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C HAPTER
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2
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NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIB

What Matters in a
© Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
Student-Centered Approach?
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Laura L. Harris, PhD, ATC, LAT
Jill Clutter, PhD, CHES
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© Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning,


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Introduction NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIB
In Chapter 1, you were introduced to the relationship between teaching
and learning. You learned that a good educator focuses on student learn-
ing first and foremost. To meet this end, you must appreciate how indi-
© Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
viduals learn and mature throughout their careers, both as students and
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as professionals. This chapter will help you understand and apply existing
cognitive educational theories and learning style inventories to your class-
rooms, laboratories, and clinical settings to create a student- or learner-
centered environment.
Jones & Bartlett Learning,
In rather LLC
simplistic terms, one might©think
Jones & Bartlett
of the difference Learning,
between LLC
OT FOR SALE OReducator-centered
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being a
shift from how to teach toward how to foster learning. Student- or learner-
centered instruction has been defined simply as “an instructional approach
in which the students influence the content, activities, materials, and pace
© Jones
of learning.” & Bartlett
1 As such, Learning,
this educational LLC
approach necessitates some changes© Jones & Bartlett Learning,
in your NOT
role asFOR SALE
educator andOR
in the balance of power in the classroom.2NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIB
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Although you will need to create conditions conducive to learner-centered
education, students will also need to take a more active role in their own
learning, accepting responsibility for their own growth and educational
© Jones & Bartlett
maturity. Learning,
Consequently, withLLC © Jones
the student- or learner-centered & Bartlett Learning, LLC
approach,
NOT FOR it is SALE ORthat
imperative DISTRIBUTION NOT
we, as educators, understand cognitive FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION
development,
as well as learning style preferences, inherent in college students to better
facilitate student growth and maturity.

25
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26 C HAPTER 2 W HAT M ATTERS IN A S TUDENT-C ENTERED A PPROACH ?
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The telephone Although higher levels of cognitive development are desired, it is impor-
book is full of tant to recognize up front that a low level of development in a student does
© Jones
facts, but it doesn’t & Bartlett
not imply a lack of Learning, LLCsame is true for learning styles.
intelligence. The © Jones & Bartlett Learning,
Intellec-
contain a single NOT tual
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ability OR DISTRIBUTION
is something NOT FOR
that an educator cannot change; in education, SALE OR DISTRIB
intel-
idea.
ligence is not the focus. Instead, the focus in education should be to
Mortimer Adler
challenge students to develop more advanced levels of cognitive develop-
ment and an ability to use all learning styles as outlined in the following
© Jones & Bartlettsections.
Learning, LLC failure to achieve higher
Nonetheless, © Jones
levels of&development
Bartlett Learning,
and LLC
NOT FOR SALE OR balanced learning styles does not assign a student
DISTRIBUTION NOT FORto a lower
SALElevelOR
of intel-
DISTRIBUTION
ligence. As an educator, you are encouraged to think of developmental
levels and learning styles as being independent of intelligence. As an
example, young children entering kindergarten may be highly intelligent as
assessed by an intelligence©test;
Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC however,
Jones their developmental
& Bartlett Learning, levels
LLC and
OT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION learning styles will be immature at age 5 years. This
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dren’s lack of compromise, resistance to change, limited vocabulary, and
inability to solve complex problems. The goal of education is to challenge
these students throughout the next 13 to 17 years such that they develop
learning strategies that will encourage compromise, flexibility, improved
© Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning,
communication, and enhanced problem-solving skills. As an educator, your
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ability to foster and facilitate such learning is grounded in an under-
standing of cognitive development.
Throughout this chapter, several theories will be presented as the foun-
dation for creating a student- or learner-centered environment. For the novice
© Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
educator, the thought of having to learn and use each of these theories is
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viewed as not only a complicated task, but also a daunting endeavor. It is not
our purpose to overwhelm you, but rather to give you a foundation upon
which to ground your teaching in purpose. We will begin with a descrip-
tion of the domains of learning (cognitive, psychomotor, and affective).
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Bloom’s Taxonomy will be©introduced
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a tool forLearning, LLC
creating increasingly
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difficult learning and assessment SALE
strategies. ORweDISTRIBUTION
Next will present two of
the more commonly referenced cognitive theories, Perry’s Schemes of Intel-
lectual and Ethical Development as well as Kitchner and King’s Reflective
Judgment Model. We will also investigate learning styles (Felder’s Dimen-
© Jones
sions &of Bartlett
Learning Learning, LLC Pharmacists’ Inventory
Style and Austin’s © of
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Learning
NOT Styles)
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and generational influences on learning. In the end, NOT
our FOR
journeySALE OR DISTRIB
through educational theories will conclude with a combined model refer-
encing all previously presented theories and models (Perry’s Schemes,
Kitchner and King’s Model, Felder and Austin’s Learning Styles, and gen-
© Jones & Bartletterational
Learning, LLC This integrated model
influences). © should
Jonessimplify
& Bartlett Learning, LLC
the material
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facilitate your initial attempts at creating student-SALE OR DISTRIBUTION
or learner-cen-
tered environment. Our promise is that the more you use and base your
teachings in these theories and models, the more unconsciously you will
root your teaching in a student- or learner-centered purpose.
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W H AT A R E THE TYPES OR DOMAINS OF LEARNING? 27
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To continue your exploration of effective teaching, this chapter will


provide you with the tools to answer the following questions:
© Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning,
• How do people learn in the cognitive, psychomotor, and affective
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domains?
• How can an educator successfully implement Bloom’s Taxonomy to
develop a teaching strategy that fosters learning?
• What are some teaching techniques that you can use to challenge
© Jones & Bartlett
students inLearning, LLC and psychomotor domains?
cognitive, affective, © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
NOT FOR• SALEWhat are the available theoretical frameworks andNOT
OR DISTRIBUTION FOR SALE
inventories that OR DISTRIBUTION
educators can use to challenge students’ maturity and coping strate-
gies throughout their young adulthood?
• What are the available theoretical models and tools that educators
Jones & Bartlett Learning,
can useLLC © Jones
to familiarize themselves with & Bartlett
individual Learning, LLC
learning styles?
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• How do generational differences impact teaching and learning? DISTRIBUTION
• How will you apply the various frameworks and inventories pre-
sented in this chapter to your teaching?
Consider the following scenario: You are a newly employed clinical faculty
© Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning,
member with a practice in adult internal medicine. As you enter the
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first week of your academic position, you feel ready for the challenges
that await you. Your residency experience provided you with the
opportunity to gain solid clinical practice skills, and you are confident
that you can teach students how to care for patients with hypertension,
© Jones &diabetes,
BartlettandLearning, LLC disease states. During ©
other common theJones & Bartlett
first week of Learning, LLC
NOT FOR your
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employment, you attend your first department of pharmacy prac- SALE OR DISTRIBUTION
tice and school of pharmacy faculty meetings. During these meetings,
you are introduced to terms such as pedagogy, andragogy, domains of
learning, and assessment strategies. As you exit these meetings, you
Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
realize that © Jones
you have a lot to learn. But where do&you
Bartlett Learning,
begin? How will LLC
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you facilitate learning in others if youNOT FOR
have SALE
so much to OR
learnDISTRIBUTION
about
learning?

What Are the Types or Domains of Learning?


© Jones
In Chapter & Bartlett
1, learning Learning,
was described as bothLLC
a process and an outcome.© Jones & Bartlett Learning,
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In this chapter, we will begin by expanding the discussion of learning asNOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIB
a process. Before you can facilitate your students’ learning, you first need
to understand how people learn and the different domains of learning. As
a reminder, the constructivism theory supports that learning is an inter-
© Jones
nal&process
Bartlett in Learning, LLC develop their own mental
which individuals © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
scaffolding
NOT FOR
fromSALE
whichOR theyDISTRIBUTION
construct new knowledge. Based onNOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION
this educational
theory, learning is not achieved through transmission of knowledge from
teacher to learner. Rather, as illustrated in Figure 2–1, it is acquired through
a complex internalized process in which the learner uses previously learned
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28 C HAPTER 2 W HAT M ATTERS IN A S TUDENT-C ENTERED A PPROACH ?
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Personal experience

© Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning,


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Experiential
© Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC learning
© Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
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Clinical experience Classroom/lab

Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC Figure ©


2–1Jones & Bartlett
Influences Learning,
LLC
on Learning
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material, formulated ideas, and perceptions based on life experiences to


build new knowledge. With this understanding, we can now discuss the
different
© Jones domains Learning,
& Bartlett or types of learning.
LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning,
In 1956, Bloom
NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION outlined three domains of learning: cognitive,
NOT FOR psy-
SALE OR DISTRIB
3
chomotor, and affective. Each domain describes a category of learning.
Although most individuals initially associate learning with the acquisition
of facts or knowledge, not all learning is cognitive. Additional types of
© Jones & Bartlettlearning involveLLC
Learning, the development of psychomotor
© Jonesskills
& (e.g., operating
Bartlett a
Learning, LLC
motor vehicle, dancing, playing an instrument) and values or attitudes
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(e.g., expressing empathy, caring, healthy skepticism). Bloom outlined the
three domains of learning using classification systems referred to as tax-
onomies.3 These taxonomies describe the different levels of progressive
development within each domain of learning. Table 2–1 outlines the stages
Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones
of increasingly complex learning & Bartlett
within Learning,
each domain. LLC tax-
Today, these
OT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION onomies are used by many NOT FOR SALE
professional OR DISTRIBUTION
educators, including pharmacy
faculty, to define learning outcomes and educational competencies required
of an entry-level professional. Chapter 4 will provide more detail in using
Bloom’s Taxonomy to measure educational outcomes.
© Jones To &comprehend
Bartlett Learning,
each domain LLC
and apply them to your©teachingJonesand& Bartlett Learning,
NOT learning,
FOR SALE let us OR DISTRIBUTION
assume NOT students
that you will be responsible for teaching FOR SALE OR DISTRIB
how to obtain and interpret blood pressure readings in your experiential
setting. During your pharmacy residency, you became quite proficient in
this area of practice; however, how will you teach students using a student-
© Jones & BartlettorLearning, LLCapproach such that they©acquire
learner-centered Jones this&skill?
Bartlett Learning, LLC
What type(s)
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of learning does this activity entail? Before undertaking this educationalDISTRIBUTION
activity, you need to consider the nature and extent of the student’s past
experiences with blood pressure determinations. What perceptions, under-
standings, and opinions does each student currently have based on his or
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W H AT A R E THE TYPES OR DOMAINS OF LEARNING? 29
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Table 2–1 The Three Domains of Learning


