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Poorna Yoga is a Complete Yoga that transforms the Individuality , that is limited , to a Universal Conciousness,

that is unlimited, by teaching how to discover Oneself , first, and then realize the Supreme Conciousness . For a
Poorna Yogi the whole World is but one Home . The entire Humanity is one family. There is only one caste - caste
of Humanity. There is only one Religion - that is Religion of Love that originates in the Heart.

A Poorna Yogi is the One who has realized that the same Atmic Principle is present in himself as well as in others,
irrespective of whether one is a Householder or a renunciant.

What is the Vision of Poorna yoga Mission ?


The vision of Poorna Yoga Mission is to take Poorna Yoga to each and every individual to their doorstep and make
the existing lifestyle Spiritual and enjoy life as it comes. Make everyone True Human Beings teaching to rid
themselves of Jealousy and Ego and
bring the Thoughts, Words and Deeds in complete harmony.

What are the leading factors for Poorna Yoga?


The keenness to evolve our thoughts and continue to evolve will lead us to complete freedom to decide our own
path , guiding ourselves towards Poorna Yoga.

Is it possible to define GOD ?


God is the Embodiment of Supreme Bliss. He is wisdom Absolute, the One without a second, beyond the pair of
opposites, expansive and pervasive like Sky , the Eternal , Pure, Unchanging, the Witness of all functions of intellect
and beyond all mental conditions.LOVE is the direct Experience of God .Love is the perfect example of
Divinity that is immanent in the entire Humanity.

What is the role of Mind in our Lives ?


Mind is the source of all types of Powers. Bliss eludes us if we are unable to conquer the Mind. We have to achieve
the purity of Mind , in the first place. Then make the Mind your
slave or make friendship with the Mind. Then Mind will redeem our Lives.

Is Faith necessary to realize God ?


Faith is the seed and Bliss is the fruit. Faith develops Love .where there is Love there is Truth. Truth brings Peace
and where there is Peace , there is Bliss. Bliss is GOD.

How can we help Society ?


True Wealth and Prosperity are present in our Heart and not outside. We should turn our Mind inward and
develop values.Then only we can have the strength and capacity to emancipate the Society. If our Youth develop
Virtues, Noble Thoughts and Sterling Character , they can accomplish any great tasks and Society and Nation can
prosper.

How will you define true Happiness ?


Eating and sleeping is no happiness at all. Turning our vision inward, working hard and
serving Society with the Wisdom produced out of continuous hard work gives us True Happiness. A positive Mind
that conducts with peace and joy, without doing injustice to
others can experience Happiness and when this Happiness is shared with others ,this becomes a True Happiness.

What is Culture ?
Culture is not any particular religion. Culture ,in fact , is associated with Divinity. Our Culture should be to seek
Unity in Diversity.Our education system should develop the
culture that teaches Unity among all Human Beings.

What should be the Goal of Life ?


We are the Embodiments of Bliss, Divine Atma and Love. Our true Goal should be to maintain a perfect state of
equanimity at all times.Be a POORNA YOGI.

Hearty Welcome to POORNA YOGA MISSION.


Bondage and liberation are the creations of the non-apprehension of Reality. In the self they do not exist. How can
there be any idea of limitation in that which is without parts, without activity, calm, unimpeachable, taintless, one-
without a second and all pervading like space?

In reality, you are "Poorna" itself. There is nothing whatsoever other than "Poorna". There is never any birth
nor death. There is neither a seeker in "Poorna" nor one who has the burning desire for liberation nor even
one who is liberated. So, then, even liberation is not an occassion for glorification. That is your Real Nature. In
fact you have not gained anything at all. There is nothing to be realised. You are "Poorna". This is the Supreme
Truth -at the moment of realisation, to the realised.

Brief Introduction of "Poorna Yogi"


"Poorna Yogi" Poorna Singh Khatri was born in Nepal's Baglung District in the year 1953. In his child hood
, a Wandering Saint from Himalayas introduced him to Spiritual Knowledge. At the age of 18 , in the year
1971 , he went to Bihar in India and studied YOGA till 1975 under the Guidance of Great Yogi Paramhamsa
Satyananda Saraswati. In the year 1975 he was selected to get President's Commission in the Indian Army.
He remained active in teaching YOGA to Army Officers while inthe Army. He served till 1992 and took Premature
Retirement, in the Rank of Major, with pension. For a month he remained in the company of Paramahamsa
Niranjanananda , the Chancellor of Bihar Yoga Bharati (the first Govt accredited University of the World)
in Bihar India. On Jan 15 , 1993 "POORNA YOGA MISSION" was founded by Yogi Poorna Singh Khatri in
Kathmandu Nepal. This MISSION has ever since established YOGA as an essential science for the development and
evolution of Mankind.

