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Autumn 2008  Issue 09 Renewable energies 10 Euro

Autumn 2008  Issue 09 Renewable energies 10 Euro Daylight & Architecture Magazine by velux
Mankind will not survive in the long run if our energy supply is not switched to
renewable energies. Besides the fact that the combustion of fossil fuels increases
global warming, their stocks will be exhausted in a matter of hundreds, if not tens,
of years. This issue of Daylight & Architecture addresses the theme of renewa-
ble energies from a variety of viewpoints, discussing the availability of renewa-
ble energies and ways to harness them, and investigating how renewable energy
supplies and energy efficiency can go hand in hand in the built environment. We

All life
also present different pilot projects, and a pioneer architect who has undertaken
groundbreaking work in this direction.
Solar energy is sometimes viewed as a niche resource with a useful, but lim-

thrives on ited, potential. However it is probably the only long-term energy source that is
both large enough and acceptable enough to sustain the planet’s long term re-

quirements. In his article, Professor Richard Perez discusses how much energy
we will need in the future to meet our needs and shows that solar energy has the
greatest potential of all energy sources.

from The writer Tor Nørretranders’ thesis is that the biggest change in recent years
is taking place right now: environmentalism used to be a story about limiting con-

the sun sumption – not over-using, not over-fishing, and not over-eating. Now we can use
as much as we like – as long as it is the waste of someone (or something) else. If
we build on biological materials and produce waste edible by micro-organisms
or pigs or plants, then there is no limit.
The Chilean architect Enrique Browne has persistently used nature, espe-
cially vegetation, to both enhance the living quality of his buildings’ inhabitants
and to cut the buildings’ energy use to about half that of other contemporary of-
fice buildings in the country.
The new Monte Rosa Hut portrayed in another article is, in many ways, a par-
adigm for energy-efficient, autonomous buildings in remote regions. The build-
ing is intended to become 90% autonomous in terms of energy supply and have
a waste-water recycling system.
At VELUX we feel an obligation to take responsibility for, and lead the way
in, the development of ideas and concepts that will reduce fossil consumption –
and thus CO2 emissions. As a building component manufacturer, our starting
point is the fact that buildings are responsible for more than 40 per cent of
Europe’s total energy consumption – so they constitute a substantial potential
when it comes to making reductions. VELUX has developed CO2-neutral alterna-
tives – like the SOLTAG demo house for markets in Northern Europe and the Atika
concept house for the Mediterranean countries. With the vision of Model Home
2020, VELUX has now taken a step further towards the future to investigate
how to optimise liveability and sustainability in future buildings.

Enjoy the read.

Photo: adam mØrk

AUTUMN 2008 now 4 VELUX Insight 36 reflections 48 VELUX DIALOGUE 58 VELUX PANORAMA 62
Issue 09 THE New Stay alive – Back in the
ContENTS MONTE ROSA HUT renew yourself driver’s seat

1 VELUX Editorial In an apartment building in Madrid, bamboo poles The ETH in Zürich and the Swiss Alps Club want to Recycling is good but total sustainability is better. What influence are architects having on the future A home as a source of life: The demonstration house
2 Contents provide shade and a hint of the exotic. 20 teams create sustainable architecture in the high moun- Only when we organise the way we live in such a energy consumption of our society? Where can a SOLTAG shows how energy efficiency can be com-
4 Now of students compete with each other in the ‘solar tains near Zermatt. The New Monte Rosa Hut is to way that all our waste is completely and benevo- start be made on spreading their knowledge more bined with maximum living quality. The CO2-neu-
8 Mankind and Architecture decathlon’ in Washington. Also: Oslo celebrates its achieve a degree of energy autonomy of over 90 per lently re-absorbed by nature or re-used in indus- widely than before and what levers can architects tral home consists of partly pre-fabricated modules
Making the Case for Solar Energy new opera house, and the Pritzker prize goes to cent. In summer, the foundation stone was laid for try will we really be living in a sustainable manner. apply on the political level? These and other ques- and can be erected either on existing flat roofs or, as
18 Daylighting Jean Nouvel, a never-tiring experimenter in mat- the new building, on which specialists from differ- For Tor Nørretranders, the concept of symbiosis tions have been discussed by Daylight&Architecture any other terraced house, on new building plots.
Enrique Brown: ters of daylight architecture. ent disciplines have worked, together with archi- in nature, whereby different species satisfy each with Gaëtan Siew, the outgoing president of UIA,
A ”Natural” Approach to Building tects and students of the ETH. other’s needs, is a perfect model of this credo. the international union of architects.
34 Pacific Light
36 VELUX Insight
The New Monte Rosa Hut
48 Reflections
Stay alive – Renew yourself
54 VELUX Model Home 2020
58 VELUX Dialogue
Back in the Driver’s Seat
Interwiev with Gaëtan Siew
62 VELUX Panorama
66 Books
68 Preview

Photo: torben Eskerod

Mankind 8 DAYLIGHTING 18
Making the case for A ”natural” approach
SOLAR ENERGY to building

Energy without end: The sun is the only source of The phrase ‘A natural approach to building’ is to be
energy that can satisfy the energy requirements taken literally in the case of the Chilean architect
of mankind for the foreseeable future without any Enrique Browne. Browne makes light, landscape
Photo: Roig /

serious damage to the environment. In his article, and vegetation into a part of his buildings. By ar-
Richard Perez explains the steps that are necessary ranging for plants to climb up the facades of high-
to make the ‘solar era’ a reality. rise buildings, for example, he allows the users to
experience the changes of the seasons.

2 D&A AUTUMN 2008  Issue 09 3

now The things that make architecture tick:
events, competitions and selected new devel-
opments from the world of daylighting.

Opera house “As northern Europeans we have a nounced an international architec- rounded the sanitary area – under
completely different relationship ture competition for the new building the lowest section of the sloping
with sun deck with light from people in the south,” in 1999. Location: the Bjørvika penin- roof, on the Fjord side – with ‘The
said Olafur Eliasson at the opening sula, only a stone’s throw from the Other Wall’, an openwork wall sculp-
of the new opera house in Oslo. The city centre, and yet cut off from it by ture in white MDF. It is reminiscent
building for which Eliasson contrib- a multi-lane highway. But competi- of ice crystals or finely chased Ara-
uted his art is impressive proof of tion winners Snøhetta did not inter- bic window grilles, depending on the
the Danish-Icelandic artist’s words: pret monumentality through height, angle it is viewed from. The back of
gleaming white and at the same time but by reaching deep into the city: the the building, which faces away from
incomparably cool, the new build- new building has a total of 18,000 the water, houses the office section,
ing stands out from the grey urban square metres of accessible space on as in most opera houses, and the
backdrop of the Norwegian capital. the roof. It is said that 20,000 people studios for set builders and make-
It owes this gleaming brightness to spent time on it in the course of one up artists. This part of the building –
the white marble cladding that rises sunny August day in 2007. appropriately called The Factory by
from the shore of the Oslo Fjord to The abundant light inside the new Snøhetta – was given sheet alumin-
the roof of the building. From the building is appropriate to its shining ium facade cladding. The architects,
outset, the Norwegian architects whiteness: tall facades up to 15 me- working with artists Astrid Løvaas
Snøhetta tailored their design con- tres high in clear ‘low-iron’ glass en- and Kirsten Wagle, developed an em-
cept to the idea that the people of velop the foyer. They are stabilized bossed pattern of hemispherical and
Oslo should be able to climb “on to vertically by glass fins of the same conical dots for this that are reminis-
the roof” of the new opera house, and height, with only the essential steel cent of Braille and make the large fa-
it does the Norwegian state as client connecting elements laminated into cade panels sparkle in the sunlight.
considerable credit that it took this them. Two additional details play-
idea on into the building stage. ing with light and shade draw atten-
The government was looking for a tion to themselves: Olafur Eliasson,
“monumental” structure when it an- the above-mentioned artist, sur-

Photo: Trond Isaksen/Statsbygg

4 D&A  Autumn 2008  Issue 09 5
Photo: Technische Universität Darmstadt

Photo: Sergio Padura

Photo: Roland Halbe

Photo: Roland Halbe

Solar decathlon Light streaming Architecture as Homes with a
for students through a rusty hood an experiment bamboo veil

The US energy ministry’s Solar De- from Germany to the USA in three Even now its praises are being sung gant with a building while at the same He is known as modern architecture’s perience it and see its multiple facade Madrid is growing. New apartment to penetrate deep into the rooms. A
cathlon was held for the third time large modules. To keep the building, as one of the finest places to have time relying so much on the element alchemist; for him designing is a life- reflections with your own eyes in order blocks are springing up all over the 1.5 metre wide gallery runs round the
last autumn. Each of 20 high school and hence the transport costs, low, a coffee in Madrid: the cafeteria on of surprise: the complete ground floor long experiment – with an in-built pos- to take it in. Windows too are some- place on the outskirts of the Span- outside, offering the residents addi-
teams from the USA, Canada, Puerto the photovoltaic panels are fitted on the top floor of the CaixaForum that of the two-aisled brick structure was sibility of failure. And now, on 2 June, thing more for Nouvel than just aper- ish capital, and it is not unusual for tional open air living space. Folding
Rico, Spain and Germany was chal- to the flat roof almost horizontally. Swiss architects Herzog & de Meuron removed and redesigned as a covered Jean Nouvel is being awarded this tures that let light into the building: them to be designed by architects aluminium shutters provide shade.
lenged to build a fully functioning The Darmstadt team’s calculations have created in a converted power public plaza. The upper section of the year’s Pritzker Prize in the Library of they form part of a major spectacle with international reputations. This These are filled with densely packed
home running entirely on solar power show that this means an efficiency station in the centre of the Span- building was retained; it is now sup- Congress in Washington DC, an hon- in which inside and outside, building applies in the Carabanchel district in bamboo bars, and in the morning and
and to erect it on the National Mall in loss of about eight per cent in com- ish capital. The café’s droplet lights ported exclusively by three lift and our that many critics feel is long over- and surroundings, heaven and earth, the extreme south-west of the city: the evening, when the sun is low in
Washington for the final event. Here parison with an ideal arrangement shine through the building’s perfo- staircase cores. This was all made due. The former student of the Ecole meet. In Nouvel’s The Hotel in Lucerne the municipal housing department, the sky but still glaringly bright, they
an expert jury assessed the build- of the panels. Even the surface of the rated metal skin in the evening and at possible by a new internal load-bear- des Beaux-Arts in Paris turned against huge mirrors deflect the light into the EMVS, asked the London practice create light similar to that of a bam-
ings on the basis of ten criteria. This oak folding shutters in front of the night. The opposite lighting effect oc- ing structure in concrete, anchored the monotony of post-war Modernism basement restaurant. Floor-to-ceiling Foreign Office Architects to design boo forest, with countless patches
meant that the students were enter- facades, which are glazed all round, curs during the day, when the glaring back into the existing brick facades. at an early stage – and has remained coloured windows bathe the interior 100 social housing units in a new de- of intricate light and shadow. At
ing a versatility contest that was en- consists of photovoltaic elements. sunlight is filtered through the irreg- The architects had all the windows true to this approach: “No one has ever of the Guthrie Theater in Minneapolis velopment area. The parcel has a first glance, the building looks like
tirely in keeping with later ‘real’ work Unlike the solar panels on the roof, ularly pierced facade panels, casting in the old building bricked up and re- accused a Nouvel building of being in an intensely yellow or blue twilight. park on its western boundary, and a hermetically sealed wooden chest
in an architecture practice: the light- these louvers can move, and follow silhouettes on the café floor. Herzog placed them with new apertures in dull or ugly or repetitive. Impractical, And the coloured glass louvres of the other multi-storey apartment blocks on the outside. It is only on look-
ing concept, the commercial viability the position of the sun automatically, & de Meuron had already tried out the the outer skin adapted to the exhibi- sometimes. Over budget, occasion- Torre Agbar in Barcelona conceal an on the south, north and east sides. ing more closely that you become
of the whole project and the team’s thus enabling the panels to combine idea of covering a building and all its tion galleries behind. A new structure ally. But never dull or ugly,” writes intricately perforated facade made up The number and size of the dwell- aware of the fine bamboo structure
publicity work were judged, as well maximum shading and maximum ex- facade apertures with a perforated on the roof, of almost equal height, John Lichfield in the British ‘Independ- of small, pixel-like windows arranged ings and the maximum building and the interplay of open and closed
as architectural quality and techni- ploitation of sunlight. metal skin in 2006, for the Young Mu- now rises above the brick build- ent’ newspaper. Jean Nouvel identi- differently on every floor. Something height were laid down in the archi- shutters, enlivening the facades with
cal integration. The interior of the building is seum in San Francisco. There the fa- ing. It has an amorphous silhouette, fies one of the reasons himself: “I have else unforgettable is the way Nou- tects’ brief, but positioning the new their changing configuration. The ar-
The design by the winning team heated by a combination of passive cade was made of copper sheeting, and the above-mentioned iron-pan- worked for a long time as a scenog- vel stages the shading technology for building on the plot was left to them. chitects have this to say: “Our exper-
from the Technische Universität in solar energy gains and by a photo- while in Madrid they used rusty cast- elled outer skin. This accommodates rapher, even on social housing.” This the Institut du Monde Arabe in Paris Foreign Office Architects designed iment with this project was to erase
Darmstadt draws attention to an voltaic heat pump to warm up air iron panels. Even the facade panel mainly the restaurant and the offices, attitude also explains his interest in (1987): adjustable metal shutters in a compact structure using the max- the visibility of the units and their dif-
insight that has been increasingly drawn in from the outside. Innova- perforations are reminiscent of rust- as well as some additional exhibition lighting effects and reflections, which the facade cavity form an ornamen- imum height allowed, and placed it ferences into a single volume with a
accepted in recent years: solar ar- tive use of materials also contributes induced pitting, enlarged appropri- spaces. The exterior material triad constantly make his architecture ‘dis- tal pattern locating the building some- on the plot’s western boundary, so homogeneous skin able to incorpo-
chitecture no longer has its own sty- to a pleasant interior climate: the ately. “Herzog & de Meuron have is completed with a ‘vertical gar- appear’. For example, for the Fonda- where between high-tech and folklore. that private gardens for the resi- rate a gradation of possibilities not
listic characteristics; gone seem to roof is insulated with 2x3 cm vacuum created a fascinatingly profound and den’ on the fire wall of the building, tion Cartier in Paris in 1994, a building Jean Nouvel is currently designing a dents could be provided on the east dependent on the architect’s vision,
be the days of gigantic solar awnings panels; the thermal mass of the light- complex piece of work, going well be- diagonally opposite the CaixaForum, that makes “dematerialization palpa- tall building for 72 luxury dwellings in side. Even though the building is very but as an effect of the inhabitants’
fitted with photovoltaic cells, unduly weight construction is enhanced by yond an immediately recognisable the work of the French artist Patrick ble”, according to the Pritzker Prize Manhattan. Here too daylight takes deep – over 13 metres – all the dwell- choice.”
large conservatories and metre- latent heat storage units made of mi- iconic building,” runs architecture Blanc: about 250 different plant spe- jury: the building, which actually con- centre stage again: “It’s clearly a game ings face in both directions, creating
thick planted roofs. The Darmstadt cro-encapsulated paraffin and built critic David Cohn’s comment on the cies flourish here. They are rooted in a sists only of a sequence of multi-sto- with the nature of light and how to tube-like individual plots that are
students’ pavilion was built using the into the plasterboard panels. building. The Swiss architects have metal mesh that also provides them rey glass screens, defies any attempt catch sparkles of light, a little bit like sometimes quite confined. Floor-to-
timber-frame technique and shipped rarely been so structurally extrava- with water. to describe it formally. You have to ex- the eye of an insect.” ceiling glass facades allow daylight

6 D&A  Autumn 2008  Issue 09 7

Mankind Mankind as the focal point of architecture: Solar energy is often viewed as a set of niche applica-
and architecture interior views of a corresponding relationship.
tions, with a useful, but limited potential. However it is
probably the only long-term supply-side energy solu-

tion that is both large enough and acceptable enough
to sustain the planet’s long term requirements.
By Richard Perez


8 D&A  SUMMER 2008  Issue 09 9 10

(Figure 1) © R. Perez et al.

