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Hexagonal DRA With Complementary E-Shaped DGS for Mutual Coupling Reduction

CHAPTER 1
THESIS OVERVIEW
1.1 Introduction
Over the past decades, wireless communication has experienced vast
improvement and growth and will certainly continue to develop and expand its
influence to the life of mankind. This development is due to the growth in information
services and microelectronic devices which merge together to form highly integrated
system an interactive multimedia applications.
For instance, emailing, downloading from the internet and exchanging data
over Bluetooth can be done within one device such as modern smart phones and
handheld Personal Digital Assistant (PDAs). However, the whole wireless system
comprise of many sub-systems which make it totally a complex system. In order to
have smooth data exchanged by using any wireless device all of the sub-system in the
transmitting and receiving part has to be perfect. For wireless communication
systems, the antenna is one of the most crucial part [1].
In the last two decades, two classes of novel antennas have been investigated
and have received considerable attention as radiating elements due their low-profile
properties, simple and inexpensive for mass production and their capability to be
embedded into modern wireless product. They are the Microstrip Patch Antenna
(MPA) and the Dielectric Resonator Antenna (DRA). Both are highly suitable for the
development of modern wireless communications.
The use of dielectric resonator antenna was first proposed by Prof. S. A. Long
in the early nineteen eighties. It is caused by the fact than an antenna is the only
structure for interfacing between guiding device and free-space surrounding it.
Examples for Wireless Communications are 2G, 3G, and 4G Technologies [2].
These antennas are characterized by small size, low weight, and low cost and
can be easily integrated on chip. However, unless advanced design solutions based on
the integration of suitable dielectric superstrates or lensing structures are adopted,
these antennas typically suffer from reduced radiation efficiency and narrow
impedance bandwidth due to the effect of lossy silicon substrate materials. On the
other hand, dielectric resonator antennas (DRAs) are promising candidates to replace
traditional radiating elements at high frequencies, especially for applications at
millimeter waves and beyond [3].This is mainly attributed to the fact that DRAs do

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not suffer from conduction losses and are characterized by high radiation efficiency
when excited properly.
DRAs rely on radiating resonators that can transform guided waves into
unguided waves (RF signals). In the past, these antennas have been mainly realized by
making use of ceramic materials characterized by high permittivity and high factor
(between 20 and 2000). Currently, DRAs made from plastic material (Polyvinyl
Chloride (PVC)) are being realized.
Though different shapes of DRA’S were investigated, but hexagonal DRA has
high radiation efficiency and low return loss of greater than -30 dB [4].
MIMO antenna is used for improving the channel capacity. For MIMO
system, DGS is one of the techniques to reduce mutual coupling between arrays of
antennas. For an effective MIMO system mutual coupling between antennas should
be low. Many techniques have been studied to avoid mutual coupling between
antennas such as using different antenna configurations, DGS designs [5], and
electromagnetic gap between the antennas [6] and using parasitic elements.
DGS can be more effective among all by improving the isolation, bandwidth.
DGS can be obtained by introducing a slot or defect on the ground plane. Thus the
distribution of surface current depends on the shape and dimensions of the slot. It also
controls the excitation and electromagnetic waves that propagate through the surface
layer.
The bandwidth depends on the material permittivity. Higher permittivity
results in size reduction and narrow bandwidth and lower permittivity broadens the
bandwidth. DGS have been used in filters, coplanar wave guides, microwave
amplifiers and suppressing the higher order harmonics.

1.2 Problem Statement


In order to accommodate the ever growing high capacity demands expected in
the near future will require the use of multiple-input Multiple-output (MIMO)
antennas that can provide spatial multiplexing gain, diversity gain, and interference
reduction capability. In MIMO systems coupling degrade the antenna performance.
To improve the spectral efficiency of wireless systems using MIMO requires low
correlation and high isolation between antennas.
An effective technique is demonstrated to substantially increase the isolation
between adjacent Dielectric Resonators in DRAs designed to operate at (11-14) GHz

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for MIMO application. This is achieved by incorporating E-shaped DGS etched on


the ground plane designed to provide band-stop functionality over the operating
frequency range centered at 12.59 GHz. By integrating the Complementary E-Shaped
between the DRs in the H-plane results in the substantial reduction in the mutual
coupling between adjacent radiators. A good design of the antenna can improve
overall system performance and accommodate system requirement.
1.3 Problem Approach
The Problem Approach is to explore an effective technique for reducing the
near-field mutual coupling in Dielectric Resonator Antennas which are operating at
12.59GHz by incorporating a complementary E-Shaped DGS on the ground plane
which may act like an effective electromagnetic shield.
1.4 Thesis Organization
The report has been divided into a total of seven chapters.

Chapter 1 begins with brief introduction of the recent trend in antenna technology
and how to improve isolation between dielectric antennas used for MIMO
applications. This chapter also has laid out the background as to why this research
was carried out and outlined the expected goals of the study.
Chapter 2 provides the basic definition of antenna and what are the
characteristics of antenna for effective bandwidth, radiation.
Chapter 3 provides the introduction to wireless communication and the evolution
in the wireless technologies.
Chapter 4 provides the critical study and thorough analysis into the principle and
basics of Dielectric resonator antenna taken from previous research.In this chapter
types of dielectric resonator antennas are discussed. This chapter focuses more on the
small and low-profile DRA as well as mutual coupling reduction in DRA as these are
the main goal for this research. Some of the Bandwidth Enhancement techniques in
DRAs are also discussed and it also presents the basic theory behind the various
feeding or excitation techniques for DRA including the basic geometries and their
characteristics. The advantages and disadvantages of different feeding methods also
discussed in brief.
Chapter 5 gives the basic idea of defected ground structures, type of defected
ground structure used to reduce the mutual coupling between two antennas.

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Chapter 6 explains the proposed design, the software required to simulate the
antenna.
Chapter 7 describes about the results obtained after simulation.
Chapter 8 gives the conclusion of the proposed design.

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CHAPTER 2
ANTENNA THEORY
2.1 Antennas
An Antenna is a metallic structure that captures and transmits radio
electromagnetic waves. Antennas come in all shapes and sizes from little ones that
can be found on your roof to watch TV to really big ones that capture signals from
satellites millions of miles away.
During transmission, the oscillating current applied to the antenna by a
transmitter creates an oscillating electric field and magnetic field around the antenna
elements. These time-varying fields radiate energy away from the antenna into space
as a moving transverse electromagnetic field wave. Conversely, during reception, the
oscillating electric and magnetic fields of an incoming radio wave exert force on the
electrons in the antenna elements, causing them to move back and forth, creating
oscillating currents in the antenna.
The words antenna and aerial are used interchangeably. Occasionally the term
"aerial" is used to mean a wire antenna. The origin of the word antenna relative to
wireless apparatus is attributed to Italian radio pioneer Guglielmo Marconi. In the
summer of 1895, Marconi began testing his wireless system outdoors on his father's
estate near Bologna and soon began to experiment with long wire "aerials”.
In Italian a tent pole is known as antenna centrale, and the pole with the wire
was simply called antenna.
Until then wireless radiating transmitting and receiving elements were known
simply as aerials or terminals. Because of his prominence, Marconi's use of the
word antenna spread among wireless researchers, and later to the general public [3].
Antenna may refer broadly to an entire assembly including support structure,
enclosure etc...

2.2 Definition
An antenna is a transducer that converts radio frequency (RF) fields into
alternating current or vice versa. There are both receiving and transmission antennas
for sending or receiving radio transmissions. Antennas play an important role in the
operation of all radio equipment. They are used in wireless local area networks,
mobile telephony and satellite communication.

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Antennas have an arrangement of metallic conductors with an electrical


connection to receivers or transmitters. Current is forced through these conductors by
radio transmitters to create alternating magnetic fields. These fields induce voltage at
the antenna terminals, which are connected to the receiver input. In the far field, the
oscillating magnetic field is coupled with a similar oscillating electric field, which
defines electromagnetic waves capable of propagating the signal for long distances.
2.3 Antenna Parameters
As mentioned in the introduction, antennas have the function of converting
one type of wave into another. The direction of energy conversion is irrelevant as far
as the principle of operation and the understanding thereof are concerned. The
transmitting and the receiving antenna can therefore be looked at in the same way
(reciprocity principle), and the parameters described below are equally valid for
transmission and reception.
This also applies if the parameters are in some cases measurable only for
transmission or for reception or if their specification appears to be meaningful only
for one of these modes.
2.3.1 Radiation Pattern
The basic term “radiation” means that, the distribution of power through
respective fields of antenna. An antenna radiation pattern or antenna pattern is defined
as “A mathematical function or a graphical representation of radiation properties of
the antenna as a function of space coordinates”. However, in most cases the radiation
pattern is determined in the far field region and is represented as function of
directional coordinates. The properties of Radiation are power flux density, radiation
intensity, field strength, directivity phase or polarization. The radiation properties of
most concern are the two or three dimensional spatial distribution of radiated energy
as function of the observer’s position along a path or surface of constant radius. A
trace of received power at constant radius is called power pattern. On the other hand,
a graph of spatial variation of the electric (or magnetic) field along constant radius is
called amplitude field pattern.
In practice the dimensional pattern is measured and recorded in series of two
dimensional patterns.The radiation pattern of an antenna is a graphical representation
of the radiation properties of the antenna. Graphically, we surround the antenna by a

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sphere and evaluate the electric / magnetic fields (far field radiation fields) at a
distance equal to the radius of the sphere [4].

