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DGPA Creative Services 2001CS-0103

2001-04 A-P9-050-000/PT-005
FOREWORD
A-P9-050-000/PT-005, Manual of Individual Training and Education, Volume 5, Development
of Instructional Programmes is issued on authority of the Chief of Defence Staff.
This publication is effective on receipt.
Suggestions for changes shall be forwarded through normal channels to National Defence Headquarters,
Attention: Director, Training and Education Policy (DTEP).

I
TT A B L E O F C O N T E N T S
PART 1 INTRODUCTION PART 4 PRODUCE INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL
Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12
Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Develop Print-based Material . . . . . . . . . .12
Overview of CFITES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Produce Visuals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13
Purpose of Development Phase . . . . . . . . . .2 Produce Conventional
Overview of Development Phase . . . . . . . .2 Audio-Visual Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14
Produce Technology-based Material . . . . .15
PARTt 2 IDENTIFY REQUIREMENTS AND Develop Assessment Instruments . . . . . . .16
DETERMINE SOURCES OF MATERIAL
Develop the Course Timetable . . . . . . . . .17
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3
Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
Review Content, Instructional
Consider Scheduling Factors . . . . . . . . . .18
Strategy, and Population . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3
Scheduling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
Review Requirements for
On-the-Job Training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Instructional Week . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
Unit Funded On-the-Job Training . . . . . . . .5 Instructional Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
Managing Authority Funded Evening Instruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
On-the-Job Training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Operational Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21
Assess Development Options . . . . . . . . . . .5 Homework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22
Determine Resource Requirements . . . . . . .7 Develop Lesson Plans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22

PART 3 PROCURE INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL PART 5 CONDUCT TRIALS AND


Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 REVISE MATERIALS
Estimate Development Time . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24
Other Government Departments Timing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24
or Militaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Trial Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24
Contracting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Consider Partial and Full Trials . . . . . . . .25
Contract for Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Pilot Course . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25
Contract for Goods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Revise Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26
Ensure Materials Meet Copyright and Consider Retrials and Instruction
Intellectual Property Right Laws . . . . . . . .10 Life Cycle Revision Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . .27
Translate Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
Selecting Translation Sources . . . . . . . . . .10
PART 6 PREPARE STAFF
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28
Prepare Standards and Support Staff . . . .28
Schedule Training for
Instructional Staff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28
Review Training Documentation . . . . . . . .28
Trial Equipment and Training Aids . . . . .29
Rehearse Lessons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29

III
TT A B L E O F C O N T E N T S ( CONT’D)

PART 7 RECORD DEVELOPMENT COSTS


Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30
Benefits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30
Create Checklists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30
Record Cost Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30
Determine Costs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31
Compare Forecast to Actual Costs . . . . . .31

ANNEX A: REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .A1

ANNEX B: GLOSSARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .B1

ANNEX C: DEVELOPMENT TIME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C1

ANNEX D: INSTRUCTOR TO LEARNER RATIOS . .D1

ANNEX E: LESSON PLANS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .E1

ANNEX F: LEARNING SUPPORT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .F1

ANNEX G: DEVELOPING QUESTIONS . . . . . . . . . . .G1

ANNEX H: PROGRAMME DESIGN AND


EVALUATION RATES FOR IT&E
ESTABLISHMENT STANDARDS . . . . . . .H1

IV
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II N T R O D U C T I O N
Background 1. Canadian Forces policy on Individual Training and Education (IT&E) states
that IT&E activities shall be conducted in accordance with the management
model known as Canadian Forces Individual Training and Education System
(CFITES). The Manual of Individual Training and Education provides guid-
ance on the application of the CFITES in a series of interrelated volumes,
each focusing on a different aspect of the system.

Purpose 2. This volume of the Manual of Individual Training and Education


provides guidance to CF staff or external developers (the term “developers”
is used throughout the following text) on the development of instructional
programmes. The extent to which these guidelines are followed will vary
with respect to the size and nature of the particular instructional develop-
ment context.

Overview of CFITES 3. For an introduction to and description of the CFITES see Volume 1, CFITES
Introduction/Description. As shown in Figure 1 below, Development is the
third phase of the six-phase CFITES Quality Control model.

Figure 1: CFITES Quality Control Model

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Purpose of 4. The purpose of the Development phase is to provide effective instructional


materials that will preserve the design intent and prepare for the delivery
Development Phase of the instructional programme.

Overview of 5. The input to the Development phase is the lesson guidance, often referred
to as a training plan, that describes the learning programme and environment
Development Phase that enables learners to achieve performance objectives. The output of the
Development phase will be the instructional materials required to deliver
training, prepared staff and a record of the costs involved.
6. The fundamental processes of the Development phase, which are
described in Parts 3 -7 of this volume, are as follows:
a. procure instructional material;
b. produce instructional material;
c. conduct trials and revise materials;
d. prepare staff; and
e. record development costs.
It should be noted that the above processes are not sequential
and may be carried out concurrently where appropriate.

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I IADNEDN TDIEFTYE RRME IQNUEI RSEOMUERNCTESS


OF MATERIAL
Overview 7. Performance-oriented instruction requires carefully developed materials to
support learning. Instructional material consists of all types of material that
support learning such as training aids, equipment, interactive courseware,
lesson plans, testing materials and references.
8. In some cases, appropriate materials, or even complete instructional
programmes, may be available for procurement on an “off-the-shelf” basis.
More often, significant amounts of in-house effort will be required to prepare
for the conduct of IT&E. In any case, developers must first determine what
materials are needed to develop the instructional programme.

Review Content, 9. Providing effective instructional material must begin with a thorough
review of the results of the Design phase. The lesson guidance, which will be
Instructional Strategy referred to as a training plan, will specify the course content, the instruction-
and Population al strategy, estimated costs, the assessment plan, resource requirements and
lesson requirements. Developers shall also review the proceedings of the
Qualifications Standards Board and associated references where available,
to gain insight that may assist the development process. For a complete guide
on the development of training plans and what to expect as output from the
Design phase, see Volume 4, Design of Instructional Programmes.
10. The training plan and the lesson specifications it contains serve as the
basis for the development of an instructional programme. Factors that must
be considered when reviewing the training plan and planning for production
and procurement of material are shown in Table 1.

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Table 1: Review Factors in Developing Instructional Material

FACTOR SCOPE

Availability of supplies and equipment to Quantity of equipment and supplies required


support learning, the achievement of performance for instruction.
objectives and the instructional equipment. Number of locations requiring equipment and supplies.
Operational equipment and supplies that are currently
available (simulators, cutaways, stands).

Costs Anticipated costs.


Sources and amount of funding available.
Incorporating costs into Business Plan.

Timeline Lead-time required for producing or acquiring items.


Time available to develop material.

Instructional facility requirements. Modifications or building a new facility and


associated construction lead times.
Design factors to meet functions/tasks that the facility
must support (power, drainage, ventilation, lighting
etceteras). Utilization rate/cost justification.
Security considerations.

Operation and support considerations. Preventative and corrective maintenance to support


the facility and equipment (how often, how long,
how much).
Projected modifications/upgrades to equipment,
hardware, or software (how often, how long,
how much).
Instructional equipment and supplies are in line
with operation equipment and supplies.

Overall instructional strategy for the programme. Occupation or specialty tasks selected for instruction,
scalars, objectives and lesson specifications.
Appropriateness of instructional method, media, and
environment for each objective, the population, their
distribution and the available resources.

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Review Requirements 11. OJT may be selected as the instructional strategy for one or more
for On-the-Job performance objectives (POs) during the Design phase. The Environmental
Command/Group Principal and the units concerned must agree to host the
Training (OJT) OJT during the Design phase. In this case, learners must achieve those objec-
tives through actual job performance at a unit. During OJT, supervisors
or skilled workers assist learners, monitor their progress and verify that
the objectives have been met.

Unit Funded OJT 12. It is essential that OJT be identified as either a Unit or MA funded activity. OJT
is Unit funded if it is conducted as a part of actual operations. In this case, the
learner performs the actual job under the supervision of a skilled worker who
will verify that the required standard of performance for the objective has
been met. A learner may be required to perfect skills that have been learned
on course with reference to job aids. Time, effort and resources to support the
OJT, outside of or beyond what the job requires, should be minimal.

