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ONTENTS

1. INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................... 1

2.GAS COMPRESSOR .................................................................................................2


2.1 Types of Compressors ......................................................................................................................... 2
2.1.1 Centrifugal compressors .............................................................................................................. 3
2.1.2 Diagonal or mixed-flow compressors .......................................................................................... 32.1.3 Axial-flow
compressors ................................................................................................................ 32.1.4 Reciprocating compressors
.......................................................................................................... 42.1.5 Rotary screw compressors
........................................................................................................... 52.1.6 Rotary vane compressors
............................................................................................................. 52.1.7 Scroll compressors
....................................................................................................................... 62.1.8 Diaphragm compressors
.............................................................................................................. 6
3. THE EMERGING TECHNOLOGY IN
CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR ............................................ 7

4. FRICTIONLESS COMPRESSOR TECHNOLOGY


.......................................................................... 8
4.1 Problems with Traditional Technology ................................................................................................ 94.2 Solutions
with Frictionless Compressor .............................................................................................. 9
5. MAIN COMPONENTS ...........................................................................................................
10
5.1
MECHANICAL COMPONENTS
............................................................................................................... 105.2
ELECTRICAL
COMPONENTS
.................................................................................................................. 12
6.

THE BEARINGS ..................................................................................................................... 15

7.

SHUTDOWNS AND POWER FAILURES


.................................................................................. 16

8.

OIL-FREE DESIGN ................................................................................................................. 16

9.

THE MOTOR ......................................................................................................................... 17

10.
CAPACITY AND
EFFICIENCY ................................................................................................ 18

11.

SOUND AND VIBRATION .................................................................................................... 18

12.

ADVANTAGES ..................................................................................................................... 19

13.

APPLICATIONS.................................................................................................................... 20

14.

CONCLUSION ..................................................................................................................... 21

15.

REFERENCES....................................................................................................................... 22
1. INTRODUCTION
A new compressor technology introduced during the 2008
International Air-

Conditioning Heating Refrigerating Exposition (AHR Expo), held last


January in
Chicago, mayhave a significant effect on the future of mid-range chillers and
rooftop applications in water-cooled, evaporative cooled, and air-cooled chilled
water and direct-expansion (DX) systems.Designed and optimized to take full
advantage of magnetic-bearing technology, the compressor
was awarded the first AHR Expo Innovation Award in the energy category, as well as
Canada’s
Energy Efficiency Award for its potential to reduce utility-generated
greenhouse-gas emissions.The compressor is key to a new water cooled
centrifugal-chiller design, with Air Conditioningand Refrigeration Institute
(ARI) tests indicating integrated part-load values (IPLVs) not normallyseen
with conventional chillers in this tonnage range.

Frictionless Compressor Technology is one of the fast growing Technology in


themechanical engineering field. In the case of Traditional centrifugal
compressors, we use rollerbearings & hydrodynamic bearings, both of them
consume power & require oil & lubricationsystem. This can be overcome by
introduction of the new compressor technology which iscalled as
frictionless compressor technology
2. GAS COMPRESSOR

A gas compressor is a mechanical device that increases the


pressure of a gas by reducingits volume. Compressors are
similar to pumps: both increase the pressure on a fluid and
bothcan transport the fluid through a pipe. As gases are
compressible, the compressor also reducesthe volume of a gas.
Liquids are relatively incompressible, so the main action of a
pump is totransport liquids.

Types of Compressors
The main types of gas compressors are illustrated and discussed
below:
Centrifugal compressors
Centrifugal compressors use a rotating disk or impeller in a shaped housing to
force thegas to the rim of the impeller, increasing the velocity of the gas. A diffuser
(divergent duct)section converts the velocity energy to pressure energy. They are
primarily used for continuous,stationary service in industries such as oil refineries,
chemical and petrochemical plants andnatural gas processing plants. Their
application can be from 100 hp (75 kW) to thousands ofhorsepower. With multiple
staging, they can achieve extremely high output pressures greaterthan 10,000 psi
(69 MPa).Many large snow-making operations (like ski resorts) use this type of
compressor. Theyare also used in internal combustion engines as superchargers
and turbochargers. Centrifugalcompressors are used in small gas turbine engines or
as the final compression stage of mediumsized gas turbines.

