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Energy and Buildings 149 (2017) 142–150

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Energy and Buildings

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/enbuild

Assessment of energy consumption in existing buildings

Laurence Brady a,∗ , Mawada Abdellatif b,∗
Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Department of the Built Environment, Liverpool John Moores University, Peter Jost Enterprise Centre, Byrom Street,
Liverpool, L3 3AF, UK
Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Low Carbon Eco-Innovatory Project, Liverpool John Moores University, Peter Jost Enterprise Centre, Byrom Street,
Liverpool, L3 3AF, UK

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: There has been general recognition within the construction industry that there is a discrepancy between
Received 2 March 2017 the amount of energy that buildings actually use and what designers considered that they should use. This
Received in revised form 15 May 2017 phenomenon is termed “The Performance Gap” and is normally associated with new buildings. However,
Accepted 20 May 2017
existing and older buildings contribute a greater amount of operational carbon. In response to the Per-
Available online 25 May 2017
formance Gap, CIBSE have developed the TM54 process which is aimed at improving energy estimates at
design stage. This paper considers how the TM54 process can also be used to develop energy management
procedures for existing buildings. The paper describes an exercise carried out for a university workshop
DSM building in which design energy use has been compared with the actual building energy use and standard
Energy consumption benchmarks. Moreover, a sensitivity assessment has been carried out using different scenarios based on
TM54 operation hours of building/equipment, boiler efficiency and impact of climate change. The analysis of
Uncertainties these results showed high uncertainty in estimates of energy consumption. If carbon challenges are to be
met then improved energy management techniques will require a more systematic approach so that facil-
ities managers can identify energy streams and pinpoint problems, particularly where they have assumed
responsibility for existing buildings which often have a legacy of poorly metered fuel consumption.
© 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction building users to operate and maintain building so that they can be
managed to provide optimum performance. The “Soft-Landings”
The energy used in buildings in the UK is significant. initiative [4] encourages construction teams to provide an after-
Non-domestic buildings account for approximately 35% of UK care service which can deal with some of the post-occupancy
greenhouse emissions [11]. The scale of these emissions represents problems which may not have been apparent at building handover
a considerable amount of energy use which has consequent asso- stage. However, eventually the operation and management of the
ciated national costs. It is therefore a matter of concern that, in occupied building will become the responsibility of facilities man-
many cases construction professionals do not presently have the agers.
data or tools to accurately predict at design stage, how much energy The life cycle energy used by a building during its operational
a building will use. The gap between predicted and actual building phase is between 80% and 90% of its total life cycle energy [7].
energy use has come to be known as “the performance gap”. The Therefore management of energy use during this period can have
factors which contribute to this gap range from briefing and design a critical influence on building carbon emissions. The process of
issues through to problems relating to installation, commissioning managing energy in buildings can vary in complexity from sim-
and data feedback. ply ensuring that utility bills are accurate to operating a system
The skills, knowledge and improved management systems which monitors and controls the various energy using services.
needed to eliminate the performance gap can enable construction CIBSE [21] recommend that monitoring and targeting of energy
professionals to hand over buildings which will, not only perform use can control energy use by “monitoring consumption and com-
as they were designed, but they can also set the conditions for the paring it against historical data and benchmarks”. CIBSE publish
benchmarks for a range of building types and are easily accessible,
whereas valid historical data requires to have been compiled and
∗ Corresponding author. catalogued.
E-mail address: m.e.abdellatif@ljmu.ac.uk (M. Abdellatif).

