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DEVELOPMENT AND PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF SOLAR

CAR

By

120753109011- PATEL JITENDRA


110750109049- CHAUDHARY GAURAV
110750109038- PATEL SAURABH

Internal Guide External Guide

Prof. Ashfaq Qureshi Prof. Nisarg Bhavsar


Electrical Engineering Department Star Energy System Pvt. Ltd.

A Project Report Submitted to


Gujarat Technological University in Partial
Fulfillment of the Requirements for
Project of 8th Semester in Electrical Engineering

May-2015

Shankersinh Vaghela Bapu Institute of Technology, Vasan


CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that work embodied in this project report entitled “Development
and Performance analysis of solar car” was carried out by Chaudhary Gaurav. Patel
Saurabh and Patel Jitendra at 075 - Shankersinh Vaghela Bapu Institute of Technology,
Is Approved for the degree of Bachelor of Engineering partial fulfilment ( Electrical) by
Gujarat Technological University.

Date:

Place: Gandhinagar

(Guide) (Project Coordinator)


Prof. A.M.Qureshi Prof. A.M.Qureshi/Prof. Harshang Shah
Electrical Engineering Department, Electrical Engineering Department,
SVBIT, Vasan SVBIT, Vasan

(Head of Department)
Prof. Kinal Patel
Electrical Engineering Department,
SVBIT, Vasan

i
DECLARATION OF ORIGINALITY

We,
Jitendra Patel, Saurabh Patel, and Gaurav Chaudhary Students of Electrical Engineering
branch at 075-Shankersinh Vaghela Bapu Institute of Technology hereby certify and declare
the following:

 I have defined my project based on inputs at Shankersinh Vaghela Bapu Institute of


Technology and each of us will make significant efforts to make attempt to solve
the challenges . We will attempt the project work at our college or at any location
under the direct and consistent monitoring of Prof. Ashfaq Qureshi. We shall
adopt allethical practices to share credit amongst all the contributors based on their
contributions during the project work. (We will work on the project work under the
direct and consistent monitoring of Industry mentors and Faculty Guides)
 We have not purchased, the solutions developed by any 3rd party directly and the
efforts are made by us under the guidance of guides. The project work is not copied
from any previously done projects directly. (The same problem can be attempted done
in new ways.)
 The project work submitted by us is prepared by us and we fully understand the
contents. We will make best efforts to solve the problems given by the user/ industry. If
the project is in relay model (kho-kho) we will share credits with the initial
contributors.

Patel Jitendra –
Saurabh Patel –
Chaudhary gaurav –

 Date:

 Place:

ii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

It is with immense pride and pleasure to express my sincere gratitude to my guide


Prof. A.M.Qureshi, Electrical Engineering Department of Shankersinh Vaghela
Bapu Institute of Technology, Vasan for his encouragement and constant help
throughout the project-01 right from its inception. He has always provided me the wise
advice, useful discussions and comments.

I am obliged to Prof. Kinal Patel, Head of the Electrical Engineering


Department of Shankersinh Vaghela Bapu Institute of Technology, Vasan, for
making available the various facilities of the department.

I am glad to express my special thanks to all the Faculty Members of Electrical


Engineering Dept SVBIT, Vasan for sparing their valuable time and giving me the
necessary guidance in the project.

I would like to extend my sincere thanks to all my colleagues and classmates for
their moral support, benevolence and inspiration.

Last but not least, I thank all those who have helped me directly or indirectly in enabling
me to continue this dissertation work.

Again, thank you all!

Patel Jitendra-
Patel Saurabh -
Chaudhary Gaurav -

iii
TAB LE OF CONTENTS

Title Page
Certificate Page i
Declaration of Originality Page ii
Acknowledgement iii
Table of Contents iv
List of Figures v
List of Tables vi
Abstract vii
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Why we need solar car 2
1.2 What is solar car 2
1.3 Advantage and Disadvantage 3
1.4 Problem statement 4
1.5 Objective 4
1.6 Scope of Studies 4
Chapter 2 Literature review 5
2.1. Emerging Trend And Development in Solar Car in Last Decade’s 5
2.2 Preliminary design and Economic Analysis 6
2.2.1 System Architecture 6
2.2.2 Eastimation of Motor Power 6
2.2.3 Battery Capacity 7
2.2.4 Panel Size 7
2.2.5 Maximum Power Point Tracking System 7
2.2.6 Economic Analysis 8
Chapter 3 Market Survey 9
3. 1 Major Components Solar Car 10
3.1.1 Solar panel 11
3.1.2 Battery 14
3.1.3 Stepper motor 15
3.1.4 Estimation of Demo Soar Car 16

iv
Chapter 4 Problem Definition 17
Chapter 5 Methodology 18
5.1 Introduction 18
5.2 Flowchart 19
5.3 Research 20
Chapter 6 Executed Steps 21
6. 1 Designing 21
6.2 How Electricity Arising From Solar Energy 22
6.3 Solar Panel Installation 23
6.4 Solar Panel Mounting 23
6.5 Notice Obstiction to Sun light 23
6.6 Position Solar Panel in Direct Sun Light 23
6.7 Power Produce by Solar Panel 23
6.8 Solar Efficiency 24
6.9 Power Produced Solar Panel 24
6.10 Material and Equipment with Specification 25
Chapter 7 Tabulate Analysis of Solar Car 28
Chapter 8 Assembling & Testing 32
Chapter 9 Conclusion 34
References 35
ANNEXURE- A Psar Report 36
ANNEXURE- B Observation Matrix 51
ANNEXURE-C Business Model Canvas and Report 52
ANNEXURE-D Paper on Development and Performance Analysis of Solar Car 55
ANNEXURE- E Certificates

v
List of Figure

Fig.1 Block diagram of Solar Car system 6


Fig.2 Fuel Prices and Trends 8
Fig.3.1 Monocrystalline Solar Panel 11
Fig.3.2 Polycrystalline Solar Panel 12
Fig.3.3 Amorphous Solar Pane 13
Fig.3.4 Working of Solar panel 13
Fig.3.5 Battery 14
Fig.3.6 Stepper Motor 15
Fig.5.1 Project at Line Flow Chart 19
Fig.6.1 Design of Demo Solar car 21
Fig.6.2 Monocrystalline Solar panel 25
Fig.6.3 Battery 26
Fig.6.4 Stepper Motor 27
Fig.8.1 Mimic model of Solar Car(a) 32
Fig.8.2 Mimic model of Solar Car(b) 32
Fig.8.1 Mimic model of Solar Car(c) 33
Fig. A 1.1 Construction of Solar Tracking System 38
Fig. B 1.1 Observations Matrix 48
Fig. C 1.1 BMC 50
Fig. D.1 Working of Solar Panel 56
Fig. D.2 Design of Solar Car 57
Fig.D.3 Steeper Motor 57

vi
List of Table

Table.1 Life cycle cost Analysis of Solar car 9


Table.2 Operational cost Analysis of Fuel Based Car 9
Table.3.1 Rates of Solar Panel 13
Table .3.2 Rates of Battery 14
Table .3.3 Rates of Stepper Motor 15
Table.3.4 Estimation of our Demo Solar Car 16
Table.6.1 Specification of Solar Panel 25
Table.6.2 Specification of Battery 26
Table.6.3 Specification of Stepper Motor 27
Table.7.1 Analysis of Solar Car with Mathematical Expression 28
Table.7.2 Analysis of Solar Car with Mathematical Expression of Solar Panel 29
Table.7.3 Analysis of Solar Car with Mathematical Expression of Stepper Motor 30
Table.7.4 Analysis of Solar Car with Mathematical Expression of Battery Table 31
Table.D.1 Specification of Solar Panel 31
Table.D.2Specification of Battery 57
Table.D.3 Specification of Stepper Motor 58

vii
DEVELOPMENT AND PERFORMANCE
ANYLYSIS OF SOLAR CAR

Submitted By:

110750109049-GAURAV CHAUDHARY
120753109011-PATEL JITERNDRA
110750109038- PATEL SAURABH

Supervised By:

Prof. A.M Qureshi


Electrical Engineering Department

viii
ABSTRACT

Now-a-days, dealers of natural resources like fuel, coal etc. are facing a hard time to
keep pace with the increasing demand. Therefore, to carry out this demand it is quite
necessary to make a new exploration of natural resource of energy and power. Therefore
sunlight is now-a-days considered to be a source of energy which is implemented in various
day to day applications. Solar energy is being used to produce electricity through sunlight.
With the help of this technology we aim to make solar energy powered car in our project.
The main component to build a solar car is the solar panel. The solar cells collect a portion of
the sun's energy and store it into the batteries of the solar car. Before that happens, power
trackers converts the energy collected from the solar array to the proper system voltage, so that
the batteries and the motor can use it. After the energy is stored in the batteries, it is
available for use by the motor & motor controller to drive the car. We are going to use two
set of batteries; one of which will get the electrical energy from the panel to drive the motor
and another will be used as a back-up source of energy which will provide required power
when there is no sunlight. The motor uses that energy to drive the wheels. Preliminarily our
objective would be to implement our idea on a remote control toy car and afterwards with help
of this prototype we can extend our future work on building a actual car powered by the solar
energy.

ix
CHAPTER –1 INTRODUCTION

Our global temperatures rise is caused by our atmosphere’s ever-increasing


content of carbon-dioxide, most of which comes from the exhaust of transportation
vehicles. This has resulted in a worldwide search for alternatives to the high-powered
gasoline fuelled automobiles in wide use today conference. With the current rate of
inflation in India and the ever-increasing fuel prices all around the world, the clean
solar car will be beneficial to both the environment and the public who are otherwise
exposed to many health problems due to toxic exhaust gases from fuel power cars.
Also due to rising fuel prices, fuel run cars are becoming less popular among the
general people as maintaining such a car is proving to be beyond their affordability
standard. Price of different fuels has increased over a decade with the price of diesel
increasing the most. The price of the fuels is also affected by annual inflation in India
which stands at 6% on an average.