AUTHOR
Yogi Poorna Singh Khatri has written many books . Books on Yoga like "Be A Poorna
Yogi","Understanding Poorna Yoga" , "Poorna Yoga In Nepali " and "A Comparative Study Of
Patanjali and Buddha" are very popular.

HONORS AND AWARDS


> "Human Rights Award- 2004" by International Human Rights And Duties Institution Nepal".

> "Life Time Achievement Award " by World Hindu Federation".

> "POORNA YOGI" Title was conferred on Jan 15 , 2005 by then King of Nepal, His majesty Gyanendra Bir
Bikram Shah Dev."

Poorna Yoga
Poorna Yoga or a Complete Yoga is about total transformation from a limited individuality
to an unlimited Universal Conciousness.This is about a state of Divine Awareness.

There are three steps in Poorna Yoga :-


Firststep :- To realise the Divine within Oneself.
Second:- An acceptance of the common origin of the entire Being of the Universe.
Third :- True identification with the ONE (without a second ) which is Poorna(Complete) and this is the Supreme
Truth.

Poorna Yoga teaches that the realization of this Supreme Truth is the ultimate rung on the Human Evolution
Ladder of Spiritual Awareness.
Poorna Yoga Mission
The Poorna Yoga mission (PYM) was founded in 1993 by Yogi Poorna Singh Khatri to impart training to one
and all at their Door step.

Poorna Yoga Mission is the path for the alleviation of all kinds of sufferings whether there are psychosomatic,
physical, heaven sent dooms or even spiritual sufferings because of a person's engrossment in worldliness that
never let him be healthy, contented, balanced and at peace. The Mission teaches to adopt the path of Awareness
and of endeavour. The techniques of Poorna Yoga are a synthesis for personal development. Poorna Yoga
techniques are taught and courses conducted by trained teachers on a group or individual basis. Conventions,
tours, seminars, workshops and lectures help spread Poorna Yoga from door to door and country to country
througout Nepal and the World. The Mission does not call people but reaches the Yoga minded people wherever
they may be.

Poorna Yoga Mission spreads Poorna Yoga to all people regardless of race , religion, sex, age orsocial status.
The techniques taught are based on the ancient disciplines of yoga, revised to fit the modern way of revolutionised
thinking and lifestyle.

A POORNA YOGI
A”Poorna Yogi” is that infinite light which permeates everywhere.Sins don’t contaminate him.Pains don’t touch
him.Injuries don’t hurt him.A sword can’t kill him.Water can’t drench him.Fire can’t burnt him.Poorna Yogi is an
unchangeable and permanent wall upon which the changing scenes of the world came and go.he is one and
many.He works through infinite hand,eats through infinite mouths,looks out htrough infinite eyes.He is the light of
the sun,life and protector of the infiniteUniverse.
“Poorna Yogi”loves “all”,for “all” are nothing but “own Self”.
A “Poorna yogi” is the one who may have a home,where there is mutual peace,where husband and wife do not
quarrel,where bitter taunts and harsh word are totally prohibited,where hausband and wife respect each other at
every step of life,where every family member knows to “forget and forgive”,where every affair is treated in a
spiritual light,verily that home is a heaven on earth,a lovely divine garden laden with beautiful flowers of eternal
fragrance and the person living there is “POORNA YOGI”.

WHAT TO DO TO BECOME POORNA YOGI ?


To become “Poorna Yogi” we have to change our lives by changing the modes of our thinking.As we think, so we
become.Whatever we are today, is what we thought yesterday and what we will become tomorrow is what we think
today.Surely a man becomes “Poorna Yogi” not by anything but by his deeds (Karma) and nature(Swabhava).

A “Poorna Yogi” is guided by the following resolutions:


-Resolve to realize himself.
-Resolve to constantly be aware of his goal.
-Resolve to practise Asanas and Pranayamas once every day.
-Resolve to practise prayers, introspection and self-analysis everyday without fail.
-Resolve to cultivate the following divine virtues:
a) Humility
b) Love
c) Service
d) Forgiveness
e) Forbearance
f) Patience
g) Perservance
h) Adaptability
-Resolve to eradicate following negative qualities:
a) Anger
b) Irritability
c) Jealousy
d) Narrow mindness

-Resolve to be true and faithful to himself and sadhana.