0378-7788/© 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
L. Brady, M. Abdellatif / Energy and Buildings 149 (2017) 142–150 143

In response to the problem of the performance gap, CIBSE have ing and system efficiently. This paper showed that whilst energy
developed TM54 [5] which is a technical manual which provides estimates were judged to be improved, it was still considered nec-
guidance for the estimation of building operational use at design essary for engineers to apply judgement and to use these forecasts
stage. The TM54 method recognises the value of dynamic software, as a reliable basis on which to improve designs. Where it can be
which can simulate heating and cooling loads. It also proposes the said that the TM54 process clearly adds value to the current case
use of more long hand type methods for the assessment of those study in identifying energy streams and thereby contributing to an
loads which can be heavily influenced by occupant behaviour. It enhanced system of energy accounting.
is recommended that energy assessors determine how and when
buildings will be operated. This may be achieved by a combination 2. Case study
of access to logged data and from interviews with building users.
Two approaches to the application of the TM54 process can be An energy survey using the TM54 process was carried out
seen in how it has been used for forecasting energy use for a new for a university block which comprises engineering workshops
air ambulance operational base [16] and how British Land [22] have and office/study areas. The single storey portal frame structure is
made use of the process for evaluating operational energy use in located within a campus area and comprises 4 workshops with an
completed buildings. In the case of East Anglian Air Ambulance, adjacent two storey office/study area. The workshops houses spe-
it was considered that the improved confidence in energy mod- cialist equipment for particular student investigations. There are
elling enabled the client to make informed decisions as the design also, within this facility, typical engineering workshop machine
progressed and avoided the “natural” tendency for designers to be tools including lathes, milling machines, power saws and pillar
over-optimistic. Nevertheless, it was still necessary to explore dif- drills. The office/study area locates most of the office equipment
ferent scenarios with a range of forecasts which will need to be −PC’s, printers, photocopiers, though PC’s are also available in
compared to actual performance data when it becomes available. the workshop areas. There are no canteen facilities, although a
For the British Land project, the energy performance of a recently small kitchen space within the office area includes a sink, toaster,
completed building in the City of London was examined. In this microwave and kettle. The building is illuminated by fluorescent
case the TM54 process was applied using actual occupancy data. It lighting and internal environmental conditions are maintained by
was found that TM 54 provided “robust performance benchmarks unit heaters in the workshops with some radiators in office areas.
and targets, as well as feedback to design teams on the impact of The electrical installation includes small power for socket outlet
their design”. But, this examination also recognised that, in order circuits and some laboratory equipment. There is also three phase
for modelling to be meaningful, it needed to be “revisited through power available for larger machine tools and test equipment. The
the design process and into the operational phase of the building”. office area is air-conditioned by split system units which also have
The importance and relevance of energy use within univer- a heat pump capacity.
sity buildings has been recognised by initiatives such as Carbon
Buzz, Display Energy Certification and other statutory require-
3. Methodology
ments. With regard to educational buildings, not only does this
raised awareness enhance the motivation of researchers, but it also
Investigating the energy use for this workshop involved four
has practical implications for estate and business managers. The
aims of reducing emissions and associated fuel costs require an
appreciation educational building energy use in order that solu-
• Survey, This involved compiling a schedule of electrical and
tions can be developed. Fathi and Srinivasan [9] have explored
how modelling/simulation and statistics could be applied to iden- mechanical equipment, and (importantly) obtaining on times
tify the characteristics of particular buildings in order to evaluate of occupation and equipment usage (survey information in
building performance and the effectiveness of energy saving mea- Appendix A and B)
• TM54 assessment
sures. Although this report concluded that energy and financial
• Dynamic simulation modelling of building heating and cooling
savings were feasible, it differs from the TM54 process in that
more of the analysis was based on dynamic modelling. Another characteristics. Long hand calculations for all equipment includ-
approach in analysing building energy was the basis of an exam- ing operational schedules. This is where site survey information
ination by [18] whereby an audit of electricity, gas and water on usage times is critical
usage at was combined with a web-based survey aimed at “engag-
ing the entire academic community “in order top also investigate • Comparison with historic energy bills
behaviour patterns. Behaviour effects on energy use are also part of • Comparison with bench mark data (actually part of TM54 assess-
the TM54 process, though the methods for its assessment suggest ment)
that audited data is combined with face-to-face stakeholder inter- • Sensitivity analysis to address the uncertainty with the energy
views. Also Laurence [12], Robinson et al. [17], Blight and Coley [2], consumption
Menezes et al. [14] and Bordass et al. [3] were used CIBSETM54
for assessing energy prediction and the performance gap, in order 3.1. Survey
to raise important questions about decisions made at the design
stages that impact on energy performance over a building’s lifes- A visual survey was carried out to observe building layout, con-
pan. dition of the building structure, servicing strategy and size and
Although the TM54 document has been prepared for use by location of power-using equipment (Appendix A and B). It was
designers, this paper considers how the methods set out in TM54 also necessary to establish the floor areas. For an energy survey
can assist in the energy management of operational buildings for it is important that the building floor areas used in the calculations
situations where no valid historical information is available, or reflect the areas of the building for which energy is expended by
where data exists but is simply annual gas and electricity totals. The the building services plant.
reasoning behind this approach is that the TM54 method identifies Additionally, within the survey informal interviews were held
energy use and allocates it against the various energy streams for with building users in order to assess hours of building occupancy
buildings. The paper also considered different scenarios to address and frequency of equipment use. This information is required for
the uncertainties as a result of building operation and global warm- the estimation of electrical energy use by equipment which oper-
144 L. Brady, M. Abdellatif / Energy and Buildings 149 (2017) 142–150