This raises the already increasing fuel price by a factor of 0.06 hence making
the conventional cars even expensive. The solar car is expected to reduce air
pollution, improve public health and reduce dependency on fossil fuels. Considering
the probable positive effects of different factors on the price associated with owning
and using a solar car as a commuter, it can certainly be stated that in the upcoming
years, with a fall in solar panel’s price and externalities costs and an expected aid
from the government, solar cars will evolve as the most economically viable vehicle
of the decade.
There must be some limits to the ability of the earth to sustain a growing
population. Fortunately, population models suggest that the world's population will
probably level out at about two to three times the present numbers over the next
hundred years. The question is whether the earth's resources are sufficient to sustain
that population at a high standard of living for all. In this the key issue is energy.

Now-a-days, dealers of natural resources like fuel, coal etc. are facing a hard
time to keep pace with the increasing demand. At one hand, there are more cars or
motor vehicles are dominating the transport medium, on the other hand these cars are
being dominated by the fuel. As a result, the limited resources are being quashed by
the producers and dealers to satisfy this need which is leading us to an uncertain
future with having the scarcity of fuel and minerals. So, it is clear that present trends
in energy consumption, especially oil, cannot be sustained much longer. Again, in
view of the possibility of global warming, these resources are playing a negative role.

Therefore, under these circumstances, it is quite necessary to make a new


exploration of natural resource of energy and power. But why exploration when the
resource is in front of our bear eye. It is effective, less expensive and above all, it is
an endless source of energy. With greatly improved energy efficiency, a transition to
this energy based economy capable of sustaining the anticipated growth in the world
economy is possible. This effective source is "Solar Energy".

[1]
1.1 Why We Need Solar Car?

Due to global warming the demand and request for green energy produced by the
renewable sources like solar power is increased. The end user will prefer the solar energy as
a solution rather than a fix ground system because of such given reasons.
 In the present scenario fossil fuel and Bio fuels will become too costly and it is out of
reach for a common man, for far thinking in future we will end up exhausting fossil fuel.
 So best option is sun and it is the prime and ample source of energy in the world.
 Science has proved it is unlimited source and direct source of energy since birth of earth.
 Further solar car will be pollution free & environment friendly,
 It's the best alternative of car rather than run by diesel and petrol, etc., and which is one
of the most disastrous causes of environmental (air) pollution, the modern generation is
facing today.
 Solar Car would definitely be much cheaper in comparison of diesel /petrol cars. We can
utilize money [which we spend for buying petrol/ diesel) in other economic growth of our
nation/ whole world.]

1.2 What Is Solar Car?

 A solar vehicle is an electric vehicle powered completely or significantly by direct solar


energy. Usually, photovoltaic (PV) cells contained in solar panels convert the sun's
energy directly into electric energy.
 The term "solar vehicle" usually implies that solar energy is used to power all or part of
a vehicle's propulsion.
 Solar vehicles are not sold as practical day-to-day transportation devices at present, but
are primarily demonstration vehicles and engineering exercises, often sponsored by
government agencies.

[2]
1.3 Advantages & Disadvantages:
 Advantages :
 Solar power is pollution free during use. Production end wastes and emissions are
manageable using existing pollution controls. End-of-use recycling technologies are
under development.

 Facilities can operate with little maintenance after initial setup.

 Solar electric generation is economically superior where grid connection or fuel


transport is difficult, costly or impossible.

 When grid-connected, solar electric generation can displace the highest cost electricity
during times of peak demand can reduce grid loading.

 Grid-connected solar electricity can be used locally thus reducing


transmission/distribution losses.

 Once the initial capital cost of building a solar power plant has been spent, operating
costs are extremely low compared to existing power technologies.

 The power obtained by solar tracking is almost constant over a period of time when
compared with the output obtained by a panel without tracking.

 Disadvantages:
 Solar electricity is almost more expensive than electricity generated by other sources.

 Solar electricity is not available at night and is less available in cloudy weather
conditions. Therefore, a storage or complimentary power system is required.

 Limited power density.

 Solar cells produce DC which must be converted to AC when used in currently existing
distribution grids

[3]
1.4 Problem Statement

Solar energy is an energy obtained by converting the solar radiation into


electricity. The ability of solar energy is limited and only capable to generate
electricity only during the day. This energy is also not stable and a lot of factors that
need to be considered for the use of solar energy. Solar photovoltaic (PV) is a way to
collect solar energy generated through solar radiation. But arising of solar power
capacity is unknown and the percentage decrement of this energy potential is hidden.
One way to evaluate the ability of solar energy is to use solar energy into physical
form. A mini solar car will be designed to evaluate the ability of solar energy
collected by solar panels. Electricity generated is measured by taking the speed of a
car moving in particular distance. If there is a difference of speed was recorded even
in the same condition, it is clear there are factors that affect the speed. This
difference may have occurred in cars that are designed or because the collection of
solar radiation.

1.5 Objectives

The objectives of this project are as follows:


1. To evaluate the performance of three different solar cells in terms of power.

2. To design and fabricate an actual mini race car.

1.6 Scope of Studies

There are two main elements considered in this project which are:
1. Evaluate the performance of solar energy through the car speed.

2. Perform analysis on each component of the solar car at a maximum level.

[4]
CHAPTER –2 LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Emerging trend and Development in Solar car in last


decades
In July 1990, thirty-two North American university teams gathered in Orland,
Florida to compete in GM Sunrace USA, a 1644 mile transcontinental race of solar
powered cars. Using only sunlight for power. Michigan. Created as a student
competition to strengthen hands-on science and engineering skills. [2]

The prize for the three winners of Sunrayce was an all expense paid trip to
compete in the 1990 Australian World Solar Challenge (WSC). The WSC is a 1870
mile solar car race across the Australian continent that stretched from Darwin to
Adelaide. This year's event had thirty-six competitors from around the world,
including eleven entries from Japan, eight from the U.S., and five from Europe. In
total, sixty-two different solar racing teams competed in these two events in 1990.
[2]

In November 1990, a Sebring kit car on a Volkswagen Beetle chassis was


purchased for conversion to a solar electric commuter car. The car as purchased
weighed 1600 lbs. with the engine. The body was removed from the chassis and
unnecessary components, engine, fuel tank, pop-up headlights, etc., were removed.
The back of the body was modified to accept a 45" x 44" solar array frame. When
solar energy cannot be used to charge the car's batteries a plug-in charger is used. The
vehicle had to meet Pennsylvania State inspection requirements for a standard
passenger car with electric motor drive. Also, the car should have a commuting range
(derived from solar energy) of 30 miles and be able to reach highway speeds (55
mph). [1]

Solar cars started their existence through universities and manufacturers.


Starting with MIT in USA, universities from 24 other countries across the world has
currently devoted research and manufacturing groups in solar cars . Manufacturers
from the US (Sun Motor), India (Reva), Taiwan and France (Venturi) are expecting
to bring their solar commuter cars for general public. With high performance and low
cost solar cells being produced, more sophisticated and developed solar vehicles are
coming into existence.[4]

[5]
2.2. Preliminary Design and Economic Analysis
2.2.1 System Architecture
The detailed system architecture of the complete electric drive system of the
solar car is shown in a block diagram .The solar panels mounted on the roof of the car
will collect energy from the sun and convert it to usable electrical energy which will
be stored in a lead acid battery through a charge controller. The charge controller will
ensure healthy life of the battery by preventing over charging and over discharging of
the battery. The solar car will also have a provision of plug-in charge when there is
not enough sunshine due to cloud, fog or rain. This provision for external plug in to
charge the batteries from the conventional power supply will also allow the car to
increase its capacity to drive for longer distance by putting additional batteries and
charging from the power supply lines. The voltage controller will maintain a constant
voltage at its output as is required by the motor, irrespective of the panel or the
battery voltage level. [4]

Figure.1: Block diagram of solar car system [03]

2.2.2 Estimation of Motor Power:


The power needed to drive the car can be calculated using

P=F*V

Where v is the velocity of the car and F is the force needed to overcome the
frictional force between the road and the tires which can be calculated as,

F = m × g × C rr

Where, m is the mass of the car, g is the gravitational acceleration and Crr is
the coefficient of rolling resistance of the car tires. Different tires have different
depending on the type of tires, load, road type, pressure etc. Tires used for solar car
are typical bicycle tires and have rolling resistance of 0.0055 on asphalt/concrete
roads. Assuming a maximum car speed v = 60km/h, mass m = 500 kg (with the car
weight about 300 kg, weight of four 40 Ah batteries 50 kg, and weight of two

[6]
passengers 150 kg) and g = 9.81 m/s2, the maximum power required to drive the car
is found to be about 450 .[4]

2.2.3 Battery Capacity


The four most popular choices for battery chemistry are lithium ion (Li-Ion),
lithium polymer (Li-Po), nickel metal hydride (Ni-MH), and lead acid (Pb-Acid).The
most successful vehicles tend to use Li-Ion cells due to their superior energy
density.[5]

Battery capacity depends on the energy battery has to supply which in turn
depends on the total distance travelled. As the solar car is contemplated to be used
mainly by the office-goers in Dhaka, one of longest distances to travel from one end
of Dhaka to the opposite can be represented by the distance between Matijheel and
Uttara area which is approximately 17.5 km. However, the actual travelling distance
may be even longer than this if the commuter’s residence is located far from the main
road. Therefore, considering this extra distance, a one-way travelling distance of 20
km is assumed, which results in a total distance d = 2×20 = 40 km for a return trip.
Then the total energy that should be supplied by the motor is given by,