MA Funded OJT 13. OJT is MA funded if it is conducted in the job environment but requires
the unit to stage work or learning opportunities outside of or beyond actual
operations (such as providing formal lessons, or stripping and re-building
an engine for training purposes only). In this case, there is a training cost in
time, effort and resources that are diverted from unit operations. Therefore,
the MA funds the resources required to conduct such OJT.
14. In either case, the MA and training establishment that delivers the instruc-
tional programme are responsible to provide units with the instructions,
checks, records and contacts associated with conducting OJT. Any instruc-
tional materials required for OJT should be produced and trialed during
the Development phase along with all other materials required for the
instructional programme.

Assess 15. Once the instructional material required to support a particular IT&E activity
is determined, developers can assess the development options available
Development to them. The pros and cons of various options for the development of
Options instructional material are provided in Table 2.
16. The lesson specifications should detail the instructional materials required on
a “per-learner” basis. Developers must use this information to select a devel-
opment option and provide sufficient quantities of instructional materials for
each course serial. The number of learners, the number of locations and the
timings of serials (concurrent, overlapping, one shortly after another) requir-
ing these materials must be considered when determining the
quantities needed.

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Table 2: Development Options

OPTION PROS CONS DECISION FACTORS

Internal Develop CF Cost to establish and maintain. Use when environment exists or it is cost
resources, effective (per student) to establish.
expertise and Expertise and capability may
capability. be short lived, depending on
CF requirements.

Commercial Well-defined Developer must have, or Use when:


Contract costs as long develop, expertise in project
CF expertise is not available.
as requirement definition and planning and
is established in contracting processes such Development environment or
and stable. as Request for Proposal (RFP) infrastructure in the CF does not exist.
Request for Standing Offer
Development level of effort (hours)
(RFSO).
exceeds CF staff capacity.
Less control of processes
and/or outcome.
Long lead times may be
required, considering times for
contracting process, approval
turn-around and shipping.

Combination Makes efficient Requires much planning, Use when each development component
use of resources. coordination and management. can be clearly defined and assigned to
participants.
High risks unless requirements
and responsibilities are clearly
defined.

Commercial In some cases Content may not be fully Use when the material most nearly meets
Purchase or low start-up effective without modification. CF requirements with no, or minimal,
Lease costs. modification.
May be legally or technically
difficult to modify.
May not have vendor technical
support.

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Determine Resource 17. Instructional materials may include other resources, such as loaned unit
equipment and stores. All resources fall into three general classes:
Requirements
a. Consumables. Most consumable material required is identified in the
training plan. However, some consumables may not be identified directly.
For example, additional consumable material and supplies such as test
sheets or booklets may be required to meet the needs of the assessment
plan. The quantities of each consumable item required should be tracked
to ensure that each instructor and learner receives the appropriate allot-
ment for a given course serial. Consumable materials need to be replaced
for each course serial. In the case of ammunition, POL and other
hazardous materials, proper storage must be available;
b. Non-consumables. The lesson specifications should define any non-
consumable material such as vehicles, tanks, or aircraft to name a few
that must be available for the delivery of instruction. Non-consumable
materials may be reused from serial to serial. Developers must ensure that
sufficient serviceable, non-consumable items are available to cover course
requirements; and
c. Facilities. Facilities, such as classrooms, workshops, ranges et cetera,
required for instruction should also be identified in the lesson specifi-
cation under Resources Required. Facility requirements become more
of an issue when learning environments, through distributed instruction,
include learning centres, video teleconference sites, or workplace computer
stations versus the traditional classroom. It should be noted that additional
personnel may be required to support facilities by assisting in the instruc-
tion and/or operation of classrooms, theatres, system/equipment specific
rooms and other equipment needed by learners. The use of an aircraft
flight simulator for training is an example of this situation.
18. Developers must plan for the time, material and support personnel needed
to ensure that facilities and non-consumables are available to meet the require-
ments for the duration of each course serial. Additional resource requirements
may be identified during lesson trials and rehearsals. A list of newly identified
resources should be fed back to the Design staff to ensure that appropriate
corrections can be made to the lesson specifications.

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PPMRAOT CE UR RI AEL I N S T R U C T I O N A L
Overview 19. Instructional material can be procured from a variety of sources. Pre-developed
materials can be purchased “off-the-shelf” or the CF can procure instructional
materials as part of the purchase of new equipment. The CF can also contract
for the development of materials to meet a specific training requirement.

Estimate 20. Due to the variety of IT&E activities required to meet CF requirements and the
wide range of related instructional materials available to support these activi-
Development Time ties, development time and effort can vary extensively. It is important to have
an estimate of how long it will take to develop materials in order to ensure
they will be available for the first scheduled serial and to anticipate costs if
materials are to be procured externally. To calculate an estimate of timings
refer to the general guidelines on the average level of effort (hours) to
develop products detailed at Annex C.

Other Government 21. Instructional material for the operation or maintenance of equipment, such
as shipboard auxiliary machinery or airfield infrastructure, may be available
Departments or from other government departments either on loan or through purchase.
Militaries Materials may require some modification in order to meet CF requirements.

Contracting 22. Table 3 lists the two contracting authorities that DND and the CF uses to
procure goods or services for contracts valued over $5000.00 as of the date
of this publication. Director Contracting Policy (DC Pol) can authorize any
individual, who has the funds, to enter into and sign a service contract val-
ued over $5,000.00. The unit has authority to procure goods and services
of $5000.00 or less. Personnel should refer to the departmental document
Delegation of Authorities for Financial Administration for the Department
of National Defence and the Canadian Forces for further information on
delegated authorities.

Table 3: Contracting Authorities

FOR SERVICES OVER $5000.00 FOR GOODS OVER $5000.00

Director Contracting Policy Public Works and Government Services

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Contract For Services 23. The Department of National Defence (DND) contracting policy must be fol-
lowed when procuring services for the development of instructional material.
This is essential to avoid problems during the procurement process and pos-
sible future problems with respect to contract management and justification
for letting the contract to the selected source. The DND standard procedure,
as of the date of this publication, calls for the preparation of a Request for
Proposal (RFP) supported by a Statement of Work (SOW) through DC Pol
for contracts valued over $25,000.00.
24. For complete details on preparing documents used in contracting refer
to Volume 10, Managing Individual Training and Education in Projects.
Particular attention must be paid to Annexes C, D and E. By tailoring these
Annexes, the developer can make the SOW sufficiently detailed and precise
to ensure delivery of effective material for the course concerned.
25. If Standing Offers are sought a different set of rules apply. The use of
Standing Offers implies that there is an ongoing requirement to let a series
of small contracts for the same requirement. A Request for Standing Offer
(RFSO), with a Statement of Work (SOW) and other supporting documenta-
tion, will normally be processed through a designated contracting authority
or DC Pol. The result may be a Standing Offer with one or more contractors,
who can then be tasked on a rotational basis. A dollar limit is placed on any
one call-up. The dollar limit will vary depending on the Standing Offer.
Note: Standing Offers are not contracts. A Standing Offer is simply an
offer from a potential supplier to provide specific goods or services under
pre-defined terms and conditions. A contract does not exist until a call-up
is made against the Standing Offer.

Contract For Goods 26. Usually, for RFPs and RFSOs for goods (instructional materials) Public
Works, Government Services Canada (PWGSC) must act as an agent for
the CF as DC Pol and DND contracting authorities can only process service
contracts. In this case, DND can procure goods through PWGSC who will
distribute the contracting documents and receive the responses from the
bidders. PWGSC will also act as go between or conduit for queries from
potential bidders and the related responses from the CF.
Note: Personnel should refer to Defence Administrative Order and Directive
(DAOD) 3004, Contracting, for further guidance on contracting.