ates according to user demand rather responding to weather or of total gross area as recommended by CIBSE Guide F (2012) that
time schedules. This data is also an important input into the DSM gives a total Treated floor are of 1594.19m2 .
for which it can help to make load and scheduling templates as
realistic as possible, as well as enabling the software to factor Step 2
equipment heat gains into environmental analysis of internal con- Estimating Operating Hours and Occupancy Factors
ditions. Unlike the complicated, dynamic nature of heat transfer All the information regarding hours of plant & equipment oper-
between fabric and space, energy use associated with occupant ation has been directly collected from the Facilities Management
behaviour would be a relatively straightforward calculation, if user Team, through structured interviews. The building opens 12 h a
behavioural characteristics were less difficult to quantify. With day between 7am-7pm with different occupancy levels and plant
regard to small power, Menezes et al. [13] have developed models operation periods (see Appendix A).
which can be used to estimate small power usage. The techniques
developed by Menezes recognise the limitations of simple bench- Step 3
marks and incorporate behavioural aspects and the variable power Evaluating Interior lighting energy. The following equation
inputs of different types of office equipment. The TM54 process applies to the calculation of annual load.
incorporates this approach. However, the levels of occupancy and
Annual energy use (KW.h/year) = energy use for illumination
hours of equipment operation can have a significant effect and, if
this data has not been automatically logged, then the knowledge (w1 ) + parasitic energy (wp ) (1)
and experience of building users must be explored. Energy used to
charge mobile devices is another unmonitored area, which perhaps
warrants some further research. In this context, however occupant w1= {(P }/1000 (2)
n XFc )X(td XF0 XFd )+(tn XFO )
interviews inferred that its effect on overall energy use for these
facilities would be negligible.