Figure 2.1 Radiated fields evaluated on an imaginary sphere surrounding a


dipole
Usually we will focus on one field component ( ff and Hff). radiated by the
antenna. Usually we plot the dominant component of the E-field (e.g. Eθ for a dipole).
This can be done by plotting the field component over all angles θ ) yielding a 3D
plot. For a dipole, this leads to the doughnut pattern in 3D because of the dependence
of Eθ on sin θ.
2.3.2 Radiation Intensity
Radiation intensity in given direction is defined as “the power radiated from
an antenna per unit solid angle” [4].The radiation intensity is far field parameter and it
can be obtained by simply multiplying the radiation density by the square of the
distance. In the mathematical from it can be expressed as

U = r2Wrad …………………… (2.1)


Where,
U=Radiation intensity (W/Unit solid angle)
Wrad = Radiation intensity (W/m2)

The radiation intensity is also related to far-zone electric field of an antenna by

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r2 r2
E[ θ =2 θ θ θ ………… (2.2)
2

Where,
E = Far zone electric field intensity of the antenna
θ =Far zone electric field component of antenna
= Intrinsic impedance of the medium.
2.3.3 Gain
Another useful measure describing the performance of antenna is the gain.
Although the gain of an antenna is defined as the ratio of intensity, in a given
direction to the radiation intensity that would be obtained if power accepted by
antenna were radiated isotropically. The radiation intensity corresponding to
isotropically radiated power is equal to the power accepted by the antenna divided by
4 .In equation form this can be expressed as

Gain = 4π = 4π ………….. (2.3)

In most cases we deal with relative gain, which defined as the ratio of power gain in a
given direction to the power gain of reference antenna in its reference direction. The
power input must be same for both antennas the reference antenna usually a dipole
horn or any other antenna whose gain can be calculated or it is known. In most cases
however the reference antenna is lossless isotropic source [4].Thus

G= …………………… (2.4)

When the direction is not stated the power gain is usually taken in direction of
maximum radiation.
2.3.4 Antenna efficiency
The total antenna efficiency eo is used to take into account losses at the input
terminals and within the structure of the antenna [5]. Such losses may be due, to two
factors given below
1. Reflection because of the mismatch between the transmission line and the antenna.
2. I2R losses (conduction and dielectric).
In general the overall efficiency can be written as

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eo = ereced ….…………………….. (2.5)

eo = total efficiency
er = reflection efficiency
ec= conduction efficiency
ed= dielectric efficiency

2.3.5 Half power beam width


The half power beam width is defined as in a plane containing the direction of
maximum of a beam the angle between two direction in which the radiation intensity
is one half the maximum value of the beam often the term beam width is used to
describe the angle between any two point on the pattern such as the angle between 10-
dB points. In this case the specific point on the pattern must be described the 3- dB
beam width.
The beam width of the antenna is very important figure of merit and is often
used to as trade-off between it and side lobe level; that is as the beam width decreases
the side lobe increases and vice versa. In addition the beam width of antenna is also
used to describe the resolution capabilities of the antenna to distinguish between two
adjacent radiating sources or radar targets.
The most common resolution criterion states that the resolution capabilities of
antenna to distinguish between two sources is equal to half the first null beam width
(FNBW/2) which is usually used to approximate the half power beam width (HPBW).
That is two sources separated by angular distance equal or greater than FNBW/2 =
HPBW of an antenna with uniform distribution can be resolved. If the separation is
smaller ten antennas will be tend to smooth the angular separation distance.
2.3.6 Bandwidth
The bandwidth of an antenna is defined as the range of frequency with in
which the performance of antenna with respect to some characteristics conforms to
specified standard. The bandwidth can be considered to be a range of frequency on
either side of centre frequency where the antenna characteristics are within acceptable
value of those at centre frequency. Because the characteristics of an antenna do not
necessarily vary in the same manner or are even critically affected by the frequency
there is no unique characterization of the bandwidth

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2.3.7 Frequency Bandwidth


 Narrowband - These antennas cover a small range of the order of few percent
around the designed operating frequency.

FBW = ………………………… (2.6)

Where,
FH= higher frequency
FL = lower frequency
Fc = central frequency
 Wide band or broad band- these antennas cover an octave or two range of
frequencies.
FBW = ………………………. (2.7)

 Impedance Bandwidth- The impedance variation with frequency of the antenna


element results in a limitation of the frequency range over which the element can
be matched to its feed line.
 Impedance Bandwidth is usually specified in terms of a return loss
or maximum SWR (typically less than 2.0 or 1.5) over a frequency
range conversion of bandwidth from one SWR level to another can
be accomplished by using the relation between Bandwidth B and Q
 % Impedance Bandwidth =

2.3.8 Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR)


The standing wave ratio (SWR), also known as the voltage standing wave
ratio (VSWR), is not strictly an antenna characteristic, but is used to describe the
performance of an antenna when attached to a transmission line. It is a measure of
how well the antenna terminal impedance is matched to the characteristic impedance
of the transmission line. Specifically, the VSWR is the ratio of the maximum to the
minimum RF voltage along the transmission line. The maxima and minima along the
lines are caused by partial reinforcement and cancellation of a forward moving RF
signal on the transmission line and its reflection from the antenna terminals. If the
antenna terminal impedance exhibits no reactive (imaginary) part and the resistive

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(real) part is equal to the characteristic impedance of the transmission line, then the
antenna and transmission line perfectly obeys impedance matching condition. In
general,

VSWR = ……………………… (2.8)

Where,
VMaximum= maximum amplitude of RF voltage
VMinimum= minimum amplitude of RF voltage
2.3.9 Polarization
In general polarization of an antenna is referred as, the orientation of radiation
of that antenna. Polarization of an antenna in given direction is defined as the
polarization of the wave transmitted by the antenna. When the direction is not stated
the polarization is taken to be polarization in direction of maximum gain. Polarization
of radiated wave is defined as that properties of electromagnetic wave describing the
time varying direction and relative magnitude of electric field vector specifically the
figure traced as a function of time by the extremity of vector at fixed location at in
space and sense in which it is traced as observed along the direction of propagation.
 Linear
 Circular
 Elliptical
2.3.10 Input impedance
Input impedance is defined as “the impedance presented by an antenna at it
terminals or the ratio of voltage to current at pair of terminals or the ratio of the
appropriate component of the electric to magnetic fields at a point”. In this section we
are primarily interested in the input impedance at pair of terminals which are input
terminals of the antenna [6].
ZA = RA + JXA ………………………….. (2.9)
ZA= Antenna impedance at terminals
RA= Antenna resistance at terminals
XA= Antenna resistance at terminals

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CHAPTER 3
HISTRORY OF WIRELESS COMMUNICTIONS
Communications systems using electrical and electronic technology have a
significant impact on modern society. As the courier speeding from marathon to
Athens in 490 B.C. illustrates, in early history information could be exchanged only
by physical transport of messages. Wireless communication is the fastest growing and
most vibrant technological areas in the communication field. Wireless communication
is a method of transmitting information from one point to other.
Generally, in a communication system, information is transmitted from
transmitter to receiver that is placed over a limited distance. With the help of wireless
communication, the transmitter and receiver can be placed anywhere between few
meters (like a T.V. remote control) to few thousand kilometers (satellite
communication).

Figure 3.1 A Handheld on-board mobile device

Wireless communication, or sometimes simply wireless, is the transfer of


information or power between two or more points that are not connected by an
electrical conductor. The most common wireless technologies use radio waves. With
radio waves distances can be short, such as a few meters for Bluetooth or as far as
millions of kilometers for deep-space radio communications [7].
It encompasses various types of fixed, mobile, and portable applications,
including two-way radios, cellular telephones, personal digital assistants (PDAs), and

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wireless networking. Other examples of applications of radio wireless technology


include GPS units, garage door openers, wireless computer mice, keyboards and
headsets, headphones, radio receivers, satellite television, broadcast television and
Wireless communication, or sometimes simply wireless, is the transfer of
information or power between two or more points that are not connected by an
electrical conductor. With radio waves distances can be short, such as a few meters
for Bluetooth or as far as millions of kilometers for deep-space radio communications.
It encompasses various types of fixed, mobile, and portable applications,
including two-way radios, cellular telephones, personal digital assistants (PDAs), and
wireless networking. Other examples of applications of radio wireless technology
include GPS units, garage door openers, wireless computer mice, keyboards and
headsets, headphones, radio receivers, satellite television, broadcast television and
cordless telephones.

3.1 History
The world's first wireless telephone conversation occurred in 1880, when
Alexander Graham Bell and Charles Sumner Tainter invented and patented the photo
phone, a telephone that conducted audio conversations wirelessly over modulated
light beams (which are narrow projections of electromagnetic waves).

Figure 3.2 Bell and Tainter’s photo phone of 1880

Figure 3.3 Marconi transmitting the first radio signal across the Atlantic

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3.2 Radio waves


In 1894 Guglielmo Marconi began developing a wireless telegraph system
using radio waves, which had been known about since proof of their existence in 1888
by Heinrich Hertz, but discounted as communication format since they seemed, at the
time, to be a short range phenomenon [8].
Marconi soon developed a system that was transmitting signals way beyond
distances anyone could have predicted (due in part to the signals bouncing off the then
unknown ionosphere).
Guglielmo Marconi and Karl Ferdinand Braun were awarded the 1909 Nobel
Prize for Physics for their contribution to this form of wireless telegraphy.

