on a shaper, using feed per stroke of 0.3 mm. If the cutting speed is 20 m/min and the ratio of return time to cutting time is | : 1.25, calculate the time required to machine the job. Assume suitable approach and over travel. ‘Strokes per minute of the shaper is p= 1000vK (K+) 44 | Machine Too! Design and Numerical Controt Fora job of length 200 mm, the typical stroke length will be approximately 20% greater. Hence, L= 1.2 200=240mm 1000 x 20x 1.25 A Therefore, n = ——~~—> = 46.29 strokesimin. 240(1.25 +1) Correcting this value to the nearest available value available on the shaper, say 50 strokes/min and assum- ing that the operation is carried out with a straight edged tool and that B1 = B2 = 2 mm each 100+2+2 03x50 = 6.934 min. Machining time T,, = B + Bl + B2 Operations on Grinding Machine (a) Cylindrical Grinding: External-Traverse cut (Fig. 1.13) Grinding time T= K, min Typ kBt where L = length of workpiece 8; = KB mm/rev of workpiece is the longitudinal feed of the reciprocating motion of the workpiece; £ = 0.3 ~ 0.5 for rough grinding and D,, < 20 mm, k= 0.7 ~ 0.85 for rough grinding and D,,, 2 20 mm: k= 0.2 ~ 0.4 for finish grinding h allowance, mm; 1 = s, = radial feed/stroke, mm is akin to depth of cut and is given intermittently at the end of stroke, i.e., on traversing the length of the workpiece; typically £=0.01-0.025 mm K ~ 1.2 for rough grinding and 1.4 for finish grinding Nyp =tpm of the workpiece B = width of the grinding wheel fh ESE Fig. 1.13 External cylindrical grinding—traverse cut Introduction to Machine Too! Drives and Mechanisms 15 (b) Chlindrical grinding: external: Plunge cut (Fig. 1.14) m A Grinding time T= 5 Sip where s,= 0.0025 — 0.20 mm per revolution of workpiece is the transverse feed ft, Mp and K are the same as in traverse cut external grinding = Fig. 1.14 Extomal cylindrical grinding—plunge cut (c) Gilindrical Grinding: Internal (Fig. 1.15) Internal cylindrical grinding is carried out in two ways; with a rotating workpiece or a stationary workpiece. In the latter case, the grinding wheel not only rotates about its own axis, but also executes a planetary motion such that its centre moves along the planetary motion circle (PMC). This method is employed for large workpieces. Grinding time T= a K, min for internal grinding with rotating workpiece ThupkB waa 2Lh . . . , Grinding time T= ———— K, min for internal grinding with stationary workpiece TpyckBt where B mm/rev of workpiece is longitudinal feed; 0.25-0.45 for finish grinding feed/double stroke, mm; typically ¢ = 0.005-0.03 mm for rough grinding and 0.002-0.1 for finish grinding. It is given at the end of one complete to-and-fro stroke (double stroke), which explains the presence of 2/ in the formula of machining time calculation = 0.4-0.8 for rough grinding and 46 | Machine Tool Design and Numerical Controt Nyy = 1pm of the workpiece npyc =rpm of planetary motion of the grinding wheel B =width of the grinding wheel ‘fh =allowance, mm; K =1.3 forrough grinding and 1.6 for finish grinding () Fig. 1.15. Internal cylindrical grinding (a)_ with rotating workpiece (b) with stationary workpiece Introduction to Machine Too! Drives and Mechanisms 17 (@) Surface grinding: Peripheral-Planer feed (Fig. 1.16) Grinding time T= gH min; 5, where _L =length of stroke; L =/+ 10 mm, where / is length of workpiece ‘B, mm/siroke is the transverse feed which is given at the end of stroke, i.e., on traversing the length of the workpiece; k= 0.4-0.7 for rough grinding and 0.25-0.35 for finish grinding 1 =0.015-0.15 mm for rough grinding and 0.005-0.015 for finish grinding. It is akin to depth of cut and is given intermittently at the end of stroke, i.e., on traversing the length of the workpiece H=By,+B+5 mm; Sn = feed of table, mm/min f= allowance, mm K = 1.25 for rough grinding and 1.4 for finish grinding Fig. 1.16 Peripheral surface grinding (©) Surface grinding: Face-Planer feed (Fig. 1.17) Surface grinding with the face of grinding wheel is generally carried out with grinding wheels having diameter D greater than the width of the workpiece B. Therefore, the transverse feed s, is not required (see Fig. 1.17a). If the feed in depth is given at the end of stroke, i.e., on traversit grinding time is determined from the expression, 7 AK, min Sut the length of the workpiece, then where L=/+ Al +A2+D (see Fig. 1.17¢) If the feed in depth is given at the end of one complete to-and-fro stroke (double stroke), then grinding time is determined from the expression, 48 | Machine Tool Design and Numerical Controt 2H: min +A1+A2+A3; length of workpiece pproach; generally equal to 2-3 mm A2 =over travel; generally equal to 2-3 mm 3 =0.5(D — JD? — B? )as in symmetrical face milling (see Fig, 1.17b) Sip and hare the same as in peripheral surface grinding Fig. 1.17 Face surface grinding Introduction to Machine Too! Drives and Mechanisms 19 | Example 1.6 A 940 and 210 mm long step is to be machined on a cylindrical grinding machine. Grinding wheel diameter is 600 mm and its width 63 mm, Allowance is 0.2 mm and radial feed 0.005 mm per stroke. Transverse feed (mm per revolution of work) s;= kB, where k= 0.3. If peripheral speed of the grinding wheel and workpiece is 30 m/s and 35 m/min, respectively, determine the machining time. Length of stroke of the table = 210 mm. . 