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Ensure Materials 27. The federal government has a CANCOPY license that authorizes the copying
of up to 10 percent of a published work for the purpose of conducting gov-
Meet Copyright and ernment business and delivering government programmes and services.
Intellectual Property For example, one can copy an entire newspaper article, a short story or article
from a periodical issue or a chapter of a book. Copies, however, cannot be
Right Laws permanently bound into anthologies. Personnel should refer to the Licence for
the Reprographic Reproduction of Published Works Subject to Copyright,
Treasury Board Secretariat (May 1994, Amended 1998) for further information.
28. Developers must be constantly aware of their responsibilities with respect to
incorporating copyrighted or proprietary intellectual property into CF materi-
al. This is particularly true of material obtained from non-paper sources.
Paper sources generally have copyright or proprietary claims bound into the
document, whereas non-paper sources generally have this data recorded in
such a manner that it becomes separated from the main material, or is other-
wise not readily evident. Developers must ensure that written authority from
the copyright or proprietary rights claimant is received and filed at the origi-
nating unit before any such material is converted or incorporated into CF
material. This requirement is different from “per seat” licensing agreements
that may be needed if, for example, software is to be used as-is over a period
of time or on a repeated basis.

Translate Materials 29. Translation of instructional material will be required in accordance with
the Official Languages Act. The CF's goal is to conduct IT&E in the preferred
official language (OL) of the learner. Personnel should refer to Canadian
Forces Administrative Order (CFAO) 9-53, Language of Instruction, for
additional information.

Selecting 30. Units are now responsible for managing OL translation within their respective
organizations using their own operating budgets. Therefore, units have the
Translation option to purchase translation services internally or externally.
Sources a. Internal. Services can be purchased from the PWGSC Translation
Bureau. A Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between the Translation
Bureau and the CF/DND has been put in place for the provision of services.
The Translation Bureau should be contacted in advance to determine how
much time would be required to translate instructional material. If the
translated material cannot be provided to meet deadlines, developers may
decide that a commercial contract should be explored as a more expedient
means of obtaining translated work.

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b. External. Other than direct purchase of translated material from the produc-
er of the instructional material, contracting from commercial sources is the
only other source for translated work. Developers must assure themselves
that the companies considered for the work have the technical expertise and
the second-language skills to effect an accurate translation for the intended
audience. When services are provided through contracting, the contractor
must ensure the bilingual documentation's accuracy with an attestation that
the Translation Accuracy Check (TAC) was done. A TAC is the means by
which a content specialist ensures that the translation perfectly mirrors
the original text in its content as well as its grammar.
31. All translations must be consistent with approved DND and CF terminology.
Approved terminology sources include Defence Terminology Management
System (DTMS) terminology bank, Concise Oxford Dictionary (for English),
Petit Robert (for French) and TERMIUM (PWGSC Translation Bureau
Linguistic Data Bank). DAOD 5039-4, Translation of Texts and Acquisition
of Bilingual Documentation, should be referred to for further information.
Note: Translation of materials should not be carried out until the product
is relatively stable (i.e. after a pilot course, if possible). Once course materials
are translated, the second language version of the course should then
be piloted.

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PPMRAOT DE UR CI AEL I N S T R U C T I O N A L
Overview 32. Instructional material consists of all types of material that support learning.
Instructional materials can range in complexity from a simple handout to
very complex simulators. In-house development is appropriate when the
equipment to produce materials is available. In-house production allows
for the development of internal expertise and complete control of a project.
Often a combination of in-house development with external support may
be required.

Develop Print-based 33. These instructional materials can include reading materials, exercises,
handouts, worksheets or books to name a few. Some points to consider
Material when developing print-based materials include:
a. Font. Use select fonts that have large, well-spaced letters such as the
Times New Roman style with a type size of 10 to 12 points. No more
than two different fonts per page should be used;
b. Text. Only use all capitals in headings as it slows the reader down.
Highlight text by using bold or italics;
c. Bullets. Add bullets to draw attention to ideas in text;
d. Icons. Icons are small pictures used to highlight important points or
indicate activities to be performed;
e. Blank space. Leave ample space between sections of material and in
the margins. This is easier to read than a page full of text; and
f. Content. In longer text, comparisons, examples and drawings should
be included in order to reach all learners.
The text in Figure 2 illustrates the use of some of the points above.

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Figure 2: Study Assignment

STUDY ASSIGNMENT 1

Instructions:
1. Read the case study provided.
2. Write your response to the questions on
page 8 in report form.
3. Once you have completed your report the instructor will provide you
with a sample solution. Compare your solution to the sample. If you
would like additional practice complete Study Assignment 1A.
∆ Remember to refer to the course-writing guide when
writing your report.
Take a break…and proceed to the CBT Session 2.

Note: Some interactivity can be incorporated into a workbook. For example,


students can be directed to start certain activities, skip ahead if material is
already known, or choose what area to work in next.

Produce Visuals 34. Visuals support verbal presentations and enhance learning considerably as
individuals learn and retain over 50 percent of what they both see and hear.
Some types of visuals and their associated development considerations
include:
a. Realistic Images and Objects. The real object is often the most effective
visual aid because it replicates the job. To effectively use the real object it
should be safe, big enough for everyone to see or small enough and avail-
able so that each person can have one. Realistic images refer to quality
photographs of real objects. Realistic objects and images are most effective
when they are used after a new idea or concept has been introduced.
b. Graphics. Graphics include charts, graphs and maps. These types of
graphics can effectively illustrate relationships between points or concepts.
Diagrams, illustrations, drawings, cartoons and other pictorial material are
also graphics. They can convey a concept and catch a person's attention to
stimulate thinking and learning. Some points to consider when developing
a graphic include:
1. present one idea or concept;
2. avoid excessive details;
3. highlight important elements with brightest and lightest colours; and
4. ensure lettering and elements contrast with background.

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c. Projected Visuals. Overhead transparencies or slides can be easily devel-


oped by hand or by using computer software. Guidelines for developing
projected visuals include:
1. illustrate key points;
2. use key words, as headers, to facilitate retention of each point;
3. include a maximum of six words per line and six lines on
each slide; and
4. lettering should be large enough to be clearly read from the back
of the classroom.
Figure 3 provides an example (reduced in size) of an effective projected visual.

Figure 3: Sample Projected Visual

LEARNING SUPPORT

• Comparisons
• Reasons
• Examples
• Statistics
• Testimony

d. Mock-ups. These materials can provide three-dimensional representation


of a concept or context such as an airfield or battleground when it is
required for learning. In-house mock-ups can be constructed with the
creative use of paint and construction materials. In addition, miniature
model tanks, planes, vehicles and other props can be purchased
“off-the-shelf” as needed.

Produce 35. Films, audiotapes, slides and videos can be developed with the assistance of
local Graphics Artists or in-house with the proper equipment, training and
Conventional practice. Referring to resource materials and attending courses that provide
Audio-Visual instruction are recommended depending on the complexity of the project.
Presentation software, such as PowerPoint, often includes tutorials and
Material tips on developing effective presentations. The following points should
be considered:
a. the audio portion of these materials must be clear and easily discerned
by the listener; and
b. graphics for both audio-visual and presentation software, similar to
projected visuals, should be kept simple, clearly visible and with a
minimum amount of words per slide.

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Produce 36. Technology-based instructional materials such as computer-based training


(CBT) and multimedia must be comprehensive in their design. It is important
Technology-based for developers to try to anticipate possible learner actions in order to make
Material the material as effective as possible. Generally, these types of interactive
courseware should provide a learning situation that cannot be provided in
print or as easily in the classroom. For example, when multimedia is used as
a linear page-turner it may not provide the learner with anything more than
can be provided in a high quality text with graphics. On the other hand,
multimedia that allows the learner to role-play in difficult or dangerous
situations and as often as they wish is significantly enhancing the learning
process. While role-play is effective with real people in the classroom there
may be limitations on how many roles, practice opportunities and the types
of situations that can be provided. Therefore, in this example, the interactive
courseware is effectively enhancing learning.
37. The developmental resources and expertise required for technology-based
instruction will be substantially greater than those needed for basic classroom
instruction. If in-house expertise is limited professional assistance may be
required. Generally, the more complex the learning requirement, the more
effort and detail will be required for the Development phase of the systems
approach to training. Effective technology-based instructional material has
been shown to have several key attributes such as:
a. materials focus on meeting the needs of the learner and provide
the content that must be learned;
b. materials require that the learner interact in a meaningful way
with course content;
c. materials are relevant to the real world;
d. materials permit learner control (choice of activities or sequence
of completion); and
e. materials are easily accessible and readily available when needed.
Whether this material is partially developed by industry or not, a great
deal of in-house work must be initially completed to accurately define
what content and learning experience the material should provide to
meet learners needs.
Note: The benefits and concerns associated with using various instructional
media are detailed in Annex E of Volume 4, Design of Instructional Programmes.