25–70 WAVES 3 0,2–2



solar power power of the sun
The available solar energy exceeds the world’s energy It is helpful to distinguish between two types of solar MEETING ENERGY DEMAND
comsumption by a factor of 1.500. Fossil fuels like oil energy applications: those which are designed to meet a par- There are two ways to meet worldwide energy demand and its
and coal alone could fulfil our energy needs for ticular end-use, and those which are universal in nature. fast anticipated growth:
The first group includes such applications as domestic hot
SOLAR 23,000 10 another three or four generations, but would do so at
a considerable environmental cost. water, passive or active heating of buildings, and utilisation 1. On the demand-side, by acting to reduce, and eventually
of natural light. These applications are indeed ‘niche appli- reverse, the growth rate, using conservation and increas-
cations’ although their scope can be very large (e.g., the pen- ing efficiencies: e.g., better engines, higher efficiency light-
240 etration of solar hot water systems in countries like Israel, ing, better insulation, avoiding unnecessary waste; in short
PETROLEUM 8 Spain Turkey and especially China1 is significant). However, smarter, better and smaller. The McKinsey report on cli-
the impact of these technologies is limited to meeting their mate change5 indicates that over 40% of the consumption
OTEC 4 specific end-use, contributing to the general perception that of major consumers like the United States could be met
solar is a useful but limited energy resource. economically by smart conservation and efficiency alone.
The second group includes technologies designed to
generate electricity – i.e., a universal energy carrier that 2. On the supply-side, by tapping existing and new resources
can be stored, transformed and reach virtually any end- capable of meeting the demand remaining after conserva-
use application requiring energy. This group includes pho- tion. Table 3 reports the current contribution of different
tovoltaic (PV) power generation, concentrated solar power resources to the planet’s supply-side needs.
(CSP), and wind power generation2. This second group
BIOMASS 5 holds the key to a very large scale deployment potential Finite supply-side resources: The lion’s share of the today’s pri-
90–300 that could, in theory, meet all the planet’s energy require- mary energy comes from fossil fuels with the balance largely

TOTAL ments and beyond. met by nuclear, hydroelectricity and biomass. Much of this
16 TW-YR PER YEAR supply chain is finite, and the world is rapidly moving into
1. S. Heckeroth,, HUMANITY’S ENERGY REQUIREMENTS a phase where the balance between supply and demand will
HYDRO 6 adapted from Christopher Swan mal/egs_technology.html. Note At present the total primary energy consumption of the world reach a tipping point. Oil is the first to approach its physical
(1986): Sun Cell, Sierra Club Press that geothermal is treated here
2. C. Archer & M. Jacobson, Evalua- as a renewable resource, with a
is of the order of 480 exajoules3 per year, amounting to a con- production peak and the inevitable supply-demand imbal-
tion of Global Wind Power – Stan- yearly production rate based on stant power demand of 16 Terawatts4. This consumption is ance already causes chaotic market fluctuations with a strong
ford University, Stanford, CA projected installed capacity in not distributed equally, with rich industrialised countries, underlying price strengthening.
3. World Energy Council 40-50 years exploiting current such as the United States of America using almost 22% of Aside from oil, a look at the proven planetary reserves
GEOTHERMAL 7 4. G. Nihous, An Order-of-Magni- recovery technologies. The re-
0,3–2 PER YEAR tude Estimate of Ocean Ther- source is indeed finite (since con-
the planet’s energy with only 5% of its population. Grow- (Fig 1) of finite resources is quite revealing.
TIDES 1 mal Energy Conversion Resources, tained within the earth) but its ing economic powers China and India are rapidly increasing Nuclear energy is often presented as the solution to oil
0,3 PER YEAR Journal of Energy Resources Tech- ultimate potential is considerable their demand for energy with a combined consumption now depletion and global warming. Unfortunately, this “silver bul-
nology – December 2005 – Vol- and has been estimate at several
ume 127, Issue 4, pp. 328–333 10,000 TW-yrs. However its ex-
exceeding that of the United States, suggesting that the cur- let” view may be too optimistic. Apart from the still unresolved
900 5. R. Whittaker (1975): The Biosphere ploitation is contingent on captur- rent worldwide figure is headed for a strong growth. Table 1 issues of waste management and nuclear proliferation, and
COAL 8 TOTAL RESERVE and Man – in Primary Productivity ing the heat reservoirs stored very reports energy consumption figures for major countries and apart from the unaccounted need for large, if hidden, public
of the Biosphere. Springer-Verlag, deep under the earth’s crust and groups of countries around the world. subsidies (e.g., the Price-Anderson Act in the United States13,
305-328. ISBN 0-3870-7083-4. on humanity’s willingness to do so.
6. Environmental Resources Group, 8. BP Statistical Review of Residential and commercial sectors (i.e., largely build- protection from terrorism, etc.) the supply of nuclear fuel may
LLC World Energy 2007 ings) account for almost 30% of energy use in oecd coun- be just too small using current and planned nuclear generator
hydropower_global.php 9. http://www.wise-uranium. tries. While the proportion is smaller in non-oecd countries, technologies7. The current pressure on nuclear fuel price, par-
7. MIT/INEL The Future of Geother- org/stk.html?src=stkd03e
mal Energy – Impact of Enhanced 10. Solar energy received by emerged
the commercial building sector’s energy demand growth sur- alleling that of oil, is an indication that supply-demand bal-
Geothermal Systems [EGS] on the continents only, assuming 65% passes all other sectors by far. ance is tightening8.
U.S. in the 21st Century http:// losses by atmosphere and clouds

D&A  Autumn 2008  Issue 09 11

image credits
1. Central or distributed? Using to- 3. Measured in terms of annual power power supply in the future, they 1: Geoff Tompkinson / SPL / Agentur Focus
2: Thomas Steinhagen / fotolia
day’s electricity grids for both generation, wind power is cur- could play an important role as 3: KAJ R. SVENSSON / SPL / AGENTUR FOCUS
4: Technische Universität Darmstadt
methods of solar power sup- rently the second most impor- miniature power stations. 5: Hank Morgan / SPL / Agentur Focus

ply would not involve any sig- tant source of renewable energy 5. Solar trough power station
nificant problems. after hydroelectric power. In terms in California. Large solar heat
2. Worldwide, known coal reserves of its global potential, however, power stations such as these
would be alone sufficient to sup- it comes far behind solar power. are regarded as a highly prom-
ply the world with energy for 4. Today, buildings consume more ising alternative to photovoltaic
the next 2 to 3 generations. than 30 per cent of all energy forms of power generation.
worldwide. In distributed, solar
1 2 3 4 5

The proven reserves of coal are significant and could carry the scape can be used for solar harvesting with very little visual or lenge will have to be addressed because the solar renewable able: ground transportations could become largely electrical
planet for a good number of years, but probably not for more operational impact. The city of New York, for instance, one of resources are intermittent and vary seasonally. Smart, inter- over time through increase electric rail-based mass transpor-
than 2–3 generations if coal-alone had to carry the planet’s the densest energy demand hubs on the planet, could satisfy active electrical load management and energy storage tech- tation, the advent of electrical and plug-in hybrids, and new
energy burden, and, likely, at a huge environmental cost, with, its entire electric consumption using 60% of its surface, using nologies will have to undergo a fast development phase. concepts such as Personal Transportation Networks16. It is
first and foremost, global warming intensification. the same modest 10% conversion efficiency13 as a reference. The main attraction of this decentralised deployment also possible to produce fuel, or fuel equivalents derived from
While natural gas is considerably more environmentally Another interesting point of reference is to contrast solar gen- model is that it would result in indigenous, highly-secure, solar/wind electricity – hydrolysis of hydrogen being the most
benign than coal, the reserves are also considerably more lim- eration area requirements to hydroelectric artificial lakes. In and robust energy pathways. Because of the decentrali- familiar if not the most promising method. New generation
ited. The recent trend observed in North America between the the United States, for instance, artificial lakes occupy 100,000 sation of production, demand management, and storage of fuel-producing biomass could also be considered for the
number of gas wells drilled and the amount of gas produced square kilometres of flooded land to produce only 7% of the operation, the failure of any one decentralised unit, with remaining applications which could not easily rely on electric-
may be an early symptom of more pressure to come9. county’s electrical energy. Only a quarter of that flooded space built-in minimal stand-alone operation capability, would ity directly or indirectly, such as air transport. Although rely-
would be needed to supply 100% of the electricity with pho- be insignificant. ing on biomass alone for all transportation needs would put
Renewable resources: Figure 1 compares the yearly potential tovoltaic power generation. The storage panoplies which will have to be developed an impossibly large burden on food chain and the planetary
yield of renewable resources against the finite reserves of con- will range for very short term (capacitors, fly wheels, bat- ecosystem, innovative solar-augmented biomass or bacteria-
ventional energies. It is plainly evident that the magnitude A COMPREHENSIVE SOLAR SOLUTION teries, load demand response) to mid term (e.g., interactive based fuel producing t echnologies could be reasonably envis-
of the solar resource dwarfs any other finite and renewable While stressing that demand-side conservation and efficiency electric/hybrid cars14 load/backup management), to long aged for applications absolutely requiring liquid fuels.
resources. Note that many of the renewable resources are sec- are an inherent part of any solution, a nearly 100% supply-side term (e.g., flow batteries, hydrogen, compressed air)
ond and third order byproducts of incoming solar energy, solar future for the planet is not inconceivable. Given the size A look at the solar industry: As a reality check, a quick look
like wind, biomass, hydropower and wave power – just as of the finite reserves and the size of the renewable solar supply, (2) At the other extreme are continental, and possibly plane- at the direct and indirect solar industries that are fast emerg-
fossil fuels are byproducts of solar energy stored in the earth logic alone would say that such a future is inevitable. tary super power grids: the basic ideas behind this vision ing throughout the world today indicates that the type of
over millions of years10. Wind energy could probably satisfy Beyond conservation and efficiency, a comprehensive are that some places on the planet receive more solar energy ‘big-picture’ visions mentioned above already have a strong,
the planetary energy requirements if exploited to a substan- approach would first involve maximising the utilisation of than others (e.g., the world subtropical deserts) and that if yet still embryonic, head start: Considering the growth of
tial portion of its potential. However the yearly, indefinitely the direct end-use solar applications that have the highest on- the average solar yield of the entire planet is nearly con- pv, wind, and csp alone over the last ten years17 and project-
renewable supply of solar energy received by the emerged con- site solar-to-application efficiencies: hot water, daylight, passive stant (i.e., it is always sunny somewhere on planet earth). ing this growth rate in the future indicates that over half of
tinents alone is more than 30 times larger than the total plan- heating and passive cooling where climate permits. There are conceptual proposals on the drawing board both the new electric generating capacity installed in a country like
etary reserves of coal and 1,500 times larger than the current But the key would lie in electricity generation via any of in Europe and in America15 considering this type of solar the United States will come from these renewable resources
planetary energy consumption. the leading direct solar technologies (pv and csp) or indirect energy deployment. The approach will necessitate the devel- within 20 years. This growth may not yet be quite sufficient
The solar resource is well distributed and widely availa- technologies (wind, smart biomass) and in the development opment of very high voltage, highly conductive dc super yet given the fossil energy depletion and environmental pres-
ble throughout much of the planet. It is of course more abun- of creative solutions and infrastructures to serve the energy power lines, and, more importantly will necessitate a strong sures, but it is already impressive; and suggests that when addi-
dant in the tropical belts than it is in the temperate zones11, but and modify it to meet all end-uses. and tacit agreement between all involved parties and coun- tional countries and decision makers become aware of the need
consider that even such a modestly sized, northern, and some- tries to maintain and protect such a network. for a fast transition, a rapid renewable takeoff is not pie in the
times cloudy country as Denmark receives a total of nearly 5 Infrastructure: Two very distinct infrastructural models are sky but a real possibility.
tw-year worth of solar energy every year, that is one third of envisageable: The author’s preference is for the first (decentralised) model, The first markets to evolve are, and will be, driven by key
the energy consumption of the entire planet. but a combination of both could be envisageable - at the very underlying forces: (1) The people/policy driven markets exem-
It is widely believed that deploying solar energy on a massive (1) Local, decentralised production of solar-derived electric- least making use of nearby availability of large solar resources plified by Germany and Japan that, despite a modest solar
scale would utilise too much space. A quick look at the phys- ity near points of utilization – largely using PV, but also (such as the US southwest deserts providing power to the large resource, have become the largest solar markets in the world
ical reality reveals that this view is not accurate: even, assum- wind, taking advantage of available space – particularly cities of the east coast, taking advantage both of the time dif- today and are building on this experience to invent and develop
ing a very conservative rate of 10% conversion12 from available space that can be used for solar harvesting in addition to ference and the solar yield differences). the technological solutions that will permit increased penetra-
to useable solar energy, it would take less than one percent of a primary role like building envelopes, industrial exclu- tion of solar energy in their energy systems; (2) markets where
the emerged continent’s area to produce all the energy used sion zones, transportation right of ways, etc. The resource Serving all energy needs: Many demand sectors, transportation solar synergies will provide high-value solutions that will attract
by the planet today, i.e., an area smaller than the earth’s cur- is large enough in almost every part of the world to fulfil in particular, rely on liquid fuel to operate. This issue would investment, particularly where a large resource can meet a large
rently [sub] urbanised land – and much of the urbanised land- most needs. However, a considerable technological chal- require particular attention but the task is not insurmount- quasi-synchronous demand for power – much of the United

12 D&A autumn 2008  Issue 09 13

The use of solar power is not a
new invention. As early as 1981,
the ‘Solar One’ power station was
built in Barstow, California. Its
1818 heliostats (reflector mirrors
that follow the path of the sun)
cover a total area of 51 hectares.
In 1996, another 108 heliostats
were added to enlarge the power
station, which then had a peak
electrical output of 10 MW.