3.3 Common examples of wireless equipment


Infrared and ultrasonic remote control devices Professional LMR (Land
Mobile Radio) and SMR (Specialized Mobile Radio) typically used by business,
industrial and Public Safety entities [8]. Consumer Two-way radio including FRS
Family Radio Service, GMRS (General Mobile Radio Service) and Citizens band
("CB") radios. The Amateur Radio Service (Ham radio). Consumer and professional
Marine VHF radios.
3.4 Applications of Mobile telephones
One of the best-known examples of wireless technology is the mobile phone,
also known as a cellular phone; with more than 6.6 billion mobile cellular
subscriptions worldwide as of the end of 2010. These wireless phones use radio waves
from signal-transmission towers to enable their users to make phone calls from many
locations worldwide. They can be used within range of the mobile telephone site used
to house the equipment required to transmit and receive the radio signals from these
instruments [9].
Supporting technologies include: Wi-Fi is a wireless local area network that
enables portable computing devices to connect easily with other devices, peripheries,
and the Internet.
Satellite communications are especially important for transportation, aviation,
maritime and military use Wireless Sensor Networks are responsible for sensing
noise, interference, and activity in data collection networks. This allows us to detect
relevant quantities, monitor and collect data, formulate clear user displays, and to
perform decision-making functions.

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3.5 Medical technologies


New wireless technologies, such as mobile body area networks (MBAN), have
the capability to monitor blood pressure, heart rate, oxygen level and body
temperature. This technology helps with the intentional and unintentional risk of
infection or disconnection that arises from wired connections.Categories of
implementations, devices and standards.
3.6 Different Cellular Networks
Radio station in accordance with ITU RR (article 1.61) Radio communication
service in accordance with ITU RR (article 1.19) Radio communication system Land
Mobile Radio or Professional Mobile Radio: TETRA, P25, OpenSky, EDACS, DMR,
dPMR Cordless telephony:DECT (Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications)
Cellular networks: 0G, 1G, 2G, 3G, Beyond 3G 4G,(5G).

3.6.1 ‘0G’ Technology


Wireless telephones started with what you might call 0G. 0G refers to pre-cell
phone mobile technology. Such as radio telephones that some had in cars before the
advent of cell phones. Mobile radio telephone systems preceded cellular mobile
telephony technology. In 0G,different technologies used include PTT(push to talk),
MTS(Mobile telephone system), IMTS(Improved Mobile telephone system),
AMTS(Advanced Mobile telephone system), OLT(Norwegian for offending land
mobil Telefoni public land mobile Telephony) [10].
3.6.2 ‘1G’ Technology (AMPS)
The First generation of wireless mobile communication is totally based on
analog signal. Analog system was first implemented in North America , were known
as Analog Mobile Phone System(AMPS), while the system was implemented in
Europe and rest of the world as typically identified as a variation of Total Access
Communication System(TACS).
Its successor, second generation (2G) which made use of digital signals, 1G
wireless networks are used as analog radio signals. Through 1G, a voice call can be
modulated at higher frequency about 150 MHZ and above as it transmitted radio
towers. This is done by using the technique Frequency Division Multiple Access
(FDMA).In terms of overall connection quality 1G, compares unfavorably to its
successors. It has low capacity, unreliable handoff, poor voice links, and no security

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at all since voice call are played back to radio towers, making this call are quite
susceptible to unwanted eavesdropping of third parties.
3.6.3 ‘2G’ Technology (GSM Technology)
The second generation 2Gsystem, fielded in late 1980s and finished in late
1990s, was planed mainly for voice transmission with digital signal and speed up to
64kbps. Access. GPRS data transfer is charged typically megabyte of traffic
transferred, while data communication via traditional circuit switching is billed per
minute of connection time. 2.5G networks may be support services like that WAP,
SMS, MMS, Mobile games and Search and Directory. 2G wireless mobile services
are a step ahead of 1G service by providing facility of short message services (SMS)
unlike 1G whose prime focus was on only voice transmission services. The bandwidth
required for 2G transmission is about 20- 200KHz.During the second generation,
mobile telecommunication industry experienced exponential growth of usage of the
both subscribers and valued added services. 2G phones developed which introduce the
GSM technology. Global system for mobile communication or GSM uses digital
modulation to improve the voice quality but the networks offer the limited data
services.
3.6.4 ‘2.5G’ Technology- (GPRS - General Packet Radio Service)
2.5G, which stand for ”second and half generation” , is cellular wireless
technology developed in between its predecessors 2G and its successors 3G.The term
“second and half generation” are used to describe the General Packet Radio Services.
GPRS provides the data rate from 56Kbit/s to 115Kbits/s.
It can be used for services Such as Wireless Application Protocol (WAP),
Access Multimedia Messaging Services (AMMS).

3.6.5 ‘3G’ Technology


The third generation (3G) technology was invented in year 2000.Comparing
1G&2G technology to 3G ,in 3G Data transmission speed increased from 144Kbps-
2Mbps.3G technology is for the multimedia cell phone, typically it is called smart
phone.
In 3G, bandwidth and transfer rate were increased to accommodate web-based
application and audio and video files.

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3.6.6 ‘4G’ Technology (LTE – Long Term Evolution)


Fourth Generation of mobile technology offers a speed of 100Mbps.4G
contains the same features as those in 3G but along with that provided new services
like MMS, entertainment services, Digital television in High Definition.LTE was
developed which was considered a part of 4G technology.
3.6.7 ‘5G’ Technology
5G stands for Fifth Generation Mobile technology.5G mobile technology has
not been cited officially by any institution or has not been defined precisely by any
standardized institution. The researches so far carried out in the 5G are based on IEEE
802.xx standard. The most important technologies of them being 802.11 Wireless
Local Area Network (WLAN), 802.16 Wireless Metropolitan Area Network
(WMAN) and AD-hoc Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN).
The 5G mobile system is specifically designed so as to give user the best
possible services in order to satisfy their needs. The concept is seen inclined more
towards the user rather than the operator.5G mobile architecture consists of
OWA(Open Wireless Architecture),OTP(Open Transport Protocol) and along with it
many services like Multimedia, applications, entertainment, radio broadcasting,
Digital Television etc.. [10].

Figure 3.4 Trends in Cellular Communication

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CHAPTER 4
DIELECTRIC RESONATOR ANTENNA AND
FEEDING METHODS
4.1 Introduction to Dielectric Resonator Antenna (DRA)
The structure of DRA mainly consists of three basic components; they are first
one Substrate, secondly ground (Perfect Electric Conductor) material etched on
substrate and some dielectric resonating material placed above the ground, generally
referred as “Dielectric Resonator (DR)”. The designing of DRs and using them in
structures of DRAs, discussed in chapters 5-8.
 Basically DR is an electronic component that exhibits ‘resonance’ for a
wide range of frequencies, generally in the microwave band.
 If the DR placed in an open environment, Power will be lost in the
radiated fields only. This fact makes dielectric resonators useful as
antenna elements instead of elements in microwave circuits as energy
storage devices [11].
By contrast, a number of standards have been defined in the 5-6 GHz range that
allow data rates greater than 20 Mb/s, offering attractive solutions for real-time
imaging, multimedia, and high-speed video applications. To achieve the necessary
applications a high performance wide band antenna with high radiation efficiency are
required.
Over the past few years, the dielectric resonator antenna (DRA) has received
extensive attention due to its several advantages such as low profile, light weight, low
dissipation loss, high dielectric strength and higher power handling capacity. DRA
can be in a few geometries including cylindrical, rectangular, spherical, half-split
cylindrical, disk, hemispherical and triangular shaped.
The main purpose of design any antenna is to obtain a wide range of
bandwidth. Several bandwidth enhancement techniques have been reported on
modified feed geometries and changing the shape of the DRA. By using different
bandwidth enhancement techniques in this thesis different shape of dielectric
resonator antennas are designed and simulated. There is few soft wares available
which allow the optimization of the antenna. Here, Simulation process was done by
using Computer Simulation Technology (CST). In this thesis, have been design
different shapes of single and multiple dielectric resonator antennas for wireless

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applications. Bandwidth enhancement techniques are used to obtain a large bandwidth


for particular resonant frequencies [12].
4.2 Basic Characteristics of DRA
DRA offers several attractive features including the following
characteristics:
 In DRAs, we can use a wide range of dielectric constants (εr = 2.1 –
100), that allowing the designer to have control over the physical size of
the DRA and its bandwidth.
 The Size of DRA is proportional to , where λ0 is the free space
wavelength at the resonant frequency, and is the dielectric constant of
the material.
 High radiation efficiency (95%) due to the absence of conductor or
surface wave losses.
 Several feeding mechanisms can be used (including slots, probes,
microstrip lines, dielectric image guide, and coplanar waveguide lines) to
efficiently excite DRAs.
 DRA can be excited by several modes, many of which radiate pattern
similar to short electric or magnetic dipoles, producing either broadside
or Omni-directional radiation patterns for different coverage
requirements.
 By choosing a dielectric material with low-loss characteristics, high-
radiation efficiency can be maintained, even at millimetre-wave
frequencies.
 Due to an absence of surface waves and minimal conductor losses
associated with the DRA [13].
 A Wide control over size and bandwidth
 A tight tolerance: ± 1- 5%,
 A high quality factor Q: up to 10000 (f = 10GHz)
 A Wide range of temperature coefficient of resonance frequency: (-
12…+30) ppm/ oC.
 A Tolerance ± 0.5; ±1.0; ±2.0 ppm/ oC.

