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SECTION 3

COMBUSTIÓN

Combustión Calculations Using the Combustión of Natural Gas in a


Million BTU (1.055 MJ) Method 3.1 Furnace 3.11
Savings Produced by Preheating Combustión of Wood Fuel in a
Combustión Air 3.4 Furnace 3.17
Combustión of Goal Fuel in a Molal Method of Combustión
Furnace 3.5 Analysis 3.19
Percent Excess Air While Burning Final Combustión Products Temperature
Coke 3.8 Estímate 3.22
Combustión of Fuel Oil in a
Furnace 3.9

COMBUSTIÓN CALCULATIONS USING THE


MILLION BTU (T.055MJ) METHOD

The energy absorbed by a steam boiler fired by natural gas is 100-million Btu/hr
(29.3 MW). Boiler efficiency on a higher heating valué (HHV) basis is 83 percent.
If 15 percent excess air is used, determine the total air and fiue-gas quantities
produced. The approximate HHV of the natural gas is 23,000 Btu/lb (53,590 kJ/
kg). Ambient air temperature is 80°F (26.7°C) and relative humidity is 65 percent.
How can quick estimates be made of air and flue-gas quantities in boiler operations
when the fuel analysis is not known?

Calculation Procedure:
1. Determine the energy input to the boiler
The million Btu (1.055MJ) method combustión calculations is a quick way of
estimating air and flue-gas quantities generated in boiler and heater operations when
the ultímate fuel analysis is not available and all the engineer is interested in is
good estimates. Air and flue-gas quantities determined may be used to calcúlate
the size of fans, ducts, stacks, etc.
It can be shown through comprehensive calculations that each fuel such as coal,
oil, natural gas, bagasse, blast-furnace gas, etc. requires a certain amount of dry
stochiometric air per million Btu (1.055MJ) fired on an HHV basis and that this
quantity does not vary much with the fuel analysis. The listing below gives the dry
air required per million Btu (1.055MJ) of fuel fired on an HHV basis for various
fuels.
3.2 POWER GENERATION

Combustión Constants for Fuels


Constant, Ib dry air per
Fuel million Btu (kg/MW)
Blast furnace gas 575 (890.95)
Bagasse 650 (1007.2)
Carbón monoxide gas 670 (1038.2)
Refinery and oil gas 720(1115.6)
Natural gas 730(1131.1)
Furnace oil and lignite 745-750(1154.4-1162.1)
Bituminous coals 760(1177.6)
Anthracite coal 780 (1208.6)
Coke 800 (1239.5)