States constitute such a potential market where the peak elec- THE ROLE OF ARCHITECTURE

Photo: Scanpix/Corbis/Bob Rowan

trical demand is driven by air conditioning demand, itself Because buildings represent a large part of the energy con-
driven by the sun – as a case in point, the analysis of the mas- sumed by society (nearly 30% in the oecd countries), the role
sive 2004 power blackout in New York and Toronto showed of architecture is fundamental. Buildings can best exploit con-
that even a modest solar resource dispersed around the large version efficiencies and incorporate most end-use oriented solar
cities of the northeast would have averted the heat-wave-driven application: heat, daylight, cooling, and all these solutions can
outage at a small fraction of its cost18; and (3) given proper be developed with creative and attractive designs.
investment means, markets where no significant energy gen- In addition, building envelopes also constitute a primary
eration infrastructure yet exists and where solar energy could harvesting surface for the universal solar energy generation
leapfrog conventional resources technologies, particularly pv. Hence buildings have a funda-
mental role to play in the supply-side energy chain, not only
HOW MUCH WOULD IT COST? as electricity generators, but also as active components in a
Of course, switching overnight to solar would incur a seem- decentralised renewable energy model, serving as load man-
ingly impossibly large financial burden19. However, a fast- agement and energy storage hubs and nodes.
track growth and complete turnover within 50 years will be Better than pursing the holy grail of individualised zero
affordable, especially as both apparent and real costs of con- energy perfection for showcase buildings at all cost – highly
ventional energies escalate. The long term economic sound- possible in some situations, but difficult in others – it would
ness of a solar future can be simply expressed in this one be preferable to conceive buildings and places to live (big and
fundamental reality: all direct and indirect solar technologies small, modest and sophisticated) as fully participating in the
have energy payback of 3–7 years today and are constantly dispersed energy generation/distribution model, operating as
improving, i.e., when operated under average conditions, the nodes of a smart energy network, with appropriate controls
these technologies will produce more energy in a few years for load management and storage operation, acting as energy
than is used to construct and install them. With operational hearts and relays/storage management in the most elegant way
lifetimes far exceeding their energy pay-back period, these during normal operating conditions, but also capable of oper-
technologies are, in effect, energy breeders capable of pow- ating in low-demand emergency modes – i.e., staying alive dur-
ering themselves into growth. Energy payback is a funda- ing any type of power blackouts, or power crisis20
mental physical measure of long term economic viability to
societies investing in it. For a monetary translation of this Richard Perez is Research Professor and Senior Research Associate at
physical reality, let’s look at an example: an unsubsidised pv the SUNY Atmospheric Sciences Research Center in Albany, New York,
installation (i.e., considering the most expensive solar tech- USA. Since 1981, he has also been working as a consultant on energy,
nology) in the north-eastern US (a region with a modest solar environment, economics and international matters. He has been an Asso-
ciate Editor of the Solar Energy Journal since 1995 and published over
resource) valued against current wholesale electricity (i.e., 120 articles and reports in the fields of solar radiation, renewable energy
not counting the external costs of fossil fuel depletion and applications and daylighting. Richard Perez started his academic career
environmental compliance). The financial return of such an by studying electrotechnics and geophysics in Nice and Paris, before he
unsubsidised installation in this conservative worse case sce- went on to obtain his PhD in Atmospheric Science at the University of
Albany in 1983.
nario is of the order of 2–3%. While the real return is likely In March 2008 Richard Perez was awarded with The Daylight and Build-
to be much higher when considering true costs beyond cur- ing Component Award given by VILLUM KANN RASMUSSEN in coopera-
rent wholesale costs, even this modest 2–3% return represents tion with the VELUX FONDEN, both non-profit, philanthropic foundations.
an attractive societal investment for the long term, consid- For more information, please visit
ering that this is the most secure, stable and risk-free invest- Acknowledgement: Thanks to Marc Perez for sourcing the data pre-
ment there could be. sented in Table 1-3 and in Fig.1.

14 9
Page 17, left top Building enve- Page 17, left bottom Each year, Around 8,000 m² of solar collec- Decathlon’ house in Washing-
lopes constitute a primary har- Denmark alone receives a total tors cover approximately 15 per ton (see page 7) made it pos-
vesting surface for solar energy, amount of energy from the sun cent of the community’s heating sible. Each building had to use
both through solar heat and that is equal to 1/3 of the total requirements. solar cells to generate the same
photovoltaics. Both technolo- planetary energy consumption. amount of electricity as or
gies were combined in an exem- The solar power station in Mar- Page 17, r ight Electricity more electricity than its occu-
plary way in the SOLTAG demo stal on the island of Ærø (www. directly from the roof to the pants consumed during the same
house, developed in 2005 by produces dis- laptop: The prototypes of the period of time.
VELUX. trict heating on a large scale. energy-independent ’Solar

Table 1: Primary energy consumption (TW–yr) and 1995–2005 growth trends for selected countries/regions of the world

Photo: Adam Mørk

1995 2005 1995–2005
growth (%)
World 12.21 15.48 27%
USA 3.05 3.37 10%
China 1.17 2.24 93%
Europe 2.57 2.89 12%

Photo: Technische Universität Darmstadt

Eurasia 1.42 1.53 8%
Asia & Oceania 3.18 4.95 56%

Photo: Marstal Fjernvarme

Africa 0.36 0.48 36%
South & Central America 0.59 0.78 33%
North America 3.64 4.08 12%
Middle East 0.46 0.76 66%
source: US Energy Information Agency (2005): International Energy Annual Report

TABLE 2: Primary energy consumption and projected growth trends for OECD and non–OECD countries NOTES

1. 70% of the solar world’s solar hot 7. Of course this argument would have 13. Table 2 source: US Energy Informa- power generating systems can help
Residential Commercial Industrial Transport Total
water systems are installed in China, to be revisited if nuclear fusion or tion Agency (2007): International prevent the next major outage. Solar
TW–yr % total TW–yr % total TW–yr % total TW–yr % total TW–yr
occupying a cumulative surface of breeder reactors were ever to be Energy Outlook Today 19,4, July/August 2005 Issue,
OECD 2005 1.29 16% 0.83 10% 3.18 40% 2.72 34% 8.02 over 20 million square meters today commercially developed. 14. Electric vehicles (EVs) carry a sub- pp. 32-35.
OECD 2030 1.58 16% 1.20 12% 3.78 37% 3.59 35% 10.14 (i.e., equivalent to the peak power 8. The cost of uranium increased by a stantial electrical storage capabil- 19. As a quick order-of-magnitude
projected 05-30 growth 22% 44% 19% 32% 27% generation of 10 large nuclear power factor 10 (in US $) between 2002 ity that could be used interactively check, installing overnight the 40
No OECD 2005 0.94 13% 0.25 3% 4.70 64% 1.49 20% 7.38 plants). and 2007 (Financial Time 7/27/07). with the power grid to absorb or sup- terawatts of the intermittent PV,
No OECD 2030 1.72 13% 0.67 5% 8.13 60% 3.01 22% 13.54 2. Wind is a by-product of solar energy 9. Gas well drilling activity vs. gas pro- ply energy when not in use. This con- CSP, and wind resource necessary
– the energy from the sun heating duction trends – while until the early cept is known as PV-to-Grid. to power the planet indefinitely after
projected 05-30 growth 83% 171% 73% 103% 84%
the planet is the source of all winds 2000s gas production had been 15. In Europe: The Club of Rome’s Trans- strong conservation measures could
source: US Energy Information Agency (2007): International Energy Outlook
blowing through the planet’s atmos- highly correlated with the number Mediterranean Renewable Energy cost anywhere between 50 and 150
phere. of wells drilled, it now takes an in- Cooperation, http://www.desertec. trillion US dollars using current tech-
3. One exajoule = 1 billion billion joules creasing amount of drilling activity org/concept.html and in the USA: K. nological costs – a huge number,
or 277 billion kilowatt-hours. to maintain production - courtesy of Zweibel et al., January 2008, “The but ‘only’ 2-3 times larger than the
4. One terawatt = 1 trillion Watts. The Chuck Kutscher, National Renewable Solar Grand Plan,” Scientific Amer- wealth currently held by the planet’s
TABLE 3: Primary energy consumption per source and 1995–2005 growth trends for OECD and non–OECD countries corresponding energy unit, one ter- Energy Laboratory. ican, 298(1), 64-73, http://www. top 0.15% richest people.
awatt-year, equals 8.67 trillion kilo- 10. The conversion efficiency from the 20. The 1998 Quebec ice storm re-
Petroleum Natural gas Coal Hydro Nuclear Other* Total watt-hours. original solar energy that grew the grand-plan sulted in thousands of homes and
TW–yr % total TW–yr % total TW–yr % total TW–yr % total TW-yr % total TTW–yr % total TW–yr
5. McKinsey Report on Climate Change: biomass now stored in the form of 16. E.g., see personal rapid transit businesses having to abandon their
Reducing U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emis- fossil fuels amounts to less than concepts at http://www.person- buildings in the middle of winter, re-
OECD 1995 3.01 42.6 1.49 21.1% 1.37 19.5% 0.44 6.3% 0.68 9.7% 0.06 0.9% 7.05
sions: How Much at What Cost? 1/10th of 1 millionth percent., or see ongoing de- sulting in lost business and physical
OECD 2005 3.32 41.4% 1.80 22.4% 1.59 19.8% 0.42 5.2% 0.78 9.7% 0.12 1.4% 8.02 11. The difference between the planet’s ployment plans in Abu Dhabi at http:// damage from frozen water lines. A
growth 1995–2005 10% 21% 16% -5% 14% 91% 14% service/ccsi/ deserts and northern Europe is often study from the Northeast Sustain-
Non OECD 1995 1.76 34.6% 1.22 24.1% 1.59 31.3% 0.40 7.9% 0.10 1.9% 0.01 0.2% 5.08 6. Passed in 1957 and renewed several overstated: For instance, a photo- story.php?storyId=90042092 able Energy Association (NESEA)
Non OECD 2005 2.34 31.8% 1.80 24.4% 2.51 34.1% 0.55 7.4% 0.14 1.9% 0.03 0.4% 7.38 times since, the Price-Anderson Act voltaic collector installed in Copenha- 17. (wind installed cap approaching 100 showed a solar powered critical
growth 1995–2005 33% 47% 58% 36% 47% 129% 45% stipulates that the federal govern- gen, Denmark, would generate ‘only’ GW and PV 10 solar thermal taking load system of as little as 1 kW per
ment is the insurer of last resort in 55% less energy than the same col- off fast) residence would have carried most
Total 1995 4.76 39.3% 2.71 22.3% 2.96 24.4% 0.85 7.0% 0.78 6.4% 0.07 0.6% 12.13
case of catastrophic nuclear power lector installed in the Sahara. 18. Perez R., B. Collins, R. Margolis, T. buildings through the storm without
Total 2005 5.67 36.8% 3.60 23.4% 4.10 26.6% 0.97 6.3% 0.92 6.0% 0.14 0.9% 15.40
accident – this was enacted because 12. Today’s conversion efficiency is al- Hoff, C. Herig J. Williams and S. Le- the need for evacuation.
growth 1995–2005 19% 33% 39% 14% 18% 98% 27% no commercial insurer was willing to ready exceeding 20% for both PV tendre, (2005) Solution to the Sum-
source: US Energy Information Agency (2005): International Energy Annual Report * Includes geothermal, biomass, wind and solar assume risk liability. and CSP. mer Blackouts – How dispersed solar

16 D&A autumn 2008  Issue 09 17

DAYLIGHTING The natural gift of daylight put to
practice in architecture ENRIQUE BROWNE

By Cristián Fernández Cox Previous: The 2735 square-
meter facade garden of the Con-
Photos by Enrique Browne y Asociados sorcio building in Santiago de
Chile is an exceedingly impres-
For the last 30 years, the Chilean architect ­Enrique sive demonstration of Enrique
Browne has pursued his own path away from Browne’s principle of ‘build-
ing with nature’. In summer, the
the anonymity of post-war modernism and from plants provide shade and, in win-
the exuberances of post-modernism. Using light, ter, daylight penetrates deep
­vegetation and scenery as building materials, into the offices. The result: sig-
Enrique Browne not only creates spaces that address nificantly lower energy con-
sumption than a comparable
all the senses but also renders his buildings highly buildings.
The work of Enrique Browne not only intends
architecture to have a good relationship with nature,
but, as he puts it, for nature to be literally part of
architecture, using scenery, vegetation and light as
building materials.


Vine Arbour Conch House Consorcio Building

Houses Casa Caracola with Borja
Casas Parrón 1985–1987 Huidobro
1974–1975 1990–1993

D&A  AUTUMN 2008  Issue 09 21

Left: The houses are built like
summer houses. An open wooden
supporting structure and sim-
ple construction details char-
acterize the indoor and outdoor

Below: Ground plan and views

Vine Arbour Houses

Casas Parrón

Located in the so-called up-town Entering the houses, one notices that,
neighbourhood of Santiago de Chile, with this candid honesty of building,
on Charles Hamilton Street, in the the architecture, while being fully
borough of Las Condes, the houses immersed in the sensitivity of mod-
immediately stand out because of ernism, does not suffer from the ab-
the incorporation of nature within stract schematic coldness that the
their architecture. European Modern Movement was
As can be seen on the floor plan, often accused of. Indeed, it is much
they are houses built on an old plan- closer to the rich, warm and cosy
tation of pear trees in geometrical spaces of Frank Lloyd Wright, which
modules of 3 × 3 m. Browne built the Browne interprets, of course, in his
houses by means of pillar vines fol- own way. The architecture is full of
lowing exactly the same 3 × 3 weft, sensuality, in search of the dweller’s
in such a way that each pillar (which quality of life – with the warm cosi-
remains isolated) is volumetrically ness of wood and clay bricks, with
perceived as the trunk of a tree. As its integration into nature at the dif-
Kenneth Frampton noticed quite ap- ferent times of day and in the differ-
propriately, architecture is not only ent seasons of the year, and with the
appreciated by looking at its images rich spatiality contained within the
– and when you are at this site, you per- simplicity of the work. The architec-
ceive that the land is part of the archi- ture is not mechanical but rather im-
tecture, it reaches inside the house. So mersed in the ‘Logic of the Living’2,
you have the experience of being shel- integrated into nature in the most
tered in a dwelling, as well as being in- powerful way possible.
side a forest of pear trees. Visiting the In the Vine Arbour Houses, En-
work, it is perceived that being there, rique Browne’s different approach to
living there, must be truly wonderful modernity combines technical and
for its inhabitants, participating in na- functional rigor (reinforced concrete
ture, at different times of day and in was used for seismic reasons) with
different seasons of the year. expressive freedom the warm at-
The houses are built as a vine ar- mosphere that the architect required
bour structure: there are wooden on a more symbolic level.
supports for grapevines, which were Browne’s different approach to
already a traditional feature in Chil- modernity both preserves and tran-
ean gardens in colonial times (16th scends one of the values that the
century). The construction of the European Modern Movement left in
house is based on ‘reinforced’1 brick, Chile: its constructive authenticity With rebar arranged on the same bricks

and a (4”× 10” and 2”× 8”) wooden and rigor. As the reader can appreci- Alluding to the name of the well known book

framework that is simply left ex- ate, this approach constitutes the an- by the 1965 French Nobel Prize winner in
posed to view. tithesis of post-modern cynicism. medicine, Francois Jacob.

22 D&A  AUTUMN 2008  Issue 09 23

Left Concept sketch and ground plan

Below A white spiral wall separates

the house’s garden from the court-
yard and the living space from the
ancillary rooms. The waterfall
motif is widespread in Latin-Ameri-
can architecture – in the buildings
of Luis Barragán, for example.

Bottom right Photograph of the

living area at night. Using the shape
of a spiral, Enrique Browne not only
made the rooms hierarchical but
also made the best possible use of
the available land.