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Figure 4.1 DRAs of various shapes (cylindrical, rectangular, hemispherical, low-


profile circular-disk, low-profile triangular)
4.3 Advantages
DRA have several advantages compared to conventional microwave antennas, and
therefore many applications cover the broad frequency range. Some of the principal
advantages of dielectric resonator antennas compared to conventional microstrip
antennas are:
 DRA has a much wide impendence bandwidth than microstrip antenna
because it radiates through the whole antenna surface except ground port
while microstrip antenna radiate only through two narrow radiation slots.
 Higher efficiency.
 Avoidance of surface waves is another attractive advantage of DRAs over
microstrip antennas
 However, dielectric resonator antennas have some advantages:
 Light weight, low volume, and low profile configuration, which can be made
conformal.
 DRA has high degree of flexibility and versatility, allowing for designs to suit
a wide range of physical or electrical requirements of varied communication
applications.
 Easy of fabrication.
 High radiation efficiency.
 High dielectric strength and higher power handling capacity.
 In DRA, various shapes of resonators can be used (rectangular, cylindrical,
hemispherical, etc.) that allow flexibility in design [14].
 Low production cost

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 Several feeding mechanisms can be used (probes, slots, microstrip lines,


dielectric image guides, and coplanar waveguide lines) to efficiently excite
DRAs, making them amenable to integration with various existing
technologies [15].
4.4 Problems with Microstrip Patch Antenna
1) Narrow Bandwidth for Electrically thin substrates
2) High frequencies Results in,
a) More ohmic losses
b) Electrically thicker substrates which support surface waves and decrease
radiation efficiency.
3) Low gain
4) Poor polarization purity
5) Spurious feed radiation
6) MPA having low dielectric strength, hence they cannot handle as much output
power as other antennas
4.5 Bandwidth Enhancement by Using DRA’s
The key attractive feature in Dielectric Resonator antennas is Bandwidth
Enhancement. By choosing proper structure for DRAs we can easily broaden the
bandwidth. The important techniques used in Bandwidth Enhancement by using
DRA’s as listed below.
 Optimizing the feeding mechanisms and the DRA parameters.
 Use of modified feed geometries (stub matching).
 the shape of DRAs.
 Using Stacked Dielectric Resonators in DRA designs.
 Introduction of air gap between the ground and Dielectric Resonator.
 Changing the dielectric constant of Dielectric Resonator.
 Use of parasitic coupling with different resonators.
In present DRA structures the stacked method used to enhance the Bandwidth.
4.6 Basic-shaped Dielectric Resonator Antenna
Three basic shapes of the DRA as Cylindrical, rectangular and hemispherical
are the most commonly used. Here, we study about different shapes of DRAs and
their various field model configurations. These analyses can be used to predict the
resonant frequency, radiation Q-factor, and radiation pattern of DRA [16].

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4.6.1 Cylindrical DRA


Cylindrical DRA has advantages over hemispherical and rectangular shape
DRA. It offers greater design flexibility, where the ration of radius/height controls the
resonant frequency and the quality (Q) factor. By varying the DRA‘s dimensions
different Q-factor can be obtained. In cylindrical DRA fabrication is much easier than
hemispherical DRA and various modes can be easily excited which results in either
broadside or Omni-directional radiation patters. It offers one degree of freedom more
than the hemispherical shape; it has aspect ratio a/h which DRA determines the Q
factor for a given dielectric constant [17].
Different subclasses of DRAs can be derived from cylindrical shape such as
split-cylindrical DRA, cylindrical-ring DRA, electric monopole DRA, disk-loaded
cylindrical DRA, sectored cylindrical and ring DRAs, elliptical DRA, conical DRAs.
Ring DRA which is a subclass of the cylindrical DRA that offers increased impedance
bandwidth performance. Cylindrical dielectric resonators are used in circuit
applications, filters, and oscillators and especially in microstrip technology, where
resonant waveguide cavities are not very practical.

Figure 4.2 The geometry of cylindrical


Different subclasses of DRAs can be derived from cylindrical shape such as
split-cylindrical DRA, cylindrical-ring DRA, electric monopole DRA, disk-loaded
cylindrical DRA, sectored cylindrical and ring DRAs, elliptical DRA, conical DRAs.
Ring DRA which is a subclass of the cylindrical DRA that offers increased impedance
bandwidth performance. Cylindrical dielectric resonators are used in circuit

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applications, filters, and oscillators and especially in microstrip technology, where


resonant waveguide cavities are not very practical.
The geometry of the cylindrical DRA is shown in figure 4.2. It consists of a
material with a height h, radius a, and dielectric constant (εr). This shape offers one
degree of freedom more than hemispherical shape because it has aspect ratio a/h,
which determines k0a and the Q-factor for a given dielectric constant [17].
4.6.2 Hemispherical DRA
Hemispherical shape DRA offers an advantage over the rectangular and
cylindrical shapes as the interface between the dielectric and air is simpler. By that, a
closed form expression cab obtained for the Green‘s function.

Figure 4.3 Configuration of a probe-fed hemispherical DRA

The hemispherical DRA is characterized by a radius a, a dielectric constant as


shown in figure 4.3. Here, we assumed that the hemispherical DRA which is mounted
on ground plane has infinite conductivity and infinite extent.
Image theory is useful to equate the hemispherical DRA of radius =a‘to an
isolated dielectric sphere having the same radius. Transverse electric (TE) and
transverse magnetic (TM) are different modes in dielectric sphere.
4.6.3 Rectangular DRA
The rectangular shape DRA has more advantages over cylindrical and
hemispherical shape DRA. It offers a second degree of freedom which is one more
than cylindrical shape and two more than hemispherical shape. It provides designer to
have a greater design flexibility to achieve the desired profile and bandwidth
characteristics for a given resonant frequency and dielectric constant. In an isolated
rectangular dielectric guide, the various modes can be divided into TE and TM, but
with the DRA mounted on the ground plane only TE mode can typically excited. The

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rectangular DRA can maintenance TE modes (TEx, TEy and TEz) which would
radiate like short magnetic dipole. The resonant frequency of each of these modes will
be a function of the DRA dimensions. By properly choosing the DRA dimensions, the
designer can avoid the unwanted modes to appear over the frequency band during
operation. Resonant frequency of TE modes can be calculated by solving the
transcendental equation [17].

Figure 4.4 Rectangular DRA


4.6.4 Stacked method
A method for enhancing bandwidth in DRAs is stacking DRAs a top one
another. In many cases with a single element DRA, desired specifications cannot be
achieved. For example a high gain, directional pattern cannot be synthesized with a
single DRA of any shape. In these applications, a DRA with appropriate element
arrangement and feed configurations can be used to provide desired specifications.
Dielectric Resonator Antennas (DRA‘s) have become popular in recent years because
of many advantages they offer.

Figure 4.5 Geometry of Stacked cylindrical DRAs

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4.6.4.1. Co-planar parasitic method


Regarding the mechanical structures and fabrications, Microstrip antennas
have the advantage since etching can be used and the feeding mechanism and the
antenna can be structured in one process with great accuracy in the alignment. The
advantages become more appreciated in the structure of the arrays. DRA requires
adhesive to mount the DR over the ground plane and more manual effort in the
alignment of the DRA with the feeding structure. Another method to enhance the
impedance bandwidth of DRA is by using array technique.
In stack method, DRAs are stacking on top of each other that will add
increment to the overall height of the antenna [17].For certain applications, there is
height restriction in DRA design. An alternative method is used to enhance bandwidth
of DRA called a co- planar parasitic method where DRAs can also be placed on the
same plane. Here, the centre element is excited by using any feeding method and
adjacent elements are electromagnetically coupled. The main drawback is that here
the problem becomes more pronounced in the structure of the array, where alignment
of the individual elements and the array becomes more critical.

Figure 4.6 Configurations of 3-DRAs using co-planar parasitic method


Figure 4.7 shows the wideband configuration of three DRAs. Here, centre DR
is connected with microstrip feed line. At the bottom there is ground and above it
substrate placed. DRs placed above the substrate material [17]. Even though
compared to stacked method, the Co-planar parasitic method facing few
disadvantages like,
 Feeding process becomes complex compared to single feed stacked DR
method.

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 DRA requires more manual effort in the alignment of the DRA with the
feeding structure.
 Size requirements also very high, compared to single substrate stacked
DR method.
Based on above factors generally we will prefer Stacked Dielectric Resonators for
Bandwidth Enhancement.
4.6.4.2. Embedded method
The bandwidth of DRA can be enhancing by using embedded technique where
DRAs can also embedded within one another [17]. Even though compared to stacked
Method, the Co-planar parasitic method facing few disadvantages like,
 Using multiple dielectric constant Dielectric Resonators making this method
as complex, when compared to single dielectric constant stacked method.
 Dielectric Resonator positioning is less flexible compared to stacked method.
Based on above disadvantages generally we will prefer Stacked Dielectric Resonators
for Bandwidth Enhancement at millimetre wave frequencies.

Figure 4.7 Embedded method


4.7 FEEDING METHODS
There are several techniques available to feed or transmit electromagnetic
energy to a dielectric resonator antenna. The five most popular feeding methods are
the coaxial probe, slot aperture, microstrip line, co-planar coupling and dielectric
image guide.
4.7.1 Coaxial feed
The Coaxial feed or probe feed is a very common technique used for feeding
dielectric resonator antennas as shown in figure 4.8. In this method, the probe can
either be placed adjacent to the DRA or can be embedded within it.

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The amount of coupling can be enhanced by adjusting the probe height and the
DRA location. In DRA, various modes can be excited depending on the location of
the probe.
Another benefit of using probe coupling is that one can couple directly into a
50Ω system, without the requirement for a matching network.

Figure 4.8 Probe-fed Dielectric resonator antennas


4.7.2 Slot Aperture
In slot aperture method, a DRA is exciting through an aperture in the ground
plane upon which it is placed. Aperture coupling is applicable to DRAs of any shapes
such as rectangular, cylindrical or hemispherical. The aperture works like a magnetic
current running parallel to the size of the slot, which excites the magnetic fields inside
the DRA.
A slot antenna consists of a metal surface, usually a flat plate, with one or
more holes or slots cut out. then the plate is driven as an antenna by driving frequency
the slot radiates electromagnetic waves in a way similar to dipole antenna.
The shape and size of the slot,as well as the driving frequency determine the
radiation pattern.