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Develop Assessment 38. Assessment is carried out to determine if learning is taking place.
Assessment occurs when a measurement is compared with a standard, and
Instruments a judgment is made which is based on that comparison. The Design phase
assessment plan specifies how achievement of the PO will be assessed and
how learner progress through enabling objectives (EOs) will be assessed.
In some instances there will be provisions for cases where direct observation
may be limited or not possible such as for safety reasons.
39 Assessment usually involves two types of tests as follows:
a. Practical. In a practical test, the learner carries out a required action and
performance is measured against a standard using a checklist or rating
scale. To ensure validity these tests are job oriented and as realistic as
possible. Refer to Volume 7, Part 3, Constructing Practical Tests for
additional information; and
b. Theory. In a theory test, the learner describes, in writing or orally, the
knowledge required to apply job skills. Theory tests are comprised of
multiple choice; matching; true-or-false; fill-in-blanks and essay type
questions. Theory tests require careful construction, scoring, recording
and analysis of results. Refer to Volume 7, Part 4, Constructing Theory
Tests for more information.
40. Testing occurs during or at the end of an instructional module.
These two cases consist of:
a. Formative testing. These enabling checks help the instructional staff and
learners measure progress for confirmation of the learning process, or to
recognize areas that require remedial measures. Formative testing is con-
ducted throughout the programme and reinforces learning by strengthening
retention of the subject matter. The scores of formative testing are used only
for these purposes, and are not summed, averaged, nor used as a factor in
summative testing; and
b. Summative testing. These performance checks determine learner achieve-
ment of the POs and/or critical EOs that are prerequisites to further IT&E.
Standards staff must determine the content to be assessed and design sum-
mative tests. Whenever possible, standards staff will administer and score
the summative tests. Instructional staff may assist if required. Summative
testing is applied at the end of an instructional phase/module.

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41. Developers shall ensure that tests and testing material are developed to
meet the requirements of the training and assessment plan. Tests are piloted
to ensure that they produce consistent results and are valid. Standards staff,
subject matter experts and instructional staff will be involved in the develop-
ment, piloting and evaluation of tests. The developer is also responsible for
reporting the results of evaluation inconsistencies to the Design staff.
Note: Training and assessment should always be performance oriented.

Develop the 42. The sequence of instruction is important to the success of any instructional
programme. Instructional activities should be scheduled to promote the best
Course Timetable possible learning conditions.
43. Time estimates to conduct various parts of a lesson can be found in the
lesson specification. In the example in Annex I of Volume 4, Design of
Instructional Programmes, time is allotted to each teaching point for instruc-
tor presentation or demonstration and learner performance or practice of the
applicable action. The total time required indicates the sum of the instruc-
tion, practice and testing time for the lesson. It is important to note the time
allotted for testing because it includes time for activities such as debriefing
by an instructor or peers, on a task. For example, debriefing a learner on a
command appointment on a leadership course. Remedial training arising
from these activities could use up as much as 10% of the allotted test time.
In addition, the aggregate of time estimates for individual phases/modules
within a course are valuable in establishing the course timetable.

Characteristics 44. A well-planned instructional programme has the following characteristics:


a. Progression. The programme must bring the course member to the
required standard through a logical sequence of instruction;
b. Variety. Wherever possible without being at cross-purposes, POs and EOs
should be presented in a variety of sequences to foster learner interest and
alertness. Different methods of instruction can also be employed to offset
boredom and fatigue. A description of instructional methods is presented
in Annex C of Volume 4, Design of Instructional Programmes;
c. Tempo. The tempo of instruction should build through periods of intense
activity and conclude with a final period of intense activity at the end of
the course. Throughout the course, periods of intense activity should be
followed by periods of relative relaxation;
d. Efficiency. An efficient programme is one in which the time required for
purposes other than pure instruction has been correctly appreciated and
allotted. For example, if deemed necessary, several non-training periods
per week can be allocated for Physical Training (PT), and an hour a week
can be allocated for personal administration. Non-training periods do not
count as training days; and

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e. Flexibility. The provision of spare periods for revision necessitated


by unforeseen circumstances is a requirement. Without this reserve a
programme is bound to run into difficulty. The addition of one spare
training day for every thirty scheduled training days is reasonable.

Consider 45. Some factors to be considered by developers when sequencing instructional


Scheduling activities include:
a. Learner characteristics. The current skills, knowledge, attitudes and
Factors characteristics of the learners may affect their response to instructional
modules or to how these are presented in relation to one another;
b. Structure and Choice. The learning order or structure of activities falls
into three main categories, as follows:
1. Move from familiar to unfamiliar subject matter;
2. Move in logical order or natural progression through the subject
matter; and
3. Move in job performance order, with task elements presented as they
occur on the job.
c. Inhibition. Learning two or more similar subjects at the same time causes
inhibition. For example, studying two languages at the same time may
cause confusion due to their similarities. Inhibition occurs when the
similarity between the two subjects causes the learning of one subject
to inhibit or confound the other;
d. Reinforcement. Sometimes the presentation of two or more aspects of the
same subject causes reinforcement. For example, if learners studied the
principles of leadership and military history together, the principles of
leadership would be confirmed or reinforced. The military history would
provide examples of effective or poor leadership and allow learners to put
the concepts learned about leadership into context. The goal is to reinforce
the learning process whenever possible;
e. Saturation. A point of saturation is reached when the rate of learning is
fast, and the process, continuous. The point of saturation is attained more
quickly when the material to be learned consists of series of similar facts.
Facts taught too quickly and continuously for course members to absorb
will not be retained;
f. Fatigue and Effectiveness. In the daily life of an individual there is a nat-
ural rhythm of rising soon after dawn and retiring sometime after sunset.
This rhythm, called the circadian rhythm, is one of rising and falling
energy levels and wakefulness depending on the time of day or night.
The effect of this rhythm on learner fatigue is illustrated in Figure 4.
This rhythm is extremely difficult to break. Even when a learner has
been awake all night, there is a rush of energy just as dawn breaks.
The pattern of the rhythm varies with individual temperaments, with
habit and with climate, but it affects most learners so strongly that, in
normal conditions, the following general rules should be applied:

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1. Schedule the hardest work between breakfast and lunch.


2. Schedule the most interesting work later on in the day.
3. Schedule short training exercises at night shortly after dusk.
4. Schedule night exercises designed for testing between midnight
and dawn.
5. Do not schedule any training in the hours before dawn.

Figure 4: Daily Work Curve

g. Enabling and Performance Checks. Enabling checks must lead up to each


Performance Check. Performance Checks should be spaced out over the
course of a programme;
h. Environmental conditions. Consideration must also be given to excessive
exposure to climatic or environmental (natural and man-made) situations
that are detrimental to learning. The exception to this is when training
and/or assessment must be conducted in the conditions stated in the PO,
such as at night, that reflect the job requirements;
i. Administration. Administrative activities must be scheduled to ensure
they complement the training activities. For example, supplies and stores
must be ordered and available at the time they are needed. This extends
to ensuring staff are available to issue stores when required and to receive
returned stores at the end of the applicable training session or module;
j. Maintenance. System or training material maintenance should be sched-
uled to occur between course serials. This may mean that scheduled and
preventive maintenance activities must be adjusted to accommodate the
training requirement. Developers must carry out the administration to
arrange for these changes when and as they are permitted; and
k. Schedule factors. Limiting factors, such as safety, and learning conditions
will generally be defined in the lesson specifications. These must be
adhered to regardless of their impact on the sequence of instruction.
However, new factors may arise during trials and rehearsals. Any adjust-
ments that affect the training schedule but do not impact the learning or
assessment processes should be deferred so that they occur between
course serials. These new factors must be reported to the Design staff.

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Scheduling 46. The developer must evaluate the requirements and time estimates in the
training plan in conjunction with the factors addressed above. The aim is
to structure the timetable to achieve the intent of the training plan, take
full advantage of the instructional staff and training material, and to meet
the needs of the learners. For on-site courses, a standard training day may
be built in 40 or 50-minute periods with 5 to 10 minute breaks between
periods. The actual daily instructional time may vary between 300 and 400
minutes. Distance learning programmes should follow the same guidelines
for periods and breaks, but due to the nature of the medium, restrain the
actual daily instructional time to no more than 160 to 200 minutes.

Instructional Week 47. The normal instructional week is five days, Monday to Friday. Resource
and facility usage may require working longer weeks, or for five days over
a normal holiday. In extraordinary circumstances (crisis, mobilization, or
similar urgent operational situations), it may be necessary to have a six-day
instructional week. It is not recommended to exceed this rate, even for a
ten-day course. Learning, remembering and instruction are more effective
if learners are not fatigued.

Instructional Media 48. Excessive time in a day or a week with respect to particular training media
or conditions that may have a mental or physical impact on the learning
process should be monitored. Guidelines on the maximum amount of time
a particular media/method should be used in a typical 6 to 8 hour training
day and 5-day week are provided in Table 4.
Note: Assessment using these media should follow the same limits,
unless otherwise specified in the conditions and standards of the
Performance Objective.

Evening Instruction 49. Generally, instruction whether classroom, self-study or distance learning
should be scheduled during normal working hours. The exception to this
is when training and/or assessment must be conducted in the conditions
stated in the PO, such as at night, that reflect the job requirements. If
evening instruction is required for instructional activities, such as night
firing, the schedule should allow time for dinner and administration and
end in time to permit learners to get a minimum of six hours sleep after-
wards. Evening instructional time should not exceed 160 to 200 minutes.
Evening instructional time should be used sparingly to maintain the
quality of learning.

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Table 4: Maximums by Instructional Media Per Day

MEDIA/METHOD MAXIMUM PER TRAINING DAY

Instructor (classroom) 6 hours (using a variety of instructional strategies and activities)


Instructor (shop, field, 2 hours
parade square)

Linear, computer based text, 2 hours with scheduled breaks (Two 2 hour periods may be scheduled if
and videotape each period is followed by another type of learning activity and media)

Printed Text (paper-based) 4 hours (interspersed with other activities after one hour)

Learner-centered technology: 4 hours: Given that materials are self-paced and interactive (include multiple
Computer Based Training branching, graphics and sound relevant to task). Learners must be able to
(CBT), Multimedia and Web take unscheduled breaks as needed. The more interactive the materials, the
Based Training (WBT) longer learners may be able to focus on course content.

Station Simulator (pilot, tank, 4 hours (depends upon simulated mission and lesson plan)
games, surveillance operation)

Facilitated or group paced tech- 4 hours (interspersed with other activities for a minimum of 30 minutes
nology: CBT, WBT, Multimedia, after each
Audio, Video and Computer
Conference

Operational Conditions 50. When a PO requires a learner to perform for prolonged periods, it is necessary
to train and assess for that operational requirement. During the instructional
phase it is best to first teach and allow learners to practice while they are
well rested (allowing for a minimum of 6 hours undisturbed sleep) and then
continue to practice under more demanding conditions. Assessment should
mimic operational conditions as far as it is safe and practical to do so. While
a course may operate on a 24 hour basis for days or weeks at a time, it is nec-
essary for safety and instructional purposes that staff and learners obtain a
minimum amount of sleep (varies from two to four hours) every 24 hours.

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Homework 51. Self and group studies are not normally included in course schedules.
After hours study and project work should not exceed two hours per
evening or eight hours per weekend.

Develop Lesson Plans 52. The instructors who will teach the programme should develop the lesson
plans based on the teaching points and instructional strategy provided in the
lesson specifications of the training plan.
53. The instructor must initially examine the lesson specification in order to group
teaching points and determine the number of lessons that will be needed to
teach all points. The total time allocated for instruction in the specification
must be considered here as well as the instructional strategy for each lesson.
For example, the number of instructors available for a given skill lesson may
affect whether the individuals practice a task consecutively or concurrently.
Guidelines on instructor to learner ratios are further detailed at Annex D.
54. The format and style of an Instructor or Master Lesson Plan (MLP) will vary
depending on the instructional strategy for the lesson. However, generally
the steps outlined below will be followed to write a lesson plan:
a. review the lesson specification in order to determine lesson requirements
such as method, time, references and the context of each lesson;
b. ensure that the teaching points are clearly defined and that the number of
points to be taught is appropriate for the allotted time. If not, amendments
to the training plan may be required to adjust timings;
c. review references and relevant documents or master lesson plans
if available;
d. write lesson objectives for each lesson;
e. draft end of lesson tests;
f. outline and sequence the teaching points that are to be conveyed
for the lesson;

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g. develop teaching points as per the instructional strategy specified in


lesson specification. This will entail the review of references and existing
materials as well as the development of learning support (comparisons,
reasons, examples, statistics and testimony);
h. describe/identify learning aids such as visuals (pictures, graphics,
diagrams, video sequences), models, audio recordings, simulations;
i. define learner interactions: describe what the learners must do (read,
listen, discuss, answer questions, perform procedure etc.). Incorporate
questions, group work or individual activities to develop and assess
learners abilities as needed; and
j. write the lesson in full to include an introduction, body, and conclusion.
Note: Refer to Annex E, F and G, respectively, for detailed information
on the contents of a lesson plan, the development of learning support,
and questions.

55. Throughout the lesson development process, developers should consult


with subject matter experts (SME), instructors and instructional designers for
assistance as required. The development of lesson plans is essential to sup-
port the delivery of effective instruction. Developers may need to be creative
in order to invent and/or adapt materials to foster the appropriate learning
environment. Personnel should refer to Volume 6, Delivery of Instructional
Programmes, for further details on the delivery of instruction.

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CCR OE VN IDSUEC TM AT RT EI ARLI AS LASN D


Purpose 56. The purpose of this process is to assess the effectiveness of lesson
guidance and instructional material. This process is essential to avoid
the costly procurement or production of instructional material that proves
to be ineffective when used.

Timing 57. The review of lesson guidance and training materials by SMEs must start
early in the Development phase. This ensures that material can be reviewed,
tested and proven effective before translation and the start of formal training.

Trial Material 58. The trial of instructional materials may consist of:
a. Initial review. Review materials to ensure they develop
the learning activity;
b. Expert Review. Content SMEs review instructional materials and verify
the accuracy and completeness of content. Instructional staff can assess
how well the materials are likely to promote learning. Technical staff
can assess technical issues such as the fidelity of a recording;
c. One on One. This refers to a trial of materials with an individual learner
who represents the target population. A one on one trial allows us to
assess whether the instructional materials are aimed at the appropriate
level, are of interest and able to get the message across; and
d. Group or field trials. Trials of instructional materials with learners who
are representative of the target population can be conducted with small or
large groups depending on the context and the availability of personnel.
As trials with groups simulate the actual learning environment, they allow
us to assess the delivery of instructional material and their effectiveness
assisting learners to meet the objectives.
59. If the instructional staff selected to conduct a trial is the same staff selected
to teach the course serials, the trials may double as instructor rehearsals.
The developer, subject matter experts and standards staff must attend the trials
to ensure that all aspects are evaluated and any discrepancies are noted. These
staff members should also assist in follow-up, ensuring any corrections they
are empowered to make are implemented. Adjustments and any uncorrected
deficiencies must be reported back to the Design staff, thereby ensuring that
changes to the lesson guidance are initiated. Any new limiting factors identi-
fied during the trials should also be reported to the Design staff.

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Consider Partial 60. Consideration must be given as to whether the trials are to be conducted
in one block, or segmented. The main consideration is to ensure that timings
and Full Trials are met. The effect of the selected method for conducting trials must be mea-
sured against its effect on staff, learners and the overall schedule.

Pilot Course 61. A pilot course is a full trial of the instructional programme prior to imple-
menting training at the IT&E establishment. A pilot course does not result
in qualifications for participants unless there are no significant revisions
required to course content. The decision to award a qualification to partici-
pants will be determined by the MA. Elements evaluated during a pilot
course are outlined in Table 5.

Table 5: Pilot Course Evaluation Factors.

ELEMENTS: EVALUATION CRITERIA:

Course documentation Accuracy, consistency and completeness.


Usefulness, to instructors and administrators.

Tests Validity and reliability.

Learning aids Relevance to course content.


Enhancement of learning.
Appropriateness to learner background and needs.

Instructional Strategy Appropriate for the objective and content.


Effective for learners.
Efficient in terms of costs.

Implementation Consistency between planned and actual events in terms of:


sequence of instruction;
content; and use of facilities and equipment.
Limiting factors and unforeseen events.

Infrastructure Classroom, workshop or other learning environment is suitable.

Time Allocation Appropriate course and lesson duration.

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Revise Materials 62. Problems and revisions required to the instructional programme are identified
throughout the course trial. Problems with the instructional programme may
arise from different sources and involve a variety of factors. Some of these are
outlined in the Table 6.
Table 6: Examples of Sources and Factors Requiring Revisions and Retrials.

SOURCES EXAMPLES OF FACTORS

Instructional programme Incomplete design or other inaccuracies;


Misinterpretations; incorrect media or strategies.

System being taught Inaccuracies in policies, functions, operation and support


concept; problems in design; problems in operation and/or
support functions.

Facilities Incomplete assessment of operational or support needs;


inadequate lead times for construction, utilities.

Training material Incomplete assessment of needs; inadequate effectiveness;


development time/cost; availability.

Support material Incomplete assessment of needs; availability.

Staffing Insufficient personnel with appropriate background;


retention.

Timing/Sequence of instruction Seasonal considerations; time of day in relation to other activities; the
sequence causes learning problems; “all-weather” taught/assessed in good
weather; “daytime/night time” requirement taught/assessed in daytime;
excessive hours per day or sequential days in training.

Learners Insufficient skills relative to learning requirement;


inadequate level of population representation.

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63. The analysis of problems arising from the trial of the instructional
programme and its impact on the IT&E activity can be conducted
using the following three steps:
a. identify potential problems arising from the trial and ensure all areas
are examined;
b. rank the potential problems in a range of concern. This includes an
evaluation of the complexity of the problem and how critical it is to
the success of the IT&E activity; and
c. define options/solutions to address the problems and how to implement
them. Then examine the cost-benefit of addressing the problem and the
cost-benefit of each option.

Consider Retrials and 64. When all the problems have been addressed, developers must consider
whether time and effort should be spent on a retrial of affected areas.
Instruction Life Cycle The seriousness of the problems identified and the probability and
Revision Rates consequence of failure on learners' performance will determine if
a retrial is warranted.
65. Instruction life cycle revision rates for IT&E activities are dependent on
the stability of the course and the instructional materials. Considerations
in deciding revision rates include forecasts of changes to the instructional
programme and its support concept, planned or forecast changes to occupa-
tion specifications, as well as the complexities, time and effort that will be
involved in incorporating training to accommodate these changes. These,
and system or equipment specific critical items, if any, can be used to devise
a revision rate. Life cycle revision rates can also be technology based (hard-
ware/software dependant). Annex G addresses programme design and evalua-
tion rates for IT&E establishment Standards to assist in the development of
life cycle revision rates. Annex C, which details level of effort rates for IT&E
services may also be of assistance.

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PP R E P A R E S T A F F
Overview 66. Developers are to ensure that an instructional staff is available and prepared
to the required level in instructional techniques to carry out an IT&E activity.
Instructors, standards and support staff must also be prepared with respect
to the system and to handling pertinent administrative aspects of the
IT&E activity.

Prepare Standards 67. As standards staff must attend the trial of instructional materials to evaluate
its effectiveness it is essential that standards personnel are knowledgeable
and Support Staff of the aim and content of the instructional programme. This will require
allocating time to conduct a thorough review of the training documentation.
Similarly, if support staff is required to participate in trials of the instructional
material it is essential that they be fully briefed on the instructional programme
and materials employed. In the case of an instructional programme where new
equipment is being introduced formal training on the operation of the equip-
ment may also be required. Provision of any training or preparation required
by standards or support staff must take place prior to programme
implementation.

Schedule Training for 68. As a minimum, developers should measure potential instructors against
the requirements for successful completion of Basic Instructional Techniques
Instructional Staff described in the CFTDC document Courses and Services, Volume 2. It is
recommended that instructors also attend the Advanced Instructional
Techniques when time permits. The selected instructors must receive
training on the new material to be taught to the point of being completely
familiar with the course content, lesson guidance and instructional material.

Review Training 69. Instructors should review the course content, instructional materials and
assessment plan used to instruct the programme. The assessment plan portion
Documentation of the training plan, along with the lesson specifications, can provide the
instructional staff with guidance on the aim and extent of testing and specific
details relating to performance or enabling objectives. This information is
valuable in ensuring that critical material is emphasized during the different
phases of the lesson.

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Trial Equipment 70. In general, training is accomplished by instructors who lead individuals or
groups in learning activities, or by alternate means, such as self-study, com-
and Training Aids puter based training (CBT), inter-active multimedia or video conferencing.
Depending on the technology involved, instructors may require additional
preparation and training in facilitating distance learning and multimedia.
Instructors should attend CFTDC courses such as Interactive Courseware
Design and Distance Learning Technologies for Managers if they are using
these technologies.

Rehearse Lessons 71. Instructors must also be given the time and resources to rehearse the training
sessions as they are described in the lesson specifications and to pilot the
tests that are developed to evaluate the learning. If the staffing, course materi-
al, resources and scheduling permit, some staff training and rehearsals may
be implemented as part of the Conduct Trials and Revisions process.
Note: The development of instructors should continue beyond their initial
preparation for a new or revised course. Ongoing instructor development
is further addressed in Volume 6, Delivery of Instructional Programmes

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RRC OE CS OT SR D D E V E L O P M E N T
Purpose 72. Development costs are incurred throughout the creation of a new or revised
course. The purpose of recording costs is to control expenditures and manage
resources. This process allows costs to be monitored or controlled and is
essential in large-scale development efforts that entail substantial investment.

Benefits 73. Recording development costs will benefit training establishments


by allowing them to:
a. calculate estimates and budget for the development of future initiatives;
b. request additional funding if development costs are significantly higher
than estimated in the Design phase; and
c. assess the cost-effectiveness of the selected instructional strategy during
the Evaluation phase.

Create Checklists 74. The process of collecting cost data should begin as early as possible during
the Development phase. Developers are encouraged to create checklists to
ensure that all costs are recorded. These forms must reflect all those costs
identified during the Design phase as well as any new costs that arise.
The Development Cost Factors table at Annex F, Volume 4, Design of
Instructional Programmes, may be used as is, or adapted as required.

Record Cost Data 75. Cost data may arise in many forms and from a variety of sources.
Sources include:
a. invoices from contracts for goods and services or for the purchase
of commercial materials “off-the-shelf”;
b. charges to local budgets through Financial Managerial Accounting
System (FMAS);
c. Canadian Forces Supply System (CFSS); and
d. Cost Factors Manual (CFM). This is an unofficial publication prepared by
the Directorate of Managerial Accounting and Comptrollership 2 (DMAC 2)
that provides a common basis for the estimation of DND personnel, equip-
ment and facility costs. Local data should be used where units have more
accurate and complete information.
Note: Additional financial references are provided at Annex A.

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76. In a large or complex training programme Design and Development phase


cost data should be detailed in a Business Plan. CFSS operates a Customer
Consumption Awareness (CCA) module and can capture all costs associated
with the development of a programme if it is requested at the onset. Any taxes,
such as GST, are to be recorded as a separate entry against the related item.
This ensures that only real training costs are analyzed in order to provide a
valid picture of development costs.
77. For complex programmes involving several threads of instruction, such as
a mounted weapons system (with vehicle mount, fire control system and
weapon), separate partial cost reports should be produced for each subsystem
and major element. An aggregate Total Cost would then be produced as the
end product for the system. This enables more detailed analysis of the cost
of developing an instructional programme.
78. When capturing development costs, it is essential that costs be recorded only
for funding, (personnel, materials, facilities etcetera) expended to develop an
IT&E activity. Recurring costs to operate equipment and facilities are operat-
ing costs and are incurred and recorded when the instructional programme
is conducted. These recurring costs should be included in the unit business
plan. Provision must also be made to track and record development cost data
arising from changes due to iterative Design or Validation phase activities.

Determine Costs 79. To determine actual costs each item developed and produced must be costed.
The results are totaled and combined with overhead, general and administra-
tive expenses, and any contract fees to arrive at a final cost for the develop-
ment of each item. Facilities are costed for design, construction, and the
installation of utilities. Equipment items are costed for development,
production, trials and integration. Materials are costed for design,
production, revisions and translation.

Compare Forecast 80. Comparing actual development costs with the forecast cost enables the
evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of the training process. Comprehensive
to Actual Costs cost reports can point to discrepancies in the forecast or to areas in the IT&E
activity that need to be further examined in order to reduce costs or make the
activity more efficient. The findings from these examinations can lead to bud-
get adjustments which may in turn have an effect on course loading, frequen-
cy of serials or adjusted levels of training facilities, materials or staff.

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R
REFERENCES
Departmental Canadian Forces Training Development Centre Courses, CFB Borden,
References Basic Instructional Techniques (qualification code: AHCH)
Advanced Instructional Techniques (qualification code: 06679(PQ))
Interactive Courseware Design (qualification code: AHCR)
Distance Learning Technologies (qualification code: 07040)

Canadian Forces Training Development Centre, CFB Borden,


Courses and Services, Volume 2
Note: The document Courses and Services, Volume 2 can be found
on the Web at http://home.interhop.net/~cflstc.

Canadian Forces Administrative Orders 9-53, Language of Instruction


Directorate of Managerial Accounting and Comptrollership 2, Cost Factors Manual
Defence Administrative Order and Directive 3004, Contracting
Defence Administrative Order and Directive 5039-4, Translation of Texts
and Acquisition of Bilingual Documentation
ADM Finance and Corporate Services (Fin CS) document, Delegation of
Authorities for Financial Administration for the Department of National Defence
and the Canadian Forces
ADM (Fin CS) guide, Managers Guide to Financial Administration, December 1993
ADM (Fin CS) booklet, Financial Management Accountability
Framework, March 1998

External References Hartnett, J. Is This Click Really Necessary? Online Learning, September 2000.
Heinich, R., Molenda, M., and Russel, J.D. Instructional Media and the New
Technologies of Instruction, New York, and New York: Macmillan Publishing
Company, 1993.
Leshin, C.B., Pollack, J., and Reigeluth C.M., Instructional Design Strategies and
Tactics, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Educational Technology Publications, Inc.,
1992.
Ribler, Ronald I. Training Development Guide, Reston, Virginia: Reston Publishing
Company Inc, 1983
Sabiston, P., An Inquiry Into The Criteria That Identify Quality Adult Web-Based
Learning, Master of Arts Project, April 2000.
Zemke, Ron. How Long Does It Take? Training, May 1997.

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GG L O S S A R Y
Individual Training Individual training and education includes all activities that provide knowledge
and skills to individual members and that normally result in a qualification being
and Education (IT&E) conferred upon the member.

Instructional Strategy The combination of media, methods, and environment used in the
delivery of IT&E.

On-the-Job Unit or MA funded training that enables personnel to learn tasks while on the
job. A supervisor or facilitator demonstrates the skills, observes the learner's
Training (OJT) performance and provides feedback as required. Supervisors must certify that
the learner has performed to the minimum specified standard and passed the
Performance Objective.

Instructional Material All types of material that support learning such as visual, print, audio-visual
and technology-based materials.

Pilot Course A full trial of the instructional programme prior to implementing training
at the IT&E establishment.

Lesson Plan A lesson plan is a guide, used by instructors, to ensure that instruction follows
a specific, goal oriented plan. An instructor lesson plan is developed, based
on a lesson specification, by the instructor who will teach the lesson.

Master Lesson Plan A Master Lesson Plan (MLP) is a lesson plan that is developed for use by any
instructor and held on file at the IT&E establishment. MLPs are useful when
there is a high turnover of staff or frequent changes to Training Standards/Plans
resulting in little time for instructors to amend their lesson plans.

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D
DEVELOPMENT TIME
Average level of When determining how long it will take to have materials developed, the level of
effort rates (in hours) below can be applied. Each rate is based on the premise that
effort (rates in hours) the developer is also a content Subject Matter Expert (SME) and includes 25%
for IT&E services time for revisions. The estimated number of tasks, Performance Objectives (POs),
Enabling Objectives (EOs), and teaching points (TPs) can be based on documenta-
and products tion for similar systems courses. Task and skill (S), knowledge (K), and/or attitude
(A) TPs are based on the CF definitions provided in Volume 3, Analysis of
Instructional Requirements and Volume 4, Design of Instructional Programmes.
Similar Occupation Specification, systems and courses may be used for estimating
tasks and SKA. Development rates by activity are illustrated in the chart below.
For example, the development time for a SME to develop instructor lessons is
one skill, knowledge or attitude per hour. Therefore, to develop lesson plans for
an Occupation Specialty Specification that contained 10 skills, 15 knowledges,
and 0 attitudes would be 25 hours.
Note: For level of effort rate for contractors the rates below apply, as the person
hired to develop materials will be a SME and will be dedicated to this task. For
in-house development the level of effort rates will be increased by a minimum of
25 percent because, due to the interference of primary job tasks and secondary
duties, in-house personnel cannot normally dedicate 100 percent of their time to
development efforts. For in-house development, the level of effort rates can be
increased by another 25 percent, for consultation with SMEs, if the developer
is not a SME.

ACTIVITY EXPECTED PERFORMANCE BY SME

Analyze Tasks/Performance (OS/OSS) 4 tasks per hour


Analyze Task Elements (SKA) 4 tasks per hour
Analyze Training and Education Requirement 10 tasks per hour
Develop POs 4 tasks per hour
Develop Performance Checks (PCs) 1 task per hour

Develop Task Element Scalar (EOs) 10 SKAs per hour


Develop EO 4 SKAs per hour
Develop Lesson Specification 1 SKA per hour

Develop EC 1 SKA per hour


Develop Instructor Lesson 1 SKA per hour

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D
DEVELOPMENT TIME
Developing The development of technology-based lessons is influenced by many factors
such as those discussed for non-technology-based materials. The chart below
Technology-Based provides an estimate of development time based on the level of technology (0-3).
Lessons Due to the many variables involved, the instructional activity under development
and learner population should be considered when applying this chart to a par-
ticular context.

LEVEL OF TECHNOLOGY BASED LESSON DEVELOPMENT TIME


AND TASKS

Level 0: Traditional delivery styles (low tech)


A skill, knowledge, or attitude 2 hours

Level 1: Basic Interactive Courseware presenting one


lesson after another (linear)
One skill 4 hours
One knowledge 12 hours
One attitude 32 hours

Level 2: Medium simulation courseware allowing


students more control over lesson presentation
One skill 12 hours
One knowledge 24 hours
One attitude 40 hours

Level 3: High simulation presentation providing


extensive interactivity (branching, simulation of
events, re-mediation opportunities)
One skill 32 hours
One Knowledge 64 hours
One attitude 96 hours

All Levels:
Prepare Instructor
Trial Lesson 2 hrs per hour of actual delivery

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IILNESATRRNUECRT ORRA TTIOO S


Principle Generally, training is conducted in the same grouping that you will operate in
on the job. In order to determine the ideal instructor to learner ratio (number of
learners for each instructor) the following factors should be considered:
a. Content (e.g. academic, practical, safety, resources);
b. Learner (e.g. experience, motivation, supervision);
c. Instructional Environment (e.g. classroom, lab, hangar, field);
d. Method of Instruction (e.g. lecture, demo, discussion, practice);
e. Instructional Time (e.g. course duration versus staff and resources); and
f. Schedule (e.g. learner availability, unit commitments, etcetera).

Basic Ratios It is important to note that the basic ratios provided can be affected by the
specific needs of content, learner, environment and method in different contexts.
Therefore, the 6 factors listed above, which apply to a particular learning context,
must be kept in mind to ensure that the instructor to learner ratio provided is
appropriate in a specific situation.

Using the Chart Basic guidelines on instructor to learner ratios are presented in the following
chart. The type of learning activity is described and the basic instructor to learner
ratio for this activity is provided. A lesson specification, for example, might list
discussion as the instructional method for a set of knowledge teaching points.
If you refer to the knowledge learning activities sections in the table the ratio pro-
vided for discussion, as an instructional method is 1:10. This means there should
be one instructor to ten students to conduct an effective discussion. Where 1:n is
the listed ratio n refers to the number of participants appropriate for the specific
learning context.