Stage of © Jones
& Bartlett
DifficultyCognitive*Learning, Psychomotor
LLC †
© Jones
Affective & Bartlett Learning,
1NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION
Remember Imitation NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIB
Receiving
(recall, recognize) (modeling) (listen, ask, reply)
2 Understand Manipulation Responding
(interpret, explain) (instruct, practice) (participate)
3 Apply Precision Valuing
© Jones & Bartlett Learning,
(execute,LLC
implement) © Jones (share
(continual refinement) & Bartlett
beliefs) Learning, LLC
NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION
4 Analyze
(organize, attribute)
Articulation NOT FOROrganizing
(coordination of skills)
SALE OR DISTRIBUTION
(professional ethics)
5 Create Naturalization Internalizing values
(generate, plan) (unconscious use of skills) (self-reliant, cooperative)
6 Evaluate
(critique)
Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
OT FOR SALE OR*TheDISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION
revised domain is presented. The original domain was defined as knowledge, comparison, application, analysis,
synthesis, and evaluation.
† The psychomotor domain was never completed by Bloom. Several different versions of the psychomotor domain
exist. The one presented here was developed by Simpson.4

© Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning,


her individualized
NOT FORexperiences,
SALE OR and how will your educational activityNOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIB
DISTRIBUTION
allow for students to build on their learning? In addition, prior to expos-
ing students to this activity, you need to consider the following three
questions: What foundational or factual knowledge do your students
© Jones need to have about
& Bartlett blood pressure
Learning, LLC to obtain and interpret measurements
© Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
NOT FOR accurately?
SALE What are the steps that a student must follow
OR DISTRIBUTION NOT to obtain and OR DISTRIBUTION
FOR SALE
assess blood pressure correctly? What information must a student be able
to interpret to assess blood pressure accurately? Keep these questions in
mind as we discuss each of Bloom’s three domains.
The cognitive domain pertains to the acquisition of knowledge and
Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC3 The knowledge domain
intellectual skills. © Jones & Bartlett
is comprised Learning, LLC
of six increasingly
OT FOR SALE ORdifficult
DISTRIBUTION
stages of cognition: (1) rememberingNOT FOR SALE
or recalling OR DISTRIBUTION
newly learned infor-
mation, (2) understanding and interpreting new information, (3) applying
or implementing new information into healthcare scenarios, (4) analyzing
or organizing information in a usable format separate from memorization,
© Jones
(5) creating & Bartlett
or planning Learning,
health care based uponLLCnewly learned information,© Jones & Bartlett Learning,
and (6) NOT FOR
evaluating or SALE OR
critiquing newly learned information based upon evi-NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIB
DISTRIBUTION
dence. (The latter two stages of Bloom’s Taxonomy have been reversed by
Simpson,4 who argues that creating something original, built on previous
stages of the domain, is the highest level of cognitive complexity.) This
© Jones & Bartlett
taxonomy Learning,system
or classification LLC reminds us that cognitive © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
development
NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR
is progressive and occurs in stages starting with basic recall or memoriza- SALE OR DISTRIBUTION
tion and culminating in the ability to critique and evaluate newly learned
information. The first question we referenced in the previous paragraph
regarding foundational knowledge about blood pressure, and the third
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© Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC. NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION.
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30 C HAPTER 2 W HAT M ATTERS IN A S TUDENT-C ENTERED A PPROACH ?
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question addressing the interpretation of blood pressure measurements,


fit into the cognitive domain. To meet the educational outcomes of cor-
© Jones
rectly&obtaining
BartlettandLearning,
interpretingLLC blood pressure measurements, © Jones & Bartlett Learning,
your stu-
NOT dents
FOR willSALE needOR display comprehension of basic factualNOT
to DISTRIBUTION FOR SALE OR DISTRIB
information
about blood pressure. Competency-based objectives reflecting cognitive
development would include (1) to define a normal blood pressure, (2) to
compare and contrast blood pressure measurements based on the stages of
© Jones & BartletthighLearning, LLC and (3) to determine©the
blood pressure, Jones & Bartlett
goal blood Learning,
pressures for LLC
NOT FOR SALE OR patients with diabetes, heart disease, and NOT
DISTRIBUTION end-stage
FORrenalSALEdisease.
OR NowDISTRIBUTION
that you appreciate the cognitive domain of learning, the next step would
be to design a student- or learner-centered teaching approach to ensure
that your student can meet these learning objectives.
Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLCThe psychomotor domain © of learning
Jones & involves
Bartlett theLearning,
necessary motor
LLCskills
that are required of a pharmacist. 3,4 It is composed of five increasingly diffi-
OT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION
cult stages of learning: (1) imitating or modeling new skills, (2) manipulating
or practicing newly learned skills, (3) gaining precision or continually refining
newly acquired skills, (4) coordinating newly acquired skills with past skills,
and (5)
© Jones & unconsciously using newlyLLC
Bartlett Learning, acquired skills. The second©question
Jonesthat & Bartlett Learning,
we previously posed, which addressed the steps necessary for assessing blood
NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIB
pressure accurately, fits into the psychomotor domain. Competency-based
objectives specific to development in the psychomotor domain include
the ability to accurately position the blood pressure cuff, position the stetho-
scope, and inflate the cuff. As you will learn in subsequent chapters, teaching
© Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
within the psychomotor domain largely involves modeling and coaching
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on the part of the educator rather than lecturing or other forms of didactic
instruction. In Chapters 8 and 9, teaching in a laboratory setting and the
roles of modeling and coaching are described as they relate to experiential
education.
Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLCThe final domain, affective, © Jones & Bartlett
also has five Learning,
stages. Each LLC
stage describes a level
OT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION of development and learning NOT FOR
relative to SALE OR
attitudes, DISTRIBUTION
values, and beliefs.3 The
progressive stages within the affective domain are (1) receiving, listening,
and posing questions about new information, (2) responding and partici-
pating in the use of newly learned information, (3) valuing information or
© Jones & Bartlett
beginning to buildLearning, LLCor opinion, (4) organizing
a personal belief © Jones & Bartlett Learning,
values and
NOT beliefs,
FOR SALE and (5)OR DISTRIBUTION
internalizing personal values and beliefs. When NOTanalyzing
FOR SALE OR DISTRIB
the affective domain, it should be obvious that we failed to ask a question
about affective learning. This is a common mistake for many educators.
In many ways, the affective domain is the most important domain because
© Jones & Bartlettit Learning, LLC educators encourage their
is this area where © Jones
students & to
Bartlett
become Learning,
reflec- LLC
NOT FOR SALE OR tiveDISTRIBUTION
practitioners. This is where discussions NOT FOR SALE
and purposeful OR about
questions DISTRIBUTION
healthcare beliefs and values aimed at a student’s personal and professional
development can be very important. It is also where the value of the clinical
experience becomes the obvious complement to didactic and more
Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
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W H AT A R E THE TYPES OR DOMAINS OF LEARNING? 31
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traditional modes of education. Based on the blood pressure educational


activity, a question specific to affective learning is, What student or
patient © Jones &
behaviors, Bartlett
values, Learning,
or attitudes may LLC
influence the acquisition of© Jones & Bartlett Learning,
accurateNOT
bloodFOR SALE
pressure OR DISTRIBUTION
readings? NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIB

Reflective Exercise
© Jones In
& Table 2–2, Learning,
Bartlett the three domains
LLCof learning are applied to©theJones
educational
& Bartlett Learning, LLC
activity of obtaining and interpreting blood pressure measurements. After
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reviewing this table, please attempt to apply this concept to the design of
one of your educational activities. Are you developing a new lecture in
medicinal chemistry, pharmacology, or therapeutics? Are you designing a
new laboratory exercise or experiential activity? Which domains of learning
will be addressed
Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC in your educational session? What learning
© Jones objectives
& Bartlett will
Learning, LLC
you attempt to achieve in your session?
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Reflective Exercise
Your educational
© Jones activity:
& Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning,
NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIB

© Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION

Table 2–2 Applying the Domains of Learning: Blood Pressure Assessments


Cognitive Domain Psychomotor Domain Affective Domain
Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
1. Define normal blood pressure. 1. Appropriately position the 1. Appropriately introduce
OT FOR SALE OR2.DISTRIBUTION
Compare and contrast blood patientNOT FOR
to obtain SALE OR
an accu- DISTRIBUTION
yourself to the patient.
pressure measurements based rate reading. 2. Identify whether the
upon the stages of high blood 2. Appropriately position the patient has concerns or
pressure. blood pressure cuff and apprehensions regarding
3. Identify the goal blood pressure stethoscope. the procedure.
© Jones
for a patient &risk
with no Bartlett
fac- Learning,
3. LLC
Choose the appropriate cuff 3. Explain the© Jones
process & Bartlett Learning,
of blood
NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION
tors, with diabetes, with heart size for children, normal-sized pressure NOT FORthe
determination to SALE OR DISTRIB
disease, or with end-stage renal adults, and patients with patient.
disease. obesity. 4. Display empathy.
4. List factors, both drug and 4. Inflate the cuff to appropri-
nondrug related, that can ate levels of pressure.
affect the measurement of
© Jones & Bartlett
blood pressure.Learning, LLC diastolic readings accurately.
5. Record the systolic and © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC

NOT FOR SALE OR


5. Determine DISTRIBUTION
the number of NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION
blood pressure readings neces-
sary to assess blood pressure
accurately.

Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
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32 C HAPTER 2 W HAT M ATTERS IN A S TUDENT-C ENTERED A PPROACH ?
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Cognitive Domain Psychomotor Domain Affective Domain

© Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning,


NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIB

© Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION

Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
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© Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning,


NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIB
Using the Learning Taxonomies in
a Student-Centered Approach
In pharmacy education, students must progressively develop within each
© Jones & BartlettofLearning,
the three domains of learning to meet the educational outcomes of an
LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
entry-level PharmD program. Beginning with the lower level of the cog-
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nitive domain, remembering and understanding are usually the appropriate
levels of complexity for initial educational encounters with students. Dur-
ing the early professional years, educational objectives aimed toward recalling,
recognizing, interpreting, classifying, comparing, explaining, and sum-
Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & are
marizing blood pressure measurements Bartlett Learning,
appropriate. LLC
However, as the
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experience of the student increases within a specific course and through-
out the professional program, so should the difficulty of the learning objec-
tives and tasks. Asking the student to apply, analyze, evaluate, and create are
ways to challenge higher-order thinking skills within the cognitive domain.
© Jones & Bartlett
Examples Learning,
of higher-level LLC
cognitive © Jones
learning include evaluating a series &ofBartlett Learning,
NOT blood
FOR pressure
SALE OR DISTRIBUTION
measurements pre- and post-drug therapyNOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIB
or designing
appropriate antihypertensive drug regimens for a patient with diabetes or
heart disease who is receiving other medications for chronic conditions.
This same concept can be applied to increase the level of learning with-
© Jones & BartlettinLearning, LLC
both the psychomotor © Jones
and affective domains. Basic&psychomotor
Bartlett Learning,
skills LLC
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would start with the student simply modeling the steps to assess blood pres-
sure and should advance by not only independently performing the steps,
but also obtaining the correct measurements. Affectively, an educator would
begin by asking students to identify their patients’ healthcare beliefs about
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© Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC. NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION.
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HOW DO WE LEARN? 33
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high blood pressure and advance to more abstract discussions or reflective


writing assignments where students are asked to describe how patients
© Jones
should be informed&ofBartlett Learning,
their blood LLC
pressure measurements. Another exam-© Jones & Bartlett Learning,
NOT
ple would be FOR SALE
to identify ORand
when how to discuss hypertension with aNOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIB
DISTRIBUTION
patient or how to appropriately discuss weight loss or medication options.

