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# Cambridge International AS Level Physics Answers to end-of-chapter questions

Chapter 11 b i Current = 0.72 – 0.48 = 0.24 A [1]
ii 0.24 A [1]
1 a i When p.d. = 2.0 V, current I = 0.25 A [1] c Resistance of the thermistor decreases [1]
2.0 = 8 Ω
so resistance R = 0.25 [1] so circuit resistance decreases [1]
ii resistance = 5.0
0.5 = 10 Ω [2] so ammeter reading increases. [1]
b A filament lamp [1]
6 a The atoms vibrate more [1]
2 a Graph showing a current greater than zero at so their effective cross-sectional area
0 °C, with a positive gradient; it may or may increases and there are more collisions. [1]
not be linear. [1] b Cross-sectional area [1]
b Use the graph as a calibration graph. Keeping Material of which the wire is made [1]
the voltage across the thermistor constant, 1.5 
c i R = VI = 0.24 [1]
place the thermistor at the point where the = 6.25 Ω [1]
temperature is to be measured. [1] ρl –8
1.69 × 10  × 5
Read the current and convert to a ii R = A so A = 6.25 [1]
–8 2
temperature using the calibration graph. [1] A = 1.35 × 10  m [1]
d =   4A –4
π = 1.3 × 10  m[1]
3 a The number density of free electrons is very
high in copper. [1] d Less area open to air [1]
In silicon the number density of free Less cooling, therefore temperature rises. [1]
electrons is very much less (a million times). Current decreases. [1]
[1] ρl ρl
7 a
R = A and A = thickness × width, so t = Rw  [1]
b In a metallic conductor such as copper, the 3 –3

## vibration of the ions increases their effective t =  2.3 × 106 × 36 × 10–3  [1]

1.1 × 10  × 32 × 10
cross-section to the migrating electrons. [1] = 0.0023 m (2.3 mm) [1]
The higher the temperature, the more b I = RV = 12 6  [1]
vibration, hence the greater the effective 1.1 × 10
cross-section and the more collisions there = 1.1 × 10–5 A [1]
are between the electrons and the ions. This c Resistance would decrease. [1]
reduces the mean drift velocity. [1] Current would increase. [1]
In semiconductors, thermal energy gives Silicon wafer would get even hotter, with
electrons sufficient energy to escape from avalanche effect creating more and more
their parent atoms. [1] charge carriers. [1]
The greater the temperature, the greater the
number of electrons that can escape, so the 8 a i

## more charge carriers there are and the lower

the resistance. [1]
ρl –8
4 a Resistance = A = 1.3 × 10  × 1.5 –6  [1]
0.008 × 10 ii
= 2.4 Ω [1]
A –9
b l = R ρ = 30 × 8.0 × 10
–8  [1] b Diode has very low resistance (in forward
1.3 × 10 direction), so large current. [1]
= 18.5 ≈ 18 m [1]
Heating would lead to damage to diode /
5 a
V = IR = 0.48 × 5 [1] supply.[1]
= 2.4 V [1] c R = VI = 1.4 –3  [1]
20 × 10
= 70 Ω [1]

## Cambridge International AS and A Level Physics © Cambridge University Press 2014

Cambridge International AS Level Physics Answers to end-of-chapter questions

## 9 a The current through the resistor is

proportional to the p.d. across it [1]
at constant temperature. [1]
b i Straight horizontal line (assuming V is on
x-axis)[1]
ii As above, but at a higher resistance. [1]
iii Both at a (slightly) higher level. [1]
c R ∝ length:
2 × length → 2 × resistance [1]
1
R ∝ cross-sectional area:
2 × diameter → 4 × area → 14  × resistance [1]
1 1
new resistance = 2 × 4  = 2  × old resistance [1]