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TYPE OF LEARNING ACTIVITY BASIC RATIO (E.G. 1:5 – ONE INSTRUCTOR
FOR EVERY FIVE LEARNERS)

Procedural, conceptual, experiential theory 1:10 using discussion method


or knowledge
1:40 using the lecture method
1:25 for facilitated Distance Learning
1:n for Computer Mediated Courses (CMC)

Equipment theory or knowledge 1:40 for classroom lecture method


Employment theory or knowledge 1: n for CMC
1:25 for facilitated Distance Learning

Equipment operation (individual learning) 1:10 for individual learning in a classroom


Equipment maintenance (individual learning) 1: n for CMC

Equipment operation (crew/team learning)


Equipment maintenance (crew/team learning) 1: crew/team

Employment practice (conceptual learning) 1:10 or 1: crew (consisting of less than 10 persons)

Employment practice (crew/team learning) 1: crew

Equipment practice (individual learning)


Remedial practice (instruct or assist) 1:1

Academic Assessment (classroom) 1:n

Practical Assessment (individual) 1:1

Practical Assessment (crew) 1: crew

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LL E S S O N P L A N S
The development and use of a lesson plan assists the instructor to provide
an effective learning experience. The lesson plan consists of an introduction,
body and conclusion.

Introduction The purpose of the introduction is to motivate learners and stimulate their
interest. The introduction can take up to ten percent of the total lesson time.
There will be differences in the contents of the introduction depending on the
media and the instructional method used. For example, in the introduction of
a case study lesson plan the case is introduced, learner roles may be designated,
and group tasks identified. In the introduction of guided discussion lesson plan
the main discussion areas are outlined. The introduction for a typical knowledge
or skill lesson includes:
a. Review – If appropriate, a short review of previously learned material;
b. Objectives – A description of what the learners will be able to do at the
end of the lesson;
c. Importance – An explanation of why learners need to achieve the lesson
objective(s);
d. Fit – A description of how and where this lesson fits in the course or on
the job; and
e. Approach – An overview of how the lesson will be conducted.

Body The body of a lesson presents the material to be learned. Teaching points will
be introduced and developed through learner support and/or well written pre-
planned questions. In typical knowledge and skill lesson plans, teaching points
are grouped and presented in stages to facilitate learning. The main content for
each stage includes:
a. Introduction – An overview of the stage and lead in to teaching points;
b. Teaching points – Each teaching point must be accurate and clearly pre-
sented using the most appropriate instructional method and training aids;
c. Learner participation – In a knowledge/theory lesson, learners participate
by interacting with the class or instructor, considering questions and dis-
cussing lesson content. In a skill lesson, learners will spend most of their
time practicing and performing a skill; and
d. Confirmation – In a knowledge lesson, the instructor confirms learning by
posing questions to the class. In a skill lesson, learning is confirmed by
providing practice and watching students perform a skill.

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LL E S S O N P L A N S
Conclusion During the conclusion of a lesson key points are summarized and linked to future
lessons and the job. The conclusion can take up to five percent of total lesson
time and includes:
a. Summary – During the summary teaching points are reviewed and difficult
points are re-emphasized;
b. Closing statement – The closing statement is used to link the content of the
completed lesson to future lessons; and
c. Re-motivating statement – This statement re-emphasizes the importance
of the lesson.
Note: Personnel should refer to Volume 6, Delivery of Instructional Programmes,
for information on delivering lessons.

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LL E A R N I N G S U P P O R T
Learning support is information that enhances the teaching point. This informa-
tion adds credibility to teaching points and further explains or clarifies the point.
Learning support should be developed for each teaching point in a lesson plan.
Learning support is used to enhance the learning experience by:
1. creating interest and variety;
2. illustrating concepts;
3. clarifying points; and
4. emphasizing points.
Some types of learning support are comparisons, reasons, examples, statistics
and testimony (CREST). Each type of support is described in the following chart.

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LL E A R N I N G S U P P O R T
TYPE DESCRIPTION EXAMPLE

Comparisons Comparisons are used to bridge the gap Comparisons of the last rifle, vehicle, or air-
between concepts learners have already craft used to the new model in terms of the
mastered to the new knowledge that is similarities and differences can help learners
being presented. to retain the new information.
The make up of the learner group must be Word picture comparisons, such as light as
considered when developing comparisons a feather, reinforce and clarify the teaching
to ensure that they will be meaningful. point as well as add interest.

Reasons Reasons assist learners to understand why Safety concerns is a reason instructors
something is carried out in a certain way. may provide to explain why a task must
be completed in a specific manner.
When dealing with controversial topics,
reasons can help learners to accept
teaching points.

Examples Examples can be used to clarify a concept Providing an example of how a table or
or reinforce a point. chart should be used will make it easier for
the learner to understand the steps involved.
An example of how failure to observe safety
precautions resulted in an accident can rein-
force teaching points.

Statistics Statistics can lend support to teaching Statistics such as “50% of information
points and provide emphasis. technology projects succeed” can emphasize
the importance of using project management
techniques.

Testimony Testimony or quotes relevant to the teaching Testimony on the capabilities of new systems
point can be used to add credibility to or equipment introduced to the CF, from
teaching points. someone who has been using it, can add
credibility to teaching points.
Testimony should be from an appropriate
expert that the learners can relate to.

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D
DEVELOPING QUESTIONS
Questions that are carefully developed and incorporated into the lesson plan can
significantly enhance learning. Lead off questions can be used to introduce a topic
or discussion. Follow-up questions on the topic being taught can keep learners
focused on a concept. Questions can be posed, to the class or to specific learners,
throughout lessons to:
1. stimulate thinking and interest on salient points by provoking curiosity
and challenging learners;
2. assess learner comprehension by posing questions on the material taught;
3. develop problem-solving skills by posing problem questions on relevant
activities for learners to solve; and
4. guide the learning process by posing questions that guide learners thinking
through the logical development of the lesson.
The instructional activity, learner characteristics and purpose of a question
will affect how it is written. Criteria for developing well-written questions are
provided in the following chart.

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D
DEVELOPING QUESTIONS

ELEMENTS CRITERIA

Comprehension Questions should be brief, yet complete to ensure learners understand their meaning.

Language level Questions should be written using common words and as clearly as possible.
For example, a first aid question such as “What is the first thing you do if someone
has a myocardial infarction” should be “What is the first thing you do if someone
has a heart attack”.

Difficulty level Questions should:


1. challenge course members to apply their knowledge;
2. not be so easy that the answer is obvious; and
3. not be so difficult that only a few learners can answer.
For example with the question, “Is the naval rank equivalent of Master Warrant
Officer, Chief Petty Officer, second class”, the learner has a 50/50 chance of guessing
the correct answer. Asking instead “Name the naval rank equivalent of Master Warrant
Officer” requires the learner to think more.

Relevant Questions should be developed to reinforce and support the main teaching
points of the lesson.
For example, if teaching about survival in a nuclear war, learner interest can be pro-
moted with a question such as “What would you do to protect yourself if you were
told there will be a nuclear explosion in twenty minutes”. This question is relevant
to the topic. Then questions specific to various teaching points can be developed.

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PPA RN OD GERVAAMLMUEA TDI EO SN I GRNA T E S


FOR IT&E ESTABLISHMENT
STANDARDS
Average Level of Effort When determining how long it will take conduct various evaluation activities,
the level of effort rates below can be applied.
for IT&E Establishment
Standards Evaluation
Activities.

ACTIVITY EXPECTED PERFORMANCE BY SME

Prepare to observe lesson 1:1 period observed

Observe the conduct of lessons or tests 1:1 period

Prepare PCs, ECs and test banks Refer to level of effort rates at Annex C

Administer Tests Refer to Training plan allocations

Score tests 1:1 test/period

Complete observation report 1:1 period

Prepare End Course Review 1 hour for each training week

Conduct End Course Review 1 hour for each training week

Prepare End Course Report 1 hour for each training week

Present End Course Report to Comd/CO 1 hour per session

Revise Design 5% of initial course design per session

Revise Tests 10% of initial test design per session

Revise Materials 10% of initial material design per session

Note: For programme design rates refer to Annex C, Development Time.

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