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A SUSTENTABILIDADE ENCONTRA O SITUACIONISMO NA CIDADE: um

relato de détournement e a retomada de uma Ecotopia justa e rebelde*

Kelvin Mason1

Resumo

A Cidade Situacionista não pôde ser criada. Sua concepção e construção exigiram a
participação de uma população anarquista pós-revolucionária (Sadler, 1999). Porém, os
situacionistas acreditavam que a materialidade desta cidade realmente pudesse fomentar
a revolução. Um paradoxo: a Utopia. Na trilha para um desafio à ortodoxia
situacionista, o arquiteto Constant projetou a Nova Babilônia [New Babylon], uma
cidade anti-capitalista que prefigurava um urbanismo unitário participativo e lúdico.
Suspensa acima da ‘natureza’, no entanto, a Nova Babilônia não era uma Ecotopia: não
ofereceu nenhuma esperança de ou na (re)integração. No calor do desmantelamento da
Internacional Situacionista e do refluxo da onda revolucionária de 1968, um coletivo
disperso de ‘othered’ people ocupou uma antiga base militar: em Copenhagen, a
‘cidade-livre’ Christiania foi fundada. Fadada a uma luta perpétua com o Estado
holandês, a existência de Christiania vem sendo ameaçada desde então. A comunidade
desenvolveu um anarquismo singular de base local eivado de tensões: não violento e
‘enfurecido’, quiescente e revolucionário, ecológico e desprovido de recursos. Neste
artigo, assevero que a noção de urbanismo sustentável foi retomada pela sociedade do
espetáculo (Debord, 1983). Para fazer ressurgir a cidade sustentável (Whitehead, 2011),
proponho uma mirada ao situacionismo e ao détournement, concentrando-se em
Christiania, especialmente, com vistas a uma alternativa.

Palavras-chave: Ecotopia, situacionismo, urbanismo sustentável, Christiania.

Introdução

If a turn to questions of utopian urbanism is to be critical rather than compensatory, and


to avoid simply providing consoling figures to revive spirits wearied by contemporary
political cynicism, then its disruptive and transgressive qualities need to be emphasized.
Such a spirit can return us to the provocative power of the field (Pinder, 2002, p. 239).
To be truly transgressive, rather than lapsing into reactionary fantasy, ecotopias need to
emphasise heuristic spaces and processes rather than laying down blueprints, and must
be rooted in existing social and economic relations rather than being merely a form of
abstraction unrelated to the processes and situations operating in today’s ‘real’ world’
(Pepper, 2005, p. 18).

1
* Tradução de Sergio Ricardo Alves de Oliveira. Doutor em Serviço Social pela Universidade Federal do
Rio de Janeiro. Email: serge.rk@gmail.com
Texto publicado em Social Justice. Também traduzido e publicado sob o título Quand la durabilité
rencontre le situationnisme en ville: une histoire de détournement et la résurrection d’une Ecotopie juste
et rebelle, traduction: Frédéric Dufaux, justice spatiale | spatial justice, n° 5, dez. 2012-dez., 2013.
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