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Thermofluids Lab – MEC454 / LS1/ Rev.

02-2016

UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA

FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN MEKANIKAL

Program : Bachelor of Engineering (Hons) Mechanical (EM220)

Bachelor of Mechanical Engineering (Manufacturing) (Hons) (EM221)
Course : THERMOFLUIDS LAB
Course Code : MEC454

Course Outcome:
CO1 Conduct each experiment correctly through established procedures and good record
keeping. [PO1, LO1, SS1]{C2}.
CO2 Analyze the basic experimental data accordingly as required by each experiment
[PO2, LO3, SS1]{C4}.
CO3 Produce a basic technical report for each experiment in a structured format and
professional manner [PO9, LO4, SS2]{A2}.
CO4 Work in a group as a leader or as a member [PO10, LO9, SS3]{A4}.

1.0 OBJECTIVES

The objectives of this experiment are:

1. to determine the loss of head due to friction in incompressible flow in a horizontal pipe,
2. to determine the friction factor of a pipe,
3. to determine the loss of head in sudden expansion and sudden contraction of pipes,
4. to determine the loss coefficients in sudden expansion and sudden contraction pipes,
and
5. to compare the losses of energy (head losses) in different configuration of pipes.
Thermofluids Lab – MEC454 / LS1/ Rev. 02-2016

2.0 APPARATUS

Figure 1

Losses due to friction

Pipe diameter d
h1
h2
1 2

Figure 2

Bernoulli’s equation:

p1 v12 p v 2
  z1  2  2  z2  h f
g 2 g g 2 g
Thermofluids Lab – MEC454 / LS1/ Rev. 02-2016

v1  v2  v (constant diameter pipe)

p1
 h1 (pressure head at 1)
g
p2
 h2 (pressure head at 2)
g
z1  z2 (horizontal pipe)

� h f  h1 - h2 (1)

Equation (1) shows that the loss of head due to friction in a horizontal pipe can be
determined by measuring the difference of pressure heads between upstream and
downstream ends of the pipe in which we want to measure the loss.

Friction loss (Darcy’s equation):

fLv 2
hf   Kv 2 (2)
d 2g

where
f is the friction factor,
L is the length of the pipe,
v is the velocity of the flow in the pipe,
d is the inside diameter of the pipe,
g is the gravitational acceleration, and
fL
K (3)
d 2g

h1
h2
h1 2 1 h2
1 2

v1 v2 v1 v2

Pipe diameter d1 Pipe diameter d2 Pipe diameter d1 Pipe diameter d2

Figure 3
Thermofluids Lab – MEC454 / LS1/ Rev. 02-2016

Bernoulli’s equation:

p1 v12 p v 2
  z1  2  2  z2  hl
g 2 g g 2 g
p1
 h1 (pressure head at 1)
g
p2
 h2 (pressure head at 2)
g
z1  z2 (horizontal pipe)

�v 2 v 2 �
� hl  ( h1 - h2 )  � 1 - 2 � (4)
�2 g 2 g �
� �

Equation (4) shows that the loss of head in sudden expansion and sudden contraction can
be determined by measuring the difference of pressure heads and by measuring the velocity
of flow before and after the expanded (or contracted) area of the pipe.

Continuity equation:

A
Q  A1v1  A2v2 � v1  2 v2 (5)
A1

where
A1 is the cross-sectional area of the pipe at section 1, and
A2 is the cross-sectional area of the pipe at section 2.

Loss coefficient:

v 2
hl  K 2 (6)
2g
Thermofluids Lab – MEC454 / LS1/ Rev. 02-2016

4.0 METHOD OF APPROACH

Pipe Specifications
1. PVC 20 x 1.5 pipe:
- pipe inside diameter, d = 17 mm
- wall roughness, k = 0.001 mm
2. PVC 32 x 1.8 pipe:
- pipe inside diameter, d = 28.4 mm
- wall roughness, k = 0.001 mm
3. Measurement length of the pipe for part A, L = 800 mm.

Part A: Loss of head due to friction in PVC 20 x 1.5 pipe

1. Record temperature of the room.
2. Record the length and inside diameter of the pipe.
3. Close all valves except those that will let the water flows from the tank to pipe 2 (see
figure 1) and return back to the tank. Verify the direction of flow in the pipe.
4. Connect the manometer hoses to the pressure tapping points of the pipe.
5. Switch on the pump. Try to remove air bubbles from the apparatus.
6. Adjust the valve on the left side of the pipe in order to have the difference of
manometer level (hf = h1 – h2) of 10 mm. Record the value of h1 and h2.
7. Measure and record the volume flow rate (Q).
8. Repeat steps 6 and 7 for difference of manometer level (hf) of 20 mm, 40 mm, 80 mm,
120 mm, 160 mm, and 250 mm.