Em = P × t

Where (t) = Travel distance / Car speed (v) = 40 min., is the total travel time.
However, it is obvious that the motor will not run at its full power for all the time, as
the power requirement will vary depending on the speed of the motor and road
condition. While the smaller lanes in the residential areas are in poor condition, the
highways are in quite good condition for most of the part. Therefore, for most of the
time, the motor will be running at the minimum calculated power of 450 W. To have
an estimate of the total energy required by the motor to cover the total distance, a
conservative estimate would be to assume that the motor runs at the minimum
calculated power of Pmin=450 W for 80% of time, at the maximum power of
Pmax=700 W for 10% of the time, and at the average value of these two Pav=575 W
for the rest 10% of the time. [4]

2.2.4 Panel Size:


The panel size can now be determined on the basis of the total energy the
battery should supply plus the losses in the battery and the charge controller. If ηch is
the battery charging efficiency and ηCC charge controller efficiency, then the total
energy Ep required from the solar panels is given by,
𝐶∗𝑉𝑏
Ep=η cc∗η ch

Where, C is the total charge to be supplied by the battery plus the charges lost
during discharging according to plus. [4]

2.2.5 Maximum Power Point tracking


At present, the transformation efficiency of the photovoltaic cell plate is very
low, can reach only 14%, the efficiency should be improved according to its output
characteristics. Because of the strong manoeuvrability of the electric car, the working
[7]
environment of the vehicle photovoltaic cell plate changes frequently, so the
algorithm of maximum power point tracking should be correspondingly improved, in
order that the photovoltaic cell plate is always in a high transformation efficiency
condition. The function of the maximum power tracker is to change the equivalent
load take by the photovoltaic cell array, and adjust the working point of the
photovoltaic cell array, in order that the photovoltaic cell array can work on the
maximum power point when the temperature and radiant intensity are both changing.
[2]

Solar Panel works as both Current source & Voltage source. But In the area of
constant current source, the sensitivity of the output current to the working voltage is
very low; while in the area of the constant voltage source, the sensitivity is obvious.
By way of tracking the output voltage of the maximum power of the photovoltaic cell
more and more quickly and accurately, the tracking method should be improved. [2]

2.2.6 Economics Analysis


An economic feasibility analysis of using the solar car over that of a
conventional fuel based car is also made. Details the economic analysis of the solar
car, and puts forward the economic comparison of running a solar car vs. a fuel-based
car, using the present worth of different components of the car over a period of 20
years; and finally makes concluding remarks.

Figure.2 Fuel Prices and Trends [4]

A Life Cycle Cost Analysis of Solar Car the LCC of the solar car involves the
price trend of the solar panel itself, the life span, installation and replacement and
finally the costs associated with the operation and the maintenance of the panel and
the battery. Over the years it has been statistically observed that the price of the solar
panels is decreasing with increasing demand thus promising cheaper but more
efficient panels in the future. Nevertheless, the initial cost of setting up a panel is
quite high But this initial investment can be compensated by its long life span. Solar
panels are expected to run for at least 20 to 25 years without requiring any major
replacements. [4]

[8]
Table.1: Life Cycle Cost Analysis of a Solar Car [4]

Table .2: Operational Cost Analysis of a Fuel-Based Car [4]

[9]
CHAPTER – 3 MARKET SURVEY

3.1 Major component of solar car


1. Solar panel
2. Battery
3. Stepper motor
4. Gear box
5. Other accessories

[10]
3.1.1 Solar Panel

A solar panel is a set of solar photovoltaic (PV) modules electrically


connected and mounted on a supporting structure. A PV module is a packaged,
connected assembly of solar cells. Solar panels can be used as a component of a
larger photovoltaic system to generate and supply electricity in commercial and
residential applications. Each module is rated by its DC output power under standard
test conditions (STC), and typically ranges from 100 to 320 watts. The efficiency of a
module determines the area of a module given the same rated output - an 8% efficient
230 watt module will have twice the area of a 16% efficient 230 watt module. There
are a few solar panels available that are exceeding 19% efficiency. A single solar
module can produce only a limited amount of power; most installations contain
multiple modules. A photovoltaic system typically includes a panel or an array of
solar modules, an inverter, and sometimes a battery and/or solar tracker and
interconnection wiring.

Types of Solar Panels:

Mono Crystalline:

Monocrystalline solar panels are made from a large crystal of silicon. These
types of solar panels are the most efficient as in absorbing sunlight and converting it
into electricity however they are the most expensive. They do somewhat better in
lower light conditions then the other types of solar panels.

Figure-3.1: Monocrystalline Solar Panel

Polycrystalline:

Polycrystalline solar panels are the most common type of solar panels on the market
today. They look a lot like shattered glass. They are slightly less efficient then the
monocrystalline solar panels and less expensive to produce. Instead of one large crystal, this
type of solar panel consists of multiple amounts of smaller silicon crystal.

[11]
Figure-3.2 Polycrystalline Solar Panel

Cast Polysilicon:

In this process, molten silicon is cast in a large block which, when cooled, can be cut
into thin wafers to be used in photovoltaic cells. These cells are then assembled in a panel.
Conducting metal strips are then laid over the cells, connecting them to each other and
forming a continuous electrical current throughout the panel.

String Ribbon Silicon:

String ribbon uses a variation of the polycrystalline production process, using the
same molten silicon but slowly drawing a thin strip of crystalline silicon out of the molten
form. These strips of photovoltaic material are then assembled in a panel with the same metal
conductor strips attaching each strip to the electrical current.

Amorphous Solar Panels

Figure-3.3 Amorphous Solar Panel

Amorphous solar panels consist of a thin-like film made from molten silicon that is
spread directly across large plates of stainless steel or similar material. These types of solar
panels have lower efficiency then the other two types of solar panels, and the cheapest to
produce. One advantage of amorphous solar panels over the other two is that they are shadow
protected. That means that the solar continues to charge while part of the solar panel cells is
in a shadow. These work great on boats and other types of transportation.

Solar Panel Efficiency Details:


Monocrystalline- 18%
Polycrystalline- 15%
Amorphous (thin-film)- 10%
[12]
Company Star energy Topsun Neety Microtec Charon
(Rs.) (Rs.) (Rs.) (Rs.) (Rs.)

5pw 245 345 455 280 345


9pw 405 490 490 510 490
12pw 480 560 569 560 560
24pw 890 870 870 870 870
36pw 1620 1640 1845 1719 1640

Table.3.1 Rates of Solar Panel

Figure 3.4 Working of Solar Panel

[13]
3.1.2 Battery
The lead–acid battery was invented in 1859 by French physicist Gaston
Planate and is the oldest type of rechargeable battery. Despite having a very low
energy-to-weight ratio and a low energy-to-volume ratio, its ability to supply high
surge currents means that the cells have a relatively large power-to-weight ratio.
These features, along with their low cost, make it attractive for use in motor vehicles
to provide the high current required by automobile starter motors.
As they are inexpensive compared to newer technologies, lead-acid batteries
are widely used even when surge current is not important and other designs could
provide higher energy densities. Large-format lead-acid designs are widely used for
storage in backup power supplies in cell phone towers, high-availability settings like
hospitals, and stand-alone power systems. For these roles, modified versions of the
standard cell may be used to improve storage times and reduce maintenance
requirements. Gel-cells and absorbed glass-mat batteries are common in these roles,
collectively known as VRLA (valve-regulated lead-acid) batteries.

Company Exide Panasonic Universal Amron Minali


(Rs.) (Rs.) (Rs.) (Rs.) (Rs.)

12v/5Ah 750 1029 770 950 850


12v/7Ah 850 1050 1199 1050 1699
12v/9Ah 1650 1721 1650 1700 1600
12v/12Ah 1700 1800 1740 2200 1790
12v/17Ah 2900 3000 2800 2950 2790

Table .3.2 : Rates of Battery

Figure 3.5 .battery

[14]
3.1.3 Stepper motor

A stepper motor (or step motor) is a brushless DC electric motor that divides a
full rotation into a number of equal steps. The motor's position can then be
commanded to move and hold at one of these steps without any feedback sensor (an
open-loop controller), as long as the motor is carefully sized to the application.

A step motor can be viewed as a synchronous AC motor with the number of


poles (on both rotor and stator) increased, taking care that they have no common
denominator. Additionally, soft magnetic material with many teeth on the rotor and
stator cheaply multiplies the number of poles (reluctance motor). Modern steppers are
of hybrid design, having both permanent magnets and soft iron cores.

Company price / Bholenath Omega Spark Shruti Nema


Holding torque Automation Engineering
1.58 kg-cm 700 720 690 660 660
2.2 kg-cm 725 730 710 715 725
3.6 kg-cm 800 820 790 800 800
4.2 kg-cm 850 870 810 820 850
4.4 kg-cm 900 930 860 850 900

Table .3.3 : Rates Of Stepper Motor

Figure .3.6 Stepper Motor

[15]
3.1.4 Estimation of our Demo Solar car :-

Sr. No. Name of Component Price List in (Rs.)

1 Solar Panel - (24 w) 1200

2 Battery - (9 Ah ) 1100

3 Stepper Motor -(4.4kg-cm) 900

4 Gear Box 700

5 Other Accessories 3000

6 Total Cost 6900

Table .3.4 Estimation of our Demo Solar Car

[16]
CHAPTER –4 -PROBLEM DEFINITION

 To make mimic model of solar car, which can be used to deal with:
 Ensuring bi-input supply
 Verify Efficiency
 To describe projected rating and performance of one or two seated solar car.

[17]
CHAPTER – 5 - METHODOLOGY

5.1 Introduction

The methodology is a process for implementation and developing the project.


The goal and the successfulness of the project is depends on how the plans is conduct
to achieve the result. Methodology is to describe the each step to accomplish the
sequence of the flow work from the beginning until the result is obtained and
success. All the results obtain were evaluated and improved till the best result came
out and to be taken. This implementation would be and getting the worst result where
try and error is happens here. Where any ideal decision may reconsider and repeating
to satisfy the best result.