-Resolve not to waste even a single minute in useless pursuits.
-Resolve to live like a lotus in water, like the soft tongue in between two sets of sharp teeth.
-Resolve to strive to fulfill the mission while serving the society and the family.
-Resolve to give up non-vegetarian food for good.
-Resolve to avoid undesirable company, long discussions and abstinate conversations.
-Resolve to refrain from criticism and ill will.

“Poorna Yogi” is very particular about the following:

1. Love God
2. Dedication to God
3. Faith to God
4. Power in Oneself
5. Purity in Oneself
6. Magnetism in Oneself
7. Mental equilibrium

SYMPTOMS OF BECOMING A “POORNA YOGI”

1. Love will grow, passions would begin to subside.


2. Serenity will begin to prevail , hyper-sensitivity would be overcome.
3. One will never be disturbed either mentally or ethically.
4. Doubts will be cleared in meditation.
5. The speech will grow melodious, eyes will become lustrous and mind become calm.
6. Anyone comes across a “Poorna Yogi” , will be drawn by the personality.

A "POORNA YOGI" IS CAUTIOUS ABOUT THE FOLLOWING:


- Does not exercise any occult power if he has developed or has any knowledge of it.
- Keeps the experience of Sadhana a ‘top Secret”
- Gives up all desires for personal gain.
- Does not look intently at anybody.
- Does not indulge in palmistry or astrology.
- Does not believe in inalterable destiny.
- Does not fast and does not overeat.
- Mjnds his own business.
- Never allows others to know about his Sadhana & Siddhi.
- Remains indifferent to praise and blame.
- Uses common sense at everystep of yoga sadhana.
- He is ever aware that he is developing a great spiritual power within.

DO THE FOLLOWING TO BECOME “POORNA YOGI”

1. Your Goal:- self-realization


2. Be constantly aware of the goal.
3. Be regular and punctual in yoga, prayers and self analysis.
4. Reduce necessities, stop loose thinking and speak less.
5. Avoid intellectual big talks.
6. Consider ‘aim ,faith & success’ alone as the first & the last thing.
7. Like an arrow or a bullet, have one way and one sadhana.
8. No confusion with many aims under the garb of broad-mindedness.
9. Wait patiently until intuition gets awakened in you.
10. Remove that trait of jealousy.
11. Try hard for thorough purification.
12. Simple the personality, quicker the progress in sadhana.
13. Adopt, decide and retain the aim throughout. Also infuse and express faith sincerely.Certainity about
“success leads to success”.
14. Success mostly depends on love and sincerity, clarity and faith, practice and control.

OBSTACLES TO BECOME A “POORNA YOGI”


Anyone who considers one’s present condition as unfavourable, one’s own progress as doubtful, one’s own
sadhana as defective, one’s own life as hellish and one’s own normal advocations as opposed to one’s spiritual
progress may find these as impediments, disturbing the peace and bliss of one’s own mind.

A “POORNA YOGI” PRAYS THUS:


He prays in love, humility and confidence. Prayers are mixed with emotion and feeling.he prays like a child.he
prays with perfect faith that God will listen to his prayers and fulfill it. Never prays for trifling things.He prays for
Viveka, Vairayya, love and service. Prays for purity of mind.he has faith that God is all merciful and a kind father,
and that he will give all he asks for. Prays for understanding his merciful acts and loving blessings.He prays unto
him in all love, faith and emotion.

PRAYER OF “POORNA YOGI”


May all worlds be happy!
May all be free from misery!
May all be free from disease!
May all experience bliss!
May none be unhappy!
May good befall all!
May peace be unto all!
May all attain to perfection!
May all reach auspiciousness!

STATE OF A POORNA YOGI


There comes a stage, where the lower self is completely transformed and mental fluctuations are torn. Pure Atma-
Bhava dawns.The Sadhaka becomes siddha-master of his mind, senses and body.Knowledge emerges
spontaneously. A “person” becomes full of wisdom and a “Poorna Yogi”.

CAN YOU BECOME POORNA IN THIS LIFE ITSELF?

http://poornayogamission.org/index.php?page=chapter4

http://poornayogamission.org/index.php?page=chapter1

CHAPTER... 1

PRAYER
Prayer has been given the highest place in the vedas and upanishads. This prayer below has been taken from
"Anandavalli", the second of the five upanishads that constitute the Taittiriya upanishad.