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Figure 4.9 Slot Aperture-fed Dielectric resonator antennas


4.7.3 Microstrip Line Feed
In this type of feed technique, a conducting strip is connected directly to the
edge of the patch as shown in figure 5.3. A common method for coupling to dielectric
resonators in microwave circuits is by proximity coupling to microstrip lines.
Microstrip coupling will excite the magnetic fields in the DRA to create the short
horizontal magnetic dipole mode.

Figure 4.10 Microstrip line feed


4.8 Numerical methods for analysing DRAs
Numerical methods for analysing DRAs can be categorized into two groups,
frequency domain technique and time domain technique. Each category offers
advantages for particular antenna geometries [18].
4.8.1 Frequency domain analysis
Two common frequency domain techniques that have been used to analyse
DRAs are the method of moments (MOM) and the finite element method (FEM). The
MOM was first developed for wire or metal antennas of arbitrary shape, but can be
extended to include dielectric materials by introducing equivalent currents.

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The FEM (Finite element method) can be used to analyses DRAs of arbitrary
shape. Similar to the MOM, it involves a discretization of the geometry but whereas
in the MOM only the DRA and the ground plane require segmentation , in the FEM
the entire volume surrounding the DRA must also be discretized, thereby increasing
the computational size of the problem.
The advantage of the FEM is that it does not require the formulation of
equivalent currents and can thus be readily applied to arbitrary shapes. Another
advantage of the FEM is its availability as commercial software where graphical user
interfaces are provided to simplify the geometrical definition of the problem. FEM is
used to determine the effects of a finite ground plane on the radiation pattern of a
DRA [18].
4.8.2 Time domain analysis
There are two time domain techniques that have been applied to analysing
DRAs are the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method and the transmission line
method (TLM). These techniques require the entire volume around the DRA to be
discretized and thus can be memory and time intensive. In it, wideband pulse used to
excite the DRA, and by transforming the solution into the frequency domain, the input
impedance can be determined over a wide frequency range. With the frequency
domain methods, the time domain methods are good tools for analysing the
performance of a given DRA geometry, but are less useful for optimizing the
performance of DRAs. FDTD is used to calculate circular polarization patterns of
cross-shaped DRAs and input impedance of slot-fed rectangular DRA. Transmission
line method used to calculate input impedance of microstrip-fed multi-segment DRAs
[18].
4.9 Co-Planar waveguide Feed
The Co-planar feed is a very common technique used for coupling in dielectric
resonator antennas. The coupling level can be adjusted by locating the DRA over the
loop [19].

Figure 4.11 Co-planar loop-fed DRA

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The coupling behaviour of the co-planar loop is similar to coaxial probe, but
the loop offers the advantage of being non-obtrusive. By moving the feed loop from
the edge of the DRA to the centre, one can couple into either the H 11δ mode or the
TE011 mode of the cylindrical DRA [19].
Co-planar waveguide (CPW) feeding technique is also referred as planar strip
line feeding. CPW feeding technique more advantageous compared to other feeding
techniques, because it having the fallowing attractive features.
They are
Lower radiation leakage
Less dispersion than microstrip lines
Active devices can be mounted on top of the circuit like on microstrip.
It can provide extremely high frequency response (100 GHz or more).
Since connecting to CPW does not involve or require any parasitic discontinuities in
the ground plane [19].

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CHAPTER-5
DEFECTED GROUND STRUCTURES
5.1 Introduction to DGS:
There are number of techniques which have been reported for enhancing the
parameters of conventional DRA, that is, using stacking, different feeding techniques,
Frequency Selective Surfaces (FSS), Electromagnetic Band Gap (EBG), Photonic
Band Gap (PBG), Metamaterial, and so forth. Microwave component with Defected
Ground Structure (DGS) has been gained popularity among all the techniques
reported for enhancing the parameters due to its simple structural design.
Etched slots or defects on the ground plane of microstrip circuits are referred
to as Defected Ground Structure. Single or multiple defects on the ground plane may
be considered as DGS. Initially DGS was reported for filters underneath the
microstrip line feed. DGS has been used underneath the dielectric resonator to achieve
band-stop characteristics and to suppress higher mode harmonics and mutual
coupling. After successful implementation of DGS in the field of filters, nowadays
DGS is in demand extensively for various applications [20].
DGS has been used in the field of dielectric resonator antennas for enhancing
the bandwidth and gain of dielectric resonator antenna and to suppress the higher
mode harmonics, mutual coupling between adjacent element, and cross-polarization
for improving the radiation characteristics of the dielectric resonator antenna.
Low cost, high performance, compact size, wideband, and low profile
antennas often meet the stringent requirements of modern wireless communication
systems. Modern communication demands the availability of efficient, compact, and
portable devices that can be operated at high data-rates and at low signal powers.
Researchers have been working towards the development and advancement of RF
front ends to meet the latest requirements. Various novel approaches have been
reported to improve the performance of microwave component.
PBG has been proposed by John and Yablonovitch proposed. For providing a
rejection band of certain frequency PBG is used. Periodic structure on the ground
plane provides a rejection band. However, the modeling of PBG structure for
microwave and millimeter-wave components is very difficult. Radiation from periodic
etched defects, number of lattice, lattice shapes, lattice spacing and relative volume
fraction are some parameters that effects the band gap properties of PBG.

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There is another ground plane aperture (GPA) technique, which simply


incorporates the DRA embedded on the ground plane. GPA has been reported for 3
dB edge coupler and band pass filters. Width of the GPA creates a significant effect
on the characteristic impedance of the microstrip line, hence controlling the return
loss level.
In order to alleviate these problems, Park et al. proposed Defected Ground
Structure (DGS) firstly and used the term “DGS” in describing a single dumbbell
shaped defect. The DGS can be regarded as a simplified form of EBG structure,
which also exhibits a band-stop property.
DGS opens a door to microwave researchers of a wide range of applications.
Various novel DGSs have been proposed and lot of applications have been explored
extensively in microwave circuits.
DGS has become an alternative of EBG for modern applications due to its
simplicity and low cost. Dumbbell shaped DGS was initially used to realize a filter,
and other shapes were reported subsequently to realize different microwave circuits
such as filters, amplifiers, rat race couplers, branch line couplers, and Wilkinson
power dividers. In the DGS is integrated with a MPA [21].
The working principles and basic concepts of DGS units are introduced and
the equivalent circuit models of DGS units are also available.
5.2 Photonic Band Gap
Photonic Band Gap (PBG) structures are periodic structures etched on the
ground plane and have the ability to control the propagation of electromagnetic
waves. Periodic structures effects the current distribution of the structure. The
periodic structures can influence on the propagation of electromagnetic waves and
radiation characteristics.
The PBG have the periodic defects, which can be treated as a resonant cavity
and affect the propagation of the electromagnetic waves. PBG forms free mode inside
the forbidden band gap and provides a stop band at certain frequency.
5.3 Electromagnetic Band Gap (EBG) Structure
The EBG technique is based on the PBG phenomena and also realized by
periodical structures.EBG has been introduced as high-impedance surface or PBG
surface. These structures are compact and result in high gain, low profile and high
efficiency antennas. EBG has been created an interest in the field of antenna. EBG

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structures suppress the surface wave current hence increase the antenna efficiency.
The surface waves decrease the antenna efficiency. Surface wave suppression using
EBG technique improves the antenna performance by increasing the antenna
efficiency and antenna gain.
5.4 Defected Ground Structure
The compact geometrical slots embedded on the ground plane of microwave
circuits are referred to as Defected Ground Structure (DGS). A single defect (unit
cell) or a number of periodic and a periodic defects configurations may be comprised
in DGS. Thus, periodic and/or a periodic defects etched on the ground plane of planar
microwave circuits are referred to as DGS.
Earlier Photonic Band Gap (PBG) and Electromagnetic Band Gap (EBG) have
been reported with irregular ground planes.
5.4.1 Working Principle
DGS has been integrated on the ground plane with planar transmission line,
that is, microstrip line, coplanar waveguide, and conductor backed coplanar wave
guide. The defects on the ground plane disturb the current distribution of the ground
plane; this disturbance changes the characteristics of a transmission line (or any
structure) by including some parameters (slot resistance, slot capacitance, and slot
inductance) to the line parameters (line resistance, line capacitance, and line
inductance).
In other words, any defect etched in the ground plane under the DRA changes
the effective capacitance and inductance of DRA by adding slot resistance,
capacitance, and inductance.
5.4.2 Unit DGS.
The first DGS model has been reported as a dumbbell shaped defect embedded
on the ground plane. The response of its return loss is also shown in the figure. DGS
has some advantages over PBG.
(1) In PBG, periodic structures occupy a large area on the circuit board. On the
other hand a few DGS elements may create similar typical properties. Hence, circuit
size becomes compact by introducing DGS.
(2) DGS is comparably easy to design and fabricate and its equivalent circuit
is easy to realize [22].

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(3) Higher precisions are achieved in comparison to other defect embedded


structures. Two aspects for utilizing the performance of DGS are DGS unit and
periodic DGS. A variety of deferent shapes of geometries embedded on the ground
plane are considered. These shapes include rectangular dumbbell, circular dumbbell,
spiral, “U”, “V”, “H”, cross, and concentric rings.
Some complex shapes have also been studied which include meander lines,
split ring resonators and fractals. Other DGSs units have more advantages than
dumbbell DGS:
(1) The slow wave factor is increased and a better degree of compactness is
achieved. A miniaturization of 26.3% has been achieved by using “H” shaped DGS in
comparison to dumbbell DGS in Figure 5.1.
(2) Stop band is with an improved bandwidth and better return loss level.