1000) _ 100035 _ 875 rpm of the workpiece Muy = ——* = ——~ = => TDyp x40 Allowance h = 0.2 mm Longitudinal feed of reciprocating motion of workpiece s; =k» B = 0.3 x63 = 18.9 mm/rev Radial feed 1= 0.005 mm/stroke Assuming it to be case of fi ish grinding we take K = 1.4 Eh gs NOXO2 4 = 999 min, mpstt $75 18.9 x 0,005 x Machining time T,, = MACHINE TOOL DRIVES The machine tool drive is an aggregate of mechanisms that transmits motion from an extemal source to the operative elements of the machine tool. The external source of energy is generally a three-phase ac motor which has a rotary motion at its output shaft. The rotary motion of the output shaft of the motor is transmitted to the operative element to provide an appropriate working or auxiliary motion. When the required motion is rotary, the transmission takes place through mechanisms that transfer rotary motion from one shafi to another. However, ifa translatory motion is required, the transmission invariably includes a mechanism for transforming rotary motion into translatory. It is a general requirement for machine tool drives that they should have provision for regulating the speed of travel of the operative elements. The regulation may be available in discrete steps or it may be stepless, i.e., continuous. The former are known as stepped drives and the latter stepless. Transmission of motion from the external source to the operative element can take place through mechani cal elements, such as gears, chains, belts, etc., or by means of hydraulic and electrical circuits. The drives are correspondingly known as mechanical, hydraulic and electrical. Mechanical drives may be of stepped or stepless type, but hydraulic and electrical drives are invariably stepless in nature It may be thus seen that a machine tool drive consists basically of 1. anelectric motor, and 2. a transmission arrangement. The procedure of selecting the electric motor will now be explained followed by a brief description of the elements that constitute the transmission arrangement in mechanical and hydraulic drives. The detailed design of the transmission arrangement will be discussed in Chap. 2. 20 | Machine Tool Design and Numerical Controt 1 Selection of Electrical Motor As stated above, three-phase asynchronous ac motors (also known as induction motors) are generally used as the source of power in machine tools. The power rating of the electric motor in general-purpose machine tools is calculated by the formula N, Nn kw (18) 1 where ower rating of the electric motor, KW. (otal power required for removing metal, kW 1) = coefficient of efficiency of the drive The power spent on a cutting operation consists of the power required to overcome each component of the cutting force. In general, the cutting force can be resolved into three mutually perpendicular components P,, P,, and P.. In a simple tuming operation let P. be the component of the cutting force coinciding with the velocity vector, P,—the component coinciding with the direction of axial feed and P,—the component coinciding with the direction of radial feed. Let the corresponding velocities be v, s, and s,, where v is the cutting speed, s, the feed in the axial direction and s, the feed in the radial direction. The power required for the cutting operation will be Pp. Pp a Ee pt oo _ 6075x136 60 75*1.36x1000 60 x 75x 1.36 x 1000 “Sycn Ne ‘The first factor on the right-hand side represents the power required for removing metal, while the second and third factors represent the power required for the feed motion in radial and axial directions, respectively. Ina cylindrical turning operation s,=0, hence the second factor becomes zero, Also, the third factor is gener- ally negligibly small as compared to the first, and therefore, the simplified expression for the motor power rating can be written as Pow N. 6100 kW (9) The value of NV, calculated from Eq. (1.9) should be increased by about 5% to accommodate the power requirements of the feed motion. The value of m may be expressed as MMM Mss Mi where 1), Ni, Ms, ... Mare the coefficients of efficiency of the individual transmissions involved in transmit- ting motion from the motor to the operative element. These values for different transmissions and supports are given in Table 1.1, Introduction to Machine Too! Drives and Mechanisms 21 | Table 1.1 Values of coefficient of efficiency for various transmission and supports! Type of Transmission or Support Coefficient of Efficiency Belt drive with flat belt 0.98 Belt drive with V-belt 0.96 Spur gear drive 0.98 Helical gear drive 0.97 Bevel gear drive 0.96 Ball or roller bearing 0.995 Crank and slider mechanism 0.90 Jaw clutch. 