[18]
5.2 Flow Chart

Start

Literature Review

Methodology

Concept Design

no

Concept Evaluation

yes

Selecting Design

Fabrication and Analysis

no
Analyzing

yes

Final Result

End

Figure 5.1: Project Outline Flowchart

[19]
5.3 Research

In research section, there are consist of three element input that can be used to
conduct a the project research. Where method to conduct for each one of element is
different.

5.3.1 Internet research

Research through the website is the best alternative in which much


information can be found and collected. In addition, information regarding the
competition date and venue last well-known also can be tell. There are a number of
books where related with research objectives and can be used as a guide for
completing the report and the fabrication process. Also for validity, the journals are
related can also be downloaded and taken as a reference report. There are man
websites that excess supply further information in respect of project problems and
how to overcome some of the problems can be found.

5.3.2 Survey approach

The interview survey was done to assess knowledge, opinions and views of
solar car that available. This survey can be done at market who sold electronics
component, market value for solar panel, asking for opinion and searching solar car
for ready-made sale. Some questions were related to the knowledge, satisfaction of
existing solar system and main criteria of installation for car using solar system had
been asked for these interviews.

This survey consists of market survey and simple interview to a set of people.
The market survey is done by collecting brochures and visiting websites of suppliers.
During the research the information collect regarding the technical specifications of
their product.

5.3.3 Site visit

Did a trip and survey of the solar panels manufacturing company At, Star
Energy system, GIDC Gandhinagar in January-April 2015. Much information can be
collected when carrying out the trips to self-motivate as well to know the situation
how solar energy is working.

[20]
CHAPTER – 6 EXECUTED STEPS

6.1 DESIGNING

Solar panel
Stepper motor

Gear box

Battery

Figure 6.1 Design of demo car

In our project we are attempting to build a solar car that converts the sunlight
into electrical energy. The main component to build a solar car is the solar panel. The
solar cells collect a portion of the sun's energy so that power trackers can convert the
energy collected from the solar array to the proper system voltage. After the energy is
collected in the panel, it is available for use by the motor &motor controller (which
was connected to the panel). After all these being proceeded, the motor controller
adjusts the amount of energy that flows to the motor to correspond to the throttle.
The motor uses that energy to drive the wheels.

[21]
6.2 How Electricity Arising From Solar Energy

The process of producing solar energy is a process of converting light


(photons) into electrical propulsion known as the photovoltaic effect (PV). Contained
within photon of light contains the number or rate of energy varies depending on the
wavelength and spectrum of solar generated. When the photon is in violation or in
contact with the solar panel, solar panels will absorb photons in some degree.
Not all photons are absorbed by the solar panels because it depends on the
type of semiconductor materials used to produce the solar panels. Photon energy at
certain levels is able to dissolve the bonding electrons from atoms to produce
electricity. Quantity of the energy produce is difference between a material with
other material in the production of solar cells. This energy level is known as band-
gap energy which is measured in units of electron-volts (Andreev V.).
Different materials with band-gap energy values are different. A material with
band-gap energy between 1eV and 1.8 eV is the best material and has a high
efficiency of energy production. Photons with less energy than the band gap energy
pass through the material.

[22]
6.3 Solar Panel Installation
Solar Panels are typically installed on rooftops, building tops, or stand-alone
facilities. It is important to install solar panel so that it gets the most direct sun
exposure. These determine solar panel is maximally effective during the testing
conducted. To implement, there are several resources in helping properly to set up
and installing solar panels by tracking the position of the sun in the sky.

6.4 Solar panel mounting


Solar panel mounts are used to attach PV onto any surfaces. Solar panel
mounts come in three main varieties: pole mounts, roof ground mounts, and flush
mounts. By using these mounts, it can be installed onto a vehicle, on roof, on top of
or against the side of a pole, or even install them as a free standing unit .

6.5 Notice obstructions to sunlight


Remove all unnecessary items that may be blocking sunlight to solar panel
units. Trace the path of the sun in the sky to determine if an object is casting a
shadow over solar photovoltaic panels. If this is the case, then the operating
efficiency of unit will be reducing.

6.6 Position solar panel in direct sunlight


Solar panels perform at optimum capacity when placed in direct sunlight. The
energy collection from the sun are mostly linearly proportional to the site latitude. By
tracking the radiation axis, PV is directly placed under the noontime sun (Zhimin Li )

6.7 Power Produced by Solar Panels


The efficiency of solar panels and the resultant energy produced is dependent
on climatic, geographic, and weather factors. Arid climates are ideal for solar panels
and solar panel will produce more energy in areas where they are exposed to direct
sunlight under clear skies. Even at optimal efficiency, solar panel sonly convert a
small percentage of the energy that strikes it into usable energy.
Years of overheating and physical been using will reduce the operation
efficiency of the photovoltaic unit. Solar cells become less efficient over time and
excess energy is released into its thermally conductive substrate as infrared heat . The
amount of power solar panels produce is influenced by the quality of the solar panel
types, the materials and technology used in making the solar panel and the amount of
time the solar panel been use.

[23]
6.8 Solar Efficiency
Solar efficiency refers to the amount of ambient light can be converted into
electrical energy can be used. Solar cell efficiency is the amount of light the
individual solar cell converts to electricity. Solar cells are placed next to each other
on the back sheet and covered by glass to make solar panels.
The efficiency of solar panels refers to the amount of light that converts the
entire of solar cell surface. The efficiency of a solar panel is lower than that of a solar
cell due to the spacing between cells and because the glass covering reflects away
some of the sunlight.
Solar energy system is often described in terms of total power they can
produce, measured in watts or kilowatts. However, more important factors to
consider when comparing a solar energy system are the amount of the actual
electricity generating system during its lifetime. By using high efficiency of solar
panel.

6.9 Power Produced by Solar Panels


The efficiency of solar panels and the resultant energy produced is dependent
on climatic, geographic, and weather factors. Arid climates are ideal for solar panels
and solar panel will produce more energy in areas where they are exposed to direct
sunlight under clear skies (Ayu W.A. 2008). Even at optimal efficiency, solar panel
sonly convert a small percentage of the energy that strikes it into usable energy.
Years of overheating and physical been using will reduce the operation
efficiency of the photovoltaic unit. Solar cells become less efficient over time and
excess energy is released into its thermally conductive substrate as infrared heat . The
amount of power solar panels produce is influenced by the quality of the solar panel
types, the materials and technology used in making the solar panel and the amount of
time the solar panel been use.

Solar energy system is often described in terms of total power they can
produce, measured in watts or kilowatts. However, more important factors to
consider when comparing a solar energy system are the amount of the actual
electricity generating system during its lifetime. By using high efficiency of solar
panel.

[24]
6.10 MATERIAL & EQUIPMENT WITH SPECIFICATION

 Solar Panel:-
A solar panel is a set of solar photovoltaic (PV) modules electrically
connected and mounted on a supporting structure. A PV module is a packaged,
connected assembly of solar cells.

Specification :-

Rated Power 20 W
Open Circuit Voltage 43.2 V
Short Circuit Current 0.63 Amp.
Maximum Power Voltage 34 V
Maximum Power Current 0.58 Amp.

Table 6.1 specification of solar panel

Figure 6.2 Monocrystalline solar panel

[25]
 Battery :-
An electric battery is a device consisting of one or more electrochemical cell that convert
stored chemical energy into electrical energy. Each cell contains a positive terminal,
or cathode , and a negative terminal, or anode . Electrolytes allow ions to move between the
electrodes and terminals, which allows current to flow out of the battery to perform work.

Specification :-

Nominal Voltage 12 V

Nominal Capacity 9 Ah

Maximum Charging Voltage 13.50-13.80 v

Maximum Charging Current 2.25 A

Table 6.2 specification of Battery

Figure 6.3 Battery

[26]
 Stepper Motor :

A stepper motor (or step motor) is a brushless DC electric motor that divides a
full rotation into a number of equal steps. The motor's position can then be
commanded to move and hold at one of these steps without any feedback sensor (an
open-loop controller), as long as the motor is carefully sized to the application.

Figure 6.4 Stepper motor

Voltage 12 V dc

Current 1.68 Amp

Specification :- 4.4 kg-cm

Table 6.3 specification of Stepper motor

[27]
7. Tabular Analysis of Solar Car

ANALYSIS OF MIMIC MODEL ANALYSIS OF TWO SEATER


OF SOLAR CAR SOLAR CAR

Estimation Of Moter Power Estimation Of Moter Power

And Corresponding Panel Wattage And Corresponding Panel Wattage


P = F*V P = F*V
Where F = m× g ×Crr Where F = m× g ×Crr
where, where,
m is the mass of the car, m is the mass of the car,
g is the gravitationalacceleration and g is the gravitationalacceleration and
Crr is the coefficient of rolling Crr is the coefficient of rolling
resistance of resistance of
the car tires 0.0055 on concrete the car tires 0.0055 on concrete
roads. roads.

P=F*V P=F*V
=m *g *crr*V =m *g *crr*V
=10*9.81*0.0055*16.66m/s =25 w =500*9.81*0.0055*16.66m/s =450w

Battery requirement Battery requirement


7.5 ah 40 ah
CHARGING TIME CHARGING TIME
Total ah/ consume ampere= hours Total ah/ consume ampere= hours
7.5/1.47=5 hours 40/3.07=13hours
* 5 hours requirement for full * 13 hours requirement for full
charging charging

DISCHARGE TIME DISCHARGE TIME

BATTERY CHARGING TIME BATTERY CHARGING TIME


Battery 7.5 ah Battery 40 ah

It takes 4 hrs to discharge. It takes 20 hrs to discharge.