Conch House This house is also located in up- door of the house. Alongside, sepa- by means of a kind of sense of touch
town Santiago, in the Borough of rated by the beginning of the spiral extended along all the body, which
Casa Caracola Las Condes, on San Damián Street. wall, a second, more enclosed front becomes an entire sensor of the
1985–1987 In this house, using architectonic re- garden provides space for two cars small noises, the small breezes and
sources quite different from those of and access to the service area. Fi- the not-so-small changes of tem-
the Parrón Houses, Browne achieves nally, the small garden that provides perature while one goes around its
the same objective of integrating the light, view and exit to the rear side of precincts. It seems that the cultural
land within the architecture. the kitchen and the service bedroom, Hispanic Arab ancestry that is com-
Here the architectonic proce- exploits the land to the maximum. mon to Iberian America survives in
dure is the following: by means of a None of today’s so frequent uni- the best Mexican (Barragán, Legor-
long white wall drawn up as an ele- lateralism is present in this house. reta) and Colombian (Salmona) ar-
gant, elliptic, snail-shaped spiral, a Browne’s architecture may indeed chitecture and also in Chile, as we see
unique space is configured that com- be described as ‘the art of balance’. in Enrique Browne’s Conch house.
prises the spacious living and dining It implies formal freedom and func- This Hispanic Arab influence is
room as well as the main part of the tional common sense. perceived in Chile in all the architec-
garden and the swimming pool. With Observing the beautiful photo- ture of the up-town neighbourhood
these areas being part of the same graph of the water that falls in a cas- (where buildings can be more spa-
and only space, the illusion is cre- cade from the top of the wall to the cious than houses in the lower in-
ated that the garden is the house and swimming pool, I cannot help remem- come neighbourhood). It seems to
vice versa. This is not only true of the bering the beautiful Mexican tradi- have its origin in a concept taken
space within the ellipse but also – as tion of the never-ending agricultural from domestic life and architec-
always happens in nature – of the very walls used to separate great vine- ture where, unlike the great cas-
different lights and shades of colour yards. Their top edges are used as tles of Northern Europe, located on
of the various hours of the day and the endless aqueducts, horizontal and the tops of hills, spellbound in their
different seasons of the year. almost infinite. I am also reminded own splendour, one has the Hispano-
This strategy of ‘imprisoning’ the of the incredible waterworks of the Arab palace, introverted and neutral
principal garden in an ellipse, how- Palacio de Alhambra in Granada. on the outside. Similarly, the Conch
ever, does not mean that the rest Still, merely looking at a photo- house communicates very little to its
of the land is turned into under-uti- graph of the swimming pool is a very surroundings, as if it were hiding its
lised residual space. On the contrary, different thing from being there at treasures. Apart from what has al-
Enrique Browne’s design makes the the foot of the cascade, and listen- ready been described, these include
most of all the estate. Three minor ing to its splashing murmur, ampli- the simple framework and ceilings
gardens complement the main space, fied as a dry echo by the elliptic wall of wood, and the curves of the walls
serving as views and exit from the that surrounds the pool. that subtly play with the light: white
master bedroom and the two sec- This awareness of an architec- in the morning (as in the photograph)
ondary bedrooms. ture that is ‘seen’ with all the senses and reddish in the afternoon.
Towards the inside of the spiral, is similar to the reflection that some
facing the street, a front garden is of us made in an SAL. The best Latin
added, providing access to the front American architecture is perceived

24 D&A  AUTUMN 2008  Issue 09 25

Previous: An unusual sight in the Below: As a result of its vegeta-
business district of Santiago: At tion phase, the Edificio Consorcio
night, its backlit planted facade alters its external appearance
makes the ‘Edificio Consorcio’ continually in the course of the
at night stand out from the sur- seasons. Between plants and
rounding buildings, which tend the glass facade, there is a 1.4
to be traditional. meter-wide air gap that ensures
a sufficient flow of air due to the
‘chimney’ effect.

Consorcio Building
with Borja Huidobro

This is possibly the most prize-win- ject and a very pleasant presence in by computers. Along with this comes ing’s energy efficiency; in summer, the
ning architectural work in Chilean the neighbourhood. the paradox that the more stupid we season with the most heat, it is natu-
history. In surveys carried out by This relation, which once achieved architects are, the more ‘intelligent’ rally lush and constitutes a very thick
the most important newspaper of seems obvious, is the trademark our buildings have to be. solar protection. In winter, on the
the country, El Mercurio, and its Ar- of good architecture: the solution Intelligent architects. This Con- other hand, the climbing plants are
chitectural Supplement, it was cho- seems so natural that one would con- sorcio Building is ‘intelligent’ in an- leafless and thus much more trans-
sen in 1990 as “the best work of the sider any alternatives impossible. other way: here the intelligent ones parent and allow the much-appreci-
decade” and in another survey in Intelligent Buildings. Years ago, are the architects. They provided the ated sunlight to come in.
2002 as “the best building of the last when a barrel of oil reached the strat- building with stair-shaped green ‘cur- Results of the intelligent input of
30 years in Chile”. It won First Prize ospheric price of USD 80, sustaina- tain walls’, positioned in front of the the architects. An independent study
in the Architecture Biennial Exhibi- ble, energy-saving building became a crystal facades oriented towards the established that the Consorcio Build-
tion of Chile in 1995 and was a final- fashion among architects. I say it be- west (the orientation with the great- ing has 48% less energy consump-
ist in the Mies van der Rohe Award, came a fashion because today, while est solar radiation) and achieve a very tion than the average of another ten
Barcelona 1998. A closer look at the writing this article, a barrel of oil has efficient protection against the sun’s corporate buildings studied. This re-
building reveals how well deserved passed the USD 130 barrier – but to- rays. In this way shading is achieved, duction in energy consumption rep-
these prizes are. day’s architects do not about this at which at the same time – and this resents monetary savings of 28%
Urban Morphology. The building all: crystalline, glazed ‘curtain wall’ is very important – generates cold compared to the average of the build-
is situated in Las Condes, Santiago facades are more plentiful than ever air currents between the vegeta- ings in the study. These percentages
de Chile, at the intersection of two before. tion and the glass, contributing to may be a little exaggerated by cir-
streets that cross at a sharp angle. In the face of this, ‘intelligent an adequate temperature inside the cumstantial factors such as location,
This peculiar location, and the fact buildings’ have emerged. Among building. Added to this, is the solar height, the relationship with neigh-
that the main facade of the build- other reasons they bear their name protection provided by trees on the bouring buildings, the density of inte-
ing extends over the length of an because of the sophisticated com- lower floors plus the freshness of a rior occupancy, and other factors. So
entire city block, were characteris- puter systems used to automatically 400m² water basin with sprinklers the architects also compared a floor
tics that the architects intelligently regulate the lighting, heating and air- in front of the building. of the Consorcio-Santiago building
made the most of. They combined conditioning and thus the use of en- In the case of the Consorcio San- clad with ‘double green skin’ with
the two classical building/street ergy inside them. This seems to have tiago building, the surfaces of the gar- another floor in the same building
relations, which are usually antag- established a kind of carte blanche dens that once existed on the 2,674m² without this protection. The previ-
onistic: a) the building, which mor- situation in which we architects for- plot were replaced by the true 2,735m² ous results were confirmed but at-
phologically accompanies the street get about the energy issue: we design vertical garden of the facade, which, tenuated. A ‘green protected’ floor
(as a continuous facade); and b) the energy-expensive projects with crys- unlike its predecessors, is there for all consumes 35% less energy, with a
isolated “object building”. tal facades that offer no protection to see. This vertical garden, as is natu- cost reduction of 25%.
The solution that the architects against solar radiation, leading to in- ral, has a changing aspect and colour
chose enabled them very harmoni- ternal overheating of the buildings spectrum: it creates an architecture
cally to achieve the two relations by the greenhouse effect. We archi- that blooms in a thousand different
at the same time. In this way, apart tects have forgotten about these is- forms depending on the season. Fur-
from flanking the street with the sues, leaving all responsibility to the thermore, the deciduous vegetation
greatest fluency and dynamics, the tinted glass and principally to the ‘in- has a functional characteristic that
building is also a most beautiful ob- telligent’ waste of energy, managed turns out to be the key for the build-

28 D&A  AUTUMN 2008  Issue 09 29

THE THEORETICAL The influence of the shady pergo-
las is noticeable far into the inte-
BACKGROUND OF ENRIQUE rior of Casa Paul Harris. The core
BROWNE’S ARCHITECTURE of the building is a central stair-
well which is lit from above and
is demarcated by two parallel
white-plastered walls.

Enrique Browne’s architecture, without a challenge that necessarily accompanies the 3

Enrique Browne: ‘Otra Arquitectura­en
doubt, is modern: his works show it again ambivalence and diversity of living things – Amérca Latina’. Editorial ­Gustavo Gili S.A.
México (1988).
and again. But at the same time, his architec- and, of course, architecture. 4
SobreAmérica. Various authors. ­Ediciones
ture shows fundamental differences from Finally, on seeing how Browne treats MINGA Santiago de Chile 1990.
the architecture of the European Modern light – a principal component of nature – and 5
Academy Editions London 1995
Movement. Due to its warmth and its spa- how he incorporates it into his architecture
As quoted by Sir Colin St. John ­Wilson in
the same book.
tial richness, it is much closer to the work in a way that is as characteristic as that of
of Frank Lloyd Wright. This, however, does the best Latin American architecture, I am
not involve any direct influence by Wright: reminded of the description of light as quoted
Enrique Browne’s architecture has its own by Sir Colin St. John Wilson in ‘The Other Tra-
theoretic foundation, based on the pure dition of Modern Architecture’5, that Hugo
conviction he has had all his life: integrat- Häring made 80 years ago and thousands of
ing nature into architecture. kilometres away: “Light is the changeable
This attitude is already noticeable in the and subtle atmosphere that envelopes and
book ‘Another Architecture in Latin-Amer- vivifies all our activities in all times and all
ica’ that Enrique Browne wrote twenty years seasons”. This contradicts La Sarraz’s mech-
ago3. It may also be noticed in his constant anistic description of Corbusier: “light is a
interest for the works of ‘land art’ in general, mechanism that clearly delineates forms as
and in particular the vision of the pyramids geometric objects”.
of Teotihuacán as ‘land art’, which Browne Seeing Browne’s architecture today,
exposes in an article (ArchiNatura) for the and all of the best current Latin American
book SOBREAMÉRICA4, published in 1990. architecture, Hugo Häring would rejoice at Cristián Fernández Cox studied architecture at
And, as we have seen repeatedly, it is notice- the fact that, in a place far away in time and the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile and
able in all his architecture. space, there have been architects like Lucio founded his office Cristián Fernández & Associ-
ated Architects in 1975. He has been president of
Browne’s architecture is radically far Costa, Luis Barragan, and Regelio Salmona
the first Biennal of Architecture in Chile and was
from all mechanic rationalism as it provides who opened the way, giving themselves the distinguished with the National Award of Archi-
warmth and cosiness for the dweller. More- time “to examine things and to allow them to tecture of Chile in 1997. In 1998, he was founding
over, his architecture fully corresponds to the look for their own ways”6; opening a path to President of the Asociación de Oficinas de Arqui-
tectos de Chile (Chilean Association of Architects’
logic of harmonic multi-purpose that is typ- a more mature modernity, “another moder-
Offices). Cristiàn Fernández Cox is Professor of Ar-
ical of living things. His architecture may be nity” – a trans-modernity. chitectural Theory in the Universidad Mayor, San-
described as the ‘art of balance’ – a principal tiago de Chile.

30 D&A  AUTUMN 2008  Issue 09 31

INTErview WITH Up into the light: Persons attend-
ing religious services have to use
Enrique Browne a curve ramp to ascend into the
chapel of the Colegio Villa María
in Las Condes, which Enrique
Browne designed in 1992.

Mr. Browne, how would you describe nomic and cultural conditions of coun- were pollution, infrastructure costs and
the situation regarding the use of tries or regions. For a developing country other bills to be settled). But nowadays,
renewable energies and energy effi- such as Chile, I understand sustainability these issues have great relevance.
ciency in Chile, compared to other coun- as the difficult balance between its cur-
tries? Is there a growing awareness rent development necessities in general Would you say that architecture has
about these issues? and conservation of its ‘human or environ- changed over the last 20 years under
With notable exceptions, energy efficiency mental capital’ necessary for future gen- the influence of environmental issues?
and use of renewable energies are quite erations. If so, how?
recent themes in Chile compared to the In the last 20 years, architecture has been
highly developed countries of Europe and In our times, when, technically at least, slowly changing; but it has not changed as a
North America. Until some time ago, the over- everything seems possible but fossil whole because of the emergence of environ-
whelming worry of the population and the energy is becoming increasingly rare, mental problems. For example, in high rise
authorities was economic and social develop- what do you think matters most in the buildings, even in desert countries like those
ment. The energy issue started to have pub- education of young architects? of the Middle East, an exaggerated use of
lic relevance (at government, business and One of the most relevant issues to be glass still predominates. But more research
public level) when it became associated with treated in architects’ education is linked is being done and there is a better predispo-
the economic growth of the last decades and, to environmental preservation and renew- sition towards nature. A radical change will
above all, when oil, gas and electricity prices able energies, and also how these themes come when vegetation, daylight and other
rose sharply a few years ago. This was exac- are made compatible with accelerated glo- natural elements are considered as build-
erbated by the shortage and uncertainty of bal technical change. However, preserva- ing materials on a par with bricks, concrete,
Argentinean gas supply. Today, this issue has tion and the search for alternative energies steel, crystal, covering or paint.
great political relevance. The problem has must be realistic in terms of other varia-
been posed as self-sufficiency in energy ver- bles, such as development level, autonomy, How does your approach to sustaina-
sus sustainability and alternative costs. efficiency, costs, current and future bene- ble architecture vary in a country with
fits, etc. Furthermore, although it sounds such different climates as Chile?
What does nature mean to you – old-fashioned, it is a key factor for archi- The type of landscape, just like the weather
both in private life and in your work? tecture committed to this search to be and other factors, will have an influence on
I consider nature as all that was given to man beautiful. the specific alternative of sustainability to
in the universe, be it air and light, weather and adopt in different areas of a country. Obvi-
seasons, geography and mountains, valleys Have you found that there is a differ- ously the desert north of Chile requires build-
and sea, vegetation, etc. I consider nature, ence in how different generations of ings with more mass and more controlled
above all, as a divine creation, whose laws architects approach the energy prob- daylight inside than those in the wooded and
and complexities we know better with time, lem and the issue of sustainability? rainy landscapes of the south.
but only in part. I think that human under- Of course there are differences. For exam-
standing of and integration with nature ple, between the ‘50s and ‘60s in the USA,
brings harmony and peace to mankind. architects were dedicated to showing to the
world an architecture of suburban dwellings
What is your personal definition that captured with optimism the ‘Ameri-
of sustainability? can way of life’, irrespective of its energy
I don’t believe this can be formulated in and environment costs (and because of the
abstract terms – it depends on the eco- explosive increase in car ownership, there

32 D&A  AUTUMN 2008  Issue 09 33

34°00’28’’ N For an entire year – whenever he was at home –
118°29’23’’ W Robert Weingarten photographed the view
Photos by Robert Weingarten from his bedroom window overlooking Santa Monica Bay each morning at 6.30.

6:30 A.M Series 05/26/03 #46 6:30 A.M Series 03/25/03 #27 6:30 A.M Series 10/26/03 #104

6:30 A.M Series 04/13/03 #34 6:30 A.M Series 06/21/03 #52 6:30 A.M Series 08/14/03 #77

6:30 A.M Series 11/24/03 #120 6:30 A.M Series 01/07/03 #5 6:30 A.M Series 10/27/03 #105 6:30 A.M Series 01/12/03 #6

34 D&A  AUTUMN 2008 Issue 09 35

VELUX Insight Architecture for people –
building with VELUX. the New
Monte Rosa
By Eva-Martina Keller
Models and drawings by Monte Rosa Studio

The Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich

(ETH Zurich) and the Swiss Alpine Club (SAC) are
intending to set a new milestone in Alpine building
with the New Monte Rosa Hut. The foundation
stone for the building will soon be laid. It is intended
to operate on the basis of 90 per cent self-sufficiency
in energy.