© Jones Reflective
& Bartlett Learning,
Exercise LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
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Revisit the previous exercise. What levels of learning (e.g., lower levels such
as recalling or modeling, or higher levels such as creating or naturalizing)
were conveyed in each of the domains? Do your learning objectives address
a wide range of levels of learning? Most important, are the levels of learning
Jones & Bartlett Learning,
appropriate?LLC
Were the students previously©exposed
Jonesto&this Bartlett Learning,
educational area LLC
or activity, or are you initially exposing them to this content or skill area?
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Revise your educational plan accordingly.

How Do We Learn?
© Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning,
Now thatNOT youFOR
are aware
SALE of the
ORdomains or types of learning, it is impor-NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIB
DISTRIBUTION
tant to know how students learn. Cognitive theories are an excellent tool
to describe how learning occurs. These theories are focused on how indi-
viduals form cognitive structures to construct meaning in their worlds. In
© Jones essence, cognitive
& Bartlett theories describe
Learning, LLC how students think © and the changes
Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
that will ultimately occur in their reasoning. For an educator, cognitive the-
NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION
ories can provide a theoretical model upon which to challenge the cogni-
Higher cognitive
tive and psychomotor domains and evaluate the advancing complexity of development does
students’ cognitive structures. Good educators continually walk the line not equate to higher
between teaching to students’ current cognitive developmental level and intelligence.
Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC growth to the next©level
challenging students’ Jones & Bartlett
of cognitive Learning, LLC
development.
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Perry’s Schemes of Intellectual and Ethical Development
Facilitating the development of sound clinical judgment and decision
making in pharmacy students is a common challenge to all pharmacy
© Jones
educators. Students&often
Bartlett Learning,
seem locked in the LLC
black and white of pharma-© Jones & Bartlett Learning,
NOT
cy practice andFOR
have SALE OR
difficulty accepting the shades of gray. As educators,NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIB
DISTRIBUTION
how can we identify the stage of learning in our students so we can facil-
itate this transition from black and white reasoning to acceptance of the
shades of gray? Perry’s Schemes of Intellectual and Ethical Development
© Jones is & Bartletttheory
a cognitive Learning, LLCexplain the progressive©development
that helps Jones & Bartlett
of Learning, LLC
NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION
5 NOT
cognitive reasoning. This theory was developed based on information FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION
obtained through interviews with Harvard males beginning in 1955. 6

Although Perry’s theory appears to be a stage model, it is best to think of


the stages as categories that contain positions. The categories are static
Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
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© Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC. NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION.
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34 C HAPTER 2 W HAT M ATTERS IN A S TUDENT-C ENTERED A PPROACH ?
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stages that mark the cognitive complexity of an individual, but the posi-
tions connote a more transient process that allows one to see the evolu-
© Jones & and
tion of Bartlett Learning,
movement toward LLC © Jones
increasing cognitive complexity. & Bartlett Learning,
5,7 There

NOT are
FOR SALE
nine ORconveniently
positions DISTRIBUTION grouped into four categories.NOT FOR
Table SALE OR DISTRIB
2–3
outlines each category and corresponding position. 5

The first category is dualism, which comprises positions one and two.
Students who are in dualism believe that knowledge is absolute and that
© Jones & Bartletttheir
Learning,
worlds areLLC
dichotomous. At positions © oneJones
and two, & tasks
Bartlett Learning, LLC
that require
NOT FOR SALE OR thinking about more than one point of view
DISTRIBUTION NOTare FOR often confusing
SALE and
OR DISTRIBUTION
frustrating. Concepts that are explained by it depends or maybe are difficult
for these students to grasp. Dualistic students believe that authority fig-
ures (e.g., faculty and preceptors) hold all the answers. The second cate-
gory, multiplism, refers to© positions
Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC Jones &three and four.
Bartlett At these
Learning, LLCpoints,
OT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION students can recognize that multiple perspectives exist
NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION on any given issue,
thus it depends and maybe answers are tolerated but not completely com-
prehended. In multiplism, all opinions are equally valid, with the excep-
tion of that of authority figures, who are still believed to know the
absolute truth. Relativism is the third category and consists of positions
© Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning,
five and six, where students now realize that knowledge is contextual and
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relative. Analytical skills are developed, and judgments are possible. Com-
plex concepts that are defined by gray areas are now not only tolerated but
are comprehended. The fourth and final category is commitment in rela-
tivism, consisting of positions seven, eight, and nine. Students are now able
© Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
to make commitments to values, ideas, and behaviors as they explore to find
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their own truths. At this stage, students possess the ability for affective
learning as described in Bloom’s Taxonomy. Commitments are made, but
they are revised in light of new evidence and new choices. Students can

Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
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Table 2–3 Perry’s Schemes of Intellectual and Ethical Development
Categories Positions Description
Dualism 1⫹2 Knowledge is absolute
© Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC World is dichotomous© Jones & Bartlett Learning,
Multiplism 3⫹4 Recognizes multiple perspectives
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Authority holds truth
Relativism 5⫹6 Knowledge is contextual
Analytical skills exist
Commitment 7⫹8⫹9 Commit to values, ideas, and
behaviors through exploration
© Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC ©Knowledge
Jones & Bartlett
changes Learning, LLC
as evidence
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changes

Source: Adapted from Perry WG. Forms of Intellectual and Ethical Development in the College Years: A Scheme. Troy, MO: Holt,
Rinehart & Winston; 1970.

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© Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC. NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION.
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Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
HOW DO WE LEARN? 35
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accept that no one person ever has all the answers and that most knowl-
edge will continue to be molded and changed as their experiences change.
© Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning,
NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIB
Reflective Exercise
Think back on your own education. Identify an example to illustrate when
you were functioning in dualism, multiplism, and relativism. Next relate
© Jones Perry’s Schemes to a first-year pharmacy student versus a more advanced
& Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
student. What are the differences in their cognitive structures?
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Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
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Using Perry’s Theory in a Student-Centered Approach


As an educator,
© Jones it is& important to reflect andLLC
Bartlett Learning, connect your teaching and© Jones & Bartlett Learning,
learningNOTstrategies (e.g., Bloom’s
FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTIONTaxonomy) to theories like Perry’s toNOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIB
challenge students within the appropriate cognitive stages. For example,
teaching traditional college-aged freshmen and sophomores often requires
an educator to be comfortable with dualistic minds. Students early in
© Jones their collegiate careers,
& Bartlett Learning, especially
LLCthose who are just beginning to learn
© Jones & the
Bartlett Learning, LLC
foundational knowledge of their chosen professions, are incapable of see-
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ing complex or contextual discipline-specific knowledge. They must first
understand facts and concepts in black and white terms. This provides the
foundation for more complex knowledge to be introduced. A good edu-
cator will allow dualistic students the opportunity to gain confidence in
Jones & Bartlett Learning,
their budding LLCknowledge while periodically © Jones & Bartlett
challenging Learning,
the same stu- LLC
OT FOR SALE ORdents
DISTRIBUTION
to see emerging complexities. Take,NOT FOR SALE
for example, OR DISTRIBUTION
an advanced phar-
macy course designed to teach students how to select appropriate drug
therapies for chronic diseases. Earlier in the curriculum, these students
were taught the pharmacology and pharmacokinetic behaviors of antihy-
© Jones
pertensive & Bartlett
medications and theLearning, LLC of hypertension. Now© Jones & Bartlett Learning,
pathophysiology
you are NOT
buildingFOR SALE
on their OR DISTRIBUTION
foundational knowledge by teaching them howNOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIB
to select appropriate antihypertensive medications for actual patients with
a number of chronic conditions. When the students were introduced to
the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and
© Jones & Bartlett
Treatment Learning,
of High LLC (JNC 7) guidelines, you
Blood Pressure © Jones
must be & Bartlett Learning, LLC
aware
NOT FOR that they simply memorized the guidelines. Resultantly, they are not yet OR DISTRIBUTION
SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE
applying the guidelines to the care of specific patients. Using your knowl-
edge of Perry’s Schemes, you know that you would like to stretch them
into more multiplistic thinking. By designing your instruction to address
Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
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© Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC. NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION.
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36 C HAPTER 2 W HAT M ATTERS IN A S TUDENT-C ENTERED A PPROACH ?
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some of the more advanced levels of learning in Bloom’s cognitive and


psychomotor domains, you will be able to encourage students to move
© Jones
beyond & Bartlett
dualism toLearning,
multiplism. LLC
For example, because students © Jones
memorized & Bartlett Learning,
NOT the FORJNCSALE OR DISTRIBUTION
7 guidelines, they will have a tendency to follow NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIB
the guidelines
blindly. You can stretch these students into multiplism by discussing the
limitations to choosing hydrochlorothiazide as the preferred drug in all
patients despite the fact that the guidelines list it as the drug of first choice
© Jones & BartlettforLearning, LLC
hypertension. © Jones
This is an example of fostering & Bartlett
a movement fromLearning,
dual- LLC
NOT FOR SALE OR isticDISTRIBUTION
to multiplistic thinking. NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION
Kitchner and King’s Reflective Judgment Model
Kitchner and King’s Reflective Judgment Model can be used to identify
the extent to which a person
Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC ©has the ability
Jones to view aLearning,
& Bartlett problematicLLCsituation
and “bring critical judgment to bear on the problem.” 8 In the current cli-
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mate, one might think of this as the discerning process of critically evalu-
ating and using the evidence available for practice (i.e., evidence-based
medicine). As students mature in this process, they become more adept at
using&theBartlett
© Jones literatureLearning,
to inform and LLCjustify their practice. There
© is a recipro-
Jones & Bartlett Learning,
cal relationship between this developmental sequence and learning.
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Each of the seven stages of the Reflective Judgment Model (see Table 2–4)
includes assumptions about knowing and the “role of evidence, authority,
and interpretation in the formation of solutions to the problem.”8 The first
few stages of the model are mainly indicative of children and young ado-
© Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
lescents and are considered to be prereflective. Stage one represents a single
NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION
category belief system in very simplistic terms. Basically, seeing is believ-
ing. In stage two, while certainty in one answer is the predominant belief,
there is a more dualistic shift in emerging knowledge. This is similar to Perry’s
Scheme where there can be more than one answer, but only one of the two
Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
answers can be correct (i.e.,©right
Jones & Bartlett
answer and wrongLearning, LLCthree
answer).8 Stage
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Table 2–4 Kitchner and King’s Reflective Judgment Model


Categories Stages Description
© Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning,
1⫹2⫹3
Prereflective
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Knowledge is concrete
Knowledge is gained by direct
observation or through authorities
Quasi-reflective 4⫹5 Knowledge is uncertain
Knowledge is subjective
Reflective 6⫹7 Knowledge is constructed
© Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC ©Analytical
Jonesand & evaluative
Bartlettskills
Learning,
exist LLC
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Source: Adapted from Kitchner KS, King PM. The reflective judgment model: transforming assumptions about knowing.
In Arnold KD, King IC, eds. College Student Development and Academic Life. New York, NY: Garland Publishing Inc;
1997:141–159.