Wp = (WPC + Wem ) (3)
Laboratory equipment energy use estimates are also dependent
user behaviour. In this particular situation, some of the equipment Where:
is old and much of the equipment is more of a “one-of” nature than Pn = Total Installed Power in the Room (W)
a mass produced product so no bench marks exist. This is further Fc = Constant Illuminance Factor (taken 1 as no constant Illumi-
complicated because, in the recent past academic operational fac- nance control)
tors took priority over any need to monitor or measure energy use. Fo = Occupancy Dependency Factor (taken 0.9 automatic con-
An estimation of energy use for this equipment has required an trol> 60% of connected load)
investigation into individual item power specifications combined Fd = Daylight Dependency Factor (taken as 0.9 photocell dim-
with operational hours of use information. Power requirements ming with daylight sensing)
are accessible from machine nameplates etc. but time periods are td = Daylight time usage hours (h) (8 h @ 5 days a week over 48
dependent on the judgement and memory of laboratory staff. weeks)
The energy workshops are considered to be public buildings Wpc = Parasitic Control Annual Energy Consumption
and, as such require a Display Energy Certificate (DEC), which for (5KW.h/m2 )
this size of building must be renewed annually. DEC’s are based Wem = Parasitic Emergency Annual Energy Consumption
on annual energy use and therefore provide a historical record (1 kW.h/m2 )
of energy use. Though this is very useful, the DEC’s only record
annual electrical and fossil fuel totals. These are not broken into Step 4
sub-headings so although they can indicate general overall trends Evaluating energy use for Lift
they are less helpful in pin-pointing specific energy using areas. There is only one lift in the building. This has been installed for
disabled persons’ access. It is not used frequently. Annual energy
3.2. TM54 assessment use is obtained from the method quoted in CIBSE Guide D which
originated from BS ISO/DIS 25745-1 (BSI, 2012).
The TM54 process involves the application of dynamic sim-
EL = SPth /4 + Estandby (4)
ulation software (DSM) combined with longhand/spreadsheet
assessments of the loads which are more affected by occupant Where:
behaviour. The logic behind this approach is that the mathematical EL is the energy used by a single lift in one year (KW.h)
power behind a DSM is appropriate for the dynamic and constantly S is the number of starts made per year
changing building heating and cooling loads, whereas other loads P is the rating of the drive motor (kW)
are more accurately assessed by examination of how they are used. th is the time to travel between the main entrance floor and the
In this case, for example the laboratory machine tools do not use highest served floor from the instant the door has closed until the
power in response to weather or temperature but their operational instant it starts to open (hrs)
energy tends be more associated with usage. Estandby is the standby energy used by a single lift in one year
Fig. 1 summarises the methodology for evaluating energy use, (KW.h)
including a summary of the activities required at each step.
Step 5
Evaluating energy use for small power. This includes office
3.3. Calculation outside the DSM equipment and other small power requirements for catering
(microwave, toaster, kettle, coffee/vend, hand-drier and refriger-
Step 1 ator).
Establishing Floor Areas: Modern small power equipment operates at working power and
Treated floor area is used as the basis for the energy calculations “sleep” condition. Annual energy use is determined from an assess-
in this methodology. The logic of this approach is that it includes ment of power conditions and operating time.
only the areas of the building that are serviced by plant and equip-
ment. Treated floor area for the case study has been taken as 95%
L. Brady, M. Abdellatif / Energy and Buildings 149 (2017) 142–150 145

Fig. 1. Methodology for evaluating energy used in the design using TM54 estimate Cheshire et al., 2013.

Annual energy consumption KW.h/year =
Annual Energy comsumptiom (KW·h) = (average power consumption mass of water (Kg) × temprature KJdiffrence
 (K) ×
during opreration × annual hours of operation) + (sleep modeconsumption
specific heat capicity of water Kg .K /3600(8)

× (8760 − hours of operation)) (5)