Client Monte Rosa Section of the Gross floor area 1,100 m2
Swiss Alpine Club SAC Gross cubic content 3,200 m3
Architects Studio Monte Rosa, Zurich, Switzerland / Energy consumption 29.7 kWh/m2 (without cooking)
Bearth & Deplazes Architekten AG, (planned)
Chur, Switzerland U values for the building 0.13 Wm2K
Location Monte Rosa massif, Canton of Valais, envelope (outside walls, roof)
Switzerland Roof windows 39 standard windows type GGL F04 with
Completion (planned) September 2009 fall arrest device; U value 1.0 W/m2K

36 D&A  Autumn 2008  Issue 09 37

Far left Accumulated power Left Comparison of the levels
requirement for building, oper- of energy consumption of the
ations and disposal of waste of existing (left) and new Monte
the new Monte Rosa Hut, for a Rosa Hut. The new building is to
useful building life of 50 years. be 90 % autonomous in terms
On the left: Building and waste of energy; power only has to be
disposal. On the right: Operat- supplied from outside for cook-
ing phase. ing and for supply trips.
100 %
20 % Diesel

30,000 75 % 51 % Coal
Solar Renewable
2. 5


50 %


architecture in
41 % Cooking
o r 1,5
10,000 Fak t 25 % 11 % Gas
Fossil Non-renewable

the mountains
18 % Helicopter 45 % Helicopter
Fossil flights
0 0%

The New Monte Rosa Hut is one of many part of the college’s anniversary celebra- and Peter Planche, who followed each other
projects initiated to mark the ETH Zurich’s tions. The SAC was quick to agree to the as president of the SAC Monte Rosa Section,
150th anniversary. The idea came from the project. The internationally known Monte which will own the hut, were involved from
anniversary project director Meinrad K. Eberle, Rosa area was chosen for the planned hut, in the outset. These people ensured that the
who wanted to create something lasting and close co-operation between the parties. The new hut is tailored to the needs of its future
forward-looking for the college’s birthday. Monte Rosa SAC Section already had moun- users, and reminded the architects of many
So today, three years after the anni- tain accommodation in the spectacular land- practical details – for example, that no SAC
versary year, dozens of staff from the ETH scape between the Grenz, Gorner and Monte hut can survive without a rucksack rack.
Zurich, SAC, Lucerne College – Technology Rosa glaciers, framed by the Matterhorn So now a five-storey timber construction
and Architecture and from EMPA, the Swiss and the Dufourspitze, since 1895, and this is to be built on stainless steel foundations
national material testing and research insti- had been extended in various phases. This thrusting down into the rock. Its metallically
tute, are still racking their brains over energy hut is in need of refurbishment, and so the shimmering aluminium outer covering and
balances and life-cycle analyses, intelligent project partners decided to replace it with unusual polygonal shape make it look like
building services concepts, the best pos- the New Monte Rosa Hut, which is the name a rock crystal. The guest rooms have three
sible facade or the most environmentally of the project. to eight beds, and they and the large dining
friendly way of transporting building mate- In the winter term 2003/2004, Andrea room can accommodate a total of 120 peo-
rials to an isolated site at a height of 2,883 Deplazes from the ETH Zurich’s architec- ple. And the enchanting surroundings are
metres above sea level. An ambitious build- ture and construction department set up effectively invited in as well, by a cascade of
ing project for a forward-looking SAC hut, the Monte Rosa Studio. Working over four steps and a wide window facade. The steps
sustainable in terms of energy and ecology, terms, a total of over thirty students devised open up breathtaking views of the mountains
2882.5 m ü.M

is now on the table. The project partners’ a design for the New Monte Rosa Hut here. for visitors when they are going up from the
2882.5 m.ü.M

ambition is no less than to introduce a new The students’ ideas developed into a feasible ground floor to their bedrooms upstairs. The
chapter in mountain building. project with the support of professors and dining room is awash with daylight.
experts from various disciplines. Hut special- In contrast with this, the windows in the
Ground plans, basement to 3rd floor.
Co-operating on the hut of the future ists from the ranks of the SAC, including for bedrooms are kept small, emphasising that
Radial partition walls and a spi-
ral stairway determine the interior Back to 2003. At that time, ETH Zurich example Peter Büchel and Reto Jenatsch of the hut is offering shelter. These windows
structure of the building. offered to construct a hut for the SAC as the SAC Hut Commission, and Ingrid Alder are scattered across the entire facade, which

38 D&A  Autumn 2008  Issue 09 39

Interior views of the working
model. A cascading staircase
with a wide window front opens
up a panoramic view of the gla-
cier landscape on all levels of the
building. In the individual bed-
rooms, in contrast, roof win-
dows that can be opened provide
for daylight and fresh air.

eliminates the impression of separate sto- and household appliances etc. is gained from management links technology that is con- Hut. Only then can it be established whether The structural components are made using of sectors. Walkers and mountaineers are
reys in the building and heightens its crystal- an 85 m2 photovoltaic plant built into the ventional and tried-and-tested as such to and how energy management can be further CAAD production methods, paying attention delighted with this successful co-operation:
line form. It is unusual to see roof windows south facade of the building. Excess energy form a complex overall system, resulting optimised. New research and development to the efficient use of materials. The range they will be able to use the new hut from
used in the facade area. This is because the is stored in valve-regulated lead-acid accu- in a high level of energy efficiency. So data insights can be applied to running the hut of construction possibilities is extended, and autumn 2009.
architectural fusion of roof and facade has mulators, which guarantee continuity of sup- such as weather forecasts and expected and their efficiency measured in terms of justifies a particular kind of architectural For further information: www.neue-
created a number of diagonal sections, and ply even when the sky is overcast. A rapeseed visitor numbers are fed in the energy man- energy self-sufficiency levels. The results of statement through logic applied directly in A French website is
here the windows also have to be installed oil-fired combined heat and power plant is agement system as contributions to ‘model that process can then be applied to increas- terms of materials and manufacture. Com- also available: www.nouvellecabanedu-
diagonally, in other words flush with the roof used as an additional power source for peak predictive control’, in other words dynamic ing energy efficiency for lowland buildings. puter calculation also makes it possible to
covering. The Velux roof windows used here demand periods. Thermal energy from waste marginal conditions are also taken into con- achieve the ideal component size and weight.
are ideally suited to the purpose, and were air is recovered by a heat reclamation proc- sideration. In comparison with the old Monte Sustainability from cradle to grave This is in its turn very important for trans-
specially subjected to tests simulating high ess. The heat emitted by people also makes Rosa Hut, this package of measures reduces The old hut will be demolished by 2010, port, as there is no road to the site. Trans-
wind forces before being used in the New a considerable contribution to covering the CO2 emissions created by running the build- after the New Monte Rosa Hut is opened. port is an optimised procedure, with the first
Monte Rosa Hut. room heating needs. If a great deal of heat ing by about two thirds per guest per night. But thought is also being given to the end stages conducted by rail and road. When
energy is required or there are few people The New Monte Rosa Hut is also perceived of the planned new hut’s life. Stefanie Hol- the old Monte Rosa Hut was built in 1895,
An ambitious target: staying in the hut, additional solar energy is as a research station investigating the effi- lweg and her colleagues in the ecological mules were used to carry the components
90 per cent energy self-sufficiency needed for heating, and this is provided by 35 cient use of energy and resources. So the system design department are assessing across the glacier, the last leg of the journey.
But the new hut is not intended to convince in m2 of thermal solar collectors. The building project will not be over for the ETH Zurich the building with the aid of cradle-to-grave This option was also examined for the New
aesthetic terms alone, but above all through is ventilated mechanically, but the windows when the hut is opened. A group convened life-cycle analyses. This also involves look- Monte Rosa Hut, but rejected on grounds of
its resource- and energy-friendly construc- can still be opened, as a concession to guests by Lino Guzzella at the ETH Zurich’s insti- ing at recyclable building materials that time and expense. Helicopters will now be
tion and operation. 90 per cent self-suf- who want to enjoy the Alpine air. tute of measurement and control technol- protect resources and do not emit any sub- used instead of animals.
ficiency in energy (excepting for cooking, Energy management will have an impor- ogy and Urs-Peter Menti from the Lucerne stances that threaten the environment or This ambitious building project has its
where alternatives are still being sought tant part to play in achieving a high degree of technical college’s integrated building tech- health when they have to be disposed of in price. It will cost about 5.7 million Swiss
for gas, which is delivered by helicopter at self-sufficiency. It is not just a matter of opti- nology centre – technology and architecture the future. Holistic analysis of this kind guar- francs to build the new hut. The SAC is con- Eva-Martina Keller has been working as assistant to
present) is the ambitious target – and that mising individual components; optimising will use a second research and development antees forward-looking and full ecological tributing about 2.15 million; 3.55 million project director Meinrad K. Eberle in the college man-
agement project section at the ETH Zurich since June
does include hot showers, which are avail- the way these components work together phase to examine how all this ingenious optimisation of the building and the way it are coming directly from the ETH Zurich,
2006. In May 2008 she also took on the role of com-
able to guests on every floor. Solar energy leads to increasing efficiency for the system building technology proves its worth in the is run, and sets standards for sustainable which has received this money from numer- munications representative for the New Monte Rosa
for sewage treatment equipment, lighting as a whole. In this way, optimised energy everyday operation of the New Monte Rosa planning. ous benefactors and sponsors from all sorts Hut on behalf of the ETH Zurich.

40 D&A  Autumn 2008  Issue 09 41

With its irregular shape, the
new hut looks like a mountain
crystal. Under the aluminium
skin, there is a concealed
wooden construction which is
to be prefabricated with the
help of CAD/CAM methods.
Furi 1867


Monte rosa 2795

MAP: Bundesamt für Landestopographie

44 D&A  Autumn 2008  Issue 09 45

Interview with Scene from the students’ design
Andrea Deplazes studio at the ETH Zurich, where the
architectural concept for the new
Monte Rosa Hut was developed.

Self-sufficiency was a key idea growing vegetables in your own gar- year by then, in order to reduce glo- human nature, which always likes to ample, from our courses at the ETH. We at the ETH in Zurich have been
for the New Monte Rosa Hut de- den. In this way you create an alterna- bal warming to a tolerable level. measure itself against the Other. We are well aware that domestica- pursuing the aim of transforming the
sign. What aims were you fol- tive to goods from the supermarket The core elements of this stra- ted fire was important for the deve- design and building process into a ‘di-
lowing for this somewhat ‘ext- that might have travelled thousands tegy are the so-called ‘three Es’: You have developed a strategy lopment of architecture and our entire gital chain’ for a long time. Any project
reme’ design theme, and what of kilometres before landing up in the increased efficiency, renewable called LOW EX+ ARCH at the ETH civilisation, but we have come to the is based on a number of parameters
lessons could possibly be learned shopping basket. Or, transferred to energy and electrification. The stra- Zurich architecture department. conclusion that it is better for fire to re- and pieces of information that are
from it for application elsewhere? energy: you become independent of tegy breaks down into two working What is that about? main a mythological concept. It should successively concentrated and made
Self-sufficiency is a term that is often fossil energy sources that also have fields: mobility and immobility, the The term comes from my colleague certainly not be used for heating buil- more precise as the design process
misunderstood. It implies indepen- to be transported a long way. latter including buildings, indust- Professor Hansjürg Leibundgut, who dings any more, unless in the case of progresses. I am convinced that soo-
dence, but that is an incorrect infer- rial plant and similar constructions. teaches building technology at the redundant emergency systems that ner or later a ‘digital chain’ will be
ence. The fact is that when deciding To what extent is the question One research insight suggests that ETH in Zurich. The strategy aims to supply a building with heat if there is available extending from the first de-
for or against self-sufficiency we of independence relevant in ar- mobility has far greater difficulty in use as little exergy – i.e. high-level en- a something like a power failure. sign ideas to the building process and
are actually only choosing what we chitecture today – setting aside getting to grips with its problems. ergy in the form of electricity that has But it makes better sense here beyond. The Life Cycle Assessment
want to be independent of: the es- extreme locations like the Monte But in the immobile sector – in ar- to be brought in from the outside. In- too to secure redundancy at the would then be a link in this chain. If a
tablished supply networks or the en- Rosa Hut? chitecture, for example – nearly all stead of that, anergy should be used point at which electricity is genera- programme is available to demonst-
ergy sources available on site, or that The rising price of oil price has led to the technical solutions are available. – in other words the energy forms ted and distributed via the grid sys- rate this interplay visually, this ‘digital
impinge upon it. Of course this ques- a veritable flash flood of ideas that The question is more about ways of available on the site itself. These are tem. And ultimately there is also the chain’ would then be widely applied in
tion does not arise in the case of the had built up in terms of alternative making these solutions attractive mainly heat sources within the tem- possibility of generating electricity practice. It is just like word processing
Monte Rosa Hut, because no supply energy technologies. In fact it is the to users and implementing them ac- perature range I need in the building on site with a photovoltaic system. on a computer: everyone can create
networks were available. This is also best thing that could have happe- ross a broad field. Then other things as well, between 15 and 25 degrees texts and format them, but scarcely
why we made this building scheme ned: science had come up with solu- come into play such as implemen- Celsius. They include any kind of heat You are introducing your students anyone can or wants to address the
into a student pilot project. For once tions for as long as there was no real tation to the stage of inclusion in from waste air or water, but also ge- to a far-reaching context with question of how the underlying soft-
we wanted to question what our civ- pressure from prices, but only a few teaching courses, and legislation. othermal energy, for example. To use your LOW EX+ ARCH … ware works. It will also be important
ilisation takes for granted for didac- of them found their way into practice. Some movement can be discerned this heat, as has already been men- LOW EX+ ARCH is more than merely when using these digital tools to keep
tic reasons. We did this by creating a This is where architecture comes in: it in these fields. I think for example tioned, all that is needed is a relatively a technical energy concept. In fact an eye on the project as a whole. We
kind of ‘artificial emergency’. operates at the interface between sci- that in ten years labels like minergy small amount of electrical energy to LOW EX+ ARCH illustrates the way in know about this from structural engi-
If electricity no longer comes ence and building practice, and is thus or passive building will be reflecting drive a very efficient heat pump with which we at the ETH in Zurich reflect neering: if you rely on calculation and
out of the socket, warmth does not a test field that has to show which the current status and standard in a heat exchange facility. on the interplay of architecture and computers alone it is easy to lose sight
come out of the radiator and water scientific concepts actually can be practical building. Now it is possible to take this building technology. If a strategy of of the conceptual level. Both are ne-
does not simply come out of the tap, realised. At this point, feasibility and idea a little further and ask oursel- this kind is to become reality, we need cessary: an estimated view of whe-
this means a kind of new beginning pricing have a crucial part to play. What part should the state play in ves where the electricity will come architects who also have some idea ther a concept is moving in the right
in terms of civilization. The students Because architecture is a disci- all this – in the form of funding pro- from. I think for example that nuclear about building technology and do not direction, and then the exploration of
were faced with the question of how pline that links its own components grammes and legislation in energy power is problematical – not because simply pass these questions on to the each element by computation.
not only the building, but its entire and those from other disciplines efficiency matters? the technology would be dangerous specialist engineers. We would like to
supply system should function. An systematically and synergetically – State initiatives and public funding as such, but because the problem of convey this view of their profession to Isn’t that a challenge to teaching:
additional factor was that no vehi- components including spatial con- programmes start to make sense as disposing of the nuclear fuel rods has the students in our teaching. constantly pointing out that
cular transport by land is available stellations, construction, building soon as they are addressing imple- still not been solved, despite the so- The design for the New Monte students must ‘think for them-
to the New Monte Rosa Hut, so buil- envelope, building technology and mentation and opening up markets called radioactive waste repositories. Rosa Hut stands out because of the selves’ and not just rely on their
ding materials and supplies have to automation – the project develop- rather than being purely academic In any case it is irresponsible to leave consistent application of Life Cycle computers?
be brought by helicopter, and visitors ment process always impacts on the questions. But I feel that when mak- this incalculable problem as a long- Assessment (LCA) to the building Of course it is. The responsibility for
have to get there on foot. other disciplines. This is also why ar- ing rules and regulations, it is very im- term mortgage for later generations. and its components. LCA is still con- using digital tools still lies with the
It is interesting to see what energy chitecture and the other enginee- portant that people do not lose sight The solution has to lie in using rene- fined to isolated cases in the building user, and we have to train students
sources are available, despite the New ring disciplines needed for building of the goal. Rules are most effective wable energy sources were they are field – in contrast with industry, for in these skills. I, for example, am not
Monte Rosa Hut’s isolated situation. no longer operate alongside one ano- when the aims they define are easy best at our disposal. The electricity example. What will its further deve- aware of any architecture practice
There are a large number of heat sour- ther – or better one after the other to understand and remain recognisa- grid means that we have one of the lopment depend on? that still works with T-squares.
ces in and around the building – solar – but interact from a very early plan- ble, like the ‘1 ton CO2 society’ (which most highly developed infrastructure I see this quite pragmatically. In- CAD systems have taken over eve-
energy, waste air, the users themsel- ning stage. does not necessarily mean that the networks that we possess for distri- dustry has built life-cycle assessment rywhere. On the other hand, I notice,
ves, but also the heat stored in the When energy supply and energy objective is easy to achieve). There buting this energy over a wide area. It into its processes so well because it as a compensation, so to speak, that
ground. A highly effective exchange efficiency strategies are at stake, ar- should be as little legislation as pos- has a far finer mesh than oil and gas was able to digitize them. This is the pencil drawing is much more highly
system is needed to exploit this last, chitecture has a key part to play. One sible, but definitely not less. Once an supply networks, for example. key if we wish to establish these ana- esteemed in its material-bound qual-
in other words a heat pump with heat example: the ETH Zurich recently pu- aim has been identified as necessary An additional factor is that elec- lytical methods in building as well. Life ity, which has a great deal to do with
exchanger, for example. Once this is blished a new energy strategy that and communicated, the state should tricity is the most valuable form of Cycle Analysis has a long and often the actual core of architecture: the Andrea Deplazes has been professor of architecture and construction a the
in place, only a very little electrical made achieving the ‘1 ton CO2 soci- leave the field open to the free play energy we have at our disposal. It is difficult period of scientific develop- physical spatialisation of concepts. Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH) in Zurich since 1997. He is also
energy is needed to keep the heat ety’ a long-term objective by the end of ideas, in other words to market not subject to the same conversion los- ment behind it already. Now we must So in future we cannot keep trying director of the Bearth & Deplazes Architekten AG practice in Chur, with Va-
supply system stable. of the century. In concrete terms, this competition, but also to scientific ses as fossil energy sources. We have devise a digital tool enabling users to to exchange one design technique lentin Bearth and Daniel Ladner. Andrea Deplazes was highly involved in desi-
This method of ‘harvesting’ local means that every citizen of the earth research. Ultimately an approach drawn conclusions from this insight apply the insights available to their for another. They must complement gning the New Monte Rosa Hut, both through his department and the Bearth
energy is really no different from should emit only one ton of CO2 per of this kind also corresponds with and cut out all firing systems, for ex- own projects in a simple way. each other mutually. & Deplazes practice.

