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Fundamental Switching Types
Fundamental Switching Types

Fundamental Switching Types

Fundamental Switching Types
Fundamental Switching Types • Circuit Switching • Virtual Circuit Switching • Datagram Switching • Implications

• Circuit Switching

• Virtual Circuit Switching

• Datagram Switching

• Implications for Signaling, Routing, Path Computation, and Restoration

– MPLS and GMPLS control planes

Routing, Path Computation, and Restoration – MPLS and GMPLS control planes Page - 1 © Grotto
Differences in Switching Types
Differences in Switching Types

Differences in Switching Types

Differences in Switching Types
Differences in Switching Types • Is connection set up required? • Is statistical multiplexing possible? •

• Is connection set up required?

• Is statistical multiplexing possible?

• What are the QoS measures? How is bandwidth allocated?

• How much work is needed to provide QoS guarantees?

• How can reliability/protection/restoration be provided and what are the trade offs?

How can reliability/protection/restoration be provided and what are the trade offs? Page - 2 © Grotto
Forwarding at each switch
Forwarding at each switch

Forwarding at each switch

Forwarding at each switch
Forwarding at each switch • Datagram (e.g., IP) – Based on complete destination address within the

• Datagram (e.g., IP)

– Based on complete destination address within the packet. Any valid destination must be forwarded correctly.

• Virtual Circuits (e.g., MPLS, ATM, Frame Relay)

– Based only on a label with the packet header. Only packets whose “virtual circuit” has been set up ahead of time must be forwarded correctly.

• Circuits (not packets)

– Based implicitly on either time slot or wavelength. No forwarding information needed in data. Only those circuits whose path has been set up ahead of time must be forwarded correctly.

Example Network
Example Network

Example Network

Example Network
Example Network – Datagram, Virtual Circuits, or Circuits – Switches 1-5, Hosts A-J Page - 4

– Datagram, Virtual Circuits, or Circuits

– Switches 1-5, Hosts A-J

Network – Datagram, Virtual Circuits, or Circuits – Switches 1-5, Hosts A-J Page - 4 ©
Datagram Forwarding Example
Datagram Forwarding Example

Datagram Forwarding Example

Datagram Forwarding Example
Datagram Forwarding Example   Switch #1 Switch #2 Switch #3   Switch #4     Switch
 

Switch #1

Switch #2

Switch #3

 

Switch #4

   

Switch #5

 

Dest

Port

Dest

Port

Dest

Port

Dest

Port

Dest

Port

A

1

A

2

A

1

A

1

A

1

B

2

B

2

B

1

B

1

B

1

C

3

C

1

C

1

C

3

C

1

D

3

D

3

D

1

D

3

D

1

E

4

E

2

E

2

E

1

E

2

F

4

F

2

F

4

F

1

F

2

G

4

G

4

G

3

G

2

G

2

H

4

H

4

H

3

H

4

H

2

I

3

I

4

I

3

I

3

I

3

J

3

J

4

J

3

J

3

J

4

I
I
 
I
I

Graph of our example networ with switch ports and hosts show

 
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
example networ with switch ports and hosts show   I I I I Page - 5
Virtual Circuit forwarding Example
Virtual Circuit forwarding Example

Virtual Circuit forwarding Example

Virtual Circuit forwarding Example
Virtual Circuit forwarding Example • Connections – Host A to Host J, Host B to Host

• Connections

– Host A to Host J, Host B to Host C, Host E to Host I, Host D to Host H, and Host A to Host G

Host J, Host B to Host C, Host E to Host I, Host D to Host
Virtual Circuit Forwarding
Virtual Circuit Forwarding

Virtual Circuit Forwarding

Virtual Circuit Forwarding
Virtual Circuit Forwarding – Packets are forwarded based on a label in the header – Labels

– Packets are forwarded based on a label in the header

– Labels are not destination addresses, usually much shorter

– Labels need to be unique on a link but not in a network, i.e., we can reuse labels on each link.