To determine the energy input to the boiler, use the relation Qf = (Q^/^, where
energy input by the fuel, Btu/hr (W); Qs = energy absorbed by the steam in the
boiler, Btu/Hr (W); Qs = energy absorbed by the steam, Btu/hr (W); Eh = effi-
ciency of the boiler on an HHV basis. Substituting for this boiler, Qf = 1007
0.83 = 120.48 million Btu/hr on an HHV basis (35.16 MW).
2. Estímate the quantíty of dry air required by this boiler
The total air required 7a = (<2f)(Fuel constant from list above). For natural gas
Ta = (120.48)(730) = 87,950 Ib/hr (39,929 kg/hr). With 15 percent excess air
total air required = (1.15X87,950) = 101,142.5 Ib/hr (45,918.7 kg/hr).
3. Compute the quantity of wet air required
Air has some moisture because of its relative humidity. Estímate the amount of
moisture in dry air in M Ib/Ib (kg/kg) from, M = 0.622 (/?w)/(14.7 - pw), where
0.622 is the ratio of the molecular weights of water vapor and dry air; pw = partial
pressure of water vapor in the air, psia (kPa) = saturated vapor pressure (SVP) X
relative humidity expressed as a decimal; 14.7 = atmospheric pressure of air at sea
level (101.3 kPa). From the steam tables, at 80 F (26.7 C), SVP = 0.5069 psia
(3.49 kPa). Substituting, M = 0.622 (0.5069 x 0.65)7(14.7 - [0.5069 x 0.65]) =
0.01425 Ib of moisture/lb of dry air (0.01425 kg/kg).
The total flow rate of the wet air then = 1.0142 (101,142.5) = 102,578.7 Ib/hr
(46,570.7 kg/hr). To convert to a volumetric-flow basis, recall that the density of
air at 80°F (26.7°C) and 14.7 psia (101.3 kPa) = 39/(480 + 80) = 0.0722 Ib/cu
ft (1.155 kg/cu m). In this relation, 39 = a constant and the temperature of the air
is converted to degrees Rankine. Henee, the volumetric flow = 102,578.7/(60
min/hr)(0.0722) = 23,679.3 actual cfm (670.1 cm m/min).
4. Estímate the rate offuelfiring and flue-gas produced
The rate of fuel firing = Q f /HHV - (120.48 X 106)/23,000 = 5238 Ib/hr (2378
kg/hr). Henee, the total flue gas produced = 5238 + 102,578 = 107,816 Ib/hr
(48,948 kg/hr).
If the temperature of the flue gas is 400°F (204.4°C) (a typical valué for a natural-
gas fired boiler), then the density, as in Step 3 is: 39/(400 + 460) = 0.04535 Ib/
cu ft (0.7256 kg/cu m). Henee, the volumetric flow = (107,816)7(60 min/hr X
0.04535) = 39,623.7 actual cfm (1121.3 cu m/min).
Related Calculatíons. Detailed combustión caículations based on actual fuel
gas analysis can be performed to verify the constants given in the list above. For
example, let us say that the natural-gas analysis was: Methane = 83.4 percent;
Ethane =15.8 percent; Nitrogen = 0.8 percent by volume. First convert the analysis
to a percent weight basis:
COMBUSTIÓN 3.3

Fuel Percent volume MW Col. 2 X Col. 3 Percent weight


Methane 83.4 16 1334.4 72.89
Ethane 15.8 30 474 25.89
Nitrogen 0.8 28 22.4 1.22

Note that the percent weight in the above list is calculated after obtaining the sum
under Column 2 X Column 3. Thus, the percent methane = (1334.4)7(1334.4 +
474 + 22.4) = 72.89 percent.
From a standard reference, such as Ganapathy, Steam Plant Calculations Man-
ual Marcel Dekker, Inc., find the combustión constants, K, for various fuels and
use'them thus: For the air required for combustión, Ac = (K for methane) (percent
hv weight methane from above list) + (K for ethane) (percent by weight ethane);
orAc = (17.265)(0.7289) + (16.119)(0.2589) = 16.76 Ib/Ib (16.76 kg/kg),
Next, compute the higher heating valué of the fuel (HHV) using the air constants
from the same reference mentioned above. Or HHV = (heat of combustión for
methane)(percent by weight methane) + (heat of combustión of ethane)(percent by
weight ethane) = (23,879)(0.7289) + (22,320)(0.2589) = 23,184 Btu/lb (54,018.7
U/kg). Then, the amount of fuel equivalen! to 1,000,000 Btu (1,055,000 kJ) =
(l,(X)b,000)/23,184 = 43.1 Ib (19.56 kg), which requires, as computed above,
(43.1)(16.76) = 722.3 Ib dry air (327.9 kg), which agrees closely with the valué
given in Step 1, above.
Similarly, if the fuel were 100 percent methane, using the steps given above,
and suitable constants from the same reference work, the air required for combus-
tión is 17.265 Ib/Ib (7.838 kg/kg) of fuel. HHV - 23,879 Btu/lb (55,638 kJ/kg).
Henee, the fuel in 1,000,000 Btu (1,055,000 kJ) - (1,000,000)/(23,879) = 41.88
Ib (19.01 kg). Then, the dry air per million Btu (1.055 kg) fired = (17.265)
(41.88) = 723 Ib (328.3 kg).
Likewise, for propane, using the same procedure, 1 Ib (0.454 kg) requires 15.703
Ib (7.129 kg) air and 1 million Btu (1,055,000 kJ) has (1,000,000)/21,661 =46.17
Ib (20.95 kg) fuel. Then, 1 million Btu (1,055,000 kJ) requires (15.703)(46.17) =
725 Ib (329.2 kg) air. This general approach can be used for various fuel oils and
solid fuels—coal, coke, etc.
Good estimates of excess air used in combustión processes may be obtained if
the oxygen and nitrogen in dry flue gases are measured. Knowledge of excess air
amounts helps in performing detailed combustión and boiler efficiency calculations.
Percent excess air, EA = 100(02-CO2)/ [0.264 X W2-(<92-CO/2)], where O2 =
oxygen in the dry flue gas, percent volume; CO = percent volume carbón mon-
oxide; N2 = percent volume nitrogen.
You can also estimate excess air from oxygen readings. Use the relation, EA =
(constant from list below)((6>2)/(21-02).
Constants for Excess Air Calculations
Fuel Constant
Carbón 100
Hydrogen 80
Carbón monoxide 121
Sulfur 100
Methane 90
Oil 94.5
Coal 97
Blast furnace gas 223
Coke oven gas 89.3
3.4 POWER GENERATION

If the percent volume of oxygen measured is 3 on a dry basis in a natural-gas


(methane) fired boiler, the excess air, EA = (90)[37(21-3)] = 1 5 percent.
This procedure is the work of V. Ganapathy, Heat Transfer Specialist, ABCO
Industries.

SAVINGS PRODUCED BY PREHEATING


COMBUSTIÓN AIR

A 20,000 sq ft (1858 sq m) building has a calculated total seasonal heating load


of 2,534,440 MBH (thousand Btu) (2674 MJ). The stack temperature is 600°F
(316°C) and the boiler efficiency is calculated to be 75 percent. Fuel oil burned has
a higher heating valué of 140,000 Btu/gal (39,018 MJ/L). A preheater can be
purchased and installed to reduce the breeching discharge combustión air temper-
ature by 250°F (139°C) to 350°F (177°C) and provide the burner with preheated
air. How much fuel oil will be saved? What will be the monetary saving if fuel oil
is priced at 80 cents per gallón?

Calculation Procedure:
1. Compute the total combustión air required by this boiler
A general rule used by design engineers is that 1 cu ft (0.0283 cu m) of combustión
air is required for each 100 Btu (105.5 J) released during combustión. To compute
the combustión air required, use the relation CA = H/100 X Boiler efficiency,
expressed as a decimal, where CA = annual volume of combustión air, cu ft (cu
m); H = total seasonal heating load, Btu/yr (kJ/yr). Substituting for this boiler,
CA = (2,534,400)(1000)/100 X 0.75 = 33,792,533 cu ft/yr (956.329 cu m).

2. Calcúlate the annual energy savings


The energy savings, ES = (stack temperature reduction, deg F)(cu ft air per
yr)(0.018), where the constant 0.018 is the specific heat of air. Substituting, ES =
(250)(33,792,533)(0.018) = 152,066,399 Btu/yr (160,430 kJ/yr).
With a boiler efficiency of 75 percent, each gallón of oil releases 0.75 X 140,000
Btu/gal = 105,000 Btu (110.8 jk). Henee, the fuel saved, FS = ES/usuable heat
in fuel, Btu/gal. Or, FS = 152,066,399/105,000 = 1448.3 gal/yr (5.48 cu m/yr).
With fuel oil at $1.10 per gallón, the monetary savings will be $1.10 (1448.3) =
$1593.13. If the preheater cost $6000, the simple payoff time would be $6000/
1593.13 = 3.77 years.
Related Calculations. Use this procedure to determine the potential savings
for burning any type of fuel—coal, oil, natural gas, landfill gas, catalytic cracker
offgas, hydrogen purge gas, bagesse, sugar cañe, etc. Other rules of thumb used by
designéis to estimate the amount of combustión air required for various fuels are:
10 cu ft of air (0.283 cu m) per 1 cu ft (0.0283 cu m) of natural gas; 1300 cu ft
of air (36.8 cu m) per gal (0.003785 cu m) of No. 2 fuel oil; 1450 cu ft of air (41
cu m) per gal of No. 5 fuel oil; 1500 cu ft of air (42.5 cu m) per gal of No. 6 fuel
oil. These valúes agree with that used in the above computation—i.e. 100 cu ft per
100 Btu of 140,000 Btu per gal oil = 140,000/100 - 1400 cu ft per gal (39.6 cu
m/0.003785 cu m).
This procedure is the work of Jerome F. Mueller, RE. of Mueller Engineering
Corp.
COMBUSTIÓN 3.5

COMBUSTIÓN OF COAL FUEL IN A FURNACE

A. coal has the following ultímate analysis (or percent by weight): C = 0.8339;
H = 0.0456; O2 = 0.0505; N2 = 0.0103; S = 0.0064; ash = 0.0533; total = 1.000
Ib (0.45 kg). This coal is burned in a steam-boiler furnace. Determine the weight
of air required for theoretically perfect combustión, the weight of gas formed per
pound (kilogram) of coal burned, and the volume of flue gas, at the boiler exit
temperature of 600°F (316°C) per pound (kilogram) of coal burned; air required
with 20 percent excess air, and the volume of gas formed with this excess; the CO2
percentage in the flue gas on a dry and wet basis.

Calculation Procedure:
1. Compute the weight of oxygen required per pound of coal
To find the weight of oxygen required for theoretically perfect combustión of coal,
set up the following tabulation, based on the ultimate analysis of the coal:

Molecular-weight Ib (kg) 02
Element X ratio = required

C; 0.8339 X 32/12 = 2.2237 (1.009)


H,; 0.0456 X 16/2 0.3648(0.165)
O*; 0.0505; decreases external O2 required -0.0505 (0.023)
N.,; 0.0103 is inert in combustión and is
ignored
S; 0.0064 X 32/32 0.0064 (0.003)
Ash 0.0533 is inert in combustión and is
ignored
Total 1.0000
Ib (kg) external O2 per Ib (kg) fuel 2.5444(1.154)

Note that of the total oxygen needed for combustión, 0.0505 Ib (0.023 kg), is
furnished by the fuel itself and is assumed to reduce the total external oxygen
required by the amount of oxygen present in the fuel. The molecular-weight ratio
is obtained from the equation for the chemical reaction of the element with oxygen
in combustión. Thus, for carbón C + O2 —»• CO2, or 12 + 32 = 44, where 12 and
32 are the molecular weights of C and O2, respectively.

2. Compute the weight of air required for perfect combustión


Air at sea level is a mechanical mixture of various gases, principally 23.2 percent
oxygen and 76.8 percent nitrogen by weight. The nitrogen associated with the
2.5444 Ib (1.154 kg) of oxygen required per pound (kilogram) of coal burned in
this furnace is the product of the ratio of the nitrogen and oxygen weights in the
air and 2.5444, or (2.5444)(0.768/0.232) - 8.4228 Ib (3.820 kg). Then the weight
of air required for perfect combustión of 1 Ib (0.45 kg) of coal = sum of nitrogen
and oxygen required = 8.4228 + 2.5444 = 10.9672 Ib (4.975 kg) of air per pound
(kilogram) of coal burned.

3. Compute the weight of the producís of combustión


Find the producís of combustión by addition:
3.6 POWER GENERATION

Products of
combustión

Fuel constituents Oxygen Ib

C; 0.8339 -t- 2.2237 -* CO2 — 3.0576 1.387


H; 0.0456 4- 0.3648 — H2O = 0.4104 0.186
O2; 0.0505; this is not a product of combustión
N2; 0.0103; inert but passes through furnace = 0.0103 0.005
S; 0.0064 4- 0.0064
— S02
0.0128 0.006
Outside nitrogen from step 2 = N2 8.4228 3.820
Ib (kg) of flue gas per Ib' (kg) of coal burned = 11.9139 5.404

4. Conven the flue-gas weight to volume


Use Avogadro's law, which states that under the same conditions of pressure and
temperature, 1 mol (the molecular weight of a gas expressed in Ib) of any gas will
occupy the same volume.
At 14.7 lb/in2 (abs) (101.3 kPa) and 32 °F (0°C), 1 mol of any gas occupies
359 ft3 (10.2 m3). The volume per pound of any gas at these conditions can be
found by dividing 359 by the molecular weight of the gas and correcting for the
gas temperature by multiplying the volume by the ratio of the absolute flue-gas
temperature and the atmospheric temperature. To change the weight analysis (step
3) of the products of combustión to volumetric analysis, set up the calculation thus:

Weight Volume at
Molecular Temperature
Products Ib kg weight correction 600°F, ft 3 316°C, m3

CO, 3.0576 1.3869 44 (359/44)(3.0576)(2.15) 53.6 1.518


H2Ó 0.4104 0. 1862 18 (359/18)(0.4104)(2.15) 17.6 0.498
Total N, 8,4331 3.8252 28 (359/28X8.4331X2.15) 232.5 6.584
SO, 0.0128 0.0058 64 (359/64X0.0128X2.15) 0.15 0.004
ft (m 3 ) pf flue gas per Ib (kg) of coal burned 303.85 8.604

In this calculation, the temperature correction factor 2.15 = absolute flue-gas tem-
perature, °R/absolute atmospheric temperature, °R = (600 + 460)7(32 + 460). The
total weight of N2 in the flue gas is the sum of the N2 in the combustión air and
the fuel, or 8.4228 + 0.0103 = 8.4331 Ib (3.8252 kg). The valué is used in com-
puting the flue-gas volume.

5. Compute the CO2 contení of the flue gas


The volume of CO2 in the products of combustión at 600°F (316°C) is 53.6 ft3
(1.158 m3), as computed in step 4; and the total volume of the combustión products
is 303.85 ft3 (8.604 m3). Therefore, the percent CO2 on a wet basis (i.e., including
the moisture in the combustión products) = ft3 CO2/total ft3 = 53.6/303.85 =
0.1764, or 17.64 percent.
The percent CO2 on a dry, or Orsat, basis is found in the same manner, except
that the weight of H2O in the products of combustión, 17.6 Ib (7.83 kg) from step
4, is subtracted from the total gas weight. Or, percent CO2, dry, or Orsat basis =
(53.6)/(303.85 - 17.6) = 0.1872, or 18.72 percent.
COMBUSTIÓN 3.7

6. Compute the air required with the stated excess flow


With 20 percent excess air, the air flow required = (0.20 + 1.00)(air flow with no
excess) = 1.20 (10.9672) = 13.1606 Ib (5.970 kg) of air per pound (kilogram) of
coal burned. The air flow with no excess is obtained from step 2.

7. Compute the weight of the producís of combustión


The excess air passes through the furnace without taking part in the combustión
and increases the weight of the producís of combustión per pound (kilbgram) of
coal burned. Therefore, the weight of the producís of combustión is the sum of the
weight of the combustión producís without the excess air and the product of (per-
cent excess air)(air for perfect combustión, Ib); or, given the weights from steps 3
and 2, respectively, = 11.9139 + (0.20)(10.9672) = 14.1073 Ib (6.399 kg) of gas
per pound (kilogram) of coal burned with 20 percent excess air.

8. Compute the volunte of the combustión producís and the percent CO2
The volume of the excess air in the producís of combustión is obtained by con-
verting from the weight analysis to the volumetric analysis and correcting for tem-
perature as in step 4, using the air weight from step 2 for perfect combustión and
the excess-air percentage, or (10.9672)(0.20)(359/28.95)(2.15) = 58.5 ft3 (1.656
ni3). In this calculation the valué 28.95 is the molecular weight of air. The total
volume of the producís of combustión is the sum of the column for perfect com-
bustión, step 4, and the excess-air volume, above, or 303.85 + 58.5 = 362.35 ft3
(10.261 m3).
By using the procedure in step 5, íhe percení CO2, wel basis = 53.6/362.35 =
14.8 percení. The percení CO2, dry basis = 53.87(362.35 - 17.6) = 15.6 percent
Related Calculations. Use íhe melhod given here when making combustión
calculations for any lype of coal—bituminous, semibiluminous, lignile, anlhracile,
cannel, or cooking—from any coal field in íhe world used in any lype of
furnace—boiler, healer, process, or waste-heat. When íhe air used for combustión
conlains moislure, as is usually Irue, Ihis moislure is added lo íhe combuslion-
forrned moislure appearing in íhe producís of combustión. Thus, for 80°F (26.7°C)
air of 60 percení relalive humidily, íhe moislure contení is 0.013 Ib/Ib (0.006 kg/
kg) of dry air. This amounl appears in íhe producís of combustión for each pound
of air used and is a commonly assumed slandard in combustión calculations.
Fossil-fuel-fired power plañís reléase sulfur emissions lo íhe almosphere. In lurn,
Ihis produces sulfates, which are íhe key ingredienl in acid rain. The federal Clean
Air Acl regúlales sulfur dioxide emissions from power plañís. Electric ulililies
which burn high-sulfur coal are Ihoughl lo produce some 35 percení of almospheric
emissions of sulfur dioxide in íhe United States.
Sulfur dioxide emissions by power plañís have declined some 30 percení since
passage of íhe Clean Air Acl in 1970, and a nolable decline in acid rain has been
noled al a number of lesl siles. In 1990 íhe Acid Rain Conlrol Program was crealed
by amendmenls lo íhe Clean Air Acl. This program further reduces íhe allowable
sulfur dioxide emissions from power plañís, sleel milis, and olher industrial facil-
ilies.
The same acl requires reduclion in nilrogen oxide emissions from power plañís
and industrial facililies, so designers musí keep Ihis requiremenl in mind when
designing new and replacemenl facililies of all lypes which use fossil fuels.
Coal usage in sleam plañís is increasing Ihroughoul íhe world. An excellenl
example of Ihis is íhe New England Electric System (NEES). This utility has been
converting boiler unils from oil lo coal firing. Their conversions have saved cus-
3.8 POWER GENERATION

Stack Boom Boom conveyor Lin conveyor


V S

—_, \ conveyor Cross conveyor


Coal bunker (boüer)

Cosí bunker (boiler)


Boom conveyor Un conveyor
9

Stem thruster Hopper andgate Hold conveyor Bow thruster


FIGURE 1 Energy Independence transports coal to central stations.
(Power.)

tomers more than $60-million annually by displacing about 14-million bbl (2.2
million cu m) of oil per year.
To reduce costs, the company built the first coal-fired collier, Fig. 1, in more
than 50 years in the United States, and assumed responsibility for coal transpor-
tation to its stations, cutting operating costs by more than $2-million per year. The
collier makes economic sense because the utility stations in the system are not
accessible by rail. This ship, the Energy Independence, has been an economic suc-
cess for the utility. Measuring 665 ft (203 m) long by 95 ft (29 m) wide by 56 ft
(17 m) deep with a 34-ft (10-m) draft, the vessel discharges a typical 40,000-ton
load in 12 hours.
Data in these two paragraphs and Fig. 1 are from Power magazine.

PERCENT EXCESS AIR WHILE BURNING COAL

A certain coal has the following composition by weight percentages: carbón 75.09,
nitrogen 1.56, ash 3.38, hydrogen, 5.72, oxygen 13.82, sulfur 0.43. When burned
in an actual furnace, measurements showed that there was 8.93 percent combustible
in the ash pit refuse and the following Orsat analysis in percentages was obtained:
carbón dioxide 14.2, oxygen 4.7, carbón monoxide 0.3. If it can be assumed that
there was no combustible in the flue gas other that the carbón monoxide reported,
calcúlate the percentage of excess air used.