0.95 Multiple-dise friction clutch operating in oil 0.90 The overall transmission efficiency generally lies between 1) = 0.8-0.85 for machine tools with rotary primary cutting motion and 7) = 0.6--0.7 for machine tools with reciprocating primary cutting motion. The value of N, for various cutting operations (for different cutting tool and workpiece materials) can be determined from empirical formulae that are available in textbooks on the theory of metal cutting. The power required for cutting should be calculated for the following conditions: rough machining of a soft material with cemented carbide tool using maximum workpiece diameter (in lathes and boring machines), maximum cutter diameter (in milling and drilling machines) and maximum stroke length (in shaping and planing machines). On the basis of the calculated N,,, value, a standard induction motor is selected having the nearest available power rating that is equal to or slightly greater than the calculated value. The selection of electric motors that work under conditions of variable loading is done by a different pro- cedure® which is explained below. This procedure is expedient for single purpose and special machine tools that machine identical parts according to a set sequence of operations which is continuously repeated. An example of such a loading is shown in Fig. 1.18, ‘The power rating of the motor is determined from considerations of permissible overloading and heating, and the higher of the two values is taken for selecting the motor. From Consideration of Overloading Nm = (1.10) n where Niyax = maximum power required in the whole cycle (Ny, in the example of Fig. 1.18) A = permissible overloading coefficient for the given type of motor 1) = coefficient of efficiency of the drive Machine Too! Design and Numerical Contro! Ne An, len he? 4 & t tf Dpadpuahmdneanianienal <—_—_ |, ———_ >| Fig. 1.18 Variable loading cycle in which the motor temperature comes down to the ambient temperature From Consideration of Heating The calculation of power rating from the consideration of heating consists in determining an equivalent average load of constant value such that heating of the motor due to this load is equal to the sum of heat due to individual load components of the variable loading cycle. The power rating is determined by the expression (LAL), where Neg = equivalent power rating N, =power required for ith sequence of the variable loading cycle 1, = duration of the ith sequence of the variable loading cycle /, = cycle time n ‘otal number of sequences in the cycle 1| = coefficient of efficiency of the drive In the variable loading cycle of Fig. 1.18, the time ratio of cutting and idle sequences of the cycle was such that at the end of the cycle, the motor temperature came down to the temperature of the surrounding atmosphere, However, the variable loading cycle may be such that the motor temperature tends to acquire a more or less stable value higher than that of the surrounding atmosphere (Fig. 1.19). In such cases, it is pos sible to select a motor used for continuous loading based upon the equivalent power rating calculated from Eq, (1.11). However, special motors can also be employed. These special motors are alternatively switched on and off, and are characterised by the ratio, a x 100 fon + lost € Where faq ~ time during which motor remains switched on for = time during which motor remains switched off Generally, standard motors are manufactured for ¢ values of 15, 25, 40, and 60%. Introduction to Machine Too! Drives and Mechanisms 23 | The value of € according to the time of cutting and idle sequences in the variable loading cycle is deter- mined as tc = —— x 100 htt In general, the €, value for a cycle differs from the standard value provided on the motor. Therefore, the nearest standard value of €y is selected and the power rating is determined from the express Nu sy, fe (1.12) q where Nj ~ Neq/s/€,3 Neq being the equivalent power rating calculated for the given cycle from the consid- eration of heating as discussed above In machine tools, electric motors are selected by this method for €, < 60%. For higher values of ¢,, the motor is selected on the basis of the equivalent power rating from the consideration of heating nye i pt |b >| Fig. 1.19. Variable loading cycle in which the motor temperature acquires @ stable value greater than the ambient temperature 1.4 HYDRAULIC TRANSMISSION AND ITS ELEMENTS Hydraulic transmission is used in machine tools for providing rotary as well as translatory motion, although the latter application is more common, Hydraulic transmission, as a rule, provides stepless regulation of the speed and feed rate. ‘The functioning of a rotary hydraulic drive can be explained with the help of Fig. 1.20. The electric mo- tor rotates the rotor of vane pump through gear pair Z,/Z>. During rotation, the pump sucks in oil from the reservoir and delivers it under pressure to the hydraulic motor. The hydraulic motor is, in principle, another vane pump mounted in the reverse manner, so that oil delivered under pressure rotates its vanes and hence the rotor. From the output shaft of the hydraulic motor, rotary motion is transmitted to the machine-tool spindle through a belt drive. A pressure value in the delivery line limits the maximum pressure at which oil is deliv- ered to the hydraulic motor. The actual pressure can be read on the pressure gauge. 