3.4. Dynamic simulation modelling (DSM)

Details of power consumption and hours of operation for the DSM has been used to estimate the energy use for space heating,
equipment are presented in Appendices. cooling fans and pumps using National Calculation Methodol-
ogy templates replaced with bespoke profiles for individual plant,
Step 6
equipment, operating hours, lighting, small power etc.
This building does not have catering facilities other than items
The DSM that has been carried in this study using Integrated
listed under small power in step 5.
Environmental Solutions, Virtual Environment (IES-VE) software.
IES-VE has been used by many studies in building information
Step 7
modelling and energy analysis eg. Stundon et al. [20],Workie [23]
Energy used by server rooms is determined from the product of
and Azhar et al. [1] conducted an evaluation study in which they
power and operational time;
compared the capabilities, advantages, and disadvantages of three
Annual energy consumption (KW.h) = number of rooms × rated power Building Energy Management (BEM) tools (Ecotect, Green Building
Studio, and IES VE). They concluded that IES VE was the strongest
demand × ratio of rated too perational power demand of the three BEM tools based on its range of analysis options. Stadel
×hours of operation (6) et al. [19] showed how certain BIM platforms (e.g., Revit) can be
used in connection with IES VE for performing lifecycle analysis
in order to estimate the environmental impact (in terms of lifecy-
cle energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions) of building
Step 8 materials from the cradle to grave phases.
Other equipment for this installation includes the machinery The main data required for thermal model are geometry of the
and equipment used in the workshops and laboratories. For this building (Fig. 2), construction dimensions, thermal, and solar shad-
building some of the equipment is unique and may be considered to ing information. The latter includes location and weather data of
be non-typical for educational applications. The product of power the studied site. Once a geometrical model had been created in the
and operational hours is used but specific operating periods are IES VE, the next step is to apply properties to the model that spec-
related to research and experimental use which has been difficult ify the materials that are used in the construction, the sources of
to quantify (equipment details: Appendix A) internal heat gains, and the methods by which rooms are heated,
cooled, and ventilated.
Step 9 Construction data including materials and fabric heights,
Annual energy use to provide domestic hot water is found from lengths and widths are entered into the software as templates
the product of annual mass flow of water use and energy required which automatically calculates the data necessary for determin-

to raise its temperature from 5 ◦ C (cold feed water) to 65 C (storage ing dynamic heat losses and gains to the space. Simultaneously,
temperature). Annual domestic hot water usage has been obtained the templates also include internal heat gain data which is com-
from CIBSE Guide G.  l  bined with solar gain loads which are determined from geometric
Mass of water (Kg) = daily water consumption per person person ×
 Kg  and building orientation information. Construction information
density of water l × number ofoccuppied days(7) enables the software to factor the damping influence of the fab-
146 L. Brady, M. Abdellatif / Energy and Buildings 149 (2017) 142–150

Fig. 2. IES-VE model.

ric into the dynamic effect of solar gains. Heat losses, gains, space Table 1
Annual Energy Use Estimate (TM 54).
temperatures, annual loads and other factors are available from the
software outputs. Service Fossil Electricity Total
It should be noted that dynamic simulation modelling, despite (kWh) (kWh) (kWh)
its powerful mathematical capability is considered to have some Lighting 28,650.19
inherent simplifications are identified in CIBSE manual TM54 [6]: Lifts 144.35
Small power 45,796.83
Server rooms 17,607.60
• Simplified approach for the heat flow through the ground floor Domestic hot water 7,761.60
slab with an assumed ground temperature Other equipment 236, 934.81
Space heating 350,630.2
• Assumption that U values are static, when they are actually
Space cooling 3352.9
dynamic and change with temperature and other climatic con- Fans, pumps, controls and auxiliary 4358.8
ditions 358,391.80 335,409.88 629, 520.6
• The use of standard weather sets based on historic weather data,
which will be different from the conditions in any given year that
the building is operating. can be helpful, it is unlikely that compiling historical data on build-
ing use has had a high priority. Ideally this kind of could be logged
automatically by means of a building management system.
The use of dynamic simulation modelling (DSM), like all design
methods relies on accurate data upon which to determine outputs.
4. Results & discussions
Capable designers should be sufficiently competent to input rea-
sonably representative design values for temperature, insulation,
The initial result of TM54 estimate for different energy uses is
air change rates, internal heat gains etc. They should be experi-
presented in Table 1. The effect of energy use by other equipment
enced enough appreciate the levels of accuracy this kind of input
is, in this case significant but may not be typical and other equip-
data will generate, knowing that actual designs need to be practical
ment of the Lab and workshop, small power and lighting consumes
given that actual building services engineering systems will not be
significant amount of energy while other uses showed relatively
operating under laboratory conditions.
low consumption.
However, DSM’s also require input data regarding occupancy,
hours of operation and schedules for particular usage of office
machinery. For current case study although plant operational times 4.1. Display energy certificates and benchmarks
are programmed into the building management system, controls
can bring plant on line during non-occupancy periods. This occurs Comparing the initial TM54 energy estimates with the annual
where outside temperature conditions could create frost damage mechanical and electrical energy use (reported in Display Energy
internally, or else to reduce the energy needed to bring internal con- Certificates) indicates a gap in both cases between the estimate and
ditions to comfort levels during morning start-up. This facility has the energy use recorded on DEC’s (Fig. 3),
been incorporated into the simulation model. The operating tem-
perature for different zones in the case study has been presented • Electrical energy use rang between + 274% to +175% of estimated
in Appendix B and overnight temperature is maintained at lower value

