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ELECTRIC

MACHINERY
FUNDAMENTALS
FIFTH EDITION

Stephen J. Chapman
BA£ Systems Australia

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ELECfRIC MACHINERY FUNDAMENTALS, FIFTH EDlTlON

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Library of Congress CataJoging-in-PubIication Data


Chapman, Stephen 1.
Electric mac hinery fundamentals 1 Stephen 1. Chapman. -5th ed.
p. cm.
IS BN-13 : 978-0-07-352954-7 (alk. paper)
ISBN-IO: 0-07-352954-0 (alk. pap")
1. Electric machinery. I. Title.

TK2000.C462012
621.31 '042-<1c22 2010050474

www.m llhc.com
FOR MY DAUGHTER SARAH RIVKAH CHAPMAN,
WHO WILL LIKELY USE THIS BOOK IN HER
STUDIES AT SWINBURNE UNIVERSITY,
MELBOURNE.

Also For thePirateBay.se


for sharing this with the
whole world $_$ Thank
you so very much.
ABOUT THE AUTHOR

( Stephen J. Chapman received a B.S. in Electrical Engineering from Louisiana


State University (1975) and an M.S.E. in Electrical Engineering from the Univer-
sity of Central Florida ( 1979), and pursued further graduate studies at Rice
University.
From 1975 to 1980, he served as an officer in the U.S. Navy, assigned to
teach electrical engineering at the U.S. Naval Nuclear Power School in Orlando,
Florida. From 1980 to 1982, he was affiliated with the University of Houston,
where he ran the power systems program in the College of Technology.
From 1982 to 1988 and from 199 1 to 1995, he served as a member of the
technical staff of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Lincoln Laboratory,
both at the main fac ility in Lexington, Massachusetts, and at the field site on Kwa-
jalein Atoll in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. While there, he did research
in radar signal processing systems. He ultimately became the leader of four large
operational range instrum entation radars at the Kwaj alein field site (TRADEX,
ALTAIR, ALCOR, and MMW).
From 1988 to 199 1, Mr. Chapman was a research engineer for Shell Devel-
opment Company in Houston, Texas, where he did seismic signal processing re-
search. He was also affiliated with the University of HOListon, where he continued
to teach on a part-time basis.
Mr. Chapman is c urren tly manager of systems modeling and operation al
analysis for BAE Systems Australia, in Melbourne.
Mr. Chapman is a senior member of the Institute of Electri cal and Elec-
tronic Engineers (and several of its component societies) . He is also a member of
Engineers Australia.

vii
BRIEF CONTENTS

Chapter 1 Introduction to Machinery Principles

Chapter 2 Transformers 65

Chapter 3 AC Machinery Fundamentals 152

Chapter 4 Synchronous Generators 191

Chapter 5 Synchronous Motors 271

Chapter 6 Induction Motors 307

Chapter 7 DC Machinery Fundamentals 404

Chapter 8 DC Motors and Generators 464

Chapter 9 Single-Phase and Special-Purpose Motors 565

AppendixA Three-Phase Circuits 613

Appendix B Coil Pitch and Distributed Windings 639

Appendix C Salient-Pole Theory of Synchronous Machines 659

AppendixD Tables of Constants and Conversion Factors 669

ix
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chapter 1 Introduction to Machinery Principles 1