Figure 5.1 Dumbbell Shaped DGS


5.4.3. Periodic DGS
Periodic DGSs for planar microwave circuits are earning major attraction of
microwave researchers. By using periodic structure phenomena higher slow wave rate
with greater degree of miniaturization is achieved. Repetition of single defect with a
finite spacing is referred to as periodic structure. By cascading the defects (resonant
cells) in the ground plane the return loss level and bandwidth is improved depending
on the number of periods.
Shape of DGS unit, distance between two DGS units and the distribution of
the different DGSs are the main parameters that affect the performance of periodic
DGS. Two periodic DGS shapes exists - horizontally periodic DGS (HPDGS) and
vertically periodic DGS (VPDGS).

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Application, advantages, and disadvantages of different shapes of DGS are


summarized in Table 5.1

S. No Shape Advantage Disadvantage Applications

1 Dumbbell Simple structure, Single stop band Band-stop filter


easy to design and
analyse
2 H-PDGS 38.5% size reduction Larger size than Matching
VPDGS, network of
dispersion problem amplifier

3 VPDGS 44.4% size reduction Dispersion problem Matching


network of
amplifier
4 -slot Improved -factor Single stop band Band-stop filter
5 -slot Improved -factor Single stop band Band-stop filter
6 Cross DGS Sharp rejection, Low pass filter
ultra-wide stop _
band
7 Fractal DGS Wide stop band No sharp
cut-off frequency Band-stop filter
8 Spiral DGS multi stop band complex analysis Band-stop filter
9 E-Shaped DGS Isolation ----------- Band-Stop filter
Improvement

Table 5.1 Comparision of different Shapes of DGS


5.4.4 Equivalent Circuit Models of DGS
Each metallic part of dielectric resonator antenna is a combination of
distributed resistance, capacitance, and inductance. Hence each model may be
represented by its equivalent circuit model. Full-wave analysis is used for analysing
the responses of DGS and to find the equivalent circuit model. However, Full-wave
analysis fails to describe about the physical dimensions and position of the DGS.
Conventional methods for analysing the DGS were based on trial and error
iterative methods so they were time consuming and there was a possibility for not
getting the optimum results.
Equivalent circuit of DGS can be extracted by four types and comparisons of
all types of parameter extraction methods are summarized below [23]
(1) LC and RLC equivalent circuits.
(2) shaped equivalent circuit.
(3) Quasi-static equivalent circuit.
(4) Using ideal transformer.

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5.4.4.1 LC and RLC Equivalent Circuits


The LC equivalent circuit model of the DGS is shown in Figure 4. An
equivalent circuit model of one-pole Butterworth low pass filter is shown in Figure
5.2. The current path is increased due to the rectangular parts of dumbbell DGS. The
two rectangular slots of dumbbell DGS are responsible for adding a capacitive effect
and a thin rectangular defected slot which connects both the rectangular shaped
defects accounts for adding the inductance to the total impedance.

Figure 5.2 Equivalent LC Circuit of DGS


A decrement in the DGS area reduces the effective capacitance, thereby
increasing the resonant frequency.
The reactance of Butterworth low pass filter can be obtained as

= …………… (5.1)

Where is the resonance angular frequency L and C of the circuit are calculated as

…………… (5.2)

.................. (5.3)

Where and are resonant frequency and cut-off frequency, respectively.


DGSs which have similar shape like dumbbell DGS have almost same
characteristics like dumbbell DGS; thus they could be analysed like Butterworth low
pass filter as discussed above. Furthermore, DGS unit can be analysed also by a
parallel , , and resonant circuit more efficiently. The R, L and C resonant circuit
is shown in Figure 5.3.

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A resistance is added to the LC circuit to model the radiation, conductor,


and dielectric losses. [24]
The capacitance C and inductance L can be calculated as

…………….. (5.4)

..…………… (5.5)

Figure 5.3 RLC Equivalent Circuit for Unit DGS

5.4.4.2 π Shaped Equivalent Circuits


The π shaped equivalent circuit model shown in Figure 5.4 was proposed after

LC and RLC Equivalent circuit. The π shaped equivalent circuit gives more accurate

results in comparison with LC and RLC circuits. Park proposed π shaped equivalent
circuit model, which explains both amplitude versus frequency and phase versus
frequency characteristics. The shaped equivalent circuit is more complex and it is
difficult to extract all the parameters of the model. However, shaped equivalent
circuit gives more accurate results. The ABCD parameters of the shaped equivalent
circuit for the unit cell DGS can be calculated as

………….. (5.6)

………….. (5.7)

…...……… (5.8)

………….. (5.9)

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………… (5.10)

Figure 5.4 π-Shaped Equivalent Circuits

Different Shapes of DGS shown below

(g)

Figure 5.5 Various DGSs: (a) spiral head, (b) arrowhead-slot, (c)“H” Shape
slots, (d) a square open-loop with a slot in middle section , (e)open-loop dumbbell
(f) Interdigital DGS and (g) E-Shaped DGS

5.4.4.3 E-Shaped DGS


In this paper we design a Novel Shape DGS like Complementary E-Shaped
DGS to reduce the mutual coupling reduction between the array of antennas. Here it is
used as band-stop filter, amplifier. Higher permittivity results in size reduction and
narrow bandwidth and lower permittivity broadens the bandwidth. DGS have been
used in filters, coplanar wave guides, microwave amplifiers and suppressing the
higher order harmonics.

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5.5 Applications of DGS in Microwave Technologies


DGS is widely used nowadays in active and passive devices. Each DGS shape
has its own characteristics and creates effect on the performance of the device
according to its geometry and size. DGS has been used in filters, coplanar
waveguides, microwave amplifiers, and antennas to improve their performance.
DGS is used for miniaturizing the size of component, enhancing the operating
bandwidth and gain, reducing the mutual coupling between two networks, suppressing
the higher order harmonics and unwanted cross-polarization, and also producing
notched band to stop interference with any band. Several applications of DGS
available are discussed further [25].
5.6 Filters
Numerous DGS shapes have been reported to design planar circuits. Different
shapes of DGS have been explored to design band pass and band-stop planar filters.
Initially, a dumbbell shaped DGS was embedded in the ground plane underneath a
microstrip line for creating a filter response.
5.6.1 Low Pass Filter
A new -pole LPF design method using the DGS has been proposed. The
DGS-LPF neither has open stubs, nor high-impedance lines because a very wide
microstrip feed has been adopted to realize the shunt capacitors. An equivalent circuit
also has been proposed to calculate the resonant frequency of LPF.
A quasi-static analysis approach has been reported for DGS filters by
Karmakar et al. “I,” “H,” and “cross” shaped DGSs have been introduced with their
equivalent circuit model for LPF. An elliptical function response has been obtained
using both dumbbell shaped and spiral shaped DGS on the ground plane.
A triangular dumbbell DGS has been used to synthesize microstrip DGS low
pass filter; -equivalent circuit was presented to analyse the structure as shown in
Figure 5.7 Complementary Square Ring Resonator (CSRR) has been used
periodically to design the LPF.Fractal dumbbell shaped DGS also has been reported
for achieving the low pass filter response . The circuit area of a LPF has been
minimized with wide stop band characteristics.
5.6.2 Band-Stop Filter
By embedding a defect on the metallic ground plane a certain band of
frequency can be rejected and a planar band-stop filter can be realized. Surface wave

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and other leakage transmission are suppressed at this stop band. A square patch has
been inserted inside the conventional dumbbell shaped DGS to modify its frequency
response and to allow the control of the rejected frequency. Low, high, or even
multiple frequencies can now be rejected by the proper choice of the positions of the
short circuits that can be placed along the circumference of the square patch.
The varactor diode was used between the square patch and CPW ground to
make it tunable. Semi complimentary Split Ring Resonator (SCSRR) has been used
for realizing the band-stop filter. An equivalent circuit model was presented using an
ideal transformer. Both single cell and double cell structures were proposed. A
wideband band-stop filter has been introduced using stepped impedance resonator and
Defected Ground Structure [26].
5.6.4 Band pass Filter.
DGS also has been used for band pass filter (BPF) response. Several
researches have been reported for BPF with DGS. A wide stopband band pass filter
based on dual-plane inter digital DGS slot structure has been presented. The filter has
the merits of high selectivity and wide upper stop band. The band pass filters with
ultra-wideband (UWB) characteristics also have been proposed.
The filter allows two transmission paths to RF signals, has a dual-band
response and proposed for a WLAN application. The two quasi-elliptic function
structures on different layers generate respective pass band, and can change the
operating frequency of each of them. Four poles in the stop bands are realized to
improve the selectivity of the filter and the isolation between the two pass bands. Dual
band BPF response has been achieved by using Defected Ground Structure
waveguide.
The proposed filter provides low insertion losses throughout the entire tuning
range of the second pass band. An ultra-wideband differential band pass filter has
been presented. A narrow notched band is introduced and common-mode suppression
is achieved using DGS.
Using the slot-line DGS, the interference of notch structure is cancelled out for
common-mode. Compared with former UWB differential filter structures, the
proposed filter provides interference rejection function, wider bandwidth and simpler
design theory and good common-mode performance, indicating potential applications
in the UWB communication systems [27].