– Switch forwarding tables consist of a map between (input port, packet label) to (output port, new packet label)

– Table entry for each virtual circuit rather than for each destination (the datagram case)

– Technologies: MPLS, Frame Relay, ATM, X.25

each destination (the datagram case) – Technologies: MPLS, Frame Relay, ATM, X.25 Page - 7 ©
VC Forwarding Table Example
VC Forwarding Table Example

VC Forwarding Table Example

VC Forwarding Table Example
 

Switch #1

 

Switch #2

   

Switch #3

 

Port

In Label

 

Out Port

Out Label

In Port

In Label

 

Out Port

 

Out Label

 

In Port

In Label

Out Port

Out Lab

2

3

5

2

5

 

4

 

1

1

1

3

3

1

3

1

2

1

 

1

 

1

2

1

3

1

1

 

4

1

3

 

6

   

4

   

3

   

Port

Switch #4

In Label

Out Port

Out Label

 

In Port

Switch #5

In Label

Out Port

2 1
2
1

Out Lab

3

2

5

1

 
1 3
1
3
4 2
4
2

1

3

1

6
6
 

1

1

   

4

 

1

 

2

1

3

1

 
3
3
3
3
 
 
1
1
 
1
1
 
 
1
1
“Real” Circuit Forwarding
“Real” Circuit Forwarding

“Real” Circuit Forwarding

“Real” Circuit Forwarding
“Real” Circuit Forwarding • No more packets • Bit streams are distinguished by port and –

• No more packets

• Bit streams are distinguished by port and

– Time slots in the TDM case

– Wavelength in the WDM case

– Frequency in the FDM case

• Switching independent of bit stream contents

• TDM example (same connections as VC case)

– Host A to Host J, Host B to Host C, Host E to Host I, Host D to Host H, and Host A to Host G

Host J, Host B to Host C, Host E to Host I, Host D to Host
“Real” Circuit Tables Example
“Real” Circuit Tables Example

“Real” Circuit Tables Example

“Real” Circuit Tables Example
“Real” Circuit Tables Example Port Port   Switch #1   Switch #2     In Slot

Port

Port

 

Switch #1

 

Switch #2

 
 

In Slot

 

Out Port

 

Out Slot

In Port

In Slot

 

Out Port

Out Slot

2

 

3

 

5

 

2

5

 

4

1

 

1

3

 

1

2

1

 

1

1

1

4

   

1

3

 

6

   

4

 

3

 
 

Switch #4

 
 

In Slot

 

Out Port

 

Out Slot

 

3

2

5

1

3

1

1

   

4

   

1

 
 

Switch #3

 

In Port

In Slot

Out Port

Out Slo

1

1

3

3

2

1

3

1

   

Switch #5

1

In Port

1 3
1
3

In Slot

4 2
4
2

Out Port

2 1
2
1

Out Slo

1

2

1

3

1

1 3 In Slot 4 2 Out Port 2 1 Out Slo 1 2 1 3
Time Division Multiplexing
Time Division Multiplexing

Time Division Multiplexing

Time Division Multiplexing
Time Division Multiplexing TDM Path Multiplex Section Regenerator Section Path Path MS MS RS RS RS

TDM Path

Multiplex Section

Regenerator

Section

Path

Path

MS

MS

RS

RS

RS

RS

TDM

TDM de-

Multiplexor multiplexor Regenerator Regenerator (3R) #1 (3R) #2 = Optical Fiber = Regenerator section overhead
Multiplexor
multiplexor
Regenerator
Regenerator
(3R) #1
(3R) #2
= Optical Fiber
= Regenerator section overhead
= Multiplex section (line) overhead
section overhead = Multiplex section (line) overhead = User traffic (path layer) = Unused time slots

= User traffic (path layer)

= Unused time slots

= Multiplex section (line) overhead = User traffic (path layer) = Unused time slots Page -
Real Circuits and Virtual Circuits
Real Circuits and Virtual Circuits

Real Circuits and Virtual Circuits

Real Circuits and Virtual Circuits
Real Circuits and Virtual Circuits • Virtual Circuits – Packet based, label (not destination address) in

• Virtual Circuits

– Packet based, label (not destination address) in packet header

– Doesn’t always consume bandwidth, i.e., traffic can be bursty

• Real Circuits

– No packets raw bit stream, implicit label with either time slot or wavelength

– Is always consuming a fixed bandwidth, easy to keep track of bandwidth but not necessarily the most efficient utilization of link capacity.

QoS with Real Circuits
QoS with Real Circuits

QoS with Real Circuits

QoS with Real Circuits
QoS with Real Circuits • Bandwidth – Hard bandwidth guarantees are given by default (even if

• Bandwidth

– Hard bandwidth guarantees are given by default (even if you don’t want them).

• Delay

– Very little delay variation. Most delay attributable to propagation. Switching delays in most circuit switches is minimal.