Part B: Loss of head due to sudden expansion from PVC 20 x 1.5 to PVC 32 x 1.8
pipes and
Part C: Loss of head due to sudden contraction from PVC 32 x 1.8 to PVC 20 x
1.5 pipes
1. Record inside diameter of the pipes.
2. Close all valves except those that will let the water flows from the tank to pipe 1 (see
figure 1) and return back to the tank. Verify the direction of flow in the pipe.
3. Connect the pressure tapping points of the sudden expansion pipe to the left
manometer and the pressure tapping points of the sudden contraction pipe to the right
manometer.
4. Switch on the pump. Try to remove air bubbles from the apparatus.
5. Adjust the valve on the left side of the sudden expansion pipe to a certain position.
6. Measure and record the value of h1 and h2.
7. Measure and record the volume flow rate (Q).
8. Repeat steps 5 to 7 for 5 values of Q.

5.0 DATA AND CALCULATION

1. For part A, put the data obtained in Table 1 (See end of this manual). Calculate the
remaining parameters using formula given in the theoretical part.
2. For part B, put the data obtained in Table 2 (See end of this manual). Calculate the
remaining parameters using formula given in the theoretical part.
3. For part C, put the data obtained in Table 3 (See end of this manual). Calculate the
remaining parameters using formula given in the theoretical part.
Thermofluids Lab – MEC454 / LS1/ Rev. 02-2016

Part A: Loss of head due to friction in PVC 20 x 1.5 pipe

1. Plot the curve hf against v2 in a graph paper. Obtain the slope that indicates the value
of K (eq. 2). Calculate the friction factor (eq. 3).
2. Discuss the curve obtained.

Part B: Loss of head due to sudden expansion from PVC 20 x 1.5 to PVC 32 x 1.8
pipes and

Part C: Loss of head due to sudden contraction from PVC 32 x 1.8 to PVC 20 x 1.5
pipes
1. Plot the curves hl against v22/(2g) in one graph paper (superimpose the two curves).
For each curve, obtain the slope that represents the loss coefficient, K (eq. 6).
2. Discuss the curves obtained.

Overall loss of head

1. For all parts A to C, plot the curves of head loss against flow rate Q in one graph paper
(superimpose all curves).
2. Discuss the curves obtained; which ones produce more loss, which ones produce less
loss.

7.0 REPORT

Each group must submit a report no later than one week after the experiment. The report
must contain at least:
1. Cover page
2. Typed introduction, theoretical background, procedures, data and tables (to be done
by the group)
3. Discussion, conclusion and references (to be done individually in the same report)
4. Appendix: Hand written raw data taken during the experiment and signed by the
lecturer (or lab. technician) after the experiment.

NEW EDITION: 21 JULY 2006 BY PROF. MADYA DR. WIRACHMAN WISNOE

REVISION 1: 2014
REVISION 2: 3 MARCH 2016 BY PROF. DR. WIRACHMAN WISNOE
Thermofluids Lab – MEC454 / LS1/ Rev. 02-2016

Part A: Loss of head due to friction in PVC 20 x 1.5 pipe

Pipe length, L= mm = m
Pipe inside diameter, d= mm = m
Pipe cross-sectional area, A= m2

(a) (b) (a) / (b) eq. 5 (c) (d) eq. 1 (e)

Volume Time
Measurement measured observed Q v h1 h2 hf v2
No. (litres) (s) (litres/s) (m3/s) (m/s) (mm) (mm) (mm) (m) (m2/s2)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Table 1

Signature of Lecturer or Lab. Technician:

Date:
Thermofluids Lab – MEC454 / LS1/ Rev. 02-2016

Part B: Loss of head due to sudden expansion from PVC 20 x 1.5 to PVC 32 x 1.8 pipes
Upstream pipe inside diameter, d1 = mm = m
Upstream pipe cross-sectional area, A1 = m2
Downstream pipe inside diameter, d2 = mm = m
Downstream pipe cross-sectional area, A2 = m2
Gravitational acceleration, g= m/s2

(a) (b) (a) / (b) eq. 5 eq. 5 (c) (d) (e) (f) eq. 4
Measurement Volume measured Time observed Q v1 v2 v12/(2g) v22/(2g) h1 h2 hl
No. (litres) (s) (litres/s) (m3/s) (m/s) (m/s) (m) (m) (mm) (mm) (mm) (m)
1
2
3
4
5

Table 2

Signature of Lecturer or Lab. Technician:

Date:
Thermofluids Lab – MEC454 / LS1/ Rev. 02-2016

Part C: Loss of head due to sudden contraction from PVC 32 x 1.8 to PVC 20 x 1.5 pipes
Upstream pipe inside diameter, d1 = mm = m
Upstream pipe cross-sectional area, A1 = m2
Downstream pipe inside diameter, d2 = mm = m
Downstream pipe cross-sectional area, A2 = m2
Gravitational acceleration, g= m/s2

(a) (b) (a)/(b) eq. 5 eq. 5 (c) (d) (e) (f) eq. 4
Measurement Volume measured Time observed Q v1 v2 v12/(2g) v22/(2g) h1 h2 hl
No. (litres) (s) (litres/s) (m3/s) (m/s) (m/s) (m) (m) (mm) (mm) (mm) (m)
1
2
3
4
5

Table 3

Date: