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(Autonomous Institution Affiliated to VTU, Belagavi)

Earthquake Resistant Building

Seminar/Assignment Report
Submitted by:

ECE N Section

Submitted to:
Assistant Professor
R V College of Engineering, Bengaluru-59

Certified that the Assignment topic “EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT
BUILDING” is made by Rakshak Udupa T S, Shashank C Mouli, Shashank K
Holla, Nikhil Chandra B S, Kevin Mathew who are bonafide students of R V
College of Engineering, Bengaluru in partial fulfilment of the award of
seminar/assignment marks for the II semester academic year 2017-18 in “Elements
of Civil Engineering”. It is certified that all corrections/ suggestions indicated for
the internal assessment have been incorporated in the report, and a soft copy is
deposited in the department library. The seminar/assignment report has been
approved as it satisfies the academic requirement in respect of the work prescribed
by the institution for the said course.
Marks awarded:

Cos CO1 CO2 CO3 CO4 Total

Max. Marks 03 02 01 04 10
Marks .obtd.

Signature of the Staff-in-charge


Sl No Title
1 Earthquake Resistant Buildings
1.1Base Isolation

2 Roofs
2.1 Pitch Roofs
2.2 Couple Roofs
3 Windows
3.1 Gable Windows
3.2 Front-Gabled and Side-
3.3 Roof Windows

4 Our Model

1 Earthquake Resistance

Earthquake-resistant structures are structures designed to protect buildings from

earthquakes. While no structure can be entirely immune to damage from earthquakes, the
goal of earthquake-resistant construction is to erect structures that fare better during
seismic activity than their conventional counterparts. According to building codes,
earthquake-resistant structures are intended to withstand the largest earthquake of a certain
probability that is likely to occur at their location.

This means the loss of life should be minimized by preventing collapse of the
buildings for rare earthquakes while the loss of the functionality should be limited for more
frequent ones.
Currently, there are several design philosophies in earthquake engineering, making use of
experimental results, computer simulations and observations from past earthquakes to offer the
required performance for the seismic threat at the site of interest.

Figure 1.1

These range from appropriately sizing the structure to be strong and ductile enough to
survive the shaking with an acceptable damage, to equipping it with base isolation or using
structural vibration control technologies to minimize any forces and deformations. If a building's
foundation sits on soft or filled-in soil, the whole building may fail in an earthquake regardless of
the advanced engineering techniques employed.

Assuming, however, that the soil beneath a structure is firm and solid, engineers can greatly
improve how the building-foundation system will respond to seismic waves. For example,
earthquakes often knock buildings from their foundations.

One solution involves tying the foundation to the building so the whole structure moves
as a unit. Another solution -- known as base isolation -- involves floating a building above its
foundation on a system of bearings, springs or padded cylinders.

Engineers use a variety of bearing pad designs, but they often choose lead-rubber bearings,
which contain a solid lead core wrapped in alternating layers of rubber and steel. The lead core
makes the bearing stiff and strong in the vertical direction, while the rubber and steel bands make
the bearing flexible in the horizontal direction.

Bearings attach to the building and foundation via steel plates and then, when an earthquake
hits, allow the foundation to move without moving the structure above it. As a result, the building's
horizontal acceleration is reduced and suffers far less deformation and damage.

1.1 Base Isolation

Base isolation, also known as seismic base isolation or base isolation system, is one of the most
popular means of protecting a structure against earthquake forces.It is a collection of structural
elements which should substantially decouple a superstructure from its substructure resting on a
shaking ground thus protecting a building or non-building structure's integrity.

Base isolation system consists of isolation units with or without isolation components, where:
1. Isolation units are the basic elements of a base isolation system which are intended to
provide the aforementioned decoupling effect to a building or non-building structure.

Figure 1.2 Base Isolation

2. Isolation components are the connections between isolation units and their parts having no
decoupling effect of their own.
Isolation units could consist of shear or sliding units.

Figure 1.3 Spring Foundation

The base-isolation techniques prove to be very effective for the seismic protection of new
framed buildings as well as for the seismic retrofitting of existing ones. Design guidelines have
been developed in many countries with a high seismic hazard (e.g., United States, Japan, New
Zealand) and, lately, suitable code provisions have been drafted also in Europe. However, under
near-fault ground motions, even base-isolated structures designed according to recent seismic
codes can undergo unforeseen structural damages.

Figure 1.4 Base Isolation in our model

2 Roofs

The roof is one of the most important components for building the house. It stands strong
environmental factors, like rain, heat, and cold. Roofs are the shelter a house signifies. Depending
on their general shapes, roofs can be categorized into two predominant categories.
One is the flat roof, and the other is the sloping roof.

Flat roofs are common in commercial buildings and are easy to construct, compared to the
sloped ones. Sloping roofs are a common feature for residential properties. They also do not let
water or other dirt accumulate by allowing them to simply slide off. The houses with sloping roofs
can take different shapes. The sloping roof house images from across the world show a variety of
styles of sloping roofs. The variety of shapes can be used, depending on the needs of the house-
owners and their aesthetic preferences.

Figure 2.1 Terminology of parts of Roof

2.1 Pitch Roof

• The most important part of any roof construction is the pitch of the roof. The pitch of the
roof can be understood as the degree of the slant of the roof.
• It is, essentially, the slope of the roof. Even flat roofs have the concept of a pitch.
Technically, the pitch of a roof is expressed as 6/12, 6:12, 6 in 12 or even 6 over 12. To
understand the notation, get a grasp of the concept of the pitch.
• The pitch of a roof is mathematically defined as the rise over run. Basically, if the roof
moved 12 inches horizontally inwards, and if the resulting increase in the height of the roof
was 6 inches, then the pitch of the roof would be 6/12.
• The normal roof pitch for a house varies between 4/12 and 9/12. Anything below 4/12 is
low slope, and anything above 9/12 is a steep slope. If roofs have a pitch lower than 2/12,
then they are considered flat.

2.2 Couple Roof

Figure 2.2 Couple Roof

• Couple Roof is the simplest form of pitched roof. In this roof construction, the
common rafters slope upwards from the opposite walls and they meet on a ridge piece in
the middle.
• This form of pitched roof is a pair of rafters acting like two arms pinned at the top and
hence it is called couple roof.
• The roof we have used in our model is a couple roof.

3. Windows

• Windows are provided to give light and ventilation. They are located at a height of 0.75
m to 0.90 m from the floor level. In hot and humid regions, the window area should be 15 to 20
per cent of the floor area.
• It is preferable to have at least two openings in two different walls.
Another thumb rule used to determine the size of the window opening is for every 30 m3 inside
volume there should be at least 1 m2 window opening.

Various windows used may be classified on the basis of materials used, types of shutters, types of
openings of shutters and the position of windows.
Timber, steel and aluminium are commonly used to make window frames. Shutters of windows
may be panelled, glazed or louvered. Window shutters may be fixed, centrally pivoted, sliding
type or double hung.

Depending upon the position of windows, they may be classified as:

⦁ Casement windows are common type of windows, provided in the outer walls. They are
provided over 50 to 75 mm sill concrete at a height of 750 to 900 mm from floor level.
⦁ Bay windows are provided on the projected portion of walls.
⦁ Corner windows are provided in the corner of a room. They need heavy lintels. Corner
post of window should be strong enough to take load due to deflection of lintel and
impact load from the shutters.
⦁ Clear storey windows are provided when the height of the room is much more than
adjacent room/varandah. It is provided between the gap of low height room and the top
of room with greater height.
⦁ Gable windows are provided in the gable portion of the building. They are required in
the stair cases or in the halls with gable walls.
⦁ Sky light windows are provided on a sloping roof. It projects above the top sloping
surface. The common rafters are to be trimmed suitably.
⦁ Dormer windows are vertical windows on the sloping roof.
⦁ Ventilators are provided close to roof level or over the door frames. They help in
pushing out exhaust air. They may be provided with two split and separated glasses or
with hung shutters.

3.1 Gable Windows

A gable is the generally triangular portion of a wall between the edges of intersecting roof pitches.
The shape of the gable and how it is detailed depends on the structural system used, which reflects
climate, material availability, and aesthetic concerns. A gable wall or gable end more commonly
refers to the entire wall, including the gable and the wall below it.

Figure 3.1 Gable Windows

A variation of the gable is a crow-stepped gable, which has a stairstep design to accomplish the
sloping portion.
Gable ends of more recent buildings are often treated in the
same way as the Classic pediment form. But unlike Classical
structures, which operate through tribulation, the gable ends of
many buildings are bearing-wall structures. Thus, the detailing
can be ambiguous or misleading.
Gable style is also used in the design of fabric
structures, with varying degree sloped roofs, dependent on how
much snowfall is expected.
Sharp gable roofs are a characteristic of the Gothic and classical
Greek styles of architecture.
The opposite or inverted form of a gable roof is a V-roof or
butterfly roof.

Figure 3.2 Crow-Stepped gable

3.2 Front-Gabled and Side-Gabled

While a front-gabled building faces the street with its gable, a side-gabled building faces it
with its cullis, meaning the ridge is parallel to the street. The terms are used in architecture and
city planning to determine a building in its urban situation.
Front-gabled buildings are considered typical for German city streets in the edieval gothic period,
while later Renaissance buildings, influenced by Italian architecture are often side-gabled. In
America, front-gabled houses, such as the Gable front house, were popular primarily between the
early 19th century and 1920.

Figure 3.3 Front and Side Gabled face

3.3 Roof Windows

A Roof window is an outward opening window that is incorporated as part of the design of a roof.
Often confused with a skylight, a roof window differs in a few basic ways. A roof window is often
a good option when there is a desire to allow both light and fresh air into the space.

Figure 3.4 Roof Window

A roof window tends to be larger than a skylight, making it possible to enjoy a wider view of the
sky overhead. In addition, skylights are usually stationary; that is, they cannot be opened and
closed. With some designs of a roof window, it is possible to retract a portion of the glazed panes
to allow in fresh air as well as enjoy the natural light.

Figure 3.5 Skylight Window

4.Our Model
Inco-operating some of these ideas, we have managed to build a model to depict these
concepts. Our model is majorly concerned with the earthquake resistance aspect. We have
used 5 springs to form a base isolated foundation over which we have built a two storied
building. The building includes
• Base isolated spring foundation
• Slopping roof
• Veranda
• Chimney
• Roof Window
• Gable Window

Materials used:
1. Cardboard Box
2. Paints
3. Handmade Paper
4. Springs
5. OHP Paper
Figure 4.1 Front view

Our model view:

Figure 4.0-2 Side View Figure 4.0-1 Top View


[1]Earthquake-Resistant Structures: Design, Build, and Retrofit, Mohiuddin Ali Khan

[3] https://shedwindowsandmore.com/windows/decorative-gable-windows/
[4] Earthquake Resistant Design Of Structures, Pankaj Agrawal, Manish Shrikhande