• Bit Error Rate

– Is the primary “signal quality measure”

is minimal. • Bit Error Rate – Is the primary “signal quality measure” Page - 13
QoS with Virtual Circuits
QoS with Virtual Circuits

QoS with Virtual Circuits

QoS with Virtual Circuits
QoS with Virtual Circuits • Bandwidth – Is by default shared with other users. Effort required

• Bandwidth

– Is by default shared with other users. Effort required to make guarantees. Very good statistical multiplexing gain can be obtained.

• Delay

– In addition to propagation and switch processing delay we now have queueing induced delays

– Queueing delays: can be quite large, can be quite variable

– By default no guarantees made

• Dropped/Errored Packets

– Packets can be errored (bits errors), or dropped due to buffer overflows.

Protection/Restoration
Protection/Restoration

Protection/Restoration

Protection/Restoration
Protection/Restoration • Failure detection – Most circuit technologies have very fast built-in failure detection. –

• Failure detection

– Most circuit technologies have very fast built-in failure detection.

– For packet technologies this hasn’t been the case but new work, e.g., BFD at IETF is underway.

• Alternative Routes

– Alternate routes for circuit consume bandwidth or must be set up on the fly costing time.

– Alternate routes for virtual circuits do not consume bandwidth until they are used, hence can be set up ahead of time.

– Alternate routes can not be preconfigured for datagram networks and all switches (routers) must recalculate routing tables based on link failure info.

all switches (routers) must recalculate routing tables based on link failure info. Page - 15 ©
Forwarding Tables
Forwarding Tables

Forwarding Tables

Forwarding Tables
Forwarding Tables • All switching types use them • Datagram Forwarding Tables – Need to account

• All switching types use them

• Datagram Forwarding Tables

– Need to account for all destinations no matter who’s communicating at any given time.

• Circuit and Virtual Circuit Forwarding Tables

– Entry for each circuit or VC that traverses a particular switch.

– Note that if there are N host and they all want to talk to each other at exactly the same time then the network will need to support N(N-1) circuits or VCs.

the same time then the network will need to support N(N-1) circuits or VCs. Page -
Scaling Forwarding Tables
Scaling Forwarding Tables

Scaling Forwarding Tables

Scaling Forwarding Tables
Scaling Forwarding Tables – Modern networks like the Internet and Telephone networks consists of 100 of

– Modern networks like the Internet and Telephone networks consists of 100 of Millions or more hosts how can we keep our routing tables under control?

• Datagram Tables

– We route based on networks and groups of networks. Addresses are given out accordingly. This allows the aggregation of destination addresses.

• Circuit Tables

– We multiplex circuits onto larger and larger trunks in a hierarchy. Switches generally only work at a couple levels of the hierarchy. Example a switch working with SONET OC48 links (2.5Gbps) will switch with 50Mbps granularity but not 64kbps granularity!

Setting up the Routing Tables
Setting up the Routing Tables

Setting up the Routing Tables

Setting up the Routing Tables
Setting up the Routing Tables • Finding Paths from Source to Destination – How do we

• Finding Paths from Source to Destination

– How do we choose our “route”?

– Algorithms

– Protocols

• Datagram Routing

– Must make sure that the tables are consistent so we don’t get datagram loops.

• “Real” Circuit Routing

– Need to have enough bandwidth available on the links to support the circuits.

– Need to have enough bandwidth available on the links to support the circuits. Page -
Differences Between Optical Network Routing and IP Routing
Differences Between Optical Network Routing and IP Routing

Differences Between Optical Network Routing and IP Routing

Differences Between Optical Network Routing and IP Routing
Differences Between Optical Network Routing and IP Routing • IP routing – Per hop forwarding of

• IP routing

– Per hop forwarding of datagrams based on destination IP address

– Every router must have exactly the same network topology information (links, nodes, and link wts.)

– Every router must run exactly the same path computation algorithm

– Failure to insure these last two requirements can result in routing loops and “black holes”

insure these last two requirements can result in routing loops and “black holes” Page - 19
Differences Between Optical Network Routing and IP Routing
Differences Between Optical Network Routing and IP Routing

Differences Between Optical Network Routing and IP Routing

Differences Between Optical Network Routing and IP Routing
Differences Between Optical Network Routing and IP Routing • Optical routing – Circuits are source routed;

• Optical routing

– Circuits are source routed; no loops possible

– No standardization of path computation required

– Okay for information to be slightly out of date, e.g., available capacity information; worst case “crank-back” of connection

– Unless restoration action is taken based on link state updates, routing is not service impacting in transport domain

based on link state updates, routing is not service impacting in transport domain Page - 20
What is GMPLS?
What is GMPLS?

What is GMPLS?

What is GMPLS?
What is GMPLS? • GMPLS = Generalized MPLS – Refers to adaptation of MPLS control plane

• GMPLS = Generalized MPLS

– Refers to adaptation of MPLS control plane for the control of other technologies

– Includes signaling and routing mechanisms developed for MPLS traffic engineering

– GMPLS protocols developed under IETF

– Previously called “MP λS”

– GMPLS protocols developed under IETF – Previously called “MP λ S” Page - 21 ©
What is MPLS?
What is MPLS?

What is MPLS?

What is MPLS?
What is MPLS? • MPLS = “Multi-Protocol Label Switching” • A virtual circuit form of packet

• MPLS = “Multi-Protocol Label Switching”

• A virtual circuit form of packet switching such as frame relay or ATM but with a more IP centric control plane and built in IP “adaptation”.

or ATM but with a more IP centric control plane and built in IP “adaptation”. Page
MPLS and IP
MPLS and IP

MPLS and IP

MPLS and IP
MPLS and IP • A combine IP router / MPLS switch assigns IP packets to MPLS

• A combine IP router / MPLS switch assigns IP packets to MPLS flows (virtual circuits)

– This process is known as “classification” and can be very simple or very complex depending upon the context.

– This box is known as a Label Edge Router (LER)

• The IP packet header is not touched or looked at while in the MPLS network

– The LSR (label switched routers) only switch based on MPLS labels.

MPLS network – The LSR (label switched routers) only switch based on MPLS labels. Page -
An example…
An example…

An example…

An example…
An example… Ingress router adds label to packet Label switching & packet forwarding Egress router removes
Ingress router adds label to packet Label switching & packet forwarding Egress router removes label
Ingress
router adds
label to packet
Label switching &
packet forwarding
Egress router
removes label
Unlabeled
Packet arrives
IP 20
IP
IP 10
Autonomous
system boundary
IP
Label Switched Path (LSP)
Label Switched Path (LSP)

Label Switched Path (LSP)

Label Switched Path (LSP)
Label Switched Path (LSP) Label switched path A Label Switched Path is like a pipe or
Label switched path
Label switched path

A Label Switched Path is like a pipe or tunnel to IP packets. However its just another term for a virtual circuit. While traveling on a label switched path, forwarding is based on the label only, not on destination IP address in packet.

forwar ding is based on the label only, not on destination IP address in packet. Page
Controlling LSP Set-Up: Explicit Routing
Controlling LSP Set-Up: Explicit Routing

Controlling LSP Set-Up: Explicit Routing

Controlling LSP Set-Up: Explicit Routing
Controlling LSP Set-Up: Explicit Routing 12.0.0.1 10.1.1.1 10.1.1.2 10.1.1.2 10.1.1.3 10.1.1.5 10.1.1.5 10.1.1.6
12.0.0.1 10.1.1.1 10.1.1.2 10.1.1.2 10.1.1.3 10.1.1.5 10.1.1.5 10.1.1.6 10.1.1.6 Explicit route 10.1.1.4 10.1.1.7
12.0.0.1
10.1.1.1
10.1.1.2 10.1.1.2
10.1.1.3
10.1.1.5 10.1.1.5
10.1.1.6 10.1.1.6
Explicit route
10.1.1.4
10.1.1.7 10.1.1.7
10.1.1.7
strict
10.1.1.6
strict
10.1.1.5
strict

strict

10.1.1.1 strict

10.1.1.2

POP

Strict hop LSP takes direct route to 10.1.1.7

Page - 26

Similar procedure can be used for optical connection set-up.

“Generalized” MPLS
“Generalized” MPLS

“Generalized” MPLS

“Generalized” MPLS
“Generalized” MPLS • Virtual Circuits ! Real Circuits – From real labels in MPLS to “virtual

• Virtual Circuits ! Real Circuits

– From real labels in MPLS to “virtual labels” in GMPLS

• “Labels” in GMPLS

– TDM where time slots are the implicit labels (e.g., SONET)

– FDM where frequencies (or λs) are the implicit labels (e.g., WDM)

– Space-division multiplexing where port numbers are the implicit labels (e.g., OXCs)

• Generalized labels used in MPLS messaging = Generalized MPLS

(e.g., OXCs) • Generalized labels used in MPLS messaging = Generalized MPLS Page - 27 ©