"Om sahanavavatu,
Sahanaubhunaktu,

Sahaveeryam karavavahai

Tejaswina Vadheetamastu,
ma vidvishavahai
omshanti shanti shantihi,"
Let us protect each other, let us eat together, Let us work together, let us shine in our studies, Let us not hate each
other, let there be peace.
The Eight Limbs of Yoga
The word 'yoga' is derived from the Sanskrit word "Yuj" meaning union. Yoga is the maintenance of the body and
mind at equilibrium. Hiranyagarbha is the founder of Yoga. In the texts available to us today, pathanjali yoga is the
most important. It is called "Ashtanga Yoga", meaning "Eight -limbed Yoga", These 8 steps can be further categorized
thus: External (physical)and Internal (mental) yoga. Of the eight, the first four are external and the last four internal.
l. Yama : Meaning duty of commandment. Yama tells us the rules a person must follow in the society.
2. Niyama : Habits or practices one follows through life: for example, being clean, contented, having good
thoughts, habits of food and entertainment.
3. Asana : Postures. Yoga is wrongly believed to consist entirely of postures. Postures give confidence and prevent
disease.
4. Pranayama : prana + ayama. Prana is life, and ayama is giving rest with breathing. This step invovles itself
with increasing longevity through breath control.
5. Prathyahara : Controlling the internal organs. Yoga experts found that internal organs could be controlled
by controlling respiration.
6. Dharana : Controlling the internal organs. Yoga experts found that internal organs could be controlled by
controlling respiration.
7. Dhyana : It is of no use seeking happiness it is within ourselves. Man is by nature a happy being, but when a
man does not know himself, his self is almost a part of the outer world. Happiness comes from knowing oneself. To
know one's own soul is the aim of Dhyana, which guides the mind to see the spiritual form. Dhyana makes a person
see the true path. Dhyana takes a person to the uppermost state of mind, which is beyond thoughts, dhyana is
meditation.
It is common knowledge that 80%of man's diseases are muscular and neurological. Life's many disappointments and
failures are the cause of this. Meditation gives peace, which prevents disease. The goal of education is to increase
one's mental powers and to bring out one's natural abilities and talents. But the present education only deals with
collecting information. Intelligent students learn quickly and reach higher grades, whereas the less intelligent remain
stagnant. But through dhyana, anyone can achieve things that cannot be achieved even with endless teaching. Dhyana
brings out dormant abilities and makes the mind understand and assimilate easily.
To quote Vemana Yogi,
"It is not the study of the vedas, or the study of valour, or the study
of the divine, or devotion. But it is the study of yoga that leads to the ecstasy of self-realization.'
8. Samadhi : Samadhi is the last step, the sublimity of yoga.
Samadhi fa the fusion of me soul wilh the divine force, the attainment of 'moksha', or salvation. Those who attain
moksha are called sages, saints or yogis.
The branches of yoga are : mantra, laya, hatha, swara, gnana, bhakti, karma, kriya, siddha, sahaja, and rajayoga. Just
as all rivers flow into the sea, so do all the branches of yoga lead to the attainment of moksha.

Complete Health - Swara Yoga

Health is not merely the absence of disease. It is the fitness of the physical, mental and spiritual components of a
being. Swara is the activity of the left and right nostrils. Only some people notice swara. While breathing through the
nostrils, one is not conscious of the activity of the nostrils. But whether we are conscious or not, the respiration is
steady 24 hours a day. This is man's most important function. Respiration is inseparable from the soul. By
concentrating on respiration, you can concentrate on athma.
The left nostril is called chandranadi and the right, suryanadi.
Let us see me harm done when one nostril works more than the other When chandranadi is more active, there may be
indigestion, flatulence, respiratory diseases, asthma etc. Over-activity of Suryanadi results in Hypertension, acidity,
ulcer, fever, heart disease. When the activity is balanced it results in good health. Students writing exams may
endeavour to breathe through suryanadi, to sharpen the mind and bring good results.

