Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 7

Artificial Intelligence (A.

I) is a branch of computer science that studies the


computational requirements for tasks such as perception, reasoning and learning
and develops systems to perform those tasks. It is related to the similar task of using
computers to understand human intelligence.

• A.I deals with symbolic, Algorithmic-Methods of problem solving.

• AI works with pattern matching methods which attempt to describe objects,


events or processes in terms of their qualitative features and logical and
computational Relationship.

AI have taken many shapes and forms over recent years

• Mobile Phones ( Siri/ Cortana)

• Video Games Characters

• GPS/ Voice Recognition

• Robotics

Google has been a major play on AI transcendence and Deep Learning. Deep learning
is a machine learning based on algorithms.

Google Now, Siri, Cortana are all intelligent digital personal assistants on various
platforms such as iOS, Android and Windows mobile in short they help to find useful
information when we ask for it using our voice.

Resemblance to Human mind

The special ability of artificial intelligence is to reach a solution based on facts rather
than on a preset series of steps—is what most closely resembles the thinking
function of the human brain

Programming languages

Although some all-purpose languages such as C, C++ and Java are used to create
intelligent software, two languages are specifically designed for AI: LISP and
PROLOG.
LISP:

• LISP (LISt Programming) was invented by John McCarthy in 1958. As the name
implies, LISP is a programming language that manipulates lists.

PROLOG:

PROLOG (PROGRAMMING IN LOGIC) is a language that can build a database of


facts and a knowledge base of rules. A program in PROLOG can use logical
reasoning to answer questions that can be inferred from the knowledge base.

GOALS OF AI

The definition of AI gives four possible goals to pursue:

• Replicate human intelligence: still a distant goal.

• Solve knowledge intensive tasks.

• Make an intelligent connection between

• perception and action.

• Enhance human-computer and computer to computer Interaction /


communication.

AI APPROCHES

 Thinking humanly: The cognitive modeling approach: If we are going to say


that a given program thinks like a human, we must have some way of
determining how humans think. We need to get inside the actual workings of
human minds. There are two ways to do this: through introspection--trying to
catch our own thoughts as they go by--or through psychological experiments.
Once we have a sufficiently precise theory of the mind, it becomes possible to
express the theory as a computer program. If the program's input/output and
timing behavior matches human behavior, that is evidence that some of the
program's mechanisms may also be operating in humans

 Thinking rationally: The laws of thought approach: he development of formal


logic in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, which provided a
precise notation for statements about all kinds of things in the world and the
relations between them. (Contrast this with ordinary arithmetic notation, which
provides mainly for equality and inequality statements about numbers.) By ,
programs existed that could, given enough time and memory, take a description
of a problem in logical notation and find the solution to the problem, if one
exists. (If there is no solution, the program might never stop looking for it.) The
so-called logicist tradition within artificial intelligence hopes to build on such
programs to create intelligent systems. There are two main obstacles to this
approach. First, it is not easy to take informal knowledge and state it in the
formal terms required by logical notation, particularly when the knowledge is
less than 100% certain. Second, there is a big difference between being able to
solve a problem ``in principle'' and doing so in practice. Even problems with
just a few dozen facts can exhaust the computational resources of any computer
unless it has some guidance as to which reasoning steps to try first.

 Acting humanly: The Turing Test approach

The Turing Test, proposed by Alan Turing (Turing, 1950), was designed to provide a
satisfactory operational definition of intelligence. Turing defined intelligent behavior
as the ability to achieve human-level performance in all cognitive tasks, sufficient to
fool an interrogator. Roughly speaking, the test he proposed is that the computer
should be interrogated by a human via a teletype, and passes the test if the
interrogator cannot tell if there is a computer or a human at the other end. The
computer would need to possess the following capabilities:

 natural language processing to enable it to communicate successfully in


English (or some other human language);
 knowledge representation to store information provided before or during the
interrogation;
 automated reasoning to use the stored information to answer questions and to
draw new conclusions;
 machine learning to adapt to new circumstances and to detect and extrapolate
patterns.