24 | Machine Tool Design and Numerical Controt Pressure Pressure Hydraulic Belt drive Motor Fig. 1.20 Schematic diagram of a rotary hydraulic drive The principle of operation of a translatory hydraulic drive is discussed below. The drive (Fig. 1.21) con sists of a gear pump which sucks oil from the reservoir and delivers it to the direction control value through a throttle. The function of the throttle is to enable regulation of the speed of travel of the operative element. In the position of the control valve drawn by firm lines, oil is delivered into the right-hand chamber of the hydraulic cylinder, moving the piston towards the left. The machine-tool table which is rigidly attached to the piston is also moved leftwards. Oil from the left-hand chamber of the hydraulic cylinder returns to the reservoir through the direction-control valve. It can be seen from Fig. 1.21 that the control-valve piston is coupled to the operative element by means of a rocking lever. Therefore, the leftward movement of the machine-ool table is accompanied by a movement of the control-valve piston in the same direction. The leftward movement of the table stops when the control-valve piston comes to occupy the position shown by dotted lines. In this position, oil begins to flow in the left-hand chamber of the hydraulic eylinder, pushing the piston rightwards, thus reversing the direction of translatory motion of the table. The hydraulic circuit has a pressure valve to drain off excessive oil which does not pass through the throttle aperture. Operative element Hydraulic cylinder Rocking. lever Direction— control valve Throttle vreau i valve Gear pump Fig. 1.21 Schematic diagram of a translatory hydraulic drive Introduction to Machine Too! Drives and Mechanisms 25 | From the description of simple rotary and translatory motion hydraulic drives, it may be concluded that these drives are made up of individual elements and units which are appropriately joined into a circuit by means of pipe lines. The important elements of a hydraulic transmission are: Pumps Hydraulic cylinders Direction-control valves Pressure valves Throttles yeep These elements will now be dealt with to the extent necessary for a proper appreciation of their application in machine tools, Besides these elements, the hydraulic circuits of machine tools include auxiliary elements, such as filters, accumulators, seals and packings, relays, etc. Students are advised to consult a basic text on hydraulics and hydraulic machines for a detailed insight into the functioning of the hydraulic equipment. 1,Pumps The pumps primarily serve the purpose of sucking oil and delivering it under pressure to various hydraulic devices. On the basis of the operating principle, pumps can be classified as constant delivery pumps and variable delivery pumps. ‘The constant delivery pumps generally employed in machine tools are gear pumps and vane pumps. The working principle of a gear pump can be explained with the help of Fig. 1.22. The pump consists of a pair of meshing gears of which the driving gear is directly coupled to an electric motor. The oil is sucked into the gap between the meshing teeth on the suction side and squeezed out under pressure on the delivery side. 4 YA OKO j YZ Ve, Fig. 1.22 Schematic diagram of a gear pump The volume of oil delivered by a gear pump is given by the expression, Faolde~ 40. m/min (1.13) 10° itch circle diameter of the gears, mm Q where do de addendum circle diameter of the gears, mm 26 | Machine Tool Design and Numerical Controt b = width of gears, mm n= rpm of the driving gear ‘The power rating of the motor required to run a pump is determined from the expression, —P2 wy (1.14) 6 x10 My where —_p = pressure developed by the pump, N/m? Q = volume of oil delivered by the pump, m*/min Tw = coefficient of mechanical efficiency of the pump; generally 1],,=0.7-0.9 ny = coefficient of volumetric efficiency of the pump (leakage losses); generally Ny =0.7-0.8 ‘The schematic diagram of a constant delivery vane pump is shown in Fig. 1.23. The rotor mounted on a splined shaft rotates inside the stator, whose profile is shown in Fig. 1.24. As the rotor rotates, the vanes reciprocate radially and complete two complete cycles of suction and delivery in one revolution of the rotor. Pockets 1 and 2 serve for suction, and 3 