Table.7.1 Analysis by Mathematical Expression

[28]
Solar Panel
(Monocrystyline Panel)

Two Seater Model Of Solar Mimic Of Solar Car


Car
Power 200W 25W

Voltage 64-68v 17v

Current 3.07amp 1.47amp

Efficiency
15% 15%

Table.7.2 Analysis by Mathematical Expression of Solar Panel

[29]
Stepper MOTOR

Two Seater Model Of Solar Mimic Of Solar Car


Car
Power 700W 18W

Voltage 48v 12v

Current 14.71amp 1.5 amp

Efficiency
80-90% 75-90%

Table.7.3 Analysis by Mathematical Expression of Stepper Motor

[30]
Battery (Li-ion)

Two Seater Model Of Mimic Of Solar Car


Solar Car
Power 40ah 7.5ah

Voltage 48v 12v

Current 0.83amp 0.625amp

Efficiency
90% 90%
CHARGING
TIME 13hrs 5hrs

DISCHARGING 20 hrs 4hrs


TIME

Table.7.4 Analysis by Mathematical Expression of Battery

[31]
8.Assembling & Testing

Figure 8.1 Mimic Model of Solar Car(a)

Figure 8.2 Mimic Model of Solar Car(b)

[32]
Figure 8.3 Mimic Model of Solar Car(c)

[33]
9. Conclusion
Solar technology is an alternative that can be commercialized in order to replace
non-renewable fuel sources. Based on solar technology, many application have been
produced like, solar car, solar heater and solar street light and many more. In order to
develop the solar technology, many factors must be considered like weather, the
environment factor, reliability of solar module, and also the load. So, this solar
technology still needs improvement in order to achieve higher performance.
It is clear that this project was able to get acquainted with this new area of
photovoltaic solar energy applications. Unfortunately, it was not possible to build a
sample Solar Electric Vehicle because of the low budget and lack of mechanical
engineering expertise. Equipment's purchased for this project were also used in the
solar car project and were very useful in building and testing in the solar car. In
addition, if the power station generating the electricity to recharge batteries uses solar
energy, air pollution is also reduced.

[34]
References
[1.] Old Solar Car ( Pritpal Singh and Peter von Glahn Department of Electrical
Engineering Villanova University Villanova, PA 19085)
[2.] Recent Solar Car Technology Developments Including Australian World
Solar Results (Richard J. King U.S. Department of Energy, Washington,
DC 2058)
[3.] The Research on the Algorithm of Maximum Power Point Tracking in
PhotoVoltaic Array of Solar Car, (Yude Sun School of Information Science
and Engineering Harbin Institute of Technology, HIT Weihai, China )
[4.] A Two-Seater Light-Weight Solar Powered Clean Car: Preliminary Design
and Economic Analysis , (Sanjana Ahmed1, Ahmed Hosne Zenan2,
Mosaddequr Rahman)
[5.] American Solar Car Challenges , (Aaron Mills )
[6.] Electric Car Progress , (Henry Oman)

 Websites
[7.] http://ieeexplore.ieee.org
[8.] http://www.sciencedirect.com

[35]
ANNEXURE – A – PSAR REPORT

1. A Multifuel Vehicle
2. Sun Tracker Device
3. Solar Car
4. Solar cooling system for an automobile
5. Mounting system for a Solar Panel

[36]
1. REVIEW OF PATENT NO1: ID-241407 [1]

sTitle of Invention: A Multifuel Vehicle

Patent No: 241407Application No: 540/MUM/2006

Date of Application: 09.07.2010

Office of Patent: World Intellectual Property Organization

Inventors’ Details: Lakhanlal kumawat

Technical Part of Patented Invention

Major limitations of existing products:-


Major Difficulties in multifuel vehicle is that component require for each fuel is separately so Cost
will be Higher. The ultimate design will be complicated .Due to size of tanks will make not compact size. In
the petrol & diesel engine will create pollution .overall efficiency will be low. It also requires the higher
energy input. It is therefore required to provide a solar energy system which is accurate and yet requires
minimum energy input and is simple and inexpensive to build and operate.

Specific problem solved by the Inventor:-


Inventor had used high quality solar panel to increase the amount of power from the Sun’s
trajectory path. Also Inventor has proposed the solar energy to minimize the Cost, Input power, Accuracy
and Counter – Balancing.

Brief about the Invention:-


The invention relates to a multifuel vehicle which has provision to run on any of the fuels
selected from solar energy, electricity, petrol and LPG.Additionally the vehicle can also be used to function
as a power generator when the vehicle is at a rest. The multifuel vehicle comprises of (1) mounted on the
external surface of the car and connected to a battery (3) through charging controller (2) a DC motor (7)
operated by the battery (3) a clutch gear (11) rotated by either of the two sliding gears (10,12) the sliding
gears (10,12) are fixed by gear fixers (9,9)The sliding gear (10) is connected to DC motor (7) through a
motor shaft (8) The sliding gear (12) is connected to petrol engine (19) through a crank shaft (13) the clutch
gear (11) is connected to wheel (18) of vehicle through a clutch drum (15) gear box (16) and a differential

[37]
(17)a gear operating lever (14) selects between the sliding gears (10)(12) thereby enabling changing the
mode of operation between dc motor (7) and engine (19) The car is primary run on solar energy. When
there is no sun light it can be run on battery operated DC motor (7) When solar and electrical source of
energy are not available, the vehicle can be either or lpg as per availability.

Summary of Invention:-
The An object of the present invention is to provide multifuel vehicle specially, a small car
which have provision to run on multifuel specially solar energy. Another object of the present invention is
to provide multifuel vehicles which run on electricity or solar energy which can travel over longer distance
than known in the art by switching over to the alter native forms.

[38]
2. REVIEW OF PATENT NO.2: ID-5632823 [1]

Title of Invention: Solar Tracking System


Patent No: 5632823
Application No: 08593468
Date of Application: 29.01.1996
Office of Patent: World Intellectual Property Organization
Inventors’ Details: Sharan Anand M.

Technical Part of Patented Invention

Major limitations of existing products:-


Major Difficulties in Solar Tracking System is that Higher Cost due other devices used in tracking
like Motors, Controllers. Another problem is the inaccuracy of tracking due to cloudy atmosphere and many
other natural conditions. It also requires the higher energy input. It is therefore required to provide a solar
tracking system which is accurate and yet requires minimum energy input and is simple and inexpensive to
build and operate.

Specific problem solved by the Inventor:-


Inventor had used high quality sensors to increase the accuracy of the tracking the Sun’s trajectory
path. Also Inventor has proposed Three Different method of tracking the sun to minimize the Cost, Input
power, Accuracy and Counter – Balancing.

Brief about the Invention:-


As shown in FIG. 1, brackets 27 and 29 are rigidly attached to a rotatable shaft 16 by collars 28
and 30 respectively. A support 1, which serves as a mounting platform for supporting a solar collector such
as a receiver or reflector or a combination of both and of any geometrical shape is pivoted to bracket 27 by a
pivot 17 perpendicular to shaft 16. Similarly, a support 3 is pivoted at 18 to bracket 29. It is possible to
change the spatial orientation of collector supports 1 and 3 by inclining those using pivots 17 and 18
respectively, which may be desirable for concentrating the sun's rays due to yearly (seasonal) motion of the
earth. Adjustable stays 23 and 22 hold the corresponding supports 1 and 3 at the required inclination
respectively. Shaft 16 is held parallel to the north-south axis of the earth. This is possible by aligning a
horizontal base plate 12, along the north-south direction. This base plate is horizontally held using four
levelling screws, two of which are shown as 13 and 9 in this figure. The other two screws are behind these
screws in this view. Shaft 16 subtends an angle equal to the latitude of the location where this system is
used. Shaft 16 is supported by a roller bearing 15 and a tapered roller bearing 5 on its ends. A
counterbalancing arm 2, which can slide along and rotate around along shaft 16, is adjustably fixed thereto;

[39]
arm 2, which is normal to shaft 16, carries a counter-balancing mass M at an adjustable radial distance P2
from shaft 16.

Fig. 1..1 Construction of solar tracking system.


Mass M on the counter-balancing arm 2 can be moved in the radial direction relative to the shaft 16. The
center of gravity of the support 1 is at a radial distance P1 from the shaft 16. As shaft 16 is rotated, the
moments of the masses of the solar collectors and of their securing assemblies, namely elements 1, 23, 27
and 28 and 3, 22, 29 and 30 are counter-balanced by mass M. If either or both supports 1 and 3 are rotated
about pivots 17 and 18, then their radial distance from shaft 16 will change and one would have to change
the radial distance of mass M from the shaft. A vertical column 11 provides support to shaft 16 in order to
keep it straight. This column has a bushing 11a at its top through which the shaft passes for rotation and
support. Bearings 15 and 5 are held on vertical columns 14 and 6 respectively columns 6, 11 and 14 are
fixed to base plate 12. The solar collector carried by support 3 may consist of an array of solar cells. A
pointer 4 is mounted normal to the array of solar cells carried by support 3. Pointer 4 is used to align the
apparatus such that the receiver on support 1 or solar cells on support 3 are normal to the sun's rays. The
length of the shadow of the pointer indicates the degree of misalignment. In the case of perfect alignment,
there will not be any shadow. Pointer 4 could be mounted on support 1.
There are several methods to do the tracking. It will depend upon the situation where one method
might prove better than the other.
The first and the simplest method is manually rotating shaft 16 by a certain number of degrees in a
time interval based on the rotation rate of the earth, as discussed above. This can also be done merely by
inspecting the shadow produced by pointer 4 i.e. the rotation of the shaft can be done in such a manner that
there is no shadow of pointer 4. Since the earth rotates at a very slow rate, this method can be quite useful in
many countries of the world where many people may not want to spend money on gear boxes, stepper
motors etc. In such cases, shaft 16 has to be supported on bearings 15, and 5 (FIG. 1), and one needs a solar
collector on one support 1 and the counter-balancing system 2, 2a and M. If one uses column 11, the system
will perform better otherwise, the spacing between columns 14 and 6 can be made smaller, and one can
eliminate column 11.
In the second method, which also does not require electrical parts, one can use a gear box where
one can have a worm and worm gear system 8 as shown in FIG. 3. Worm rotation can be produced by using
a knob 19. The torque required to turn knob 19 for a single start worm and an n tooth--gear will be, 1/n
times that required to rotate the shaft having no gear system.