46 D&A  Autumn 2008  Issue 09 47

Reflections Different points of view: ideas beyond By Tor Nørretranders Left Three species interact with
each other inside a closed system
those of everyday architecture. – this is the concept of the ‘eco-
Waste is food, and the leftovers of one organism sphere’. Crabs, algae and bacteria
provide the life energy for another. This is the concept form a perfect sym­biosis, where­-
on which our ’Spaceship Earth’ has been running for by each species lives from the
excretions of the others. All the
the last four and a half billion years. Yet the delicate substances are part of a con-
balance is being threatened by the over-use of non- tinuous circulation process.

Stay alive – renewable resources. Time to get back to thinking in

terms of closed cycles and continuous renewal.

renew yourself
Right there, on the tabletop, in the gentle afternoon light, the planet’s sphere. It is all one great recycling business run
sits a bowl of water bursting with life. Small creatures are liv- by the sunlight falling on Earth.
ing on and on and on inside a closed sphere of glass. ”Let me Renewability is not just about energy. Of course, when it
see it again,” says my friend, an architect visiting our house. comes to energy, we rely, like all living systems, on the energy
”Let me see the ball – it gives me hope for us all.” My friend from the sun as it flows onto our planet every second, rather
looks at it and wonders about the life going on inside. ”If than introducing off-line energy like fossil fuels or nuclear
they can manage in there, perhaps we can also manage on reactions. There is plenty of energy going through our system.
Earth,” he says. It is only a matter of learning how to harness this energy as it
Just ten centimetres in diameter, it houses three species of flows through our environment. We can do so with solar cells,
living creatures, none of them particularly spectacular. But to- windmills, wave machines or plant-material like the wood we
gether they form an outstanding team: they live inside the small burn in fireplaces.
sphere, all on their own, with no contact with the outside world, But the lesson to be learned from the little ecosphere is
year after year. There is only one form of contact: the sunlight that it is not only the energy that can and must be renewable,
that enters the sphere - that gentle afternoon light. No matter it is also the matter stream.
is exchanged with the surroundings. It is a closed system. Inside the little bowl all matter is recycled. The output of
Inside live shrimps, algae and bacteria. The shrimps are the one organism is the input of the other. As we saw, shrimps
more noticeable, at least to us, since they are animals like us. produce carbon dioxide for the algae and waste for the bac-
They inhale oxygen and use it to combust food into energy they teria. Bacteria produce nourishment for the algae. Algae pro-
can use to swim around in the water. Shrimps move, so we like vide oxygen and biomass for shrimps and bacteria. The waste
to watch them. They also exhale carbon dioxide, like we do. of one organism is the food of the other. Or, if you like, what
Algae do not really show up much, they are tiny and dif- comes out of one organism is what goes into another.
ferent from us. They play the role of plants inside the sphere: This grand scheme is also the general law of life on earth.
they catch the sunlight and use its energy to produce chemi- Except for us humans, who have had some pretty weird ideas
cal substances out of the carbon dioxide they inhale. So there for the last few hundred years. We have started producing a
is a simple little cycle going on: algae ”eat” sunlight and car- kind of waste that no other organism on the planet cares to
bon dioxide to produce matter and oxygen. The shrimps then eat. Nobody wants our shit for dinner. So waste is piling up
eat algae matter and combine it with the oxygen to produce and has to be driven away in lorries and dug under the ground.
movement. And shit. The bacteria will take care of the shit and Or be burned – just to get rid of it.
help produce stuff from it that is useful to the algae. Similarly, we have started using resources that are not some-
So there is a closed cycle going on – algae, bacteria and one else’s shit. We use resources that are finite. Metals are not
shrimps converting sunlight into movement, for my friend the waste of organisms, but of long dead stars that exploded
to gaze at. It goes on and on in isolation. It is called an billions of years ago. Fossil fuels are waste of organisms, but
Ecosphere. of organisms that died millions of years ago. So we are going
to use up these resources. And, ironically, we produce waste
Renewability counts – for energy and matter that no one can use. So we take a finite resource and convert
This, of course, is just like our Planet Earth. All life thrives it into waste that just piles up.
on energy from the sun, collected by plants (like grass on the This strategy is not renewable. It is finite and short-sighted.
Photo: torben Eskerod

continents or plankton in the oceans) which are later eaten If someone did that inside an ecosphere, they would very soon
by animals. These animals later recombine plant matter and be dead.
the waste from plants – oxygen – into the carbon dioxide that Obviously, renewable energy is just part of the future tech-
plants need for supper. There is no matter going in or out of nology we will have to develop. Renewable matter streams

46 D&A  AUTUMN 2008 Issue 09 49

Right The human blood circu- The bloodstream is the ‘transpor-
lation is not a closed system in tation system’ that networks all
the sense of the ‘ecosphere’. the organs with each other and,
On the contrary, around 98 per- at the same time, ensures that
cent of the atoms in our bodies they remain capable of
are renewed every year. In spite functioning.
of this, the interplay of supply
and disposal is ideal-typical.

are another part. We have to learn from life itself that every- The idea of limiting oneself belongs to the epoch of depots
thing has to be part of a big cycle. and waste dumps. The epoch (that we are still living in)
when all the energy and resources we use come from lim-
Learning to do with more – instead of less ited, finite depots of energy like fossil fuels or nuclear fuels –
Life grows and a cornucopia of activity goes on all the time. and our use of these resources leads to waste that no one can
Living creatures likes to suck up sunlight and to move around, use and we therefore have to deposit deep under the ground.
happily swimming and circling inside a small glass bowl or In that kind of world one has to limit oneself. There is not
flying around in the evening sky, with no obvious purpose. room for much of that kind of activity. But in another kind
Life likes to move. Life likes to grow. So should we. of world, there is.
The moment we start using only renewable energy and
renewable materials, we can also start growing and moving Waste equals food: the ‘cradle to cradle’ principle
and building and jumping around again. The only reason envi- How, then, does such a world come about? At the dawn of
ronmental responsibility has been linked to cutting back on the new millennium, science fiction writer Bruce Sterling cre-
consumption is that we consume stuff that is not the waste ated a new environmental movement, The Viridian Design
of others and produce stuff that is not the food of others. The Movement – the name refers to a shade of green that is found
moment we start being part of that great matter stream again, more in the artificial world than in the natural world. The
we can produce and consume as much as we like. idea being that we can create a world, based on new technol-
If we build on biological materials and produce waste edi- ogies, that rids us of the absurdities of the fossil dependency.
ble by micro-organisms or pigs or plants, then there is no limit. We can introduce new and hitherto unknown technologies
We can use as much as we like. into the world: hi-tech and global, not lo-tech and local. The
Therefore, the kind of environmentalism telling us not to ethos is to get away from the romantic and retarded atmos-
use more and not to produce more is now over. A new form is phere of the environmental movement’s heritage and into a
being born, telling us not to stop living but to live in a wiser forward-looking movement.
way. Use different things; produce different things - not nec- Sterling’s idea led to a powerful and popular movement,
essarily fewer things, just different things; develop technology Worldchanging, that has produced a rich website and a 600-
that will allow us to live inside the great cycle of life, rather page book on changing the world.
than outside it, as we tend to now. These movements are sometimes called bright green move-
If we do so, we can once again be welcome here on the ments, since they are different from the traditional, deep or
planet. We can live, prosper and grow. There is no need for us dark green, environmental movement with its air of anti-busi-
to be ashamed of ourselves or to limit our living to the most ness and anti-growth.
necessary needs. We can thrive and prosper. We can grow and A kindred initiative is the cradle-to-cradle philosophy of
show and glow at the same time. the American architect William McDonough and the Ger-
This, perhaps, is the biggest change taking place in these man environmental chemist Michael Braungart. They devel-
years. Environmentalism used to be a story about limiting oped a thinking based on the notion that ”waste = food”. Every
consumption - not over-using, not over-fishing, not over-eat- material or element used by humans should be useful in next
ing. But the idea that we could call generalised renewability step of the biological or technological cycle. That is, when a
makes a U-turn on all this: the moment we are in-flow, on- product is used up, it will either be biological food for some
line with the sunshine and with the matter flow of the living creature or technological food for the making of another prod-
planet, we are free to use as much as we want as long as it is uct. It will recycle, re-enter the great chain of being. This way
the waste of someone else and the waste we produce from it a product never goes from cradle to grave, but from cradle to
is the food of someone else. the next cradle, being reborn again and again.

50 D&A  Autumn 2008 Issue 09 49

Left Picture of a river delta from
space. The water circuit of the
earth is a closed system, whose
equilibrium is sensitive to
outside influences , especially
those exerted by human beings.

Many of these thoughts relate back to the visions of the Amer- ence. It is about material sharing, but also about idea sharing.
ican architect Buckminster Fuller, known for his domes, The coming, new technologies are all about sharing.
but also for his 1963 book Operating Manual for Spaceship But perhaps you do not want to share your shit? Or to
Earth. ingest that of others? Well, plants excrete oxygen. Try to resist
taking in some plant waste for a minute or so, and then let us
A society of flows and links talk about it. You do not want to help plants with your excre-
Obviously, it is a great task to steer this Spaceship we are rid- tions? Just hold your breath and stop exhaling. Let us discuss
ing. The entire basis for the civilisation we have created is the it in a few minutes from now.
use of depots of energy and materials, the idea of headquar- We are part of the world. We cannot step out of it or live
ters, of inside and outside, of limits towards the world. One without it. Every person takes in a kilogram of food and a few
can argue, as I have done, that we are really in the process of kilograms of water every day. That adds up to more than one
creating a new version of civilisation, a Civilisation 2.0, based ton of matter every year – going right through you. In a single
on entirely different principles: flow and links. year, 98 percent of the atoms in your body are replaced.
The flow is all about the renewable energy and materials. You are not a materially constant object, you are more
The links are all about where the flow goes. It flows from one like software. The apple you had after lunch now remembers
place to another, linking things together. The sun and the your childhood. All the atoms from your childhood body
earth, the plants and the animals, the present product and are long gone. But your memories persist. Just like the dance
the next cycle based on the same materials. music you move from records to tapes to discs to ipods to
The internet is the leading example of what a new civilisa- the wireless world. You are a program running on constantly
tion will look like. No central control, but distributed intelli- replaced atoms.
gence, endless links between people and things, endless flow You are in a state of what I call permanent reincarnation:
of information and attention. The internet could not possibly Your flesh is being replaced all the time. It has nothing to do
have grown to the size and influence it has without the non- with life after death or wandering souls. It has to do with the
centralised organisation. Nobody can control the enormous simple fact that you are more like a river or a flame than a rock

Photo: Image courtesy of USGS National Center for EROS and NASA Landsat Project Science Office
stream of information passing through it. Massive, distributed or an electric bulb. The river is the same, because the water
coordination is necessary: links, links and more links. is replaced all the time. The flame is the same because the air
The same goes for the new technologies, the new uses of flows through all the time. You are the same because bananas
the environment, the new global structures we must build in come in and go out again – somewhat modified.
the coming decades to get through the crisis of the climate – Try to step out of the stream and refuse to be renewable.
they will all have to be rich in information and relationships You can do that and there is a word for it – when you stop
between things, places and people: links. I call the coming renewing yourself, you are dead. Then nobody eats your shit
age The Link Age. any more. They just eat you.
We have to learn to work together. One creature’s waste is So please do not stop the sunlight flowing through you.
another creature’s food. That goes for material stuff, but also Stay with us – renew yourself.
for ideas, innovations, plans and dreams. Share it all, and
someone else can use it. We basically have to re-invent the
world. That is no small feat and we will have to share all our Tor Nørretranders is an independent author, thinker and commentator based
dreams to do so. in Copenhagen, Denmark. Originally graduating as a M.Sc. in environmental
planning and the sociology of science, Tor Nørretranders is now adjunct pro-
Recently, in a presentation at an open source computer con- fessor in the philosophy of science at Copenhagen Business School. He received
ference, I innocently flashed a slide with the phrase ”share your the non-fiction prize of the Danish Writers’ Union in 1985 and the publicist prize
shit” – and it immediately became the slogan of the confer- of the Danish Publicist Club in 1988.