and 4 for delivery. Fig. 1.23 Schematic diagram of a constant-delivery vane pump The volume of oil delivered by a constant delivery vane pump is given by the expression, g= 2h m3 —1)- (y= n)ytez Jin (1s) 10 COS Of where B = width of rotor, mm n= rpm of rotor ry = major semi-axis of the stator profile, mm r| = minor semi-axis of the stator profile, mm Introduction to Machine Too! Drives and Mechanisms 27 | ¢ = thickness of vanes, mm z = number of vanes oc = angle which the vane makes with the radius; generally a= 13° “Lo Circular ‘Archimedian ae sprial Fig. 1.24 Profile of the stator of a constant-delivery vane pump ‘The variable delivery pumps commonly used in machine-tool hydraulic drives are vane pumps and radial piston pumps. ‘The schematic diagram of a variable delivery vane pump is shown in Fig. 1.25. The vanes reciprocate in radial slots of the rotor which is eccentrically mounted with respect to the stator. The rotor axis is generally fixed but the stator can be displaced to vary eccentricity and hence pump delivery. The stator in this case has a circular profile, and therefore, no delivery takes place if the rotor and stator axes become concentric. The radial reciprocation of vanes is controlled by means of rollers, attached to the vanes, that move in an annular guiding ring concentric with the stator. The volume of oil delivered by a variable delivery vane pump is given by the expression, iba = 12)+ And) m*Imin (1.16) Q where B= width of rotor, mm n = rpm of rotor e = eccentricity, mm D = stator bore, mm = diameter of rollers, mm b = width of annular guiding ring, mm 1 = thickness of vanes, mm z = number of vanes 28 | Machine Tool Design and Numerical Controt es, I Y Gy * e=0 la) (b) (c) Fig. 1.25 Schematic diagram of a variable-delivery vane pump The working principle of the radial piston pump is similar to that of the variable delivery vane pump. The only difference is that the vanes are replaced by mini pistons, each of which reciprocates in its cylinder. The manufacture of cylindrical sliding surfaces of pistons and cylinders is easier than that of rectangular vanes. Therefore, piston pumps can be manufactured with tighter fits and are distinguished by lower leakage losses. The volume of oil delivered by a radial piston pump may be determined by the expression, nd?ezn Q © 2x10? m/min ay where — d = diameter of pistons, mm. e = eccentricity, mm z = number of pistons n = 1pm of rotor Gear pumps are used for pressures up to 100 kgf/em?, vane pumps for pressures up to 25 kgi/em? and piston pumps for pressures up to 140 kgffem?. All pumps described above can in principle be used as hydraulic motors by reversing their operation. However, in practice, only variable delivery vane pumps and radial piston pumps are used because they ensure a wider range of speed regulation and also have higher efficiency than gear pumps, especially at low speeds 2. Hydraulic Cylinders Hydraulic cylinders are used in hydraulic drives where translatory motion of the operative element (generally of the machine-t0o1 table) is required. A simple cylinder with the piston rod only on one side (Fig. 1.26a) provides different piston velocities in two directions, while a double-end rod cylinder (Fig, 1.26b) provides identical piston velocity in both directions. The piston speed and flow rate of oil to the cylinder are related as follows: Q=A-v (1.18) Introduction to Machine Too! Drives and Mechanisms 29 | where Q = amount of oil fed to the cylinder per unit time, m/min effective area of cross section of the piston, m? v = velocity of piston, m/min ‘The minimum pressure required to move the piston can be determined from the expression, P kgf po 7ke where P= resisting force, kgf A = effective area of cross section of the piston, cm? —I 5 (a) 4 i C _] (b) Fig. 1.26 Cylinders: (a) Single-piston rod type (b) Double-end rod type 3.Direction-control Valves The function of these valves is to change the direction of fluid flow. Direction- control valves are generally available in two design versions —with a rotary spool and with a sliding piston. ‘The working of a rotary, spool-type direction-control valve can be explained with the help of its schematic diagram shown in Fig. 1.27. The valve is divided into two halves by a partition. The valve has four ports 1,2, —) a) Fig. 1.27 Schematic diagram of rotary, spodl-type direction-control valve 30 | Machine Tool Design and Numerical Controt 3,4, of which ports 1 and 2 are connected to the two chambers of the hydraulic cylinder, while ports 3 and 4 are connected to the pump line and reservoir, respectively. The direction of oil flow is reversed by rotation of the partition inside the valve body. When the partition occupies the position shown in Fig. 1.27 by firm lines, port | is connected to the pump and oil is delivered to the left-hand chamber of the cylinder; at the same time the oil in the right-hand chamber of the cylinder is discharged