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5.7 Coplanar Waveguide


Recently, a great trend towards the implementation of a reconfigurable DGS,
where the location of the transmission zeros can be controlled and tuned. In addition
to this, DGS unit cell has been proposed on coplanar waveguide. Several studies have
been reported in this regard. Coplanar waveguides having band-stop performance
have been proposed with DGS using SIW technique. A reconfigurable DGS resonator
on CPW has been proposed, which was capable of yielding arbitrary transmission
zeros over the band 11–14GHz.Reconfigurability of the structure was achieved by
using PIN diodes.
Spiral DGS has been implemented on the top and bottom ground plane of the
grounded CPW to produces the highest band-stop rejection and two independent
band-stop resonance. A compact reconfigurable band-stop resonator has been realized
using DGS on CPW [28].
5.8 Amplifier
DGS also has been employed with planar microwave amplifiers. Lim et al.
(2001) improved the efficiency of power amplifier using DGS. A series of dumbbell
DGS has been embedded on the ground plane to improve the efficiency and to tune
the harmonics of power amplifier. Further, Limet al. (2002) proposed DGS to reduce
the size of matching networks of microwave amplifiers using the slow wave
characteristics of dielectric resonator antenna.
5.9 Antenna
In the early phases of the development of DGS, a majority of DGS shapes
were explored to design microstrip filters, and these applications inspired the antenna
engineers to realize planar antenna with stop band characteristics by integrating DGS
on their ground plane. DGS has been used for improving the various parameters of the
dielectric resonator antenna. Different configurations have been explored since 1999
to achieve various goals.
5.9.1 Circularly Polarized DGS Antenna.
The latest communication devices should be compact, lightweight,
inexpensive, and versatile and thus require circularly polarized dielectric resonator
antennas. They have been widely used for mobile communication, global positioning
system (GPS), radio frequency identification (RFID) readers, and wireless local area
network (WLAN) applications.

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5.9.2 Multiband Antenna


Multiband also can be achieved by using DGS. Several studies have been
reported in this regard. Dual broadband antenna with rectangular slot has been
analysed for wireless applications. A switchable single and multi frequency antenna is
proposed with triple slot on the ground plane. A dielectric resonator antenna design
based on the patch monopole for a triple-frequency operation has been presented with
DGS. A low profile multi frequency-band printed antenna module has been presented.
The radiator was a crescent-shaped microstrip patch with DGS. Circular polarization
is achieved by embedding the slots on ground [29].
5.9.3 Wideband Antenna
DGS also has been employed for wideband and ultra-wideband dielectric
resonator antennas. A square shaped defect has been integrated on the ground plane
with an open ended microstrip line for enhancing the bandwidth of the dielectric
resonator antenna. Further, a parasitic square element was used at the centre of the
square defect on the ground plane underneath the open ended microstrip line.
An impedance bandwidth of about 80% was achieved by using parasitic
element at the centre of square DGS. A Complementary E-Shaped DGS has been used
to broaden the impedance bandwidth of a conventional dielectric resonator antenna.
5.9.4 Size Reduction of Antenna with DGS
Effective capacitance and effective inductance of the model are changed by
embedding the slots on the ground plane, resulting in shifting of resonance frequency
to its lower side. Thus, compactness is achieved by using DGS. Several researches
have been reported in this regard. An “E” shaped slot integrated in the ground plane to
achieve the miniaturization and compactness of 80% has been achieved.
5.9.5 Cross-Polarization Suppression of Antenna with DGS
DGS has been reported for suppressing the cross-polarization level of the
antenna. A suppression of 5 dB in cross polarization level has been achieved by using
E-shaped defects. The suppression in cross-polarized radiations is improved to the
value of 10–12 dB by using E-shaped defect. A 21 dB of isolation is achieved
between co polar and cross-polarization level by using complementary E-Shaped
DGS [30].
Thus because of many advantages like isolation improvement, wide band
width , narrow slots and good cross polarization E-Shaped DGS is considered.

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CHAPTER-6
DESIGN OF PROPOSED ANTENNA
6.1 Introduction
The antenna can be designed i.e. the geometry of the antenna can be obtained
by many M Simulation software’s namely HFSS, CST etc. In this project CST
software is used for simulation purpose to get all the possible outputs i.e. graphs for
S- parameters, radiation pattern, VSWR Plot, gain, bandwidth etc. and obtained
results are accurate.
The present work deals with the design of a Hexagonal Dielectric Resonator
Antenna with Complementary E-Shaped DGS that can be used for mutual coupling
reduction.
6.1.1 CST Software
CST Studio Suite is software used for the study of electromagnetic fields. It
comprises tools for the design and optimization of accelerator devices operating in a
wide range of frequencies, from static to optical. Analysis may also include thermal
and mechanical effects, as well as circuit simulations.
6.1.2 Classification of CST Studio suite

CST STUDIO SUITE comprises the following modules

 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® (CST MWS) is the leading edge tool for the
fast and accurate 3D simulation of high frequency devices and market leader
in Time Domain simulation. It enables the fast and accurate analysis of
antennas, filters, couplers, planar and multi-layer structures and SI and EMC
effects etc.
 CST EM STUDIO® (CST EMS) is an easy-to-use tool for the design and
analysis of static and low frequency EM applications such as motors, sensors,
actuators, transformers, and shielding enclosures.
 CST PARTICLE STUDIO® (CST PS) has been developed for the fully
consistent simulation of free moving charged particles. Applications include
electron guns, cathode ray tubes, magnetrons, and wake fields.
 CST CABLE STUDIO® (CST CS) for the simulation of signal integrity and
EMC/EMI analysis of cable harnesses.

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 CST PCB STUDIO® (CST PCBS) for the simulation of signal integrity and
EMC/EMI EMI on printed circuit boards.
 CST MPHYSICS® STUDIO (CST MPS) for thermal and mechanical stress
analysis.
 CST DESIGN STUDIO™ (CST DS) is a versatile tool that facilitates 3D
EM/circuit co-simulation and synthesis.
6.1.3 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® (CST® MWS®)
It is a specialist tool for the 3D EM simulation of high frequency components.
CST MWS' unparalleled performance makes it the first choice in leading R&D
departments.CST MWS enables the fast and accurate analysis of high frequency (HF)
devices such as antennas, filters, couplers, planar and multi-layer structures and SI
and EMC effects. Exceptionally user friendly, CST MWS quickly gives you an
insight into the EM behavior of your high frequency designs.
CST promotes Complete Technology for 3D EM. Users of our software are
given great flexibility in tackling a wide application range through the variety of
available solver technologies. Besides the flagship module, the broadly
applicable Time Domain solver and the Frequency Domain solver, CST MWS offers
further solver modules for specific applications.
Filters for the import of specific CAD files and the extraction of SPICE
parameters enhance design possibilities and save time. In addition, CST MWS can be
embedded in various industry standard workflows through the CST STUDIO
SUITE® user interface.
CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® is seen by an increasing number of engineers as an
industry standard development tool.
6.2 Design Procedure
6.2.1 Getting Started
 For designing of antenna we select MICROWAVE & RF, after opening
the CST Studio suite tool from the window.
 After opening the CST Window, click on ‘Create a new project’ for
creating new project simulation.
 For Simulation the parameters should be taken according to the
requirement of the design.

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Figure 6.1 CST Studio Suite


6.2.2 Creating a new project
 Open the CST Studio suite and select “Create a new project”.

Figure 6.2 CST Window


 Select the new template and the area we work with. As our proposal is to
design the antenna Consider the work flow as Antennas and application area
as MW & RF & Optical for creating new template.
 All the EM solvers are based on solving Maxwell's equations in different
forms. Time domain solver is base on solution of differential form of
Maxwell’s equations. The most powerful tool of CST is its time domain
solver. Generally time domain solver takes less memory as compared to
frequency domain and is faster.

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Figure 6.3 Template Window


 As in this paper our aim is to design hexagonal Dielectric Resonator Antenna
select the type of antenna as Dielectric Resonator.

Figure 6.4 Creating new template

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6.2.3 Selecting the domain and work field

Figure 6.5 Domain and Dimension Window


 Select the Time Domain
 Now we need to select the correct Solver, Work field. Thus let’s select
Domain -> Time Domain -> Dimensions
After that, we select the working dimensional units (mm, GHz, s , …)

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Figure 6.6 Review Window


 In the Review window all the dimensions chosen and the selected domain are
displayed.

Figure 6.7 Working plane window

 The working window is divided into 5 sub-windows (but it depends on the chosen
preferences). The largest one shows the figure of the device you are designing.

 Good accuracy and time of simulation strongly depends on mesh size. If you have
some small parts in your volume, maybe you should decrease mesh size there for
good accuracy

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6.3 Modeling
6.3.1 Building the Substrate
 Click “brick” icon from the second row of icons and then press
“ SC”,A.Brick Window Appears.Fill the name of the brick as
“substrate”,and fill xmin=-20 and xmax=20;ymin= -20 and ymax= 20;
zmin=0 and zmax = 1.5,so that the substrate is at a height of 1.5mm from 0
(Reference Plane).

Building Substrate

Figure 6.8 Requirements for Building Substrate

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Figure 6.9 Building of Substrate


 The material is loaded from the library and it’s description is shown in
figure
 Material = Rogers RO3010 (lossy) with = 10.2.The Rogers material is
chosen so that to obtain high efficiency, small size, compact and low cost
of antenna.
6.3.2 Building the Substrate1
 As the objective is to reduce the mutual coupling between the array of
antennas, for building another DRA, we need to build another substrate
with the same dimensions close to 1st substrate.
 Click “brick” icon from the second row of icons and then press
“ SC”,A.Brick Window Appears.Fill the name of the brick as
“substrate1”,and fill xmin=20 and xmax=60;ymin= -20 and ymax= 20;

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zmin=0 and zmax = 1.5,so that the substrate is at a height of 1.5mm from 0
(Reference Plane).