temperature of 10 C and if the room temperature dropped below • Gas energy use range between +214% to +147% of estimated value
this the heating will operate.
These factors can have significant effects on calculated annual Min et al. [15] note that the phrase “performance gap” is nor-
loadings, particularly if excessive margins are applied. Despite its mally applied to the difference between design and actual energy
critical nature, unlike some other forms of data, this information use for new buildings and that it is unclear how this phenomenon
is not easily available from databases or design guides. To obtain is described for existing buildings but suggest that “FM gap” may
an understanding of how, when, and for how long the building and be a more appropriate term.
associated plant will operate, designers need to interrogate clients, Recorded electricity use shows a reduction in the period since
building users and their agents. This is not a straightforward task. DEC’s were introduced. However, gas usage has not demonstrated a
For new buildings there is an element of predicting the future. definite trend either way but varies from year to year. Further inves-
Although for existing buildings occupants and facilities managers tigation into these figures revealed that energy for this building has
L. Brady, M. Abdellatif / Energy and Buildings 149 (2017) 142–150 147

Electricity Gas
TM54 esmate

Advisory Rep.-2014










0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700

Energy consumpon (KWh/m2)

Fig. 3. Annual energy consumption data from DEC’s.

not been individually metered. The workshops are located within In all three cases, the TM54 figure exceeds the benchmark figure.
a campus set-up and space- heating, primary heating for domestic The TM54 estimate is based on more specific building and occu-
hot water and electrical energy are generated centrally. Low pres- pancy information in comparison to the benchmark data which
sure hot water is generated in a boiler house some distance from must use, by definition, typical values. Although this process should
the workshop and electrical energy is obtained from the campus benefit from this
high voltage ring main. For both energy sources metering occurs more closely related data, incorrect information about occu-
upstream and therefore figures for annual energy use (DEC’s) in pancy levels and equipment operation schedules can have
the workshop must therefore be calculated or inferred. The Car- substantial effects on both software and long-hand calculations.
bon Trust [8] consider that “insufficient means of measuring and
managing” energy in operational buildings is one of the reasons
4.2. Sensitivity analysis
why building performance falls short of design intent. However
the Carbon Trust also identifies other likely causes. These include
In order to provide some context in which to frame the energy
poor commissioning and the inability of facilities managers to oper-
estimate uncertainties related to the case study different possi-
ate the building optimally. There is a logical relationship between
ble scenarios have been considered. These uncertainties have been
inadequate commissioning at handover and limitations to what
assessed individually based on:
facilities managers can achieve post occupation.
Perhaps the major finding from investigating electrical and gas
• Change in operational hours and impact on total energy con-
use at the engineering workshops was that monitoring of where
and how much energy is used for this building has historically had sumption (Fig. 5)
• Change in operational hours for the lift, small power, machinery
a low priority in this organisation. This is illustrated by the meter-
ing strategy, or lack of it. But it should not be forgotten that the and building working hours (Fig. 6)
• A one hour shutdown during the daytime for heating, cooling,
primary function of this facility is to contribute to student educa-
tion and research. It is important that this is primary organisational small power and machinery (Fig. 6)
• Application of weather data based on predicted climate change
function is recognised because this is the driving force that iden-
tifies the major responsibilities of the teaching and support staff, effects. (Figure, 6)
• Boiler efficiency (Fig. 6)
including the facilities managers. This management strategy may
be related to why the energy supplies to this building are not
metered, though it is more likely that those responsible for manag- If the results of the calculations (before scenarios are applied)
ing energy presently were not involved at the design stage for this are considered to be optimistic, then it is informative to examine
building. Given the prevalence of existing buildings over new, many the results from a low end scenario. Similarly, where the case study
FM’s must cope with a legacy of problems that were created when figure is pessimistic, a high end scenario offers perspective. For
designer and constructors operated in an era when there was much the case study, high-end and low-end scenarios were calculated
less awareness of environmental issues and statutory regulations by manipulating the variables listed in the previous paragraph.
set lower standards for energy performance. Fig. 5 illustrates the effect of different building operational hours
However, if TM54 values are compared with published bench- on gas and electricity use. A low end scenario would reduce the
marks, the situation is somewhat different. The graph below (Fig. 4) consumption by only 2% and 47% for gas and electricity while the
illustrates how the TM54 estimate compares with benchmarks higher estimate sees energy consumption by increase by 3% and
from three CIBSE publications. 24%. The impact of varying operational hours on the range of dif-
ferent energy uses within the building is also illustrated in terms
of high and low scenarios in Fig. 6.
148 L. Brady, M. Abdellatif / Energy and Buildings 149 (2017) 142–150