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© Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC. NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION.
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Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
HOW DO WE LEARN? 37
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builds on the dualistic notion but refines the categories to known and not
known at this time. There exists the faith that all questions and problems
are now©orJones
will be & BartlettatLearning,
answerable some time inLLC
the future. This stage may© Jones & Bartlett Learning,
NOTofFOR
be indicative manySALE OR DISTRIBUTION
early undergraduate students or professional studentsNOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIB
who are being introduced to new concepts.
The next two stages, considered to be quasi-reflective, venture beyond
the more concrete epistemology (way of knowing) into increasingly elabo-
© Jones rate&schema.
Bartlett Learning,
Students at stageLLC
four recognize that knowledge© Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
may be uncer-
NOT FOR tain SALE
and authorities may be lacking. There might not be one
OR DISTRIBUTION NOT right
FORanswer,
SALE OR DISTRIBUTION
and the process might be as important as the answer. This ability is usually
found in upperclassmen in college. As an educator, the use of case studies
that highlight ill-structured problems (i.e., real-world circumstances) is
useful at thisLLC
Jones & Bartlett Learning, stage. At stage five, students,©most typically
Jones graduate Learning,
& Bartlett students, LLC
recognize
OT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION that knowledge is contextual, but
NOT FOR SALE OR discern-
they may have trouble DISTRIBUTION
ing different interpretations of the evidence connected with a given prob-
lem. In other words, they will do a thorough literature review but are still
unable to distill the evidence into a judgment on the issue.
True reflective thinking does not occur until the sixth and seventh stages.
© Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning,
The ability to come to individual decisions is indicative of stage six, where
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a student can discern that “some perspectives, arguments, or points of view
may be evaluated as better than others.”8 Such abilities are generally found
in advanced graduate and professional students. In stage seven, which typi-
cally becomes more developed in the years beyond the age of the traditional
© Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
college student (e.g., 30s), people develop the ability to justify solutions to
NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION
problems based upon critical evaluation of the evidence and synthesis of
that evidence.

Using Kitchner and King’s Theory in


Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
a Student-Centered Approach © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
OT FOR SALE ORAs DISTRIBUTION
with Perry’s theory, the cognitive stageNOT FOR
is often SALE upon
dependent OR DISTRIBUTION
the age
of the student. For example, freshmen and sophomores are more often
experiencing the lower stages, and juniors and seniors are preoccupied with
the mid to upper stages. Professional students, such as those in doctor of
pharmacy © programs,
Jones &are Bartlett Learning,
mostly dealing with LLC
issues in the advanced stages© Jones & Bartlett Learning,
NOTageFOR
due to their (e.g.,SALE
22 to 30OR
years). Stage six is an example. At this pointNOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIB
DISTRIBUTION
pharmacy students are contemplating their practice as a professional. What
kind of pharmacist will I be? Who do I consider to be mentors? What the-
ories do I value most in pharmacy practice? As students begin to move into
© Jones the&later
Bartlett Learning,
stages of LLC
cognitive development (i.e., relativism ©
andJones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
commitment
NOT FOR SALE OR
to relativism), DISTRIBUTION
educators and mentors have an opportunityNOT FOR
to begin SALE OR DISTRIBUTION
to chal-
lenge students in a more affective realm. As skills or techniques are taught,
students should be challenged to think and reflect on how these skills and
techniques fit into their personal practice philosophies.
Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
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© Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC. NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION.
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Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
38 C HAPTER 2 W HAT M ATTERS IN A S TUDENT-C ENTERED A PPROACH ?
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Let us revisit the idea of teaching blood pressure assessments and choice
of antihypertensive medications. As with dualistic students, students who
© Jones & Bartlettwill
are prereflective Learning,
want to LLC
follow the JNC 7 guidelines © Jones & Bartlett Learning,
and select
NOT hydrochlorothiazide
FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR
without applying critical thought. However, SALE OR DISTRIB
quasi-
reflective students are able to analyze case studies and will begin to look at
mediating variables, such as patient comorbidities and drug interactions.
Keep in mind that these students still require careful questioning and direction
© Jones & BartlettinLearning, LLC the best medication for
correctly selecting © Jones & Bartlett
more complicated Learning, LLC
patients.
NOT FOR SALE OR NotDISTRIBUTION
until students are in a reflective stageNOT
do theyFORpossess
SALEthe OR
ability to
DISTRIBUTION
evaluate each patient individually and develop the best treatment option
while considering the JNC 7 guidelines, the patient’s history, and available
evidence.
Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLCAffective learning is also©evident
Jones in &
quasi-reflective and reflective
Bartlett Learning, LLC stages
OT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION when moral and ethical dilemmas are posed. Consider
NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION the example of the
controversial morning-after pill. Is this a medication that the student believes
in advocating or supporting? How will the student handle a situation
where such medication is dispensed by his or her employer, even when it
is against his or her personal beliefs? These are primary questions that are
© Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning,
key to developing the affective domain in students exhibiting more advanced
NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIB
developmental stages. Without an understanding and appreciation of edu-
cational theory, most educators are skilled only at educating and challeng-
ing cognitive and psychomotor aspects of students. Educational theory
affords educators the opportunity to challenge students beyond the cogni-
© Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
tive and psychomotor domains.
NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION

Reflective Exercise
Apply Kitchner and King’s theory to yourself. In what stage are you cur-
Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones
rently? In what stage are most & Bartlett Learning, LLC
of your students?
OT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION

© Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning,


NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIB

What Are Learning Styles?


A learning style is defined as an individual’s preferred method of interact-
© Jones & BartlettingLearning, LLC
or processing information. Each person©possesses
Jones his& Bartlett
or her ownLearning,
pref- LLC
NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR
erence for learning (e.g., visual or verbal learner). An easy way to DISTRIBUTION
conceptualize individual and differing learning styles is to think about
corrective eye wear as an analogy for learning style. Consider a student
who is farsighted. This student’s vision is limited to seeing far away
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© Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC. NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION.
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W H AT A R E L E A R N I N G S T Y L E S ? 39
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objects without correction. Likewise, a nearsighted student’s vision is lim-


ited as well, but it is limited in a different way. The nearsighted student
can only©see Jones
nearby&objects
Bartlett Learning,
without LLC
correction. With the appropriate cor-© Jones & Bartlett Learning,
NOT FOR
rective lenses, SALE OR
both students DISTRIBUTION
will be capable of seeing more clearly. How-NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIB
ever, if these two students were to swap their corrective lenses, they would
lose all clarity in their fields of vision. This is because each person sees best
when he or she is wearing his or her personal prescription for eye wear.
© Jones No&twoBartlett Learning,
individuals’ LLC (e.g., 20/15, 20/30) are
prescriptions © Jones
the same,&just
Bartlett Learning, LLC
NOT FOR like SALE
no two individuals’
OR DISTRIBUTIONlearning styles are the same. As NOT
an educator, rec-
FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION
ognizing learning styles allows us to see how our students see. If you want
to gain insight into differing learning styles, wear someone else’s correc-
tive lenses for an hour and evaluate the quality of your vision.
Learning LLC
Jones & Bartlett Learning, styles vary among both educators© Jonesand students. No two
& Bartlett indi-
Learning, LLC
viduals
OT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTIONever approach learning and processing information in the
NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION exact
same way; therefore, the idea that an educator can create one style of
teaching to reach all students is as irrational as thinking everyone has the
same prescription for corrective lenses. Instead, educators must vary their
styles in hopes that all students can see at several different points of an
© Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning,
educational exercise. There are numerous tools available to assist educa-
NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIB
tors in identifying their students’ learning styles. The Myers-Briggs Type
Indicator and Kolb Learning Style Inventory are two of the most com-
mon. Felder’s survey, Austin’s inventory, and Fleming’s VARK are exam-
ples of others. This chapter will only address Felder and Austin’s models.
© Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
This does not imply that they are the best; they are just a few of the most
NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION
available and commonly cited models in pharmacy education. As you
NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION
read Felder and Austin’s models, keep the following questions in mind:
Do you know the preferred learning styles of your students? Are they visual,
verbal, or sequential learners? How are you designing instruction to
Jones & Bartlett Learning,
address theseLLC varied learning styles? © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
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Felder’s Dimensions of Learning Style
Felder believes that learning styles can be defined by five dichotomous,
continuous dimensions.9 The five dimensions are (1) Sensory–Intuitive,
© Jones &
(2) Visual–Verbal, (3)Bartlett Learning, LLC
Inductive–Deductive, (4) Active–Reflective, and© Jones & Bartlett Learning,
NOT FOR SALE
(5) Sequential–Global. ORprovides
Table 2–5 a brief description of each dimen-NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIB
DISTRIBUTION
sion. The first dimension, Sensory–Intuitive, describes what information is
perceived. Sensory learners prefer factual information that can be sensed
through sight, smell, sound, or touch; whereas intuitive learners favor con-
© Jones & Bartlett
ceptual Learning,
and abstract LLCthat can be created and ©
information Jones In
imagined. & this
Bartlett Learning, LLC
NOT FOR SALE
regard, OR DISTRIBUTION
the sensory learner would more readily learn to NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION
use a stethoscope
by directly seeing the patient or hearing the patient’s heart sounds, where-
as an intuitive learner could relate the use of a stethoscope to previously
learned material or a referenced case study. The Visual–Verbal dimension
Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
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© Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC. NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION.
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40 C HAPTER 2 W HAT M ATTERS IN A S TUDENT-C ENTERED A PPROACH ?
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Table 2–5 Felder’s Learning Style Dimensions

© Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC


Dimension © Jones & Bartlett Learning,
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Sensory What type of information is preferentially perceived? Intuitive
Visual Through which sensory mode is information most Verbal
effectively perceived?
Inductive How is information preferentially organized? Deductive
Active How is information preferentially processed? Reflective
© Jones & Bartlett
Sequential Learning,
With which LLC © Jones
process is understanding reached? & Bartlett
LLC Learning,
Global
NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION
Source: Adapted from Felder RM. Reaching the second tier—learning and teaching styles in college science education.
J Coll Sci Teach. April–March 1993:286–290.

Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones


describes learners’ preferences & Bartlett
toward learning Learning,
through LLC
visualization or ver-
OT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOTlearners
balization. For example, visual FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION
have difficulty retaining informa-
tion that is spoken, and they learn more readily when pictures, graphs, or
visual aids are provided. On the other hand, verbal learners are likely to
forget information that is simply illustrated through a diagram and not
explained.
© Jones The third
& Bartlett dimension,LLC
Learning, Inductive–Deductive, explains a student’s
© Jones & Bartlett Learning,
preference for organizing
NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION information. Students who prefer induction,
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learn by seeing cases (e.g., results or examples) first and then delving into
the theories and principles. On the other hand, deductive students must first
learn general principles (e.g., steps or procedures). By nature, deductive
© Jones & Bartlettlearners often prefer organization and structure leading to a step-by-step
Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
approach, whereas inductive learners can be stifled by too much structure.
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The Active–Reflective dimension is most easily understood by conceptual-
izing the difference between doers and thinkers. Active learners strive to
process information by being actively involved and interacting with others
or the environment, and reflective learners are far more introspective, wish-
Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones
ing to process in solitude. The & Bartlett
last dimension, Learning, LLC
Sequential–Global, describes
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how information is understood. Sequential learners process information in
organized segments; global learners take holistic leaps. The disadvantage to
sequential learning is that solutions can be derived without a full compre-
hension of the situation. The order to the learning can sometimes produce
© Jones & Bartlett
a correct Learning,
answer without exactlyLLC © Jones &ofBartlett Learning,
knowing how or why. A disadvantage
NOT global
FOR learning
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is theDISTRIBUTION FOR
learners haveSALE OR DISTRIB
to understand the big picture before they can solve a problem.
Felder has documented that most lectures are heavily biased toward the
intuitive, verbal, deductive, reflective, and sequential learning dimensions.9
© Jones & BartlettOn Learning, LLClaboratories tend to be more
the other hand, © Jones & for
designed Bartlett
sensory,Learning,
visual, LLC
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and active learners. With a combination of a lecture and a hands-on labora- DISTRIBUTION
tory, two dimensions are still unaccounted for in teaching. One recommen-
dation for addressing the unaccounted dimensions, Inductive and Global, is
to encourage problem-based scenarios. An example would be to present
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pharmacy students with a case study of a patient who had been successfully
taking the recalled medication Vioxx. In this case study, there would be sev-
© medications
eral other Jones & Bartlett Learning,
that would be possible LLC
for the patient; however, the© Jones & Bartlett Learning,
objectiveNOT
of theFOR SALE
exercise wouldOR be to find the best medication but ratherNOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIB
notDISTRIBUTION
to go through the process of thinking through a unique problem. For example,
(1) students must recognize that Vioxx was recalled, (2) students must recog-
nize why the patient was on Vioxx, and (3) students must select another
© Jones & Bartlett
appropriate Learning,
medication. LLC that encourages a process
An exercise © Jones & Bartlett
of thinking in Learning, LLC
reverse
NOT FOR and universally
SALE would address both inductive and global
OR DISTRIBUTION NOTpractices.
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Reflective Exercise
Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
Log on to http://www.engr.ncsu.edu/learningstyles/ilsweb.html and take
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Solomon and Felder’s Index of LearningNOT
StylesFOR SALE OR
Questionnaire. DISTRIBUTION
10 What is
your learning style? How might your learning style affect your teaching?
Evaluate a course, lecture, or lab that you have taught. Did you accommo-
date multiple learning styles? If not, how might you restructure your course
or lecture to accommodate
© Jones & Bartlettmultiple learning styles?
Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning,
NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIB

© Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION

Austin’s PILS for Pharmacy Practice and Education


Austin’s Pharmacists’ Inventory of Learning Styles (PILS) is an instrument
Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC to identify the specific©learning
that was designed Jonesstyles
& Bartlett Learning,
of pharmacists. 11 LLC
OT FOR SALE ORExtensive
DISTRIBUTION
focus group work by AustinNOT FORinSALE
resulted OR DISTRIBUTION
six dimensions to
describe the learning styles of pharmacists. However, statistical analysis
revealed that only two of the six dimensions were significant descriptors
for pharmacists. Thus, PILS is based upon two dimensions or axes.
Figure © 2–2Jones & Bartlett
illustrates Learning,
the two axes LLC and structured; doing© Jones & Bartlett Learning,
(unstructured
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and reflecting). NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIB
The Unstructured–Structured (U–S) dimension composes the vertical
axis. Unstructured environments are environments where outcomes and
processes are not clearly defined or assessed; instead, performance expecta- To acquire knowl-
© Jones & Bartlett
tions are definedLearning,
individually.LLC © Jones
11 On the other end, structured & Bartlett
environments edgeLearning,
one must LLC
NOT FOR SALE
are those ORoutcomes
where DISTRIBUTION NOT
and processes are clearly defined andFOR SALE
assessed.11 OR
study;DISTRIBUTION
but to
The horizontal axis is formed by the Doing–Reflecting (D–R) dimension. acquire wisdom,
one must observe.
Doing involves experimentation and trial and error; reflecting involves Marilyn vos Savant
mental rehearsal and observation rather than active experimenting.
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42 C HAPTER 2 W HAT M ATTERS IN A S TUDENT-C ENTERED A PPROACH ?
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Unstructured
Enactors Creators
© Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning,
Opportunistic Creative
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Intuitive Peace makers

Goal-oriented People-oriented

Active Open-minded
© Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
Down-to-earth Free-spirited
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Doing Reflecting

Directors Producers
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OT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION Practical
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Organized

Leaders Attentive-to-detail

Action-oriented Rule-oriented

Purposeful Patient
© Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning,
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DISTRIBUTION Fair-minded NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIB
Structured

Figure 2–2 Typology for Pharmacists’ Inventory of Learning Styles


© Jones & BartlettSource:
Learning,
Courtesy ofLLC © Jones
Austin Z. Development and validation & Bartlett
of the Pharmacists’ Learning,
Inventory of LLC
NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION
Learning NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION
Styles (PILS). Am J Pharm Educ. 2004;68(2):1–10.

The advantage of the PILS is twofold. One, it was designed to explain


the learning styles of pharmacists. Two, Austin offers the PILS free of
Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
charge and encourages its use amongst pharmacy educators.11 A copy of
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the PILS is included in Appendix 2–1 at the end of this chapter.

Reflective Exercise
© Jones & Bartlett
Complete Learning,
the PILS LLC
(see Appendix © Jones
2–1). Do the results seem similar to the& Bartlett Learning,
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results from Felder’s Dimensions of Learning Style NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIB
questionnaire? Which
instrument do you prefer to use in assessing your students’ learning styles?
How are you going to learn to teach in your weaker learning styles?

© Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION

Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
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© Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC. NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION.
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Using Learning Styles in a Student-Centered Approach


The true gift of Felder and Austin’s learning styles assessment tools is in
© Jones
the justification for&how
Bartlett Learning,
educators LLCWhen a student’s learn-© Jones & Bartlett Learning,
should teach.
ing style is a mismatch with the educator’s teaching style, boredom andNOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIB
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disengagement can result. The solution is for the educator to vary his or
her teaching style to address a variety of learning styles within the class-
room or clinical environment. This not only optimizes the willingness of
© Jones & Bartlett
students Learning,
to learn, but it also LLC
encourages students to learn©howJones & Bartlett
to learn in Learning, LLC
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different OR DISTRIBUTION
learning styles.11 NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION
Each learning experience should be constructed from the framework of
multiple learning styles in hopes that all students are reached. Think
about this in terms of teaching a group of students who do not speak the
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same language. LLCFor example, hypothesize © what
Jones & Bartlett
it would be likeLearning,
to teach LLC
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students in a classroom where 25 spoke NOT Spanish,
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25 spoke DISTRIBUTION
25 spoke Japanese, and 25 spoke Russian. If you taught solely in English,
75 percent of the students would not learn as effectively. Varying your
teaching style to accommodate the different learning styles allows you to
instruct©students
Jonesin&their native Learning,
Bartlett language. This
LLCis the most obvious bene-© Jones & Bartlett Learning,
fit of teaching based upon learning
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Valuing the concept of teaching across different learning styles is the
first step toward effective teaching. The second step is knowing what edu-
cational strategies align best with the different learning styles. Table 2–6
© Jones and&Table 2–7 Learning,
Bartlett provide a summary
LLC of the preferred teaching and learning
© Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
strategies according to the two different axes of PILS.
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Table 2–6 Vertical Axis (U–S) Teaching and Learning Strategies
Unstructured
• Personalized feedback from educator or preceptor
• Educator© or
Jones & sharing
preceptor Bartlett Learning,
affective stories fromLLChis or her experience © Jones & Bartlett Learning,
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• Scenarios that force the student to apply skills to real situations NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIB
• Peer feedback on performance
• Learns least from theory-based readings
Structured
• Case studies
• Concept maps
© Jones & Bartlett toLearning,
• Brainstorming LLC
create solutions to problems © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
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• Theory-based DISTRIBUTION
readings NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION
• Self-directed and autonomous activities (i.e., papers)
• Learns least from group work

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44 C HAPTER 2 W HAT M ATTERS IN A S TUDENT-C ENTERED A PPROACH ?
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Table 2–7 Horizontal Axis (D–R) Teaching and Learning Strategies


Doing © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC Reflecting © Jones & Bartlett Learning,
• Small-group discussions • Expert advice
• Projects
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• Discussions following readings
• Peer feedback on performance • Journaling or logging
• Homework problems • Lecturing
• Scenarios that force student to apply skills to real situations • Learns least from projects
• Learns least from lectures
© Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
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How Does One’s Generation Influence Learning?


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Never before have there been © the
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multifaceted Learning,
influences LLC
of diversity affect-
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education. This diversity causes
multiple differences in worldview based upon each person’s individual
outlook, often referred to as the lens through which we view the world.
In this respect, an additional aspect worth considering is that of genera-
tional&influences
© Jones Bartlett on learning. Although
Learning, LLC there are some variations,
© Jonesmost & Bartlett Learning,
generations are defined
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als born during these generational spans have been affected by the perva-
sive occurrences, technologies (or lack thereof ), music, celebrities, and
defining moments of that period.12-14 Recognizing the characteristics
© Jones & Bartlettinherent in a given generation assists in understanding some of the basic
Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
premises that color a generation’s worldview (see Table 2–8). Although
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defining generations is not meant to stereotype individuals, it does pro-
vide broad strokes for consideration in both educational and professional
interactions.
Do any of the descriptors in Table 2–8 resonate with you? Perhaps they
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member, Learning,
or a coworker. Do keepLLC in mind
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that these are very broad descriptions, but you can see how everyone’s lens
may be slightly colored by his or her generational standing, and that may pro-
vide a better understanding in both professional and educational venues.
More than any other generation, the Millennials have and will continue
© Jones & Bartlett
to greatly Learning,
impact higher LLC
education in the United States. In an© Jones & Bartlett Learning,
exploratory
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15
Haworth found that this generation thinks NOTaFOR collegeSALE OR DISTRIB
degree is a way to guarantee a middle-class lifestyle. Ninety percent of the
Millennials interviewed expected to attend college, and 70 percent expected
to have professional jobs.15 These students go one step further by correlating
© Jones & Bartlettgoing
Learning,
to collegeLLC © Jones
with having a happy life. The National&Center
Bartlett Learning, LLC
for Educa-
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tion Statistics reports that in 2002, there were 9.9 million students aged DISTRIBUTION
18
to 24 years in higher education, and it is projected that by 2014, 11.5 million
students in higher education will be aged 18 to 24 years.16 All of these stu-
dents will be considered Millennial students.
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Table 2–8 Generational Comparisons

© Jones
Generation/Age Span&
Bartlett
GeneralLearning, LLC
Characteristics © Implications
Educational/Work Jones & Bartlett Learning,
DefiningNOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION
Moments NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIB
Veterans/traditionalists
• Built much of the nation’s • Strong work ethic
(Born 1922–1943) infrastructure • Loyal employees
• Great Depression • Believe in duty before pleasure • Detail-oriented
• World War II • Financially conservative • Favor classroom or conference
• Patriotic
© Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
• Value home and family
©•Jones
Respect authority
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• Success-oriented
(Born 1944–1960) expansion • Dedicated
• Vietnam War • Service-oriented • Hardworking
• Women’s lib • Tend to be competitive • Willing to put in long hours
• Civil rights movement • Self-gratifying • Favor classroom or workshop
Jones & Bartlett Learning,
Generation X LLC © Jones
• Many are products & Bartlett
of nontradi- Learning,
• Blurred work and lifeLLC
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1960–1980) tional families NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION
• Distrustful of authority
• Nixon resignation • Latchkey children • Independent workers
• Jim Bakker scandal • Self-reliant • Interested in training
• Beginning of digital era • Challenge the status quo • Online
• Dislike being labeled
Generation Y/Millennials • More racially diverse • Technologically savvy
© Jones & Bartlett
(Born 1980–2000) Learning,
• Indulged by parents LLC • Multitaskers © Jones & Bartlett Learning,
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• 9/11 • Civic-minded • Collaborative
• The Internet • Well-mannered and polite • Achievement-oriented
• Digital learning

© Jones & Bartlett


Source: Adapted fromLearning,
Zemke R, RainesLLC © Jones
C, Filipczak B. Generations at Work: Managing the Clash&of Bartlett Learning,
Veterans, Boomers,
Nexters in Your Workplace. New York, NY: AMACOM; 2000. Lovely S, Buffman AG. Generations at School: Building an
Xers, and LLC
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Comparisons of Millennials to previous generations are useful in that


Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC exhibits an intergenerational
higher education © Jones & Bartlett
mixture Learning,
of faculty, staff, LLC
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students. A comparison study17 of NOT FOR SALE
Generation X andOR DISTRIBUTION
Millennial
medical students at one medical school (n = 809) revealed strong person-
ality differences between the two generations. Millennial students were
more open and more willing to change than the Generation X students.
© Jones
Jonas-Dwyer & Bartlett
and Pospisil Learning,
examined how the LLCcharacteristics of Millennial© Jones & Bartlett Learning,
studentsNOT
affectFOR SALE OR
the academic DISTRIBUTION
environment. 18 Specifically, these studentsNOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIB
desire educational experiences that are active and relevant, flexible, include
regular feedback, and include opportunity for social and interactive learn-
ing, all of which can be challenging to accomplish using traditional edu-
© Jones & Bartlett
cational Learning,
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Millennials are looking to faculty as©leaders
Jones and& role
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NOT FOR models, and they want the faculty to take the lead in the classroom. Yet OR DISTRIBUTION
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Millennials demand respect for themselves and their ideas. The authors’
research reveals that Millennials have always experienced challenges and
pressures; thus, they want more challenges with projects and assignments
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46 C HAPTER 2 W HAT M ATTERS IN A S TUDENT-C ENTERED A PPROACH ?
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in higher education. Clearly, the characteristics and preferences of the Mil-


lennial students challenge any currently static educational methodology.
© Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning,
NOT Using Generational
FOR SALE Differences in a Student-Centered
OR DISTRIBUTION NOTApproach
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Although some students have indicated resistance to the student- or learn-
er-centered approach in the past, it may be that the current generation of
college students (Millennials) is well-suited for this. Wilson illustrates
© Jones & BartletthowLearning,
ChickeringLLC © Jones
and Gamson’s seven principles for&good
Bartlett Learning,
practice in LLC
NOT FOR SALE OR undergraduate
DISTRIBUTION education are applicable even
NOTtoFORthe current
SALEMillennial
OR DISTRIBUTION
generation of students.19,20 These principles are (1) encourage contact
between students and faculty, (2) develop reciprocity and cooperation
among students, (3) encourage active learning, (4) give prompt feedback,
(5) emphasize time on task,
Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC (6) communicate
© Jones & Bartletthigh expectations,
Learning, LLC and
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Group work and teamwork activities are essential to energizing Mil-
lennial students in the classroom.21 The educational literature also sug-
gests that students learn more effectively in groups than on their own.22
However,
© Jones the research
& Bartlett suggests LLC
Learning, that due to various challenges in curricu-
© Jones & Bartlett Learning,
lum development, designated courses on teamwork skills are rare.23 One
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approach to this type of preparation would be to introduce Millennial stu-
dents to team-based learning projects.

© Jones & Bartlett Learning,


ReflectiveLLCExercise © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
NOT FOR SALE ORGivenDISTRIBUTION
the characteristics of Millennials, howNOT
wouldFOR SALE OR
you restructure DISTRIBUTION
a tradi-
tional lecture to maximize their learning? For example, what do Millennials
value? How do they learn?

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© Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning,


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Integrated Model NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIB
At the beginning of this chapter, the novice educator asked the question,
Where do I begin in my quest to learn more about learning? We have
attempted to outline key cognitive theories, compare and contrast learn-
© Jones & BartlettingLearning,
styles, and LLC © Jones
discuss the generational influences & Bartlett
on learning. Our Learning,
prom- LLC
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ise is that the more you use and base your teachings in these theories and
models, the more you will develop purpose in your teaching. To end and
summarize the chapter, we will attempt to integrate and combine the the-
ories, learning styles, and generational influences to assist you in your
Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
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I N T E G R AT E D M O D E L 47
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attempt to create a learner-centered teaching environment. Before doing Growth demands a


so, please consider each of the concepts presented in this chapter as they temporary surren-
relate to©your
Jones & Bartlett
individual growth Learning, LLC the taxonomies as your© Jones
as a teacher. Using & Bartlett Learning,
der of security.
NOTconduct
foundation, FOR SALE ORinventory
a personal of your levels of learning in theNOT FOR
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Sheehy OR DISTRIB
cognitive, psychomotor, and affective domains. The key questions to ask
are as follows:
• What is my level of cognitive development with regard to student
© Jones & Bartlett Learning,
learning? Am LLCof recall of theories and©comprehension
I at the level Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
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theories to my teaching?
• What is my level of psychomotor development with regard to stu-
dent learning? Am I modeling the use of technology in the class-
Jones & Bartlett Learning,
room andLLC © Jones
laboratory? Have I mastered specific&clinical
Bartlett
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development should I work on?
• What is my level of affective development with regard to student learn-
ing? Am I currently posing new questions about my role as an educator?
Am©IJones
listening&toBartlett Learning,
mentors and LLC
my students? Am I putting myself in sit-© Jones & Bartlett Learning,
NOTwhere
uations FORISALE OR the
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Figure 2–3 provides an illustration of our integrated model. This model
is designed to be used as a step process in teaching, which is represented
by the increasing size of the arrows. Think of this model as additive, build-
© Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
ing from introductory knowledge to advanced knowledge throughout a
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curriculum. It is not practical to think that one educator or one class can

Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC Concrete experience© Jones & Millennial
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Need for
Pre-reflective role models

Active testing Reflective observation


© Jones & Bartlett Learning,Understand/Practice
Evaluate/Create/Naturalization
Commitment
LLCMultiplism
© Jones & Bartlett Learning,
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Reflective Quasi-reflective NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIB

Millennial Abstract hypothesis Millennial


roadblock: Analyze/Refine roadblock:
Fear of Relativism Lack of
© Jones & Bartlett
mistakes Learning, Quasi-reflective
LLC ©
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reflection
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Figure 2–3 Integrated Theory and Educational Model

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48 C HAPTER 2 W HAT M ATTERS IN A S TUDENT-C ENTERED A PPROACH ?
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experience each step within this model. Instead, it is the role of the educa-
tor to facilitate movement along the model throughout a curriculum.
© Jones & Bartlett
Within the model Learning, LLC
we have used © Jones
Austin’s PILS as our foundation. With-& Bartlett Learning,
NOT inFOR
eachSALE
text boxOR (i.e.,DISTRIBUTION
step), Austin’s vertical axis (Unstructured NOT= Concrete
FOR SALE OR DISTRIB
experience; Structured = Abstract hypothesis) and horizontal axis (Doing =
Active testing; Reflecting = Reflective observation) are represented as the
underlined text. Bloom’s Taxonomy is shown in normal text, Perry’s Schemes
© Jones & BartlettofLearning,
Intellectual LLC and Ethical Development ©is Jones & Bartlett
represented in italics,Learning,
and LLC
NOT FOR SALE OR Kitchner and King’s Reflective Judgment NOT
DISTRIBUTION ModelFOR is represented
SALE OR in bold.
DISTRIBUTION
We have introduced the generational challenges provided by Millennials
as black Xs. Please keep in mind that these are potential challenges, not
absolutes. Your goal as the educator is to try to avoid these generational
roadblocks by designing educational
Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jonesactivities
& Bartlettthat Learning,
address different
LLClevels
OT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION of cognitive development in addition to various learning
NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION styles.
The first step is to teach introductory material in a manner that establishes
concrete learning experiences. Bloom might describe this as recalling facts in
his cognitive domain or listening to stories within his affective domain. Sim-
ilarly, this step can be described as a dualistic phase where facts are viewed by
© Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning,
the student in black and white terms; at this stage there is an outright lack
NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIB
of contextual understanding. This is purely a prereflective period in teach-
ing, and ultimately learning, because students are not ready to digest the
information. Instead, they are just beginning to get familiar with the amount
of material before them. Just as we learned from the Three Little Pigs, a strong
© Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
foundation must exist before we can withstand challenges (i.e., huffing and
NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION
puffing). Our generational roadblock that can potentially block learning
from progressing to the next stage is the Millennials’ need to have a role
model. Throughout their lives Millennials’ parents have been the authority
figures with all the answers. To be an effective educator at this stage, you must
Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
gain the trust of your students © Jones
by being&invested
Bartlett in Learning,
them as human LLCbeings
OT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION and by being a role model.NOT This isFOR
whereSALE OR DISTRIBUTION
some individual attention can be
helpful. Millennials will respond positively to boundaries and high expecta-
tions as long as those boundaries and expectations are believed to be per-
sonally aimed, not globally applied to all students. Millennials invest in those
© Jones & Bartlett
who invest in them,Learning,
and a lack ofLLC
investment from an educator © can
Jones
result&inBartlett Learning,
NOT Millennials
FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION
developing mistrust in the educator’s opinions and NOTteachings.
FOR SALE OR DISTRIB
This will interfere with a student’s progression into the next step.
This poses a particular problem given the typically large size of many
pharmacy classes. Try these suggestions for reaching a more personal level of
© Jones & Bartlettinvestment
Learning, withLLCMillennial students. Learning © Jones & Bartlett
each student’s nameLearning,
is an LLC
NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION
important first step. Millennials need to feel NOT
special FOR SALE OR
and appreciated. DISTRIBUTION
Another
suggestion is to spend time to provide personalized comments when grading
written assignments, such as essays. Even using chat room discussions in
WebCT or Blackboard will lend a more personalized feel to a large class.
Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
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© Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC. NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION.
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I N T E G R AT E D M O D E L 49
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The second step in teaching is to encourage reflection from your stu-