1.1 Electrical Machines, Transformers, and Daily Life 1
1.2 A Note on Units and Notation 2
Notation
1.3 Rotational Motion, Newton's Law, and Power Relationships 3
Angular Position (J / Angular Velocity OJ I Angular
Acceleration a / Torque T / Newton's Law of Rotation I
Work W / Power P
1.4 The Magnetic Field 8
Production of a Magnetic Field I Magnetic Circuits /
Magnetic Behavior of Ferromagnetic Materials / Energy
Losses in a Ferromagnetic Core
1.5 Faraday's Law- Induced Voltage from a Time~Changing
Magnetic Field 28
1.6 Production of Induced Force on a Wire 33
1.7 Induced Voltage on a Conductor Moving in a Magnetic Field 34
1.S The Linear DC Machine- A Simple ExampJe 36
Starting lhe Linear DC Machine I The Linear DC
Machin e as a Motor / The Linear DC Machine as a
Generator / Starting Problems with the Linear Machine
1.9 Real, Reactive, and Apparent Power in Single-Phase AC Circuits 47
Alternative Forms of the Power Equations / Complex
Power / The Relationships between Impedance Angle,
Current Angle, and Power / The Power Triangle
1.10 Summary 53
Questions 54
Problems 55
References 64
xi
xii TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chapter 2 Transformers 65
2.1 Why Transformers Are Important to Modern Life 66
2.2 Types and Construction of Transformers 67
2.3 The Ideal Transformer 69
Power in an ldeal Tran sformer I Impedance Transformation
through a Transform er / Analysis of Circuits Containing
Ideal Transjomlers
2.4 Theory of Operation of Real Single-Phase Transformers 77
The Voltage Ratio across a Transfo rmer I Th e
Magnetization Currelif in a Real Tra nsjormer / The
Current Ratio on a Transformer and the Dot Convention
2.5 The Equivalent Circuit of a Transformer 86
The Exact. Equivalent Circuit of a Real Transformer /
Approximate Equivalent Circuits of a Transform er /
Determinin.g the Valu es of Components in the Transfo rmer
Model
2.6 The Per-Unit System of Measurements 94
2.7 Transfonner Voltage Regulation and Efficiency 99
The Transformer Phasor Diagram / Transformer Efficiency
2.8 Transformer Taps and Voltage Regulation 108
2.9 The Autotransfonner 109
Voltage and Current Relationships in an Autotransfonner /
The Apparent Power Rating Advantage of Autotrallsfonners I
The Internal Impedance of an Autotransformer
2.10 Th ree-Phase Transformers 116
Three-Phase Transformer Connections I The Per-Unit
System for Three-Phase Transformers
2.11 Three-Phase Transformation Using 1\vo Transformers 126
The Open -I:! (or V- V) Connection I The Open-Wye-Open-
Delta Connection I The Scott-T Conflection I The Three-
Phase T Connection
2.12 Transfom1er Ratings and Related Problems 134
The Voltage and Frequency Ratings of a Transfo rmer I Th e
Apparent Power Rating 0/ a Trans/ormer I The Problem oj
Current Inrllsh / The Transformer Nameplate
2.13 Instrument Transformers 140
2.14 Summary
Questions
Problems
142
143
144
r
References lSI
TABLE OF CONTENTS xiii

Chapter 3 AC Machinery Fundamentals 152


3.1 A Simple Loop in a Uniform Magnetic Field 153
The Voltage Induced in a Simple Rotating Loop / The
Torque Induced in a Current-Carrying Loop
3.2 The Rotating Magnetic Field 160
Proof of the Rotating Magnetic Field Concept / The
Relationship between Electrical Frequency and the Speed
of Magnetic Field Rotation / Reversing The Direction of
Magnetic Field Rotation
3.3 Magnetoll1otive Force and Flux Distri bu tion on
AC Machi nes 169
3.4 l ndu ced VOltage in AC Machines 172
The Induced Voltage ill a Coil 011 a Two-Pole Stator / The
Induced Volrage in a Three-Phase Set a/Coils / The RMS
Vo/rage in a Three-Phase Stator
3.5 Induced Torque in an AC Machine 178
3.6 Winding Insulation in an AC Machine 182
3.7 AC Machine Power Flows and Losses 182
The Losses in AC Machines / The Power-Flow Diagram
3.8 Voltage Regulation and Speed Regulation 186
3.9 Summary 187
Q uestio ns 187
Problems 188
References 190

Chapter 4 Synchronous Generators 191


4.1 Synchronous Generator Construction 192
4.2 The Speed of Rotation of a Synchronous Generator 197
4.3 The Internal Generated Voltage of a SynChronous Generator 197
4.4 The Equivalent Circuit of a Synchronous Generator 198
4.5 The Phasor Diagram of a Synchronous Generator 202
4.6 Power and Torque in Synchronous Generators 205
4.7 Measuring Synchronous Generator Model Parameters 208
The Short-Circuit Ratio
4.8 The Synchro nous Generator Operating Alone 213
The Effecl 0/ Load Changes on a Synchronolls Generator
Operating Alone / Example Problems
4.9 Parallel Operation of AC Generators 224
The COl/ditions Required/or Paralleling / The General
Procedure for Paralleling Generators / Frequellcy-Power
XIV TABLE OF CONTENTS

and Voltage- Reactive Power Characteristics of a Synchronous


Generator / Operation of Generators in Parallel with Large
Power Systems / Operation of Generators in Parallel with
Other Generators of the Same Size
4.10 Synchronou s Generator Transients 244
Transient Stability of Synchronous Generators /
Sho rt-Circuit Transients in Syn ch ron Ol~s Generators
4.11 Synchronous Generator Ratings 25 1
The Voltage, Speed, and Frequency Ra tings / Apparent
Power and Power-Factor Ratillgs I Synchronous
Generator Capability Curves I Shorr· Time Operation and
Service Factor
4.12 Sum mmy 261
Questions 262
Problems 263 (
References 270