[40]
In the third method, where one uses a stepper motor along with gear box for optimal torque
reduction, the system required can be seen in FIGS. 1.In this case, one can have two limit switches. One for
the starting position in the morning and the second one for the stopping position in the evening. One also
needs a re-start switch. Here, one can rotate the shaft at a faster rate (most motors have controllers with
features having variable pulse rates) in the morning to align pointer parallel to the sun's rays. In this
situation, the current output of the solar cells will be a maximum as measured by a current meter (not
shown). One can have wiring such that the current meter can be inside the house such that the alignment of
pointer 4 can be easily checked from within the house. It is desirable to be able to align pointer 4 from
inside the house in places having extreme weather conditions. If solar cells and a current meter are provided,
the latter can be used to align the supports without the need of pointer 4. After aligning supports 1 and 3,
one can set the stepper motor to turn at the tracking speed (earth's rotational speed but in a direction
opposite to that of earth) until the evening when the second limit switch is activated to stop the motor
rotation. The motor can then be rotated in the reverse direction at a faster rate, until it activates the first limit
switch for stopping. In this way, the cycle can be repeated.

Key Learning Points:-


- Counter – balancing the Tracking System

- Three Methods of Tracking the Sun’s Trajectory


1. Manually
2. By using Stepper Motor along with Gear box
3. By using Gear box

Summary of Invention:-
The solar tracking system maintains a solar collector with its responsive surface normal to the
sun rays. It includes a shaft supported for rotation about an axis parallel to the north-south axis of the earth.
Tracking can be done in three different ways Manually, By using Gear box and by a stepper motor for
intermittent rotation of the shaft at a mean rate equal to the earth's rate of rotation. This system counter-
balances the assembly and a solar collector fixed there to irrespective of the rotational position of the
assembly about the shaft and the inclination of the support relative to the shaft.

[41]
3. REVIEW OF PATENT NO.3:IDus4592436 [3]

Title of Invention: Solar Car


Patent No: US4592436 A
Application No: US 06/409,420
Date of Application: 03.06.1986
Office of Patent: World Intellectual Property Organization
Inventors’ Details: ; Edmardo J. Tomei

Technical Part of Patented Invention

Major limitations of existing products before patent:-


Non-Conventional Cars are more costlier, and pollution creator.

Specific problem solved by the Inventor: -


By utility model using sunlight to provide heat as radiation on which roof on the top of solar car
,which gives in the form of electricity to the cars. In the engine no consumption of crude oil resources ,due
to utility model they does not exist emission ,energy conversion and environmental protection, it also not
produce harm gases ,which will save from prior disease and it is easily available at anywhere and popularize
to use.
Brief about the Invention:-
A solar powered vehicle utilizing incident solar radiation to charge storage batteries for
energizing an electric motor mounted within the vehicle. The solar panel comprises a lower panel mounted
on an exterior surface of the vehicle and first and second upper panels pivotally connected on opposed sides
to the lower panel and movable between a first inboard position overlaying the lower panel and a second
outboard position in-line with the lower panel in which the lower panel and the first and second upper
panels are disposed for receiving incident solar radiation. The first 3and second upper panels are releasable
interlock able with the lower panel in a secure, spaced-apart position when the first and second upper panels
are disposed in the first inboard position overlying the lower panel. A plurality of solar panels may be
provided on the roof, hood and/or trunk of the vehicle

In view of the steadily decreasing worldwide supply of oil resources, alternate source of energy have been
investigated for possible use in powering vehicles, such as automobiles, trucks, buses, etc. Alternate sources
of energy also have been investigated as a means for reducing pollutant levels in large cities, a major portion
of which is emitted from the use of oil derived fuels, such as gas, diesel, etc., in today's vehicles.

[42]
Summary of Invention:-

There is disclosed herein a unique solar powered vehicle utilizing electrical power converted from incident
solar radiation. The solar radiation is converted by a solar panel to electrical energy which is used to charge
storage batteries which, in turn, provide electricity for energizing the electric motor of the vehicle. The solar
panel comprises a lower panel adapted to be mounted on an exterior surface of the vehicle. The lower panel
is formed with a pluarlity of interconnected photovoltaic cells. A pair of first and second upper panels, each
also formed of photovoltaic cells, are pivotally mounted on opposed sides to the lower panel and are
movable between a first inboard position overlaying the lower panel and a second outboard position in line
with the lower panel in which the lower panel and the first and second upper panels are disposed for
receiving incident solar radiation.

The solar cells in the lower and the first and second upper panels are connected through a voltage regulator
to the storage batteries for supplying electrical energy to the batteries.

The lower and first and second upper panels are provided with releasable interlock means for releasable
interconnecting the lower panel and the first and second panels in a spaced-apart, secure manner when the
first and second upper panels are positioned in the first inboard position overlaying the lower panel.
Preferably, the interlocking means comprises interlocking tongue and groove connections mounted on the
exterior frames surrounding the lower and the first and second upper panels.

The solar panel of the present invention may be employed on any exterior surface of the vehicle, such as the
roof, hood and/or trunk. When the vehicle is not in use, the first and second upper panels of each solar panel
may be pivoted to the second outboard position so as to provide a large surface area for receiving incident
solar radiation. This provides increased electrical energy for the batteries which substantially reduces the
recharging time of the batteries and extends the driving range of the vehicle.

[43]
4. REVIEW OF PATENT NO.4:ID.US394372A

Title of Invention: Solar cooling system for an automobile


Patent No: US 3943726 A
Application No: US 05/560,154
Date of Application: Feb 21, 2012
Office of Patent: Lawrence Peska Association
Inventors’ Details: John H. Miller

Technical Part of Patented Invention

Major limitations of existing products:-


Its require more space to transfer thermodynamically from heating to cooling

Specific problem solved by the Inventor:-

An object of my present invention is to provide a cooling system for an automobile, wherein the
cooling system is operated by solar energy.A further object of my invention is to provide a fuel conserving
device for the operation of a cooling unit of an automobile. A still further object of my invention is to
provide a heating system for an automobile, wherein the heating system is operated by solar energy.
Another object of my invention is to provide a solar energy cooling system adaptable to a standard
automobile. An advantage of my invention is that it provides a means of cooling an automobile by a simply
designed system without added fuel consumption.

Brief about the Invention:-

A solar energy cell system is used as an electric supply source to operate an air conditioner or a fan
ventilation system contained within the interior chamber of an automobile. The electrical circuit comprises a
series circuit consisting of: the solar energy cells, a voltage regulator, a storage battery, a thermostatic
temperature control and a ventilation fan or an automobile air conditioner.

Invention comprises a plurality of solar energy cells operating an air conditioner or a fan ventilation system
contained within the interior chamber of the automobile. The electrical circuit comprises a series circuit
consisting of the solar energy cells, a voltage regulator, a storage battery, a thermostat temperature control
and a ventilation fan or an automobile air conditioner.

[44]
An object of my present invention is to provide a cooling system for an automobile, wherein the cooling
system is operated by solar energy. A further object of my invention is to provide a fuel conserving device
for the operation of a cooling unit of an automobile. A still further object of my invention is to provide a
heating system for an automobile, wherein the heating system is operated by solar energy. Another object of
my invention is to provide a solar energy cooling system adaptable to a standard automobile. An advantage
of my invention is that it provides a means of cooling an automobile by a simply designed system without
added fuel consumption.

Summary of Invention:-

Invention relates to a unique and novel concept of operating a cooling system for an automobile operating
on solar energy.

It is known from U.S. Pat. Nos.: 2,202,019 and 2,692,483 that solar energy has been employed to cool
confined areas but these cited patents do not involve the application of solar energy to the operation of a
cooling system for an automobile. An object of my present invention is to provide a cooling system for an
automobile, wherein the cooling system is operated by solar energy.A further object of my invention is to
provide a fuel conserving device for the operation of a cooling unit of an automobile. A still further object
of my invention is to provide a heating system for an automobile, wherein the heating system is operated by
solar energy.Another object of my invention is to provide a solar energy cooling system adaptable to a
standard automobile. An advantage of my invention is that it provides a means of cooling an automobile by
a simply designed system without added fuel consumption.

Briefly, my invention comprises a plurality of solar energy cells operating an air conditioner or a fan
ventilation system contained within the interior chamber of the automobile. The electrical circuit comprises
a series circuit consisting of the solar energy cells, a voltage regulator, a storage battery, a thermostat
temperature control and a ventilation fan or an automobile air conditioner.

[45]
5. REVIEW OF PATENT NO.5: ID-1322[5]

Title of Invention: Mounting system for a solar panel


Patent No: 1322
Application No: 1322/MUMNP/2006
Date of Application:8-11-2006
Office of Patent: University avenue , California
Inventors’ Details: Andalay Solar

Technical Part of Patented Invention

Major limitations of existing products:-

Specific problem solved by the Inventor:-

Brief about the Invention:-

[46]
[47]
Summary of Invention:-

[48]
CONLUSION OF PSAR

In these patents we suggested that the different fuel as source of energy, but the limitation of
conventional energy and cost .so we can use a solar radiation energy by solar panel to converting solar
energy to electrical energy. Using such type of system has improved efficiency and minimizes running cost.
In future as the demand of solar energy will increase the new technologies will be invented which will be far
better than existing conventional System.