Diagonal or mixed-flow compressors

Diagonal or mixed-flow compressors are similar to centrifugal compressors, but


have aradial and axial velocity component at the exit from the rotor. The diffuser is
often used to turndiagonal flow to the axial direction. The diagonal compressor has
a lower diameter diffuserthan the equivalent centrifugal compressor.

Axial-flow compressors
Axial-flow compressors are dynamic rotating compressors that use arrays of fan-
likeaero foil to progressively compress the working fluid. They are used where
there is arequirement for a high flows or a compact design
The arrays of aero foil are set in rows, usually as pairs: one rotating and one
stationary. Therotating
aero foil’s
, also known as blades or rotors decelerate and pressurize the fluid.The stationary
aero foil is, also known as a stators or vanes, turn and decelerate the
fluid;preparing and redirecting the flow for the rotor blades of the next stage. Axial
compressors arealmost always multi-staged, with the cross-sectional area of the gas
passage diminishing alongthe compressor to maintain an optimum axial Mach
number. Beyond about 5 stages or a 4:1design pressure ratio, variable geometry is
normally used to improve operation.Axial compressors can have high efficiencies;
around 90% polytrophic at their designconditions. However, they are relatively
expensive

rs
Rotary screw compressors use two meshed rotating positive-displacement
helicalscrews to force the gas into a smaller space. These are usually used for
continuous operation incommercial and industrial applications and may be either
stationary or portable. Theirapplication can be from 3 hp (2.24 kW) to over 500 hp
(375 kW) and from low pressure to veryhigh pressure (>1200 psi or 8.3 MPa).
They are commonly seen with roadside repair crewspowering air-tools. This type
is also used for many automobile engine superchargers because itis easily matched
to the induction capacity of a piston Engine
Rotary vane compressors
Rotary vane compressors consist of a rotor with a number of blades inserted in
radialslots in the rotor. The rotor is mounted offset in a larger housing which can
be circular or amore complex shape. As the rotor turns, blades slide in and out of
the slots keeping contactwith the outer wall of the housing.[1] Thus, a series of
decreasing volumes is created by therotating blades. Rotary Vane compressors are,
with piston compressors one of the oldest ofcompressor technologies.With suitable
port connections, the devices may be either a compressor or a vacuum pump.They
can be either stationary or portable, can be single or multi-staged, and can be
driven byelectric motors or internal combustion engines. Dry vane machines are
used at relatively lowpressures (e.g., 2 bars) for bulk material movement whilst oil-
injected machines have thenecessary volumetric efficiency to achieve pressures up
to about 13 bars in a single stage. Arotary vane compressor is well suited to
electric motor drive and is significantly quieter inoperation than the equivalent
piston compressor
, requiring a large number of components,tight tolerances and high quality
materials. Axial-flow compressors can be found in medium tolarge gas turbine
engines, in natural gas pumping stations, and within certain chemical plants.
Reciprocating compressors
Reciprocating compressors use pistons driven by a crankshaft. They can be
eitherstationary or portable, can be single or multi-staged, and can be driven by
electric motors orinternal combustion engines. Small reciprocating compressors
from 5 to 30 horsepower (hp)are commonly seen in automotive applications and
are typically for intermittent duty. Largerreciprocating compressors up to 1000 hp
are still commonly found in large industrialapplications, but their numbers are
declining as they are replaced by various other types ofcompressors. Discharge
pressures can range from low pressure to very high pressure (>5000 psior 35 MPa).
In certain applications, such as air compression, multi-stage double-
actingcompressors aresaid to be the most efficient compressors available, and are
typically larger,noisier, and more costly than comparable rotary units