Calculation Procedure:
1. Compute the amount of theoretical air required per lbm (kg) of coal
Theoretical air required per pound (kilogram) of coal, wta = 11.5C' + 34.5[H'2 -
O'2/8)] + 4.32S', where C', H'2, O'2, and S' represent the percentages by weight,
expressed as decimal fractions, of carbón, hydrogen, oxygen, and sulfur, respec-
COMBUSTIÓN 3.9

tively- Thus, wta = 11.5(0.7509) + 34.5[0.0572 - (0.1382/8)] + 4.32(0.0043) =


10 03 Ib (4.55 kg) of air per Ib (kg) of coal. The ash and nitrogen are inert and do
not burn.
2 Compute the correction factor for combustible in the ash
The correction factor for combustible in the ash, Cl — (wfCf — wrCr)/(wf X 100),
where the amount of niel, wf = 1 Ib (0.45 kg) of coal; percent by weight, expressed
as a decimal fraction, of carbón in the coal, Cf = 75.09; percent by weight of the
ash and refuse in the coal, wr = 0.0338; percent by weight of combustible in the
ash) C[ = 8.93. Henee, Q = [(1 X 75.09) - (0.0338 X 8.93)]/(l X 100) = 0.748.

3 Compute the amount of dry flue gas produced per Ib (kg) of coal
The Ib (kg) of dry flue gas per Ib (kg) of coal, wdg - C¿4CQ2 + O2 + 704)/
[3(CO2 + CO)], where the Orsat analysis percentages are for carbón dioxide, CO2
= 14 2; oxygen, O2 = 4.7; carbón monoxide, CO = 0.3. Henee, wdg = 0.748 x
[(4 X 14.2) + 4.7- + 704)]/[3(14.2 + 0.3)] = 13.16 Ib/Ib (5.97 kg/kg).

4. Compute the amount of dry air supplied per Ib (kg) of coal


The Ib (kg) of dry air supplied per Ib (kg) of coal, wda = wdg - Cl + 8[H'2 -
(0'2/8)] - (N' 2 /N), where the percentage by weight of nitrogen in the fuel, N' 2 =
1.56, and "atmospheric nitrogen" in the supply air, N2 = 0.768; other valúes are
as given or calculated. Then, wda = 13.16 - 0.748 + 8[0.0572 - (0.1382/8)] -
(0.0156/0.768) = 12.65 Ib/Ib (5.74 kg/kg).

5. Compute the percent of excess air used


Percent excess air = (wda - wta)/wta = (12.65 - 10.03)710.03 = 0.261, or 26.1
percent.
Related Calculations. The percentage by weight of nitrogen in "atmospheric
air" in step 4 appears in Principies of Engineering Thermodynamics, 2nd edition,
by Kiefer et al., John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

COMBUSTIÓN OF FUEL OIL IN A FURNACE

A fuel oil has the following ultimate analysis: C = 0.8543; H2 = 0.1131; O2 =


0.0270; N2 = 0.0022; S = 0.0034; total = 1.0000. This fuel oil is burned in a
steam-boiler furnace. Determine the weight of air required for theoretically perfect
combustión, the weight of gas formed per pound (kilogram) of oil burned, and the
volume of flue gas, at the boiler exit temperature of 600°F (316°C), per pound
(kilogram) of oil burned; the air required with 20 percent excess air, and the volume
of gas formed with this excess; the CO2 percentage in the flue gas on a dry and
wet basis.

Calculation Procedure:
1. Compute the weight of oxygen required per pound (kilogram) of oil
The same general steps as given in the previous calculation procedure will be
followed. Consult that procedure for a complete explanation of each step.
Using the molecular weight of each element, we find

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