Turing's test deliberately avoided direct physical interaction between the interrogator
and the computer, because physical simulation of a person is unnecessary for
intelligence. However, the so-called total Turing Testincludes a video signal so that
the interrogator can test the subject's perceptual abilities, as well as the opportunity for
the interrogator to pass physical objects ``through the hatch.'' To pass the total Turing
Test, the computer will need

 Computer vision to perceive objects, and


 Robotics to move them about.

Within AI, there has not been a big effort to try to pass the Turing test. The issue of
acting like a human comes up primarily when AI programs have to interact with
people, as when an expert system explains how it came to its diagnosis, or a natural
language processing system has a dialogue with a user. These programs must behave
according to certain normal conventions of human interaction in order to make
themselves understood. The underlying representation and reasoning in such a system
may or may not be based on a human model.

Acting rationally: The rational agent approach

In the ``laws of thought'' approach to AI, the whole emphasis was on correct
inferences. Making correct inferences is sometimes part of being a rational agent,
because one way to act rationally is to reason logically to the conclusion that a given
action will achieve one's goals, and then to act on that conclusion. On the other
hand, correct inference is not all of rationality, because there are often situations
where there is no provably correct thing to do, yet something must still be done.
There are also ways of acting rationally that cannot be reasonably said to involve
inference. For example, pulling one's hand off of a hot stove is a reflex action that is
more successful than a slower action taken after careful deliberation.

The study of AI as rational agent design therefore has two advantages. First, it is
more general than the ``laws of thought'' approach, because correct inference is only
a useful mechanism for achieving rationality, and not a necessary one. Second, it is
more amenable to scientific development than approaches based on human
behavior or human thought, because the standard of rationality is clearly defined
and completely general. Human behavior, on the other hand, is well-adapted for one
specific environment and is the product, in part, of a complicated and largely
unknown evolutionary process that still may be far from achieving perfection.
TYPES OF AI

• Machine learning

• Natural language processing

• Machine perception, Computer vision and Speech recognition

• Computational creativity

Machine Learning

• Ability of a machine to improve its own performance through the use of


software that employs artificial intelligence techniques to mimic the ways by
which humans seem to learn, such as repetition and experience. Types of
problems:

 Reinforcement learning

 Supervised learning

 Unsupervised learning

Reinforcement learning:

• It is learning from interaction with an environment; from the consequences of


action, rather than from explicit teaching.

Supervised learning:

• Training data includes both the input and desired results. For example the
correct are known and are given in input to the model during the learning
process. The construction of a proper, validation and attest set crucial.

Unsupervised learning:

• The data have no target attribute. We want to explore the data to find some
intrinsic structures in them. The model is not provided with the correct result
during the training . It can be used to cluster the input data in classes on the
basis of their statistical properties
Speech Recognition

• Converts audio signals into text, or takes spoken input and changes it to
written output. It maps the audio signals to form an abstract meaning of the
spoken input.

Spoken Input

Converted into a digital format

Digital input is then broken down in (x) number of phonemes

Program then compares the phonemes to words in its database

Program then decides what it thinks the word is and displays the best choice

Advantages

• Precision and Accuracy

• Space exploration

• Used for mining process

• Can do laborious tasks

• Fraud detection, manage records.

• Lacking the emotional side

• Can do repetitive and time-consuming tasks

• Robotic pets, Robotic radiosurgery


• Function without stopping, Risk Reducing.

• Diagnosis and Treatment

Disadvantages

• Cost incurred in the maintenance and repair

• Not able to act any different

• Lack the human touch

•Lack a creative mind

• Lack common sense

• Unemployment

• Abilities of humans may diminish

• Robots superseding humans

• Humans may became dependent on machines.

• Wrong hands causes destruction