dents. Now is the time to ask them to connect their observations with
what they© Jones & Bartlett
have learned Learning,
previously LLC step. This can occur© Jones & Bartlett Learning,
in the concrete
NOT FOR
simultaneously with SALE OR DISTRIBUTION
introductory information. Bloom might liken this toNOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIB
understanding information within his cognitive domain or practicing
within his psychomotor domain. Because students are now beginning to
understand shades of gray in their knowledge, it is appropriate to discuss
© Jones and&challenge
Bartlettstudents
Learning, LLC
to think © Jones
in multiplism (i.e., contextual & Bartlett
situations or Learning, LLC
NOT FOR scenarios).
SALEKitchner and King would describe this as a quasi-reflective
OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR peri- SALE OR DISTRIBUTION
od where students are beginning to think about the information they have
learned.8 At this point, students are still not ready to digest the informa-
tion, but they are ready to begin chewing on it. The biggest potential road-
block at thisLLC
Jones & Bartlett Learning, phase is the lack of reflection © that
Jonesis a germane
& Bartlett characteristic
Learning, LLC
of Millennials.
OT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION Remember that this is a generation
NOT FOR SALE OR up
that has grown with
DISTRIBUTION
proficiency tests in high school; they believe there is one answer and that
they only have to know material for a test and not apply it at a later time.
Our advice is to avoid playing into their expectations for study guides at
this stage. Provide them with stories and examples of why information
© Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning,
must be known and not memorized. Rhetorically, ask students if they get
NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIB
to use a study guide when they are performing CPR on an unconscious
patient. Without reflection, students will be paralyzed in their ability to
hypothesize the next step.
The creation of structured hypotheses is the third step. This must occur
© Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
in the mid- to upper-level courses within a curriculum. This is a continu-
NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION
ation of reflection (i.e., quasi-reflective) because students are now ready to
analyze information in the cognitive domain or refine skills within the psy-
chomotor domain, thus implying a continual and constant reflection in an
effort to develop a relativist means of thinking. Relativistic thinking refers
Jones & Bartlett Learning,
to students’ LLC
ability to see information as©purely
Jones & Bartlett
contextual and to Learning,
under- LLC
OT FOR SALE ORstand
DISTRIBUTION
multiple points of view. As students NOT FOR SALE
continually reflect OR DISTRIBUTION
on informa-
tion, they are beginning the process of developing hypotheses that can be
challenged via active testing. Perhaps the biggest potential roadblock to
teaching Millennials is their fear of mistakes, which prohibits the testing of
formed © Jones &The
hypotheses. Bartlett Learning,
proverbial LLC
Helicopter Parent has hovered above© Jones & Bartlett Learning,
NOT FOR
and protected SALE OR
the Millennial. DISTRIBUTION
Most Millennials have limited experienceNOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIB
with mistakes; their parents have guarded them or fixed mistakes for them.
As an educator, you must believe that the fear of mistakes is not a charac-
teristic of arrogance or narcissism, but rather a symptom of Millennials’
© Jones & of
fear Bartlett Learning,
disappointing LLC
their role models. Encourage mistakes © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
in classroom
NOT FOR SALE
activities andOR DISTRIBUTION
simulations! This is where real learning takes NOTplace,FORandSALE
it is OR DISTRIBUTION
the key to completing the learning cycle.
The last stage is doing and testing. This is a step in teaching that requires
a solid foundation of knowledge from your students. Constant challenge
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© Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC. NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION.
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50 C HAPTER 2 W HAT M ATTERS IN A S TUDENT-C ENTERED A PPROACH ? 50
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and rationale should be encouraged as students evaluate in the cognitive


domain and naturalize in the psychomotor domain. We liken this process
© Jones & Bartlett
to a carpenter whoLearning, LLC
must select the appropriate tools to place© in
Jones & Bartlett Learning,
his or her
NOT toolbox.
FOR SALE This isOR DISTRIBUTION
a period NOT FOR
when students should be testing, critiquing, andSALE OR DISTRIB
analyzing different theories and skills to place in their toolboxes, where the
toolbox represents their skill set as a pharmacist. This is truly the most
reflective period because students are engaged in constant thought. This is
© Jones & BartletttheLearning, LLC professional we should
type of healthcare © Jones
all hope &toBartlett
have care Learning,
for us LLC
NOT FOR SALE OR oneDISTRIBUTION
day, a professional who thinks about NOTthe best analgesic
FOR SALE to OR
prescribe
DISTRIBUTION
given our medical histories and comorbidities—a personalized plan that is
contextual yet open to be modified in light of new evidence.

Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC Closing Thoughts © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
OT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR
Let us end with a personal example. OneSALE
year weOR DISTRIBUTION
had the pleasure of having
a senior-level student voluntarily serve as a teaching assistant in a freshman-
level course for three consecutive quarters. This senior student was a very
observant and intuitive individual, probably a creator in terms of PILS. After
© Jones
three & Bartlett
quarters Learning,
of assisting LLC
with the same course, he approached © Jones & Bartlett Learning,
us one day
NOT with
FORa very
SALE OR DISTRIBUTION
simplistic NOT
observation. He told us that he had figured us FOR
out. WeSALE OR DISTRIB
were intrigued—and a little concerned—about what he had figured out. He
continued his observation with the following statement: “You have a reason
for everything that you do in a classroom; nothing is assigned or presented
© Jones & Bartlettwithout you knowing
Learning, LLC exactly why you are doing © Jonesit and&what you want
Bartlett to
Learning, LLC
achieve.”
NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION We had never consciously thought of this, but after some reflection
NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION
his assessment seemed fairly accurate. Not to insinuate that we are perfect in
our delivery and methods, but that is exactly what we should strive to create.
Have a vision. Be As educators, we should know exactly where our students are cognitively, we
demanding. should also have an idea of their learning styles, and that should guide our
Jones & Bartlett Colin
Learning,
Powell LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
purpose in class. Leave it to a student to provide one of the greatest epipha-
OT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION
nies we have ever had as educators!

Scenarios
© Jones & Bartlett
The following Learning,
scenarios LLC
are provided © Jones for
as additional opportunities & Bartlett Learning,
NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION
reflection and application of the material addressed in this NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIB
chapter. Based
on what you have learned in this chapter, how would you address each of
these teaching scenarios?

© Jones & BartlettScenario


Learning, LLC
1: The Concrete Thinker © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
NOT FOR SALE OR BobDISTRIBUTION NOTpharmacy
is the top student in a nationally renowned FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION
education pro-
gram. Bob is obviously highly intelligent, but he seems unable to grasp
contextual concepts. He wants yes or no answers and is struggling with
theoretical applications. How do you help Bob see the contextual nature
Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
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© Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC. NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION.
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A D D I T I O N A L C O N S I D E R AT I O N S
AND RESOURCES 51
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of pharmacy practice? How can you challenge Bob to become more


relative in his learning?
© Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning,
NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIB

© Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
NOT FOR SALE2:OR
Scenario TheDISTRIBUTION
Reflective Learner NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION
Amy is a third-year Millennial pharmacy student. During her first two
years in pharmacy school, her academic progress was above average, but
clinically she appeared to be underperforming. Whenever questions were
Jones & Bartlett Learning,
posed duringLLC © Jones
clinical exercises, Amy would stare &
at Bartlett Learning,
her preceptor and LLC
OT FOR SALE ORcould
DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR
not generate an answer. Most preceptors SALE
thought AmyORwasDISTRIBUTION
disin-
terested and lethargic. Upon taking the PILS, it was discovered that Amy
is primarily reflective. How do you mentor Amy to use her natural reflec-
tive tendencies to facilitate a more productive clinical educational out-
come? How© Jones
do you&challenge
BartlettAmyLearning, LLC
to develop other learning styles that© Jones & Bartlett Learning,
NOT FOR
will be useful SALE
in actual ORasDISTRIBUTION
practice a future pharmacist? NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIB

© Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION

Scenario 3: The Great Pontificator


Dr. George is a tenured professor who has been using a teacher-centered
Jones & Bartlett Learning,
approach for LLC © Jones
years. He has traditionally received &teaching
average Bartlett Learning, LLC
evaluations,
OT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION
but recently his evaluations have become NOT FOR SALE ORStudents
increasingly more critical. DISTRIBUTION
remark that Dr. George’s lectures do not encourage independent thought or
application of material. What suggestions would you make for Dr. George
that will engage his students in a more student- or learner-centered approach?
© Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning,
NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIB

© Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
NOT FOR Additional
SALE OR Considerations
DISTRIBUTION and Resources NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION
A number of additional resources applicable to the content of this chap-
ter are recommended for your review. These resources compliment the
material provided in this chapter.
Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
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© Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC. NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION.
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52 C HAPTER 2 W HAT M ATTERS IN A S TUDENT-C ENTERED A PPROACH ?
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Psychosocial Developmental Theory:


Chickering and Reisser’s Seven Vectors
© Jones & Bartlett
Chickering’s Learning,
seven vectors LLC
represent © linear
a passage from the relatively Jones & Bartlett Learning,
devel-
NOT opmental
FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR
models to a more complex-stage psychosocial model aimed at out- SALE OR DISTRIB
lining what preoccupies students as they move into adulthood. Chickering’s
original seven vectors, revised in 1993 with Reisser, are described as “major
highways for journeying toward individuation.”6 Although the original ver-
© Jones & Bartlettsion
Learning, LLC on white, heterosexual
was based primarily © Jones & Bartlett
males, the Learning,
revised version is LLC
NOT FOR SALE OR more DISTRIBUTION
comprehensive in recognizing additional NOT FORdetailing
research SALE the ORdiffer-
DISTRIBUTION
ent struggles affecting women, minorities, and gay and lesbian students.6 For
more information on this model, refer to the following book:
Chickering AW, Reisser L. Education and Identity. 2nd ed. San Francisco,
Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
CA: Jossey-Bass; 1993:1–42.
OT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION
Learning Styles: Kolb’s Experiential Theory
Kolb’s Learning Style Inventory is the foundational theory for PILS. Kolb
believes that the most adept students are well-balanced learners and can
© Jones & Bartlett
complete Learning,
the experiential LLC cycle with relative ease.
learning © 24
Jones & Bartlett Learning,
To learn
NOT moreFORabout
SALE OR experiential
Kolb’s DISTRIBUTION learning model, see Chapter NOT FORtheSALE OR DISTRIB
9. From
experiential learning model, Kolb developed specific learning styles. The
four specific learning styles are (1) divergers, (2) assimilators, (3) convergers,
and (4) accomodators.24 To learn more about Kolb’s learning styles, refer
© Jones & BartletttoLearning,
the followingLLC
book: © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
NOT FOR SALE ORKolb DISTRIBUTION
DA. Experiential Learning: Experience NOTasFOR SALEof OR
the Source DISTRIBUTION
Learning
and Development. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall; 1984:2–40.