Rotary screw compressors


Rotary screw compressors use two meshed rotating positive-
displacement helicalscrews to force the gas into a smaller space. These
are usually used for continuous operation incommercial and industrial
applications and may be either stationary or portable. Theirapplication
can be from 3 hp (2.24 kW) to over 500 hp (375 kW) and from low
pressure to veryhigh pressure (>1200 psi or 8.3 MPa). They are
commonly seen with roadside repair crewspowering air-tools. This type
is also used for many automobile engine superchargers because itis
easily matched to the induction capacity of a piston Engine
Rotary vane compressors
Rotary vane compressors consist of a rotor with a number of blades
inserted in radialslots in the rotor. The rotor is mounted offset in a larger
housing which can be circular or amore complex shape. As the rotor
turns, blades slide in and out of the slots keeping contactwith the outer
wall of the housing.[1] Thus, a series of decreasing volumes is created
by therotating blades. Rotary Vane compressors are, with piston
compressors one of the oldest ofcompressor technologies.With suitable
port connections, the devices may be either a compressor or a vacuum
pump.They can be either stationary or portable, can be single or multi-
staged, and can be driven byelectric motors or internal combustion
engines. Dry vane machines are used at relatively lowpressures (e.g., 2
bars) for bulk material movement whilst oil-injected machines have
thenecessary volumetric efficiency to achieve pressures up to about 13
bars in a single stage. Arotary vane compressor is well suited to electric
motor drive and is significantly quieter inoperation than the equivalent
piston compressor

Scroll compressors
A scroll compressor, also known as scroll pump and scroll vacuum
pump, uses two interleavedspiral-like vanes to pump or compress fluids
such as liquids and gases. The vane geometry maybe involutes,
Archimedean spiral, or hybrid curves. They operate more smoothly,
quietly, andreliably than other types of compressors in the lower volume
range.Often, one of the scrolls is fixed, while the other orbits
eccentrically without rotating, therebytrapping and pumping or
compressing pockets of fluid or gas between the scrolls.
Diaphragm compressors
A diaphragm compressor (also known as a membrane compressor) is a
variant of theconventional reciprocating compressor. The compression
of gas occurs by the movement of aflexible membrane, instead of an
intake element. The back and forth movement of themembrane is driven
by a rod and a crankshaft mechanism. Only the membrane and
thecompressor box come in touch with the gas being
compressed.Diaphragm compressors are used for hydrogen and
compressed natural gas (CNG) aswell as in a number of other
applications.

3. THE EMERGING TECHNOLOGY IN


CENTRIFUGALCOMPRESSOR
The Frictionless compresso
r is the world’s first totally O
il-Free compressor specificallydesigned for the Heating, Ventilation, Air
Conditioning and Refrigeration (HVACR) industry. Theconvergence of
aerospace and industrially proven magnetic bearings, variable-
speed centrifugalcompression and digital electronic technologies enables
the frictionless compressors (nominal60-150 ton capacity range) to
achieve the highest compressor efficiencies, cost effectively, formiddle-
market, water-cooled, evaporative-cooled and air-cooled HVACR
applications.

The well-proven energy performance advantages of variable-speed


centrifugalCompressors are now brought to mainstream middle-market
applications through the use ofHigh-speed, two-stage centrifugal
compression with integral variable-speed drive. Compressorspeed is
reduced as the condensing temperature and/or heat load
reduces,Optimizing energy performance through the entire operating
range from 100% to 20% orBelow of rated capacity. Operations to near
zero loads are achievable via an optional, digitallycontrolled, load
balancing valve.Centrifugal compressors tend to be more efficient than
screw or scroll compressors,and take advantage of speed control more
effectively, but they are usually only available inlarger sizes. By using
the smaller shaft, they are able to take advantage of the
centrifugalcompressor technology in a smaller size than i

normallyavailable .
4. FRICTIONLESS COMPRESSOR TECHNOLOGY
Frictionless Compressor Technology is one of the fast growing
Technology in themechanical engineering field. In the case of
Traditional centrifugal compressors, we use rollerbearings &
hydrodynamic bearings, both of them consume power & require oil &
lubricationsystem. This can be overcome by introduction of the new
compressor technology which iscalled as
FRICTIONLESS COMPRESSOR TECHNOLOGY
. The frictionless compressor technology isthe compressor with which
the application of the magnetic bearings & permanent
magnetsynchronous motor. In the frictionless compressor instead of the
roller bearings &hydrodynamic bearings, magnetic bearings will be use.
Magnetic bearings consume less power& there is no need for the oil and
lubrication systems. Permanent magnet brushlesssynchronous motor has
the permanent magnet instead of the copper windings. Thiscompressor
has the high efficiency, reliability, less maintenance cost & the staff.
With help ofthe digital control system, controlling & monitoring of the
work is very easy. The frictionlesscompressor technology makes new
revolutions in the field of air conditioning, refrigeration etc..
They Are Different because
1.

