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# SITI AISAH BINTI WAHAB (2015263306)

DISCUSSION
Based on the experiment that we conducted, the objective was to determine the critical
speed of whirling machinery to avoid resonance condition. The critical speed is the theoretical
angular velocity that excites the natural frequency of a rotating object, such as a shaft, propeller,
leadscrew, or gear. As the speed of rotation approaches the object's natural frequency, the object
begins to resonate, which dramatically increases system vibration. The resulting resonance
occurs regardless of orientation. Throughout the experiment, , the critical speed can be obtained
by measuring the distance of amplitude for different frequency where it is measured from the
unbalance position mark to the circle which produced from one revolution. We have fixed the
controller speed with the frequency of the increment 0f 3 Hz each. From that, we gained the
angular velocity values. Hence, the calculated angular velocity was used to find the frequency
ratios. Apart from that, the shift angle were obtained directly from the circular chart paper. The
values of the amplitude of the vibration, XP also was determined from our own experiment
which means we don’t calculate it using the formulas. We used different colors of plotter pen
to differentiate the frequency for every condition with the difference position of the needle
valve which was fully closed damper, medium closed damper, fully opened damper and no
damper. The circular chart was changed every condition.

In each damper condition, we have fixed the frequency to the 27 Hz, 30 Hz, 33 Hz, 36
Hz and 39 Hz. For the needle valve of fully open, the critical speed is 5mm at 39 Hz with angle
of 151˚. For medium of needle valve, the critical speed is 3mm at the same angle of 39 Hz with
angle of 153˚ while the critical speed is at 6mm at 39 Hz with angle at 126˚ for undamped. In
short, the critical speed was occured at the highest frequency. At the same time, the moderate
frequency which was 36 Hz, the shift angle was the largest. Overall, shift angle showed the
same pattern for all the conditions which was increasing and decreasing at the frequency of 39
Hz. It might caused by some errors during conducting this experiment. One of the parallax error
was the eyes are not located at angle of 90˚ when setting the reference mark from the plotter
pen. Next, the friction might occurred between the plotter pen and the chart paper while
vibrating that will affect the reading in the chart graph. Furthermore, the mark of unbalance
mass position was not parallel with the locking screw.
CONCLUSION

## In a conclusion, we can conclude that the experiment was considered success

due to the values obtained in table is quite same as the reference. Besides, we had achieved the
objective of this experiment whereas it was to determine the critical speed of whirling
machinery to avoid resonance condition. Critical speed was occured at the greatest amplitude
because greater damping occurred at that time where the vibration will cause the resonance. In
the other hand, the next recommendations need to be considered to obtain more accurate result.
Firstly, we should make sure that the unbalance mass must be parallel with the locking screw.
Next, the eyes must be perpendicular to the unbalance position mark on the chart graph so that
the reference that we set is accurate because it will influence the reading of the amplitude and
phase shift for different frequency. In addition, before conducting the experiment, we have to
understand about the experiment and do some revision. From that, we are able to determine the
critical speed from the experiment so that the results obtain make sense and relevant. All in all,
be precise to avoid major fault in result and discussion.