Annual energy consumpon (KWh)








TM54 esmate CIBSE Guide F-Typical CIBSE Guide F-Good CIBSE TM46
pracce pracce
Gas Electricity
Fig. 4. Annual energy consumption in the building compared to standards benchmarks, CIBSE TM 46 [10] and CIBSE Guide F [24].

Annual Consumpon (KW.h/m2) 300
Annual consumpon (kwh/m2)

High end
High end 250

200 Likely

225 Likely

220 Low end Low end


215 50
Gas Electricity

Fig. 5. TM54 estimate for Gas and electricity due to change in the operation hours.

Fig. 6. Impact of change in building operation hours on different consumptions using TM54 (error bar shows high end, low end).
L. Brady, M. Abdellatif / Energy and Buildings 149 (2017) 142–150 149

250 and whose day-to-day priorities often place energy considerations

below other business requirements. In this scenario, the availabil-
ity of utility bills etc. tend to be a blunt instruments in that they do
Annual consumpon (KW.h/m2)

Heang and hotwater (gas) not provide sufficiently specific information.
Other equipmet
The TM54 process has been developed by CIBSE as a design
Small power
method which can help to eliminate or reduce the gaps between
actual and predicted building energy use. This paper proposes that
Fans, pumps, control by applying the TM54 process to an existing building improved
Cooling operational energy management can be achieved. For the case
Li study building energy estimates were compared with utility bill
information and benchmarks. These comparisons have exposed
TM54 Esmate 2020 weather data 7am-7pm operaon Improve boiler
discrepancies which indicate that the present level of data is not
(1 less hour per day) efficiency satisfactorily accurate. However, energy use has been broken down
under individual areas of use which means that instead of judg-
Fig. 7. Comparison between different operation conditions in the building using
TM54. ing building performance against overall annual gas and electricity
totals, energy can be monitored more specifically. It is not proposed
that this technique can be developed in one session, but that its
A sensitivity analysis for the case study building is graphically
application over several heating and cooling seasons can enable
demonstrated in Fig. 7. This chart shows the varying proportions of
initial approximations to be fine-tuned. By monitoring the energy
building energy streams under different scenarios.
used by lights, small power, lifts, heating etc. targets can be pro-
It can be seen from the diagram that some of the proposed
duced which, when compared with actual energy use will indicate
parameters have significant effects on calculated energy use. For
how that particular energy stream is performing. It can also signal
example a 4% change in boiler efficiency make a very small differ-
where faults have developed and when servicing is required.
ence in overall energy use (only 4% reduction), whereas reducing
By linking a design method to a system of post occupancy energy
the operating hours (during day time) by one hour per day provides
analysis, this paper sets out a strategy for developing an effective
an 10% reduction. The relationship between the varied operational
energy management system which may be particularly useful for
factors and their effect on energy use suggests some guidance in
existing buildings in which metering and measurement apparatus
comparing future energy use predictions. These are:
is not present. The case study building featured in the report is an
extreme example of this kind of situation in that neither gas nor
• The importance of reviewing the assumptions with the prospec-
electricity supplies were metered. It is unlikely that the suggested
tive operators strategy will yield immediate benefits but if it is applied over a
• The importance of only presenting the results alongside the
suitable period valid and results can be obtained.
assumptions that used to generate the results.
• The value of carrying out an evaluation of estimated energy use
Appendix A. Building operation hours and total power for
in order to identify where to focus attention
different equipment and services for the actual estimate