Restricted diet - Nutritious diet

The importance of a restricted diet has been mentioned in Pathanjali yoga Hathapradeepika, Hatharatnavali and
Gheranda Samhita. The practitioners of yoga need to follow restricted diet. Restricted diet does not mean starvation.
The science of yoga stresses on the quality of food and not the quantity. Half the stomach should be filled with food, a
quarter with water and a quarter with air. One should not eat till one finds if difficult to breathe. Yoga practitioners do
not need a high calorie diet. a nutritious, balanced vegetarian diet is recommended for them, even if it is not rich in
protein.
Nutritious food gives health, longevity and resistance to disease. It has been established that lack of nutritious food
results in stunted physical and mental growth. An average Indian adult needs atleast 2,000 cilories, but he does not
get even 1,000 calories per day. In developed countries, an adult's average intake per day is 3,000 calories. In
developing countries food is not only small in quantity, but is also balanced, leading to kwashirokar. This is at present
one of the biggest problems in India.
CAN YOGA BE COMBINED WITH PHYSICAL EXERCISE
Yogic Method Physical Exercise Method
1. Starts with prayer of devout feeling. 1. Starts with warming exercises.
2. Movement in slow. 2. Movement is fast.
3. Uniform muscle movement, 3. Phasic muscle movement.
4. Uniform growth of muscles 4. Only some muscles show growth
5. Stamina increases. 5. Strength increases.
6. It can be practised alone. 6. Performed in groups.
7. Improves both performance and relation. 7. Only performance in improved.
8. No sense of competition 8. Sprots are competitive.
9. Must be done daily. 9. Not necesarty to do daily.

10. People of any age can do it 10. Can be done only upto a certain age.
11. Indoor 11. Outdoor
12. Both voluntary and involuntary muscles are 12. Only volutary muscles are involved.
involved 13. Pulse and B.P increase.
13. Pulse and B.P are stable 14. Cirulation to external organs is imporved.
14. Circulation increases among internal organs.

We have seen the differences between yoga and other exercises. Other exercises emphasise speed and strength. For
every action, some energy is utilized. Different actions require different outputs of energy. Since, usually, sports and
games involve physical jerks, there is muscular performed growth, and an increase in physical fitness. The activity
in sports has a steady effect on some organs. THis is called 'mass muscle activity'. The oxygen consumption in yogic
postures is only as much as that in an activity such as sitting or standing, and less that in ordinary walking. There is as
much difference between yoga and sports as there is between sitting and running.

How to preserve the purity of Yoga ?


Yoga strengthens the weaker parts of the body, Anxiety and stress cause loosening of skin. During and after
performing yoga, there is a sense of happiness. Besides, yoga causes relaxation by reducting the oxygen consumption
and the pulse rate. In medical terms, this is called "Economy of oxygen".
While yoga increases circulation internally, other exercises increase circulation among the external organs. Because
there is a difference in the methods of sports and yoga, the two should be separeted by a time gap of at least half an
hour.

Some General Tips on Yoga:-

1. Yoga must be done with enthusiasm.


2. It should not be perofrmed hurriedly or in jerks. The movement should be smooth and slow.
3. The posture must be maintained for some time.
4. Yogic exercises involve slow stretching of the muscles. to form what are called postures. Bringing flexibility
to the body, it increases muscle strength. But the muscular bulk does not increase.
5. Through, as a beginner, the postures are each repeated several times, after advancing to certain stage, the
final psotures must be performed once, relaxingly and maintained for a while.
6. When yoga is discontinued for some tine for any resson, start from the beginning, without causing sudden
strain.
7. After an illness, yoga must be resumed only after recouping strength.
8. It is essential to practise every day, Learn only under the guidance of an expert.
9. Health is wealth. Yoga is the easy way to health.

Basic Needs and Aids to Yogic Practice:

Time: Depending on the while available, yoga must be performed for about 45 minutes a day, at least 3-4 hours
after a meal and 2 hours after a snack. Morning or evening the stomach should be empty while practising yoga.

Bath : It is preferable to have a bath before doing yoga, because a bath helps circulation. The time of the bath
depends on personal preference, the surroundings, time constraints, and locality.

Limitations for Women :


Women should not practise yoga during menses and after 3 months of pregnancy. Mayurasana should not be
performed by women

Clothing for Men :


During yoga practice, underwear or langota must be worn.

Clothing for Women:


Silence : You are advised to avoid chit-chatting or discussions with friends during practice time.
'Shalwar Kameez may be worn.

Follow Traditional Method : Learn the classical yoga practices by traditional method. Learn the correct
way of doing the practices, which are described in yoga texts. It is very important for you to maintain the purity of the
yogic system.