Figure 6.10 Geometry of Substrate


6.3.3 Building the ground plane
 Click “brick” icon from the second row of icons and then press
“ SC”,A.Brick Window Appears.Fill the name of the brick as
“ground”,and fill xmin=-20 and xmax=20;ymin= -20 and ymax= 20;
zmin= -0.1 and zmax = 0,so that the ground is at a height of 0.1mm below
0 (Reference Plane).
 The material is chosen as Copper (annnealed) which is a lossy metal that
is free from connductance.For increasing the durabality,copper is
considered. The description is shown in below figure 6.11.

Figure 6.11 Configuration of Copper

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Figure 6.12 Dimensions of ground plane


 To construct another ground plane we can either build by taking brick or copy it
as we construct it with the same dimensions.
 Here Click on Modelling in CST tools bar
Modelling > Transform > Translate
 Then another ground plane with same dimensions will be constructed.
 Here, the geometry of ground plane is shown below. For reducing mutual
coupling between the array of antennas etches or slots are taken on ground plane.
Before etching, construct Hexagonal DRA.

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Figure 6.13 Geometry of ground plane

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6.3.4 Construction of Hexagonal DRA


 In this paper we construct Hexagonal DRA to improve radiation pattern, for
long distance communication.
 First we should select Cylinder from the CST tools bar.
Tools > Modeling > Cylinder
 Click on Cylinder and then press ESC so that a cylinder window appears.

Figure 6.14 Dimensions of Hexagonal DRA


 To construct hexagonal DRA take 6 segments. The material is chosen as
Alumina (99.5%) lossy.
 The characteristic of Alumina (99.5%) lossy is shown in the above figure
6.14.Similarly another DRA is constructed at a height of 5mm above the
substrate. The parameters of another DRA are considered same as the
geometry of the first DRA.

Figure 6.15 DRA Construction

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Figure 6.16 DRA geometry


6.3.5 Building the feed
 In this paper we consider the microstrip feed coupled to the antenna.
Microstrip coupling will excite the magnetic fields in the DRA to create the
short horizontal magnetic dipole mode.
 Here in this design antenna is excited with a ring shaped microstrip line feed.
 For this before constructing DRA, we should take a cylinder for the ring
shape with the dimensions shown in the figure

Figure 6.17 Cylinder Dimensions


 Here for getting ring shape follow the steps
Modeling > Brick
The dimensions are shown in the below figure 6.18 for rectangular shape,
we cut the cylinder by taking the rectangular shape.
Select the solid1 (cylinder) > Boolean > Subtract > Solid (Brick-
Rectangle) .Then the required ring shape obtained is shown in figure 6.19.

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Figure 6.18 Rectangle dimensions

Figure 6.19 Ring Shaped Feed


 The Hexagonal DRA is excited with a side fed microstrip line. The
dimensions and the construction is shown in Figure 6.20.

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Figure 6.20 Building a feed

Figure 6.21 Building Microstrip line feed


 To add Ring Shape and Microstrip line feed follow the steps
Select Solid1 > Boolean > Add > Solid2

Figure 6.22 Hexagonal DRA fed with microstrip line feed

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6.3.6 Etching a Complementary E-Shaped DGS


 As the objective of the paper is to reduce the mutual coupling between two
closely packed hexagonal dielectric resonator antenna, here we implement a
complementary E-shaped DGS (Defected Ground Structure) to reduce the
mutual coupling between them.
 Complementary E-Shaped Slots are etched on the ground plane to remove
the higher order harmonics, to reduce the mutual coupling between the array
of antennas.
 The size of the DGS should be narrower than DRA.
 How much narrow the DGS is, that much more efficient the antenna works.
 For designing Complementary E-Shaped DGS

Figure 6.23 DRA slot1


 For constructing etch different slots and add them

Figure 6.24 DRA slot2

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 Similarly, we follow the same procedure to complete the construction of


complementary E-Shape by translating the second slot at a height of 4mm
above along Y-axis.
 Before etching the slots on the ground plane,
Select Dgs > Boolean > Add > dgs1
Dgs1 > Boolean > Add > dgs2
Dgs2 > Boolean > Add > dgs3
Dgs3 > Boolean > Add > dgs4
Then the slots are added as shown in the figure

Figure 6.25 Cutting in the ground plane


 After adding the slots, select dgs > Boolean > Subtract > ground , then the
Complementary E-Shape etched on the ground plane is shown in Figure 6.26.

Figure 6.26 Complementary E-Shape etched on the ground plane

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6.3.7 Define a Port


 Rotate the antenna so that you see the bottom of the antenna. Increase the
drawing to see clearly the copper section. Press “Pick Face” icon and double
click on the copper part. You will see a grid of red points. Then press
“Waveguide ports”. A window of the port will appear. Press OK.A port is
defined at the lower part of the antenna.

Figure 6.27 Pick Faces


 In the waveguide port, we declare the port number as 1 and give the dimensions
as Xmin = 8 and Xmax = 4.1
Zmin = 11.4 and Zmax = 8.4
 After port1 is declared we declare Port2 for second antenna.
 After second port also declared, then Press “solve” in the upper row of the
screen and then choose the frequency range 11 < <14.
 The antenna operates at the particular frequency that is at 12.59 GHz.
 After setting the frequency click on the Field Monitor and then select the E-field
and then apply, similarly click on the H-field, far field to obtain the simulated
results.

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Figure 6.28 Waveguide Port

Figure 6.29 Perspective view

Figure 6.30 Frequency Review Settings

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Figure 6.31 Back view


6.4 Simulation

Figure 6.32 Front view


 After applying the far field properties we should simulate the designed
antenna showed in the above figure 3.12.
Tools > Home > Start Simulation

Figure 6.33 Simulation Window

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CHAPTER 7
RESULTS
When the transient solver disappears, the simulation is finished. For observing
simulation results press 1D results in the left side of the screen to see the reflection
results.
7.1 S-Parameters
S-Parameters describe the input-output relation between the ports in an electrical
system. For instance if we have 2 ports, then S12 represents the power transferred from
port1 to port2 and S21 represents the power transferred from port2 to port1.
S11 represents how much power is reflected from the antenna, and hence it is
known as the reflection coefficient or return loss. S12 is the parameter which is used to
represent the isolation.

Figure 7.1 S11 plot


The above figure represents S11 plot at 12.59 GHz. It provides a return loss of
-37.44 db. S11 is ok usually when the value is below -10db.The results are based on
the parameters.

Figure 7.2 S12 plot


From the above figure the mutual coupling between the antennas is -21.76.
7.2 VSWR
VSWR is a function of reflection coefficient which describes the power
reflected from the antenna. The VSWR is always positive and real for antennas. The

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smaller the VSWR is, the better is the antenna matched to the transmission line. The
VSWR is between (0-2).

Figure 7.3 VSWR plot


From the above figure the VSWR is 1.02.So if the VSWR is under 2 the
antenna match is considered very good and little would be gained by impedance
matching.
7.3 Envelope Correlation Coefficient
The Envelope Correlation Coefficient (ECC) is an important figure of merit for
the comparison of MIMO capabilities of coupled antennas.

Figure 7.4 Envelope Correlation Coefficient

The relation between ECC and the S-Parameters is shown below

From the above figure Envelope Correlation Coefficient 0.000343. It tells us how
independent two antenna radiation patterns are
7.4 Diversity gain
Antenna diversity, also known as space diversity or spatial diversity is any one
of several wireless diversity schemes that uses two or more antennas to improve the
quality and reliability of a wireless link. The obtained diversity gain is 9.99.

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Figure 7.5 Diversity gain


7.5 Bandwidth
The bandwidth of an antenna refers to the range of frequencies over which the
antenna can operate correctly. The antenna's bandwidth is the number of Hz for which
the antenna will exhibit an SWR less than 2:1.The bandwidth can also be described in
terms of percentage of the center frequency of the band.

Figure 7.6 Bandwidth


The Bandwidth can be found by using the formula

FH is the upper frequency and FL is the lower frequency. We identify and at


which the plot touches the -10 db line. The Bandwidth obtained is 15.5%.
7.6 Far field or Radiation pattern
The field, which is far from the antenna, is called as far-field. It is also called
as radiation field, as the radiation effect is high in this area. Many of the antenna
parameters along with the antenna directivity and the radiation pattern of the antenna
are considered in this region only.
Crosspolar radiation pattern:
Cross polarization is the polarization orthogonal to the polarization. For instance
if the fields from an antenna are horizontally polarized, the cross polarization is
vertical polarization is shown in (i) and (iii) of Figure 7.8.Copole radiation patterns
are shown in (ii) and (iv) of Figure 7.8.

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(i) (ii)
Figure 7.7 Far field pattern

(i) (ii)

(iii) (iv)
Figure 7.8 Copol and Crosspol radiation patterns

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CHAPTER-8
CONCLUSION
The mutual coupling between two hexagonal DRA’s is reduced by
incorporating a complementary E-Shaped DGS etched on ground plane.The obtained
resonant frequency is used in satellite communication at Earth Station Antenna. Thus
the proposed design has improved its performance in parameters like bandwidth,
VSWR and gain at resonant frequency 12.59GHZ and working frequency is in the
range of 11-14 GHZ.

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[2] M. Simeoni, R. Cicchetti, A. Yarovoy, and D. Caratelli, “Plastic-based super
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[3] Marconi, "Wireless Telegraphic Communication: Nobel Lecture, 11 December
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[5] “Wireless Communications” by Andrea Goldsmith, Stanford University, 2005,
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[6] RunaKumari, KapilParmar and S K Behera, “Conformal Patch Fed Stacked
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[13] A. Petosa, “Dielectric Resonator Antenna Handbook”, Artech House Publishers,


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APPENDIX

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