Chapter 5 Synchronous Motors 27 1


5.1 Basic Principles of Motor Operation 271
Th e Equivalent Circuit of a Synchronous M otor / The
Synchronous M olar f rom a Magnetic Field PerJpe ctive
5.2 Steady·S tate Synchronous Motor Operation 275
The Synchronous Motor To rque·Speed Characteristic Curve I
The Effect of Load Changes all a Synchronous Motor I The
Effect of Field Current Changes Oil a Synchronous Motor /
The Synchronous Motor and Po wer· Factor Correction /
Th e Synchronous Capacitor or Synchronous Condenser
5.3 Starting Synchronous Motors 290
Motor Starting by Reducing Electrical Frequency I Motor
Sta rting with an External Prime Mover I Motor Starting
by Using Amortisseur Wind ings / Th e Effect of
A mortisseur Windings on Motor Stability
5.4 Sy nchronou s Generators and Synchronous Motors 297
5.5 SynChronous Motor Ratings 298
5.6 Summary 298
Questions 300
Problems 300
References 306

Chapter 6 Induction Motors 307


6.1 Induction Molor Construcli on 309
1 ,'"
, ' ' .. ·1 f\ ' r ,.., I f " ' "I .: 11 I
TABLE OF CONTENTS xv

The Development of Induced Torqu e in all Induction


Motor / The Concept of Rotor Slip / The Electrical
Frequency on the Rotor
6.3 T he Equivalent Circuit of an Induction Motor 315
The Transformer Model of an Induction Motor / The Rotor
Circuit Model/ The Final Equivalent Circuit
6.4 Power and Torque in Inductio n Motors 321
Losses and Ihe Power-Flow Diagram / Power and Torque
in an Induction Motor / Separating the Rotor Copper
Losses and the Power Converted in an Induction Motor's
Equivalent Circuit
6.5 Induction Motor Torgue-Speed Characteristics 328
Induced Torque from a Physical Standpoint/The Derivation
of the Induction Motor Induced-Torque Equation I
( Comments on the Induction Motor Torque-Speed Cunle /
Maximwll (Pullout) Torqu e in an Induction Motor
6.6 Variations in Induction Moto r Torque-Speed Characteristics 343
Control of Motor Characteristics by Cage Rotor DeSign /
Deep-Bar and Double-Cage Rotor Designs / Induction
Motor Design Classes
6.7 Trends in Induction Motor Design 353
6.8 Starting Induction Motors 357
In duction Motor Starting Circuits
6.9 Speed Control of Induction Motors 363
Induction Motor Speed Control by Pole Changing / Speed
Control by Changing the Line Frequency / Speed Control
by Changing the Line Voltage / Speed Control by
Changing the Rotor Resistance
6.10 Solid-State Induction Motor Drives 372
Frequency (Speed) Adjustment / A Choice o/ Voltage and
Frequency Patterns / In dependently A djustable
Acceleration and Deceleration Ramps / M otor Protectioll
6.11 Detennining Circuit Model Parameters 380
The No -Load Test / The DC Tesl for Stator Resistance /
The Locked-Rotor Test
6.12 The Induction Generator 388
The Induction Generator Operating Alone / Induction
Generator Applications
( 6.13 Induction Motor Ratings 393
6.14 Summary 394
Questions 396
Problems 397
'i TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chapter 7 DC Machinery Fundamentals 404


7.1 A Simple Rotating Loop between Curved Pole Faces 404
The Voltage Induced in a RotaTing Loop / Gelting DC
Voltage Our of the Rotating Loop / The Induced Torque ;11
the ROlating Loop
7.2 Commutation in a Simple Four-Loop DC Machine 416
7.3 Commutation and Armature Construction in Real
DC Machi nes 421
The ROlor Coils / Connections to the CommlltCltor
Segments / The Lap Winding / The Wave Windillg / The
Frog-Leg Winding
7.4 Prob lems with Commutation in Real Machines 433
Armature Reaction / L di/dt VoLtages / Solutions 10 the
Problems with Commutation
7.5 The [nterna] Generated Voltage and Induced Torque
Equations of Rea] DC Machines 445
7.6 The Construction of DC Machines 449
Pole alld Frame Construction / Rotor or Armature
Cons/ruction / Commutator and Bmshes / Winding
Insularion
7.7 Power FJow and Losses in DC Machines 455
The Losses in DC Machines / The Power-Flow Diagram
7.8 Summary 458
Questions 458
Problems 45 8
Refe rences 461

Chapter 8 DC Motors and Generators 464


8.1 Introduclion to DC Motors 465
8.2 The Equivalent Circuit of a DC Motor 467
8.3 The Magnetization Curve of a DC Machine 468
8.4 Separately Excited and Shunt DC Motors 469
The Terminal Characteristic of a Shunt DC Molor /
Nonlinear Analysis of a Shullt DC MOlOr / Speed Control
of Shunt DC MOlars / The Effect of an Open Field Circuit
8.5 The Pennaoent-Magnet DC Motor 491
8.6 The Series DC Motor 493
Induced Torque ill a Series DC Motor / The Terminal
Characteristic oj a Series DC Motor / Speed Control oj
Series DC MOLOrs