50 D&A  Autumn 2008 Issue 09 53

“You never change things by fighting the existing
reality. To change something, build a new model
that makes the existing model obsolete.”
Buckminster Fuller


The challenge today How we build also radically affects our cli- in this issue. We aim to go on influencing
The future of construction faces serious chal- mate. Buildings consume about 40 per cent and setting the future agenda of construc-
lenges in terms of resource supply, energy of the energy we consume in Europe. Reduc- tion through experiments in climate-neutral
efficiency and healthy buildings. Constant ing our energy consumption has become an buildings with a high livability factor, thanks
pressure on global resources is forcing eve- important area of focus all over the world, to balanced daylight, natural ventilation and
ryone, the construction industry as well as and in Europe in particular, due to the con- healthy building materials. The vision for
architects and planners, to think creatively cerns about climate change and the increas- future living environments is called Model
and find new solutions. Now is a time for ing global energy consumption. Home 2020. Six houses will be built over the
tests and experiments. Building materials The European Union has adopted a com- next two years in five countries. Each house
have to be reappraised and so do the build- prehensive package for energy policy up to is a real-life visionary example of future hous-
ings themselves. They have to be energy- 2020. The package requires all EU member ing – and an opportunity to test the ideas
efficient and perhaps even produce energy. states to reduce their total energy consump- behind Model Home 2020 and develop them
And they have to be healthy to live in. tion and CO2 emissions by 20 per cent. More- further. As the founder of VELUX, Villum
The way we build radically affects how over, all member states must document that Kann Rasmussen, said: “One experiment is
we live, work and play, it influences our health 20 per cent of their total energy consumption better than a thousand expert views”.
and our well-being. We spend a major part comes from renewable energy sources. The houses in Denmark and the UK will
of our lives in and around buildings. Daylight, be built in a joint venture between VELUX as
space, fresh air and ventilation play an impor- Experiments for the future roof window producer and VELFAC, as verti-
tant role for many people. We spend 90 per Since the early ‘90s, VELUX has experi- cal window producer. On the following pages,
cent of our time indoors but up to 30 per cent mented with demonstration houses. Atika we present the first two Danish experiments
of the global building stock does not contrib- is one example, presented in Daylight & in the Model Home 2020 programme.
ute to or provide a healthy indoor climate Architecture 05, while SOLTAG is covered

ACTIVE HOUSING Active housing is a vision of a future ing envelope. In the years to come, design of the building. The goal is to
paradigm for construction, in which further steps in this development use renewable resources through a
the visions of the past form the step- will have to be taken. From the ini- dynamic building envelope that can
ping stones of the future. Latest de- tial sketches onwards, planners, ar- adapt to the needs of the inhabitants
velopments have brought about chitects and engineers are required or users by creating an optimal in-
technologies, materials and skills in to incorporate the needs of daylight, door climate, as well as adapt to the
the construction business that are ventilation and other passive tech- climate in general.
focused on a highly efficient build- nologies into the layout and overall


Active housing is a holistic energy de- It includes a maximum ‘liveability’
sign that considers the total energy factor, which prioritises good indoor
consumption during the construction climate, fresh air and natural daylight
and use of a building, with high prior- in creating a healthy building.
ity on renewable energies.

54 D&A  AUTUMN 2008  Issue 09 55

‘Home for Life’ is the result of an The systems are intelligent and de- Home for Life brings together the ex- The University of Copenhagen, the The project has been commissioned
Home for life interdisciplinary project to synthe- mand-controlled. pertise of:
Green Lighthouse Danish University and Property in a turnkey contract competition in
Århus, Denmark sise the parameters of energy, com- consultancies: Architectural office Copenhagen, Denmark Agency, the Municipality of Copen- which the energy concept and the
fort and visual appeal into a holistic Aestethics AART and Consulting Engineers Es- hagen, VELFAC and VELUX have architectural design were the main
entity, where the parameters are mu- The look and feel of this demonstra- bensen entered a strategic alliance to con- criteria. The winning consortium,
tually complementary and maxim- tion home is an interpretation of the research: The Engineering College of struct a new sustainable building consisting of Christensen & Co.
ise value for life in the home and the archetypical residence as a futuristic Aarhus, the Alexandra Institute and with optimal balance between en- Arkitekter (architects), COWI (en-
world around it. Home for Life will ‘energy machine’ that interacts with The Aarhus School of Architecture ergy efficiency, architectural quality, gineers) and Hellerup Byg (contrac-
be built in the north of Århus in Den- nature and the life lived inside it. The the construction industry: VELFAC, healthy indoor climate and good day- tor) submitted the project ‘Sun Dial’,
mark. The home has a floorage of active frontage changes the look of the VELUX, WindowMaster and Son- light conditions. This will be achieved whose energy concept is based on
190m2, on two storeys. house and its spatial relationships de- nenkraft. through sustainable and innovative the Kyoto Triangle (see illustration).
pending on the time of year and needs. approaches to building design. The The building will have a round
Energy The home is laid out around a ”day- Home for Life opens in March 2009. building is expected to be ready by ground plan with a central, daylit
The total energy consumption is min- light cross” which provides illumina- After the exhibition, the building will mid-2009 and will have facilities for atrium, and contain 950 m² in three
imised and covered by renewable and tion and access from all four corners be tested by installing a family that the dean, professors and students of storeys.
CO2-neutral energy generated in the of the earth. All the rooms contain will be occupying, consuming, pro- the Department of Science Education
building itself. After around 30 years, windows facing in at least two direc- ducing and not least experiencing life at the University of Copenhagen.
the surplus energy is equivalent to tions, and besides being an entrance in the home. The partners want the project to
the amount of energy represented point for light, they also function as become a lighthouse for sustainable
by the materials the house is built an exit point, ventilation aperture, re- Kyoto triangle building in Copenhagen, Denmark
from. A primary parameter in the en- cessed seating, workplace or to frame and the rest of Europe. So the Green
ergy design is the fenestration; posi- a view of the outside. Energy Lighthouse, as it is known, is intended
tioned to cater for energy technology Fossile Energy to be a showpiece for the UN Climate
and visual appeal, the windows op- Comfort Change Summit COP 15 to be held in
timise light, air and heat intake. The Fresh air is drawn inside in the heating late 2009 in Copenhagen.
window area is equivalent to 40 % season via mechanical ventilation sys- Home for Life Renewable
of the heated floor area. Solar cells, tems. Outside of the heating season, Energies
solar collectors and mechanical ven- fresh air can be drawn in via natural
Comfort Aesthetics
tilation systems with high-efficiency ventilation. The temperature in each Reduced
heat recovery produce the energy. room can be adjusted independently. Energy Need

Energy requirement and production

in kWh/m2/year
Electricity Electricity Heating and Total Production Surplus
for house- for running warm water
hold installations

-14 -8,5 -32,5 -55 60 5

56 D&A  AUTUMN 2008  Issue 09 57

VELUX Dialogue Architects in a dialogue with VELUX. Interview with Gaëtan Siew Left The Lingotto building in
Turin (Giacomo Mattè-Trucco,
1915-1923), venue of this year’s
Transmitting Architecture was the motto of the 23rd UIA congress, initially appears to
UIA World Congress of Architecture, held in Turin in have little to do with “sustainable
early July this year. But who should architecture – building”. But, today, the former
particularly green, energy-efficient architecture – be Fiat factory houses a vital mix-
ture of functions, namely a con-
transmitted to, and how? Daylight&Architecture gress centre, a shopping centre,
discussed this and other questions with Gaëtan Siew, a hotel and a college.
president of the UIA from 2005 to 2008.

Back in the
driver’s seat

D&A Mr. Siew, when we speak of Transmit- to include issues of architecture and building that there is money to be made if you ‘go
ting Architecture, as the UIA did this year in construction in their programmes. green’. They consider environmental issues
Turin, the question arises as to who should a business opportunity, and since buildings
architecture be transmitted to – particularly D&A What influence do architects have to account for 50% of all energy consumption
architecture that makes use of renewable guide their societies towards more sustain- world-wide, this opportunity is particularly
energies and produces little or no CO2 emis- able development, and how much does this promising in the construction sector. I will
sions? And what transmission channels do influence vary from one region of the world not judge this here, but at the end of the day
architects have at their disposal? to another? this economics approach is just as beneficial
as the political one.
GS There are two levels on which sustainable GS II think this influence has increased In the rest of the world, but especially
architecture can be transmitted: one has to greatly over the last few years. Ten years in large emerging countries such as Brazil,
do with technical solutions and awareness; ago, environmental issues were still dealt China, Russia and India, the situation is dif-
the other works more on a political level. with in a reluctant manner in many coun- ferent again. These countries have devel-
For the technical and awareness part, the tries; where statements like “this does not oped extremely quickly in recent years, with
UIA has set up two work programmes over affect us” or “the others should lead the way” almost no concern for environmental issues.
the last three years that brought together were common. Today, however, environmen- After ten years of rapid growth, they are
experts from various parts of the world. In tal issues are becoming a real problem and experiencing a backlash in which the envi-
our research groups, these experts share everywhere in the world, societies and polit- ronment creates huge problems for them.
information and prepare technical stand- ical institutions are addressing them. There In China, the most widespread health prob-
ards and benchmarks that can be distrib- are various reasons. In Europe, it is mostly lems occur due to environmental pollution,
uted worldwide. because of a rising awareness among the and in many cases, the cost of curing peo-
The second, political part of our trans- general public and pressure from environ- ple is higher than it would have been to avoid
mission work involves world-wide lobbying mental groups. This has lead to a situation pollution in the first place. So the emerging
with political organisations, governments where concerted political action is becom- nations, too, are turning to environmental
and authorities. Here we prepare documents ing ever more widespread, and where even issues for a mixture of economics and the
that each member in the 132 countries that the EU commission has set the goal to reduce pure need to survive.
comprise our organisation can discuss with CO2 emissions by 20 percent by 2020. As you see, each region is trying to
their own national governments. Along- In the Anglo-Saxon countries, that is tackle the same problems for different rea-
photo: Jakob Schoof

side this, we collaborate with interna- to say, mainly North America, but also the sons, but to us architects, all these strategies
tional organisations like UNEP, UN-Habitat, UK and Australia, the approach is more one and necessities result in a great opportunity.
UNESCO and even WHO to persuade them of economics. Companies have realised They may enable us to regain the role that we

58 59
Gaëtan Siew (2nd from right) Traditionally, the UIA world con-
was president of the Union Inter- gress offers architectural asso-
nationale des Architectes (UIA) ciations and colleges from all
from 2005 to 2008. over the world the opportu-
nity to present themselves and
exchange opinions with each
other. The mainly young public
gladly took the chance and filled
the trade fair halls with all kinds
of events – from a classic archi-
tecture exhibition to a workshop.

have recently lost to a certain degree: to act congress in Turin, for example, we awarded GS Yes I do. Maybe not among all the cli- objectives, the way to achieving them may globalised, and we are running the risk of
as generalists who cooperate with all sorts the prizes in a design competition where ents but certainly among architects – and be difficult. We therefore envisage a sort of producing increasingly uniform architec-
of specialists to create holistic solutions for architects were asked to develop shelters especially among the younger generation. Ten Commitments – strong commitments tural solutions. Many people think that there
a global problem. This is important because for disaster relief. These shelters should uti- UIA is connected to most of the 750,000 to be sure – that the different nations and is a universal solution in architecture - but
the solutions will have to be holistic: you can- lise renewable energy sources and enable students of architecture around the world regions can then adapt to their specific cul- they are wrong. There may be one common
not resolve environmental problems merely people to use them in different locations, cli- and we have noticed that they really ‘think tural and political context. These Ten Com- objective for all, but there will always be dif-
with technical solutions – social and cultural mates, and cultures. green’, much more so even than the archi- mitments will be developed over the next ferent solutions for the different parts of the
aspects must also be included. We are now already negotiating with a tects of my generation. three years and will be followed by more world. Therefore, as we do not want all the
construction company to actually manufac- However, I also see that other profes- detailed guidelines and benchmarks that world to look like Manhattan or Dubai, pro-
D&A Three years ago, the UIA set up a work ture the winning competition scheme, and sions, including the building industry, are everyone can use in their day-to-day work. moting cultural diversity and cultural her-
programme entitled ARES (Architecture & with UN-HABITAT to use it in their work in joining us in this effort. What is more, they This second step will be important because itage will be one of the top priorities of the
Renewable Energy Sources). How is this pro- the field. This proves that it is not always no longer seek to find solutions in isolation goals are only useful if you can measure UIA’s work.
gramme organised, and can you yet tell us the grand scheme but also the less ambitious but collaborate with architects and other yourself against them. Behind these two main objectives is a
something of the results? that can have an effect, because our network experts. By doing so, the result can only get This strategy has not only come from third – but no less important: humanitarian
enables us to distribute and coordinate these better. architects. Landscape architects, planners action. It particularly involves reconstruc-
GS The ARES work group was set up at measures throughout the world. Even the Chi- and the real estate industry are joining us tion after natural disasters or war; the UIA
the UIA World Congress in Istanbul 2005 nese authorities have approached us now to D&A You recently suggested that a ‘fair in the effort. The same is true of the con- is deeply involved in this issue, as the ARES
and is led by the Greek architect Nikos Fin- help them mitigate the effects of the earth- architecture’ trademark should be estab- struction industry, and as soon as all these competition shows.
tikakis. So far, ARES has been present at quake in Sichuan. Money is not a problem in lished, much like the ‘fair trade’ mark that is stakeholders start putting time, effort and
two levels: Firstly, we have participated in China, but they need help with coordination, already common in many countries. What money into this kind of concept, they want D&A Will cultural and social issues also be
major conferences and expert meetings in logistics and architectural know-how. criteria would this involve and how will you to see results. part of the ‘fair architecture’ initiative?
Paris, Cannes and Abu Dhabi. At these meet- Initiatives like this one create awareness. be working towards this goal?
ings, we informed our partners from the real ARES started as a workgroup mainly from D&A What will be the UIA’s top priorities GS Yes, they will. The declaration of the
estate sector and the construction indus- South-Eastern European countries, but is GS To me, this approach is extremely impor- until the next World Congress to be held in UIA is based both on sustainability and cul- Gaëtan Siew has been President of the Union In-
ternationale des Architectes (UIA) from 2005
try about the environmental benchmarks we now gaining momentum and will hopefully tant. We have already prepared drafts that 2011 in Tokyo? tural diversity, and we are convinced that
to 2008 and will be heading the UIA’s Vision and
have developed over the years, which they soon spread to other regions of the world we will discuss with several other organisa- ‘fair’ architecture has to be fair not only to Strategy Committee until 2011. After studying ar-
can also use to their financial benefit. as well. tions. We would like this scheme to be simple. GS Here I see three fields of action: sustain- the physical environment, but also to the chitecture in Marseilles, Gaëtan Siew founded his
Secondly, ARES has organised a number When you are working in a global context, ability, climate change, and all the initiatives social environment and to cultural diversity. own architectural office in his home country, Mau-
ritius, in 1981. His most important projects include
of awards and best practices that aim to D&A Do you have any evidence that think- things cannot be too detailed, too specific we have just discussed.
the masterplans for Mauritius International Air-
encourage architects world-wide to inno- ing about sustainability is on the increase or too technical, or you risk not reaching The second topic will be cultural diver- port and the ‘Chinatown’ quarter in Port-Louis, as
vate and create new solutions. At the UIA among architects nowadays? consensus. And although we agree on the sity. The world is becoming increasingly well as several hotels in Mauritius and abroad.

