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Lesson Plan

Lesson: Lattice Energy

Aim :

To study the determination of the lattice energy of an ionic compound using a Born-Haber
cycle.

Learning Outcomes :

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to :

1. define : lattice energy, standard enthalpy change of atomisation, ionisation energy


and electron affinity.

2. draw and use a Born-Haber cycle to determine the lattice energy of an ionic
compound.

3. list the factors that affect the lattice energy of an ionic compound.

4. define standard enthalpy change of hydration and solution.

5. relate the solubility of an ionic compound with its standard enthalpy change of
solution.

Assumed prior knowledge :

Students should already be familiar with :

1. the concept of enthalpy changes.

2. the definitions of ionisation energy and lattice structure.

Underlying Principles

1. Making the invisible, visible.

2. Enabling students to know what to look for.

Time taken to complete the activities : 80 minutes

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Differentiation

Questions in the student notes are designed to enable all students to complete the activity.
The pop-up answers are provided for the students to view when they have considered their
responses. Worksheet questions include questions that require recall, understanding and
application of the new concepts learned.

Development of Lesson :

No. Steps Strategy Resources


1 Set Induction. • Teacher to quiz student to ensure that
(Ascertaining prior they have the necessary background
knowledge and knowledge.
introducing lesson
topic for the day). Teacher to point out lesson objectives for
the day.

2 Student Activity Teacher to go through Activities 1 - 3 • Courseware


with the students.

• Activity 1 : Lattice energy

Students are introduced to the definition


of lattice energy and the processes
involved in the formation of a lattice
structure of an ionic compound.

• Activity 2 : Factors affecting lattice


energy
Students are shown how the lattice
energy of an ionic compound depends on
the ionic radius and the ionic charge of
the ions involved.

• Activity 3 : Standard enthalpy change


of solution.

Students are shown how to calculate the


standard enthalpy change of solution.

3 Evaluation • Students to answer questions in the • Worksheet


student worksheet on their own.

4 Extension activity • Students to go through the extension • Websites


activities on their own. • Reference
books.

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Worksheet answers

1. Lattice energy.

1.1 a. Lattice energy is the heat released when 1 mole of a solid ionic compound is
formed from its gaseous ions.

2. Factors affecting lattice energy

2.1 a. KI < MgCl2 < CaO

b. Ionic charge, Ionic radius.

3. Standard enthalpy change of solution

3.1 a. Hydration energy is the energy liberated when 1 mol of gaseous ions become
hydrated at infinite dilution.

b. The enthalpy changes involved in dissolving an ionic solid are:


i. lattice energy is absorbed
ii. enthalpy change of hydration is liberated

c.

Hsolution
NaCl(s) Na+(aq) + Cl-(aq)

absorbs lattice energy liberates hydration energy

Na+(g) + Cl-(g)

3.2 a. The factors affecting enthalpy change of hydration are:


i. ionic charge
ii. ionic size

b. The enthalpy change of hydration decreases down the group.

c. The size of the Cl- ions is bigger than that of the F- ion. The lattice energy of
CaCl2 is less than that of CaF2. The enthalpy change of hydration of CaCl2 is
also less than that of CaF2. For both CaCl2 and CaF2, the enthalpy change of
hydration is greater than the lattice energy but the difference is bigger for
CaCl2. Hence, CaCl2 is more soluble.

© 2003 Ministry of Education Malaysia. All Rights Reserved. Page 3 of 4


1
3.3 a. i. Mg(s) + O2(g) MgO(s)
2

ii. Mg2+(g) + O2-(g) MgO(s)

b. Born-Haber cycle

Mg2+(g) + O2-(g)

IE EA2

Mg+(g) + O-(g)

IE EA1
Mg(g) + O(g)
Hlattice
Energy
Hatom Hatom
1
Mg(s) + O2(g)
2

Hf
MgO(s)

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