into the reservoir through ports 2 and 4. When the partition occupies the position, depicted in Fig. 1.27 by dotted lines, the port connections get reversed, i.e, the pump gets connected to the right-hand chamber of the cylinder through port 2, while the oil in the left-hand chamber is discharged into the reservoir through ports | and 4. The direction of travel of the piston is thus reversed by shifting the pattition from one position to the other. ‘The working of a four-way, two-position, piston-type direction-control valve was explained while discuss- ing the translatory motion hydraulic drive of Fig. 1.21. This valve (Fig. 1.28) has five ports. Ports | and 2 are connected to the left- and right-hand chambers of the hydraulic cylinder, respectively. Port 3 is connected to the pump line, while ports 4 and 5 are interconnected and serve for draining oil into the reservoir. In the position of the piston shown by firm lines, oil is fed into the left-hand chamber of the cylinder through port 1 and the oil from the right-hand chamber is drained into the reservoir through ports 2 and 5. When the piston occupies the position shown by dotted lines, port 2 gets connected to the pump line, thus delivering oil to the right-hand chamber of the cylinder, while the oil in the left-hand chamber is drained back to the reservoir through ports | and 4. —l J sh 2 m7 TT m1 i 4 358 [4 Fig. 1.28 Schematic diagram of a four-way, two-position, piston-type direction-control valve A four-way, three-position, piston-type direction-control valve is schematically shown in Fig. 1.29. This valve also has five ports which are connected in the same manner as the ports of the four-way, two-position valve, When the valve piston is in the central position, all the ports are connected to each other and the oil which is pumped into the valve returns to the reservoir without affecting any change in the position of the hydraulic cylinder. When the valve piston occupies the extreme left position, oil is fed into the right-hand chamber of the cylinder through port 2, as the draining port 5 is closed. Oil in the left-hand chamber is drained back to the reservoir through ports | and 4. When the valve piston is shifted to the extreme right position, draining port 4 gets closed and oil is delivered to the left-hand chamber of the cylinder through port 1 in this position oil from the right-hand chamber is drained through ports 2 and 5. In machine-tool hydraulic Introduction to Machine Too! Drives and Mechanisms 31 | systems, the sliding piston direction-control valves are used more extensively than rotary spool valves. Two-position valves are used in machine tools in which machining operation is done in several passes, eg., grinding machines. The three-position valves are used in single-pass machine tools, such as drilling and milling machines. Multiple-position valves find application in automatic drilling, milling and other machines, in which machining of the workpiece is completed in one pass. 1 Vs 2 SY Fig. 1.29 Schematic diagram of a four-way, three-position, piston-type direction-control valve 4, Pressure Valves The function of pressure valves is to limit the pressure in a particular line of the hydrau- lic circuit. Pressure valves are used as safety valves (as in Fig. 1.20) to protect the system against excessive pressure and as bypass valves (as in Fig. 1.21) to drain off the excessive amount of oil. The basic design of safety and bypass pressure valves is identical; however, design details differ on account of different func- tional requirements of the two, Safety valves are not operated frequently, and therefore, they are designed to be oil-tight when closed. On the other hand, bypass valves operate almost continuously, and therefore, the design requirement for these valves is not oil tightness of joints but higher wear resistance of seals and packings. The simplest type of pressure valve is the ball or poppet valve which is shown in Fig. 1.30. The ball (or poppet) is pressed against the opening by a spring, whose force can be regulated by means of a threaded sleeve. When the pressure of oil coming through port 1 exceeds the spring pressure, the ball is raised and the oil is drained back into the reservoir through ports 2 and 3, The ball or poppet valve is generally used only asa safety valve. Its application as a bypass valve is not recommended as it suffers from serious drawbacks, such as pressure pulsations and vibrations. ‘A spool-type pressure valve which has better performance characteristics is shown in Fig. 1.31. Ports 1 and 2 of the valve are connected to the pressure line, the former direcily and the latter through a constricted passage. Port 3 is connected to the reservoir. In the condition of equilibrium, P+F=P+W where P = force acting at the head end of the valve F = friction force P, = spring force W = weight of the spool

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