Magnetic bearings.2.

Oil-free design.3.

VFD control.4.

Smaller and lighter than conventional compressors.5.


Less noise

Problems with Traditional Technology


1.

Oil-lubricated equivalent wastes more on friction and irreversible loss.2.

Oil fouling costs more due to higher



T.3.

On / off control costs more.4.

Part-load inefficiency costs more for traditional chillers.


Solutions with Frictionless Compressor
1.

Frictionless oil-free using magnetic bearings.2.

Soft start and Ramp up.3.

Power Management.4.

No COP deterioration with time.5.

Low noise and smooth Operation.6.

Low maintenance costs as there are no wearing parts


5. MAIN COMPONENTS
The components in Frictionless Compressor can be mainly
classified into two categories asMechanical components and
Electrical components
MECHANICAL COMPONENTS

6.

THE BEARINGS
Traditional centrifugal compressors use roller bearings and
hydrodynamic bearings,both of which consume power and require
oil and a lubrication system. Recently, ceramic rollerbearings, which
avoid issues related to oil and reduce power consumption, were
introduced tothe HVAC industry. The lubrication of these bearings is
provided by the refrigerant
itself.
Magnetic-bearing technology is significantly different. A digitally
controlled magnetic-bearing system, consisting of both permanent
magnets and electromagnets, replaces
conventional lubricated bearings. The frictionless compressor shaft is the
compressor’s only
moving component. It rotates on a levitated magnetic cushion. Magnetic
bearings

two radialand one axial

hold the shaft in position

When the magnetic bearings are energized, the motor and impellers,
which are keyeddirectly to the magnetic shaft, levitate. Permanent-
magnetic bearings do the primary work,while digitally controlled
electromagnets provide the fine positioning. Four positioning signalsper
bearing hold the levitated assembly to a tolerance of 0.00002 in. As the
levitated assemblymoves from the center point, the electroma
gnets’ intensity is adjusted to correct the position.
These adjustments occur 6 million times a minute. The software has
been designed toautomatically compensate for any out-of-balance
condition in the levitated assembly

7.

SHUTDOWNS AND POWER FAILURES


When the compressor is not running, the shaft assembly rests on
graphite-lined, radiallylocated touchdown bearings. The magnetic
bearings normally position the rotor in the properlocation, preventing
contact between the rotor and other metallic surfaces. If the
magneticbearings fail, the touchdown bearings (also known as backup
bearings) are used to prevent acompressor failure. The compressor uses
capacitors to smooth ripples in the DC link in themotor drive.
Instantaneously after a power failure, the moto
r becomes a “generator,” using its
angular momentum to create electricity (sometimes known as back
EMF) and keeping thecapacitors charged during the brief coast down
period. The capacitors, in turn, provide enoughpower to maintain
levitation during coast down, allowing the motor rotor to stop
anddelimitate. This feature allows the compressor to see a power outage
as a normal shutdown
8.

OIL-FREE DESIGN
Oil management, particularly as it pertains to the lubrication of
compressor bearings, is acritical issue in refrigeration system design. But
with magnetic bearings, this issue is avoided.Only a very small amount
of oil is required to lubricate other system components, such as sealsand
valves; often, however, experience shows that even this small amount of
oil is not needed.Avoiding oil-management systems means avoiding the
capital cost of oil pumps, sumps,heaters, coolers, and oil separators, as
well as the labor and time required to perform oilrelated services.
Reports indicate that for many installations, compressor-maintenance
costshave been cut by more than 50 percent..Magnetic bearings
eliminate the need for these systems and oil management in general.In
fact, the only required regular maintenance of the compressor is the
quarterly tightening ofthe terminal screws, the annual blowing off of
dust and cleaning of the boards, and thechanging of the capacitors every
five years. Complete service agreements and extendedmaintenance
contracts can be provided by the manufacturer