[49]
REFERENCE

PATENT LITERATURE
[1] Lakhanlal kumawat . “Multifuel vehicles”
[2] Sharan Anand M, “Solar Tracking System”
[3] Solar Car . “Edmardo J. Tomei”
[4] John H. Miller, “Solar cooling system for an automobile”
[5] Andalay Solar , “ Mounting system for a solar panel ”

WEBSITES
[6] http://www.ieee.in/patents
[7] http://www.ipindia.co.in

[50]
ANNEXURE – B – OBSERVATIONAL MATRIX
SHANKERSINH VAGHELA BAPU INST. OF TECH.
Design Design By: Date : 22 Sept’ 14 Version: 1
For:Development and JITENDRA PATEL (12EE11),
Performance Analysis CHAUDHARY GAURAV (11EE49),
of Solar Car PATEL SAURABH (11EE38)

INTRODUCTION SCOUTED

CHALLENGES
An enormous amount of energy is extracted, distributed,
converted and consumed in the global society daily,85% of
energy production is dependent on fossil fuels.
• Solar Energy is one of the most important energy sources • Efficiency
of the present world. With the development of technology
• Cost
for a modern life, especially for running the industries,
transportation, domestic appliances, agriculture, health, • Electricity generation depends on sun radiation
education and research, food storage and transportation,
• No back-up source
and recreation etc.
• With the help of this technology we aim to make solar • Ensuring bi-input supply
energy powered car in our project.
• Controlling voltage fluctuation
• The main component to build a solar car is the solar panel.
The solar cells collect a portion of the sun’s energy and • Taking the input from the panel
store it into the batteries of the solar car. After the energy is
• Availability of sun
stored in the batteries, it is available for use by the motor &
motor controller to drive the car. one of which will get the • Expense
electrical energy from the panel to drive the motor and
• Speed and Power
another will be used as a back-up source of energy which
will provide required power when there is no sunlight. • Power Storage and Consumption
• Maintenance

MAIN MAJOR
CHALLANGE PROBLEM
• To make mimic model of solar car, which can be used to • Battery backup
deal with:
• Cost
• Ensuring bi-input supply
• Availability of sun
• Verify Efficiency
• Efficiency
• To describe projected rating and performance of one or
two seater solar car. • Power Storage and Consumption

[51]
ANNEXURE – C – Business Model Canvas

[52]
BMC Report
Business Canvas Model illustrates the Whole Marketing Segment of Development and Performance
Analysis of Solar Car.

Key Partners:-
 Star Energy System Pvt. Ltd.

Key Activities:-
Literature review
Market survey
Pattent Search
Model Making

Key Resources:-
Ieee
Ipindia
Company Feedback

Value Propositions:-
Renewable resources
Toy model
Project oriented
Battery storage

Customer Relationships:-
Customer Relation
Economic
Pollution Free
Future Aspect

Channels:-
Largest Scale
Manufacturing Division
Largest Scale

[53]
Testing Division
Manufacture in industry

Customer Segments:-
Upper Middle Class
Middle Class

Cost Structures:-
Value Driven
Performance Driven

Revenue Streams:-
Through Selling
Taxi

[54]
ANNEXURE – D – PAPER ON DEVELOPMENT AND PERFORMANCE
ANALYSIS OF SOLAR CAR

Development And Performance Analysis of Solar Car


Patel Jitendra
Patel Saurabh
Electrical Engineering Department
Electrical Engineering Department
Shankersing Vaghela Bapu Institute of Technology
Shankersing Vaghela Bapu Institute of Technology
Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India
Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India
pateljitendra199355@gmail.com
Saurabh1121994@gmail.com
Chaudhary Gaurav
Electrical Engineering Department
Shankersing Vaghela Bapu Institute of Technology
Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India
Chaudharygaurav.me@gmail.com

Abstract— Now-a-days, dealers of natural wheels. Preliminarily our objective would be to


resources like fuel, coal etc. are facing a hard implement our idea on a remote control toy car
time to keep pace with the increasing demand. and afterwards with help of this prototype we
Therefore, to carry out this demand it is quite can extend our future work on building a actual
necessary to make a new exploration of natural car powered by the solar energy.
resource of energy and power. Therefore sunlight
is now-a-days considered to be a source of energy
which is implemented in various day to day
applications. Solar energy is being used to
produce electricity through sunlight. With the I. INTRODUCTION
help of this technology we aim to make solar
energy powered car in our project. The main Our global temperatures rise is caused by our
component to build a solar car is the solar panel. atmosphere’s ever-increasing content of carbon-
The solar cells collect a portion of the sun's dioxide, most of which comes from the exhaust of
energy and store it into the batteries of the solar transportation vehicles. This has resulted in a
car. Before that happens, power trackers worldwide search for alternatives to the high-
converts the energy collected from the solar powered gasoline fuelled automobiles in wide use
array to the proper system voltage, so that the today conference. With the current rate of inflation
batteries and the motor can use it. After the in India and the ever-increasing fuel prices all
energy is stored in the batteries, it is available for around the world, the clean solar car will be
use by the motor & motor controller to drive the beneficial to both the environment and the public
car. who are otherwise exposed to many health problems
due to toxic exhaust gases from fuel power cars.
We are going to use two set of batteries; Also due to rising fuel prices, fuel run cars are
one of which will get the electrical energy from becoming less popular among the general people as
the panel to drive the motor and another will be maintaining such a car is proving to be beyond their
used as a back-up source of energy which will affordability standard. Price of different fuels has
provide required power when there is no increased over a decade with the price of diesel
sunlight. The motor uses that energy to drive the increasing the most. The price of the fuels is also

[55]
affected by annual inflation in India which stands at is an endless source of energy. With greatly
6% on an average. improved energy efficiency, a transition to this
energy based economy capable of sustaining the
This raises the already increasing fuel price anticipated growth in the world economy is possible.
by a factor of 0.06 hence making the conventional This effective source is "Solar Energy".
cars even expensive. The solar car is expected to
reduce air pollution, improve public health and II. NEED OF SOLAR CAR
reduce dependency on fossil fuels. Considering the Due to global warming the demand and request for
probable positive effects of different factors on the green energy produced by the renewable sources like solar
price associated with owning and using a solar car as power is increased. The end user will prefer the solar energy
a commuter, it can certainly be stated that in the as a solution rather than a fix ground system because of such
upcoming years, with a fall in solar panel’s price and given reasons.
externalities costs and an expected aid from the
government, solar cars will evolve as the most  In the present scenario fossil fuel and Bio fuels will
economically viable vehicle of the decade. become too costly and it is out of reach for a common
There must be some limits to the ability of man, for far thinking in future we will end up exhausting
the earth to sustain a growing population.
Fortunately, population models suggest that the fossil fuel.
world's population will probably level out at about  So best option is sun and it is the prime and ample
two to three times the present numbers over the next
hundred years. The question is whether the earth's source of energy in the world.
resources are sufficient to sustain that population at  Science has proved it is unlimited source and direct
a high standard of living for all. In this the key issue
is energy. source of energy since birth of earth.
 Further solar car will be pollution free & environment
friendly,
Now-a-days, dealers of natural resources like
fuel, coal etc. are facing a hard time to keep pace  It's the best alternative of car rather than run by diesel
with the increasing demand. At one hand, there are
and petrol, etc., and which is one of the most disastrous
more cars or motor vehicles are dominating the
transport medium, on the other hand these cars are causes of environmental (air) pollution, the modern
being dominated by the fuel. As a result, the limited
generation is facing today.
resources are being quashed by the producers and
dealers to satisfy this need which is leading us to an  Solar Car would definitely be much cheaper in
uncertain future with having the scarcity of fuel and
comparison of diesel /petrol cars. We can utilize money
minerals. So, it is clear that present trends in energy
consumption, especially oil, cannot be sustained [which we spend for buying petrol/ diesel) in other
much longer. Again, in view of the possibility of
economic growth of our nation/ whole world.]
global warming, these resources are playing a
negative role.
III. SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE
The detailed system architecture of the
Therefore, under these circumstances, it is complete electric drive system of the solar car is
quite necessary to make a new exploration of shown in a block diagram .The solar panels mounted
natural resource of energy and power. But why on the roof of the car will collect energy from the
exploration when the resource is in front of our bear sun and convert it to usable electrical energy which
eye. It is effective, less expensive and above all, it will be stored in a lead acid battery through a charge

[56]
controller. The charge controller will ensure healthy  Solar electric generation is economically superior where
life of the battery by preventing over charging and grid connection or fuel transport is difficult, costly or
over discharging of the battery. The solar car will
also have a provision of plug-in charge when there is impossible.
not enough sunshine due to cloud, fog or rain. This
 When grid-connected, solar electric generation can
provision for external plug in to charge the batteries
from the conventional power supply will also allow displace the highest cost electricity during times of peak
the car to increase its capacity to drive for longer demand can reduce grid loading.
distance by putting additional batteries and charging
from the power supply lines. The voltage controller  Grid-connected solar electricity can be used locally thus
will maintain a constant voltage at its output as is reducing transmission/distribution losses.
required by the motor, irrespective of the panel or
the battery voltage level. [4]  Once the initial capital cost of building a solar power
plant has been spent, operating costs are extremely low
compared to existing power technologies.
IV. WHAT IS SOLAR CAR
 A solar vehicle is an electric vehicle powered  The power obtained by solar tracking is almost constant
completely or significantly by direct solar energy.over a period of time when compared with the output
Usually, photovoltaic (PV) cells contained in solar
obtained by a panel without tracking.
panels convert the sun's energy directly into electric
energy.
 The term "solar vehicle" usually implies thatsolar Disadvantages:
energy is used to power all or part of a vehicle's
 Solar electricity is almost more expensive than
propulsion.
electricity generated by other sources.
 Solar vehicles are not sold as practical day-to-day
 Solar electricity is not available at night and is less
transportation devices at present, but are primarily
demonstration vehicles and engineering exercises, often
available in cloudy weather conditions. Therefore, a
sponsored by government agencies.
storage or complimentary power system is required.

