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Lesson Plan

Lesson: Solubility Equilibrium

Aim :

To study the solubility of sparingly soluble salts and their equilibrium systems.

Learning Outcomes :

At the end of the lesson, students will be able to :

1. define the solubility product of a sparingly soluble salt.

2. perform calculations involving Ksp.

3. explain the common ion effect.

4. predict whether precipitation will occur when two solutions are mixed.

Assumed prior knowledge :

Students should already be familiar with:

1. the concept of chemical equilibrium.

2. Le Chatelier’s principle.

Underlying Principles

1. Making the invisible, visible.

2. Enabling students to know what to look for.

Time taken to complete the activities : 80 minutes

Differentiation

Questions in the student notes are designed to enable all students to complete the activity.
The pop-up answers are provided for the students to view when they have considered their
responses. Worksheet questions include questions that require recall, understanding and
application of the new concepts learned.

© 2003 Ministry of Education Malaysia. All Rights Reserved. Page 1 of 4


Development of Lesson :

No. Steps Strategy Resources

1 Set Induction. Teacher to quiz students to ensure that


(Ascertaining prior they have the background knowledge.
knowledge and
introducing lesson
topic for the day).

2 Student Activity Teacher to go through Activities 1 - 3 with • Courseware


the students.

• Activity 1 : Solubility Product

Students get to view the equilibrium


established between a sparingly soluble
salt and its saturated solution. They are
also shown how the solubility product Ksp
is derived from the equilibrium constant.

• Activity 2 : Calculations involving Ksp


Students are taught how to calculate the
solubility product of a sparingly soluble
salt using its molar solubility and vice
versa.

• Activity 3 : Common Ion Effect

Students get to view the effect of adding


a common ion to a salt solution.

3 Evaluation • Students to answer questions in the • Worksheet


student worksheet on their own.

4 Extension activity • Students to go through the extension • Websites


activities on their own. • Reference
books.

© 2003 Ministry of Education Malaysia. All Rights Reserved. Page 2 of 4


Worksheet answers

1. Solubility Product

1.1 a. Mg(OH)2(s) Mg2+(aq) + 2OH-(aq)

b. Ksp = [Mg2+] [OH-]2

= (x)(2x)2

= 4x3

c. Ksp = 4x3

= 4(1.21 x 10-4)3

= 7.09 x 10-12 mol3 dm-9

1.2 a. Ca(OH)2(s) Ca2+(aq) + 2OH-(aq)

Ksp = [Ca2+] [OH-]2

b. Let y = [Ca2+]
2y = [OH-]

Ksp = [Ca2+] [OH-]2

= 4.0 X 10-5
= (y)(2y)2
= 4y3

[Ca2+] = y
= 0.020 mol dm-3

1.3 The original concentration of Mg2+ before any Mg(OH)2 precipitated is 0.10 mol dm-3.

Mg(OH)2 Mg2+ + 2OH-

Ksp = [Mg2+][OH-]2 = 1.2 x 10-11

Let x = [OH-]

Ksp = 0.10 (x)2 = 1.2 x 10-11


x = [OH ] = 1.1 x 10-5 mol dm-3
-

pOH = -lg (1.1 x 10-5) = 4.96

pH = 14 – 4.96
= 9.04

© 2003 Ministry of Education Malaysia. All Rights Reserved. Page 3 of 4


2. Calculations involving Ksp

2.1 a. Ionic product = [Mg2+] [CO32-]

b. [Mg2+] in the mixture = 0.010 x 10 x 1000


1000 x 30
= 3.33 x 10-3 mol dm-3

[CO32-] in the mixture = 0.020 x 20 x 1000


1000 x 30
= 1.33 x 10-2 mol dm-3

Ionic product = [Mg2+] [CO32-]


= (3.33 x 10-3) (1.33 x10-2)
= 4.4 x 10-5 mol2 dm-6

c. Precipitation occurs because the ionic product has a bigger value than the
solubility product, Ksp.

3. Common Ion Effect


-
3.1 a. PbI2(s) Pb2+(aq) + 2I (aq)
-
Ksp = [Pb 2+] [I ]2

Let x = [Pb 2+]


-
[I ] = 2x

Ksp = (x)(2x)2
= 4x3
= 1.4 x 10-8

x = 1.5 x10-3 mol dm-3

1.5 x10-3 mol dm-3 of PbI2 dissolves in water.


500
Mass of PbI2 in 500 cm3 water = (1.5 x 10-3) x 461 x = 0.35 g.
100
b. The solubility of PbI2 decreases.
-
c. This effect is called ‘common ion’ effect. Iodide ion, I is the common ion.
-
d. Ksp = [Pb 2+] [I ]2

1.4 x 10-8 = [Pb 2+] (0.10)2

[Pb 2+] = 1.4 x 10-6 mol dm-3

Mass of PbI2 that dissolves in 500 cm3 KI solution


500
= 1.4 x 10-6 x 461 x
100
= 3.2 x 10-4 g

© 2003 Ministry of Education Malaysia. All Rights Reserved. Page 4 of 4

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