References
Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC1. Collins JW, O’Brien NP.
© Greenwood
Jones &Dictionary
Bartlettof Learning, LLC CT:
Education. Westport,
OT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION Greenwood; 2003. NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION
2. Weimer ME. Learner-Centered Teaching: Five Key Changes to Practice. San
Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons; 2002.
3. Bloom BS. Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Handbook I: The Cognitive
Domain. New York, NY: David McKay Co Inc; 1956.
© Jones & Bartlett
4. Simpson EJ. Learning, LLC
The Classification of Educational Objectives in ©theJones & Bartlett Learning,
Psychomotor
Domain. Washington,
NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION DC: Gryphon House; 1972. NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIB
5. Perry WG. Forms of Intellectual and Ethical Development in the College Years:
A Scheme. Troy, MO: Holt, Rinehart & Winston; 1970.
6. Chickering AW, Reisser L. Education and Identity. 2nd ed. San Francisco,
CA: Jossey-Bass; 1993:1–42.
© Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
7. Pascarella ET, Terenzini PT. How College © Jones & Bartlett
Affects Students: Learning,
Findings and LLC
Insights
NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION from Twenty Years of Research. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass;
NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION 1991.
8. Kitchner KS, King PM. The reflective judgment model: transforming
assumptions about knowing. In Arnold KD, King IC, eds. College Student
Development and Academic Life. New York, NY: Garland Publishing Inc;
1997:141–159.
Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
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© Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC. NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION.
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Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
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9. Felder RM. Reaching the second tier—learning and teaching styles in college
science education. J Coll Sci Teach. April–March 1993:286–290.
10. Solomon BA, Felder RM. Index of learning styles questionnaire.
© Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning,
http://www.engr.ncsu.edu/learningstyles/ilsweb.html. Accessed February 27,
NOT
2009. FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIB
11. Austin Z. Development and validation of the Pharmacists’ Inventory of
Learning Styles (PILS). Am J Pharm Educ. 2004;68(2):1–10.
12. Howe N, Strauss W. Millennials Rising: The Next Great Generation. New York,
NY: Vintage Books; 2000.
© Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
13. Zemke R, Raines C, Filipczak B. Generations at Work: Managing the Clash
NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION
of Veterans, Boomers, Xers, and Nexters in Your Workplace. NOT NewFORYork, SALE
NY: OR DISTRIBUTION
AMACOM; 2000.
14. Lovely S, Buffman AG. Generations at School: Building an Age-Friendly
Learning Community. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press; 2007.
15. Sandfort MH, Haworth JG. Whassup? A glimpse into the attitudes and
Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
beliefs of the millennial generation. J Coll Character. 2006;(2):2–27.
OT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOTEnrollment
16. National Center for Education Statistics. FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION
in degree-granting
institutions. September 2005 [cited March 22, 2010] [online]. http://nces.ed.gov/
pubs2006/2006030_3a.pdf.
17. Borges NJ, Manuel RS, Elam CL, Jones BJ. Comparing Millennial and Gen-
eration
© Jones X medical students at
& Bartlett one medicalLLC
Learning, school. Acad Med. 2006;81(6):© Jones & Bartlett Learning,
571–576.
NOT FORD,SALE
18. Jonas-Dwyer Pospisil OR DISTRIBUTION
R. The Millennial effect: implications for academicNOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIB
development. In: Proceedings from the 2004 Conference of Higher Educa-
tion Research and Development Society of Australia; Sarawak, Australia
July 2004 [cited March 22, 2010] [online]. http://www.herdsa.org.au/
conference2004/
© Jones & Bartlett Contributions/Rpapers/P050-jt.pdf.
Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
19. Wilson ME. Teaching, learning, and Millennial students. In: Coomes MD,
NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR
DeBard R, eds. Serving the Millennial Generation. San Francisco, SALE OR DISTRIBUTION
CA: Jossey-
Bass; 2004:59–72.
20. Chickering AW, Gamson ZF. Seven principles for good practice in under-
graduate education. AAHE Bulletin. 1987;39(7):3–7.
21. Mangold, K. Educating a new generation: teaching baby boomer faculty
Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
about Millennial students. Nurse Educ. January–February 2007:21–23.
OT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION
22. Pfaff E, Huddleston P. Does it matter ifNOT
I hateFOR SALE
teamwork? What OR DISTRIBUTION
impacts stu-
dent attitudes toward teamwork. J Mark Educ. 2003;25(1):37–45.
23. Rodger S, Mickan S, Marinac J, Woodyatt G. Enhancing teamwork among
allied health students: evaluation of an interprofessional workshop. J Allied
Health. 2005;34(4):230–235.
© Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
24. Kolb DA. Experiential Learning: Experience as the Source of Learning and
© Jones & Bartlett Learning,
NOT FORUpper
Development. SALE ORRiver,
Saddle DISTRIBUTION
NJ: Prentice Hall; 1984:2–40. NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIB

© Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION

Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
OT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION
© Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC. NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION.
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Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
54 C HAPTER 2 W HAT M ATTERS IN A S TUDENT-C ENTERED A PPROACH ?
OT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION

© Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning,


NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIB
Appendix 2–1
Pharmacists’ Inventory of
© Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION
Learning Styles
Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
OT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION Source: Courtesy of AustinNOT FOR SALEand
Z. Development OR DISTRIBUTION
validation of the Phar-
macists’ Inventory of Learning Styles (PILS). Am J Pharm Educ. 2004; 68(2):
1–10.
Think about a few recent situations where you had to learn something
© Jones to
new & solve
Bartlett Learning,
a problem. LLCbe any kind of situation—while
This could © Jonesyou & Bartlett Learning,
NOT were
FORtaking
SALE OR DISTRIBUTION
a course NOT
at school, learning to use new software, FOR SALE OR DISTRIB
or figuring
out how to assemble a barbecue.
Now circle the letter in the column that best characterizes what works
best for you in situations like the ones you have thought about.
© Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION
When I Am Trying to Learn Something New . . . Usually Sometimes Rarely Hardly
1. I like to watch others before trying it for myself. B D C A
2. I like to consult a manual, textbook, or instruction guide first. B C D A
Jones & Bartlett 3.Learning, LLC © Jones & ABartlett Learning,
I like to work by myself rather than with other people. C B
LLCD
OT FOR SALE OR4. IDISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE
like to take notes or write things down as I am going along. B
ORCDISTRIBUTION
D A
5. I am critical of myself if things do not work out as
I had hoped. B C D A
6. I usually compare myself to other people just so I know I am
© Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
keeping up. B D ©CJonesA & Bartlett Learning,
NOTthings
7. I like to examine FOR SALE
closely insteadOR DISTRIBUTION
of jumping right in. B D NOT
C FORA SALE OR DISTRIB
8. I rise to the occasion if I am under pressure. C A B D
9. I like to have plenty of time to think about something new
before trying it. D B C A
10. I pay a lot of attention to the details. B C A D
© Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
11. I concentrate on improving the things I did wrong in the past. C A D B
NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION
12. I focus on reinforcing the things I got right in the past. B D A C
13. I like to please the person teaching me. D B A C
14. I trust my hunches. D C A B

Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
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C = DIRECTOR 55
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When I Am Trying to Learn Something New . . . Usually Sometimes Rarely Hardly

15. In a group, I am usually the first to finish whatever


we are©doing.
Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC A C © Jones
D &B Bartlett Learning,
NOT FOR SALE OR
16. I like to take charge of a situation. DISTRIBUTION C A NOTB FOR DSALE OR DISTRIB
17. I am well organized. B A C D

Now, add the number of times you circled each letter:


© Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
A=
NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION B= C= D= NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION
Your dominant learning style is the letter you circled most frequently:
Your secondary learning style is the next most frequently circled letter:

Jones & Bartlett Learning,


A = Enactor LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
OT FOR SALE ORYou DISTRIBUTION
enjoy dealing directly with people and NOT haveFOR
littleSALE
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indirect or soft-sell jobs. You enjoy looking for and exploiting opportuni-
ties as they arrive and have an entrepreneurial spirit. You learn best in a
hands-on, unencumbered manner, not a traditional lecture-style format.
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B = Producer
You generally prefer to work by yourself, at your own pace, and in your
own time, or with a very small group of like-minded people. You tend to
avoid situations where you are the center of attention or constantly being
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watched—you prefer to be the one observing (and learning) from others.
OT FOR SALE ORYou DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR
have an ability to learn from your own—and otherSALE OR DISTRIBUTION
peoples’—mistakes.
You place a high priority on getting things done properly, according to the
rules, but at times you can be your own worst critic. You value organiza-
tion and attentiveness to detail.
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C = Director NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIB
You are focused, practical, and to the point. You usually find yourself in
a leadership role and enjoy this challenge. You have little time or patience
for those who dither or are indecisive or who spend too much time on
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less than perfect results. You would rather get a good job done on time
than do an excellent job delivered late. You like being in a high-perform-
ance, high-energy, fast-paced environment.
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56 C HAPTER 2 W HAT M ATTERS IN A S TUDENT-C ENTERED A PPROACH ?
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D = Creator
You enjoy out-of-the-box environments where time and resources are not
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engaged, and you sincerely believe this is the way to motivate othersSALE OR DISTRIB
and get the best out of everyone. You are most concerned—sometimes
too concerned—about how others perceive you, and you place a high pri-
ority on harmony. You find little difficulty dealing with complex, ambigu-
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