60 D&A Autumn 2008 Issue 09 61
VELUX Panorama Architecture with VELUX
from all over the world.

a CO2 -neutral demo house
for northern Europe

Right: The two-storey living To demonstrate energy efficient re- ing frontage has an external gallery, addition to providing good daylight
space of SOLTAG – here, with furbishment or existing buildings which provides the most flexible ac- illumination, also allow solar heat to
recessed gallery level – will be and provide examples of future cess. To the south, it has a cantilev- pass through the window.
supplied with daylight and heat housing standards, VELUX has de- ered balcony that fully exploits the SOLTAG’s total need for heating
through the high roof windows. veloped SOLTAG, a housing solu- depth of the house. is approximately 30 kWh/m²a, and
They allow approximately twice tion which specially addresses the The homes are placed in a frame- the minimal need for supplementary
as much light into the building as climatic conditions in Northern Eu- work construction that also formst heating can be attributed to well-in-
vertical windows of the same ropean countries. SOLTAG was part he basis fort he external gallery and sulated walls, floors, roofs and win-
size in the facade. of the ‘Demohouse’ research project, the balconies. The underlying frame- dows, as well as the passive solar
which involved research institutes, work can be either integrated into heat through the windows.
housing associations and manufac- new buildings for functionas a su- The electricity in the house is con-
turers from the building sector co- perstructure on existing houses of trolled by a net calculation meter that
operating to demonstrate energy various depths. draws power into the home when the
efficiency in buildings. The roof structure is a steel frame sun is unable tu supply the necessary
SOLTAG is basically intended as a with timber collar beams. Under the energy. The solar cell system is con-
roof refurbishment solution – a hous- roof is a useful open loft-style area nected to the ordinary electricity grid
ing unit that can be attached to exist- and at floor level, raised window po- When the solar cells produce surplus
ing 60s and 70s multi-storey housing diums invite to play and rest. power, the meter counts backwards.
without needing to be connedted to SOLTAG is devised as a self-suf- In periods of weak sunlight, power
the building’s existing energy sys- ficient home that is independent of is taken from the ordinary electric-
tems. The flat roofs can then be external heating systems. The in- ity supplies.
used as “new” building plits with up- dependent heating production and An extra 14 m² of photovolaic
graded roof and housing areas. How- maintenance are achieved by har- cells can generate enough electric-
ever, SOLTAG is also suitable for new nessing solar energy, which is gen- ity to cover the entire winter enery
buildings such as terraced housing erated by the windows’ natural consumption of the pumps and ven-
units, single-family housing in towns, propensity to heat up the space, and tilators. The day-to-day electricity
in the country or even on water as by the solar panels that produce do- consumption of domestic appliances
houseboats. The first prototype of mestic hot water and under-floor and lighting, however, is supplied by
SOLTAG was realised in 2005 and heating. 3,5 m² of photovoltaic cells the external enectricity grid.
exhibited for several months in Øre- on the roof produce the electricity The roof has an integrated in-
stad in southern Copenhagen. to operate the pumps and ventila- novative air heating system, which
The home is constructed from tors. A compact, built-in heat-recov- works in combination with the air
modules designed and fitted out as ery ventilation unit and a mechanical hating pump. The air is drawn in be-
prefabricated kits. The modules are ventilator transfer the heat from the tween the outer roofing panels and
installed quickly, which minimises „spent“, heated air to new fresh air the layers beneath, and is heated up
the nuisance factor for residents in taken from outside. 90 percent of the under the surface of the roof, which is
the buildings on which SOLTAG is heat is recycled in this way. made of zinc materials with slar cells.
built. The modules can be connected A solid climate screen with stra- As a by-product, this air flow cools
to existing buildings or stand alone. tegically placed low-energy win- down the underside of the solar cells
They are custom-made and adapted dows, 350 mm of inslulation in the and keeps them producing at an op-
for each different project, with con- walls and 400 mm in the roof, and timum.
sideration fort he building context an airtight construction without cold
and financial resources. bridges keeps the heat in.
The home comprises two basic SOLTAG’s window area is 28% of
modules that fit together to consti- the floor area, almost double that of
tute a dwelling for two persons. One standard winow areas. THe north-
module contains the main installa- facing windows are super low-energy
Photo: Adam MØrk

tions and kitchen, bathroom, hall windows with a U-value of 1.0–1.2

and bedroom. The other module con- W/m²K, while the south-facing win-
sists of dining and living area with an dows are standard windows with a
open loft-style area. The north-fac- U-value of 1.5 W/m²K and which, in

62 D&A  AUTUMN 2008  Issue 09 63

1. Cross section with energy 3. A knee-high bench in the north 4. South view of SOLTAG. Two
concept serves as a transition between square metres of solar collectors,
the inside and outside. In the which supply warm water, are
2. SOLTAG consists of two north, roof windows that feature mounted on the roof. In addition,
prefabricated modules which a high level of thermal insulation 17.5 square metres of photo-
will be assembled and cladded and are suitable for passive voltaic panels produce around
on the building site. One contains houses have been used in order to 1450 kWh of electricity per year.
the bathroom, kitchen, bedroom keep the heat inside the building.
and entrance area and the other
contains the combined living and
dining room.

Natural ventilation Heat-intake

Photo: Adam MØrk

1 2

Client VELUX A/S, Hørsholm, DK
Architects RUBOW arkitekter,
Copenhagen, DK
Energy consultants Cenergia Energy Consultants,
Copenhagen, DK
General consultants Kuben Byfornyelse Danmark,
Copenhagen, DK
General contractor Jytas, Galten, DK

Primary energy need for

Room heating 30 kWh/m²a
Hot water 15 kWh/m²a
Cooling 15 kWh/m²a
Total 60 kWh/m²a

Specifications for construction (U-values)

Floor 0.10 W/m²K
Vertical wall 0.15 W/m²K
Roof 0.10 W/m²K
Windows 1.0–1.5 W/m²K
Photo: Adam MØrk

Photo: Adam MØrk

3 4

64 D&A  AUTUMN 2008  Issue 09 65

for our earth, depending on the ex- Worldchanging extensive index at the end of the book Last Call for tioned rather give the impression that down the influence of architecture to all genres, from architectural visions
tent of global warming in the com- helps the reader to navigate the dif- climate problems can be solved rela- an acceptable level: that of setting a to video installations to classic ‘hap-
ing decades. Lynas has arranged his
A User’s Guide to the
ferent areas of knowledge, and the
Planet Earth tively painlessly with the help of ar- good example in individual cases. Be- penings’. Two main strategies emerge.
21st Century Film by Jacques Allard
book into seven chapters – one for numerous annotated book and in- chitecture. Their contributions touch cause, given the wrong economic and One of them deals with the artistic in-
REVIEWS every degree of warming with a sev- Editor: Alex Steffen ternet recommendations are an en-
Released by: EURAF.
on almost all areas of sustainable political conditions, even the ‘green- terpretation of scientific findings – for
For further reading: enth chapter to discuss the conclu- Abrams, New York couragement to read more about the
eu /
building: the consumption of energy est’ architecture is doomed to failure example data from seismographs or
sions. What becomes particularly various topics. and of raw materials used in build- – and films like Last Call for Planet CO2 sensors – while the other uses
recent books clear in Six Degrees is that three de-
ISBN 978-0-8109-7085-4
Despite its occasional superfici-
DVD, 74 min
ings, the active and passive utilisation Earth could very quickly become just a more practical participative ap-
presented by D&A. grees’ global warming is completely alities, Worldchanging can usefully of solar power, the creation of green so much waste footage. proach and focuses on the question:
different from three degrees’ varia- What if there were a book that ex- serve as a guidebook to the world of The problem facing us is clear: by areas in cities, the recycling of ma- “What can we do specifically?” Thus,
tion in temperature throughout the plained to us how we could save the the future – provided the reader is the year 2050 we need to have re- terials and the lifespan of buildings speaking for many others, the Ameri-
day: some of the most sensitive areas world tomorrow? prepared to use his own discrimina- duced our CO2 emissions by 40 to as well as the social aspects of archi-
Ökomedien / can conceptual artist Natalie Jeremi-
– particularly the high mountain re- Of course, this is a rhetorical ques- tion when forming his opinion of the 80 percent, depending on the fore- tecture. One cannot help but admire Ecomedia jenko deplores: “Have you ever noticed
gions and the higher latitudes where tion - such a book does not exist. But ‘sights’ described here. At the same cast, in order to avert the worst con- the buildings and projects presented the flatness of the ‘what you can do’
most of the freshwater is stored in Worldchanging comes very close: time, the book also manages to avoid sequences of global warming. The in the film – some of which have al- Editors: Sabine Himmelsbach, screen at the end of rousing documen-
Six Degrees the form of glaciers – will be most af- more than 30 authors – journalists, resorting to the schoolmasterly tone facts and figures on which these ready been published to global ac- Yvonne Volkart / Edith-Ruß-Haus taries like An Inconvenient Truth?”
Our Future on a für Medienkunst, Oldenburg
fected by climate change. Even one science-fiction writers, scientists, characteristic of so many persons on prognoses are based have been pub- claim, while others are still relatively Like Jeremijenko, most of the
Hotter Planet Hatje Cantz Verlag
or two degrees of global warming designers and corporate consultants a mission to save the world. In the in- lished by the IPCC and been made unknown. artists introduced in the exhibition
will result in a massive extinction of – have collected ideas and projects troduction, the editor Alex Steffen available in a more general form and But what Last Call for Planet ISBN 978-3-7757-2048-9 are trying to bridge the chasm be-
Author: Mark Lynas,
species in the polar regions and the from all over the world to make this explains why: “Because the ques- to a wider public by Al Gore in his film Earth lacks is a probing look beneath tween science, art and everyday
high mountain areas of the world. As work of reference. The concept of tion is not easy, this book doesn’t An Inconvenient Truth. the smooth surface: the authors never Everyone is talking about sustaina- life. As the American astrophysicist
ISBN 978-0007209057
a climate scientist once put it: “Cli- the book is somewhat reminiscent of offer easy answers. This book isn’t But are there any solutions to the ask their interview partners where bility and climate change – but only Roger F. Malina notes in his essay
mate changes force animals to move the legendary – at least in the USA – about lists of Ten Simple Things You problem? Who knows how it could be their influence ends and what prob- art has nothing to say? The political Lovely Weather: Asking What the
The scenarios predicated by the up the mountains to higher areas – Whole Earth Catalog, which the biol- Can Do. It’s about providing you with solved? It is a problem that demands lems they have battled. Similarly, the scientist Christoph Spehr noted in Arts Can Do for the Sciences, much
Intergovernmental Panel on Cli- and when they can no longer go any ogist and author Stewart Brand has ideas for rethinking your own life, and urgent answers, and – as many oth- important question respecting the the book Ecomedia: “On the face of still remains to be done in this area.
mate Change have been covered in higher, they go to heaven.” Accord- been bringing out semi-annually since providing approaches to change. This ers have done – the authors of the conditions that will allow ecological it, one of the most astonishing facts Using Leonardo, the society he initi-
serious talks, popular science arti- ing to Lynas, three degrees’ global 1968: a vast fount of useful tools that book is written not by people who film Last Call for Planet Earth are re- architecture to move from individual of documenta 12 is that none of the ated, Malina has been working for 25
cles and internet discussion forums: warming would be sufficient to turn could make the earth a more liveable know it all (such people are invariably solved to provide them. For the way cases to become a mass phenomenon works exhibited there deals with cli- years to achieve a closer interaction
by 2100, global warming is expected the Amazon region into a semi-arid place for everyone. The work has al- wrong), but by a bunch of your team in which we build our houses and cit- is ignored. The most convincing inter- mate change – which, after all, poses and better communication between
to be somewhere between one and desert and four degrees’ warming most 600 pages and consists of short mates who are working themselves ies does indeed hold a key to a more view in the film is also the only one the most radical challenge to our way art, science and society – albeit with
a half and six degrees, depending on would suffice to melt the polar caps essays on all the main problem areas to figure out how we can make a dif- climate compatible future. Between that was not held with an ‘active’ ar- of life and social order …” only limited success as he himself ad-
the future behaviour of mankind. But for good. The consequences: among touched on by the media in the past ference together.” 40 and 50 percent of all energy used chitect: over the past three decades, This was a gap that the Edith- mits: “To date there have been per-
previously, nobody could really im- others, an increase in the mean sea few years – from organic farming to Worldchanging is like a scholar’s on earth is linked to the construction working as an urban planner and a Ruß-Haus für Medienkunst in the haps no more than 1,000 art-science
agine what the practical impact of level of around 65 metres. A six de- the lotus effect, from open-source card index, occasionally somewhat and maintenance of buildings. mayor, Jaime Lerner has completely north German town of Oldenburg projects that have not only led to ar-
these abstract figures would be – grees warmer climate – which sci- software to solar cookers and from randomly sorted but always inspir- The title of the film (Last Call for turned the Brazilian town of Curitiba resolved to close. In their exhibition tistic creation but also resulted in a
unless he or she had read the IPCC’s entists believe could occur by 2100 low-energy houses to micro-credits. ing. This underscored by the book’s Planet Earth) seems to hint at stir- around to focus on sustainability. His Ecomedia, the curators brought 20 substantial contribution to a scien-
report and the scientific research re- if CO2 emissions continue to in- Just how these will contribute to the attractive design and excellent il- ring appeals underpinned by a touch most important tool was consistent artists together, for whom the cur- tific research outcome.”
sults on which it is based in detail. crease strongly – has occurred only desired improvement of the world lustrations, which include contribu- of apocalyptic sentiment. But this funding of urban public transport. rent changes to the ecosystem are Of course, the question remains as
This book saves you the trouble. By once in the earth’s history since life sometimes remains rather vague, tions by some of the masters in their merely serves as a disguise for a sur- Lerner rightly commented: “‘Green’ a matter of concern. The topics they to what extent art should serve sci-
his own account, the British envi- began. Some 251 [either “251” or and hard facts and figures are also fields, such as Edward Burtynsky or prisingly conventional approach, buildings and recycling alone are not cover range from the globalised pro- ence or whether it should be the other
ronmental activist David Lynas has “some 250” –PAW] million years often lacking. Only rarely are the in- the Magnum photographer Stuart whereby a succession of twelve ar- sufficient; the problem lies more in duction of foodstuffs and the melting way round. But in an age in which the
read and evaluated more than ten ago the combination of a volcanic ventions and organisations described Franklin. Like all really good encyclo- chitects present their projects and the manner in which our cities are polar ice cap at the north pole to tree art scene has become almost intol-
thousand articles written by cli- explosion, poisonous gases from in the book examined critically. This paedias, the book is more than merely opinions on sustainability. Pronounce- designed. The perception that cities planting events like that of Joseph erably commercial and banal, the
mate scientists, glaciologists, ge- rotting materials rising out of the makes Worldchanging a sort of En- a reference work: even if no one can ments such as “For me sustainability are only for living and working and Beuys’ 7,000 Oaks created for doc- exhibition and accompanying book
ologists and other specialists, and oceans, and gigantic methane ex- cyclopaedia Britannica of good news, be expected to read it from cover to is tantamount to a cultural revolution, that people need to go elsewhere to umenta 1982 in Kassel, which is now Ökomedien/Ecomedia offer a mes-
used them as the basis for this truly plosions in the atmosphere resulted arranged into seven areas of knowl- cover, it invites its readers to embark and like every revolution it hurts”, by relax is unacceptable and, in my opin- taking place for a second time on the sage that is long overdue: there are
extraordinary book. Six Degrees in the obliteration of 95 percent of edge: Stuff, Shelter, Cities, Commu- on an enjoyable voyage of discovery Françoise-Hélène Jourda are the ex- ion, must change completely within internet in Second Life. The choice of still goals worth committing oneself
looks at a range of possible futures all species on earth. nity, Business, Politics and Planet. An into the world of sustainability. ception. In general, the persons ques- the next ten years.” Lerner thus scales projects spans a wide range across to, also – and particularly – in art.

66 D&A  AUTUMN 2008  Issue 09 67

Daylight &
issue 10
winter 2008
Swiss Pavilion at EXPO 2000 in

Re-use Hannover – designing a building

so that it can be 100% recycled.

daylight & architecture
magazine by velux
AUTUMN 2008  Issue 09

Publisher Website
Michael K. Rasmussen

VELUX Editorial team E-mail

Per Arnold Andersen
Christine Bjørnager
Nicola Ende Print run
Lone Feifer 80,000 copies
Lotte Kragelund
Torben Thyregod ISSN 1901-0982

Gesellschaft für Knowhow- The views expressed in articles

Transfer Editorial team appearing in Daylight & Architecture
Thomas Geuder are those of the authors and not
Annika Dammann necessarily shared by the publisher.
Jakob Schoof
© 2008 VELUX Group.
Translation and re-write ® VELUX and VELUX logo are
Tony Wedgwood registered trademarks used under
licence by the VELUX Group.
Photo editors
Torben Eskerod
Adam Mørk

Art direction & design

Stockholm Design Lab ®
Per Carlsson
Nina Granath
Björn Kusoffsky

Cover and inside front

cover photography
Cover: Enrique Brown y
Inside: Adam Mørk