 Limited power density.


1.3 Advantages & Disadvantages:
 Solar cells produce DC which must be converted to AC
 Advantages :
when used in currently existing distribution grids
 Solar power is pollution free during use. Production end
wastes and emissions are manageable using existing
pollution controls. End-of-use recycling technologies are V. TYPES OF SOLAR PANEL

under development.
A solar panel is a set of solar photovoltaic
 Facilities can operate with little maintenance after
(PV) modules electrically connected and mounted on
initial setup. a supporting structure. A PV module is a packaged,
connected assembly of solar cells. Solar panels can
be used as a component of a larger photovoltaic

[57]
system to generate and supply electricity in connecting them to each other and forming a continuous
commercial and residential applications. Each electrical current throughout the panel.
module is rated by its DC output power under
standard test conditions (STC), and typically ranges
from 100 to 320 watts. The efficiency of a module Amorphous Solar Panels:
determines the area of a module given the same rated
output - an 8% efficient 230 watt module will have Amorphous solar panels consist of a thin-like film
made from molten silicon that is spread directly across large
twice the area of a 16% efficient 230 watt module.
plates of stainless steel or similar material. These types of
There are a few solar panels available that are solar panels have lower efficiency then the other two types
exceeding 19% efficiency. A single solar module of solar panels, and the cheapest to produce. One advantage
can produce only a limited amount of power; most of amorphous solar panels over the other two is that they are
installations contain multiple modules. A shadow protected. That means that the solar continues to
photovoltaic system typically includes a panel or an charge while part of the solar panel cells is in a shadow.
array of solar modules, an inverter, and sometimes a These work great on boats and other types of transportation.
battery and/or solar tracker and interconnection
wiring.

Types of Solar Panels: Charon


Company Star Topsun Neety Microtec
Mono Crystalline: enerey (Rs.)
(Rs.) (Rs.) (Rs.)
(Rs.)
Monocrystalline solar panels are made from
a large crystal of silicon. These types of solar panels
5pw 245 345 455 280 345
are the most efficient as in absorbing sunlight and
converting it into electricity however they are the 9pw 405 490 490 510 490
most expensive. They do somewhat better in lower
light conditions then the other types of solar panels. 12pw 480 560 569 560 560

Polycrystalline: 24pw 890 870 870 870 870


36pw 1620 1640 1845 1719 164
Polycrystalline solar panels are the most common
0
type of solar panels on the market today. They look a lot
like shattered glass. They are slightly less efficient then the
monocrystalline solar panels and less expensive to produce.
Instead of one large crystal, this type of solar panel consists Table.5.1 Rates of Solar Panel
of multiple amounts of smaller silicon crystal.

Cast Polysilicon:

In this process, molten silicon is cast in a large block


which, when cooled, can be cut into thin wafers to be used
in photovoltaic cells. These cells are then assembled in a
panel. Conducting metal strips are then laid over the cells,

[58]
the solar panel. The solar cells collect a portion of
the sun's energy so that power trackers can convert
the energy collected from the solar array to the
proper system voltage. After the energy is collected
in the panel, it is available for use by the motor
&motor controller (which was connected to the
panel). After all these being proceeded, the motor
controller adjusts the amount of energy that flows to
the motor to correspond to the throttle. The motor
uses that energy to drive the wheels.

6.2 MATERIAL & EQUIPMENT WITH


SPECIFICATION

 Solar Panel:-

Figure D.1 Working of Solar Panel A solar panel is a set of solar photovoltaic
(PV) modules electrically connected and mounted on
a supporting structure. A PV module is a packaged,
Specification :- connected assembly of solar cells.
VI.Executed steps
Rated Power 20 W

Open Circuit 43.2 V


Voltage Solar panel
Stepper motor

Short Circuit 0.63 Amp. Gear box

Current

Maximum 34 V Battery

Power Voltage

Maximum 0.58 Amp.


Power Current Figure D.2 Design of demo solar car

Table D.1 specification of solar panel

In our project we are attempting to build a


solar car that converts the sunlight into electrical
energy. The main component to build a solar car is

[59]
 Battery :- An electric battery is a device consisting of one
or more electrochemical cell that convert stored chemical Specification :-
energy into electrical energy. Each cell contains a positive
Nominal Voltage 12 V
terminal, or cathode , and a negative terminal, or anode
. Electrolytes allow ions to move between the electrodes and Nominal Capacity 9 Ah
terminals, which allows current to flow out of the battery to
Maximum 13.50-13.80 v
perform work. Charging Voltage

Maximum 2.25 A
Charging Current
Voltage 12 V dc
Table
Table D.3 specification of Stepper motor
Current 1.68 Amp D.2
specif
Specification :- 4.4 kg-cm icatio
REFERENCES
n of
Battery [1] Xie Keming, Liu Daliang, Xie, Jun. A fuzzy-
logic-based traffic light control system. 10th
 Stepper Motor : International Symposium on Integrated
Circuits, Devices and Systems, ISIC-2004:
A stepper motor (or step motor) is a brushless Integrated Systems on Silicon - Proceedings,
DC electric motor that divides a full rotation into a 2004, pp. 341-344
number of equal steps. The motor's position can then [2] Maman Avishay, Goldschlager Sharon,
be commanded to move and hold at one of these Miller Hillel. Reusable on-chip system level
steps without any feedback sensor (an open-loop verification for simulation emulation and
controller), as long as the motor is carefully sized to silicon. 11th Annual IEEE International
the application. High-Level Design Validation and Test
Workshop, 2006, pp. 119-126
[3] Joseph M. Kahn and John R. Barry (1997).
"Wireless Infrared Communications."
Proceedings of the IEEE.
[4] A.A. M.A. A. M. HIRARI. Et al. (2006),
“Design and Development of sensor based
traffic light system.” American Journal of
Applied Sciences 3: 1745, 1749.

Figure D.3 Stepper motor [5] Jaksic, Nebojsa. Improving self-efficacy in


engineering students using PLC based traffic
light experiments.2002 ASEE Annual
Conference Proceedings, 2002, pp. 13409-
134

[60]
[61]
62
GUJARAT TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
CERTIFICATE FOR COMPLETION OF ALL ACTIVITIES AT ONLINE PROJECT PORTAL
B.E. SEMESTER VIII, ACADEMIC YEAR 2014-2015

Date of certificate generation : 20 May 2015 (11:38)

This is to certify that, Jitendrakumar Natvarlal Patel (Enrolment


Number-120753109011) working on project entitled with
Development And Performance Analysis Of Solar Car from
Electrical Engineering department of Shankersinh Vaghela
Bapu Institute Of Technology, Unava, Gandhinagar had
submitted following details at online project portal.

Submitted Four Periodic Progress Reports (PPR) Completed

Business Model Canvas (Image) Uploaded

Business Model Canvas (Report) Uploaded

Patent Drafting Exercise (PDE) Completed

Final Project Report Uploaded

Plagiarism Search Report Uploaded

Name of Student : Jitendrakumar Natvarlal Patel Name of Guide : Mr. Ashfaq Mustufa Qureshi

Signature of Student : *Signature of Guide :

Disclaimer :
This is a computer generated copy and does not indicate that your data has been evaluated. This is the receipt
that GTU has received a copy of the data that you have uploaded and submitted as your project work.

*Guide has to sign the certificate, Only if all above activities has been Completed / Uploaded.
GUJARAT TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
CERTIFICATE FOR COMPLETION OF ALL ACTIVITIES AT ONLINE PROJECT PORTAL
B.E. SEMESTER VIII, ACADEMIC YEAR 2014-2015

Date of certificate generation : 20 May 2015 (12:37)

This is to certify that, Saurabh Ashokbhai Patel (Enrolment


Number-110750109038) working on project entitled with
Development And Performance Analysis Of Solar Car from
Electrical Engineering department of Shankersinh Vaghela
Bapu Institute Of Technology, Unava, Gandhinagar had
submitted following details at online project portal.

Submitted Five Periodic Progress Reports (PPR) Completed

Business Model Canvas (Image) Uploaded

Business Model Canvas (Report) Uploaded

Patent Drafting Exercise (PDE) Completed

Final Project Report Uploaded

Plagiarism Search Report Uploaded

Name of Student : Saurabh Ashokbhai Patel Name of Guide : Mr. Ashfaq Mustufa Qureshi

Signature of Student : *Signature of Guide :

Disclaimer :
This is a computer generated copy and does not indicate that your data has been evaluated. This is the receipt
that GTU has received a copy of the data that you have uploaded and submitted as your project work.

*Guide has to sign the certificate, Only if all above activities has been Completed / Uploaded.
GUJARAT TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
CERTIFICATE FOR COMPLETION OF ALL ACTIVITIES AT ONLINE PROJECT PORTAL
B.E. SEMESTER VIII, ACADEMIC YEAR 2014-2015

Date of certificate generation : 20 May 2015 (11:46)

This is to certify that, Gaurav Ambalal Chaudhary (Enrolment


Number-110750109049) working on project entitled with
Development And Performance Analysis Of Solar Car from
Electrical Engineering department of Shankersinh Vaghela
Bapu Institute Of Technology, Unava, Gandhinagar had
submitted following details at online project portal.

Submitted Four Periodic Progress Reports (PPR) Completed

Business Model Canvas (Image) Uploaded

Business Model Canvas (Report) Uploaded

Patent Drafting Exercise (PDE) Completed

Final Project Report Uploaded

Plagiarism Search Report Uploaded

Name of Student : Gaurav Ambalal Chaudhary Name of Guide : Mr. Ashfaq Mustufa Qureshi

Signature of Student : *Signature of Guide :

Disclaimer :
This is a computer generated copy and does not indicate that your data has been evaluated. This is the receipt
that GTU has received a copy of the data that you have uploaded and submitted as your project work.

*Guide has to sign the certificate, Only if all above activities has been Completed / Uploaded.