Furthermore, the potential impact of weather conditions on the Operation time Total Power (Watt)
estimate can be tested. For the case study building the DMS was
Light 8 h daylight time usage and 7889
run with CIBSE future weather data (UKP02) scenarios for 2020
4 h non- daylight time
High Greenhouse emissions scenarios (CIBSE, 2009) in order to usage)@ 48 weeks* 5days
explore how increase temperatures will affect energy use. For the Small power:
case study, there was 8% reduction in the heating energy use and Computers 8hrs@ 48 weeks* 5 days 150 for number of 37
6% increase in cooling energy use. with sleep mode hrs
Screens 8hrs@ 48 weeks* 5 days 45 for a number of 37
with sleep mode hrs
5. Conclusions Printer 3hrs@ 48 weeks* 5 days 320
with sleep mode hrs
Photocopier 3hrs@ 48 weeks* 5 days 1100
An ideal method for managing energy in buildings would begin
with sleep mode hrs
at feasibility stage and would be a critical element in planning for Scanner 3hrs@ 48 weeks* 5 days 1100
design, installation and operation. Metering and logging would fea- with sleep mode hrs
ture heavily and data quality parameters would be focussed on Coffee/vend 3hrs@ 48 weeks* 5 days 120 for a number of 2
ensuring that the information gathered was accurate, up to date, with sleep mode hrs
Fridge 24 h@ 48 weeks* 5 days 350 a number of 2
representative and of practical value. This method would be incor-
with sleep mode hrs
porated into a management system in which data was assessed Microwave 3hrs@ 48 weeks* 5 days 800 a number of 2
which, where necessary initiated appropriate action. For a great with sleep mode hrs
many buildings, particularly older constructions this is not the case Other
and facilities managers must determine and infer energy perfor- Equipment
mance from imperfect information. Fume Cupboards 3hrs@ 48 weeks* 5days 1500
This paper has considered how the energy performance of an Workshop 1 3hrs@ 48 weeks* 5days 64325.56
existing building could be analysed using the typical data sources
Workshop 2,3 3hrs@ 48 weeks* 5days 94927.04
which are available to facilities managers. These data sources tend machineries
to be utility meter readings, DEC’s, and a schedule of operational Lab1 3 h@ 48 weeks* 5days 49961.6
hours. In this case the meter readings, and consequently the DEC’s, Lab2 3 h@ 48 weeks* 5days 54957.76
must have been based on estimates since neither electricity nor Special teach 3 h@ 48 weeks* 5days 61827.48
Toaster 2 h@ 48 weeks* 5days 1.5
gas for this building was directly metered. The paper recognises Kettle 3.5 h@ 48 weeks* 5days 1.5
the difficulties facing many facilities managers who carry opera-
tional energy responsibility for design decisions they had no part in,
150 L. Brady, M. Abdellatif / Energy and Buildings 149 (2017) 142–150

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