Learn from a Teacher : Practice yoga only after learning the techniques from a qualified teacher who has
himself or herself been trained on traditional lines. Do practice at home only after sufficient experience has been
gained during the training period.
Following a book or correspondence course or seeing the TV or based on theoritical knowledge is risky. Do not also
practise merely be seeing another person.
Every individual has his own capacity. Yoga is not physical exercise. There is no place for competitive spirit in yoga.
All the yogic practices are followed from simple to complex methodology. Only persistent practice, graded according
to one's capacity will bring positive results.

Regularity : Make your practices part of your daily life and doing yoga must become a regular habit like eating
and sleeping.. Practising at irregular intervals instead of a particular time will bring only small benefit.

Illness: Avoid asanas on those days in which you are out of condition and feel extremely uneasy. After serious
illness, start the practices only after recovering sufficient strength and resistance. Do only selected practices for this
purposes.

Yogic diet : Every man should try to find which food suits him he best. With regards to food the common
question asked is, what and how much should a sadhaka eat ? Classical texts in Hathayoga like Hatha Pradipika,
Hatharatnavali, Sivasamhita and Gheranda Samhita advocate mitahara (leaving one fourth of the stomach empty),
Another question about diet is whether nonvegetarian food is recommended. As far as our mental state is concerned
we can get rid of ensions by avoiding food rich in protein. Traditionally, three kinds of food are held to influence
human personality. SATTVIC or pure food. RAJASIC or stimulating food and TAMASIC or impure food.

Place : A regular Place towards the east. It should be well-ventilated, with the air being neither too hot nor too
cold. Practise on a mat or rug durry.

Surgery : Yoga should be taken up only after 6 months after a surgery of moderate scale. A Yoga expert must be
consulted for Na-disodhana after Surgery.

Children : Boys and girls 7 years onwards can practise yoga. In the beginning, kantabhati, surya chandrabedha,
padmasana, vajrasana and kapalabhati are sufficient.

CHAPTER - 2

1. NADISODHANA IN PADMASANA

Explanation : The posture reembles a lotus. Lord Shiva and Gautam Buddha are usually depicted in this
posture.
Description : Sit with legs strecthed in front, feet together. This position is called dandasana. Pull the right
ankle on to the left thigh. The heels must point upwards in this position. The head, neck and spine must be straight.
Benefits : Improves concentration and digestion. The mind becomes relaxed.
Caution : Do not fold legs forcefully. First practise folding only one leg (Ardha Padmasana, or Veerasana)

Nadi Sodhana

Explanation : Nadisodhana is clearing of the air passages. This practice is also called Rechaka Puraka. Rechaka
is exhalation and puraka is inhalation.
Description : Sit in Padmasana. Place the left hand on the left knee close the right nostril with the right thumb
and inhale through the left nostril. Now close the left nostril with the little and ringfingers of the right hand, and
exhale through right nostril. This constitutes one unit Five such units must be completed. Take a break and repeat.
The durations of exhalation and inhalation should be in the ratio of 1: 2

 Source : Vasista Samhita

Benefits : It improves respiration, improves concentration. People with high blood pressure can also do this practice.

2. NIRALAMBASANA

Explanation : Lying on the abdomen, the head is raised on the elbows, with the hands forming a 'lotus' on the
sides of the face. This is called Niralambasana. It prepares one for Bhujangasana. Position : Lie on the abdomen. Keep
the legs straight and the feet togoether, The toes point away so that the soles face upwards. The elbows rest on the
ground while the hands support the head on either side of the face. Benefits : Constant practice of this asana removes
low backpain and improves bowel conditions. Deep inhalations and exhalations during this pose bring better results
by way of abdominal massage.

 Source : Hatha Ratnavali

3. BHUJANGASANA

Explanation : The body in this position resembles a hooded snake. Hence


Description : Lie prostrate, with legs together, the toes pointing backwards. Keeping the chin on the ground,
place palms on the ground on the sides of the chest. Raise the portion of the body from the head to the navel off the
ground, looking upwards.
Caution : Hernia patients should not do this
Benefits : Backache due to overwork is relieved, displaced vertebrae come
back into position. It is beneficial to people suffering from neck pain,
bronchial asthma, and flatulence following a meal. Relieves arthritic pains.

4. SHALABHASANA

Explanation : 'Shalahha' in Sanskrit means 'grasshopper'


Description : Lie face down. Keep both hands on the sides of the body with closed fists. Alternatively, the fists
can be kept under the thighs. Keep the chin on the ground and inhale. With the support of the chin and fists, lift up
the legs, keep them straight four inches above the ground. After the legs are brought down, exhale.
Benefits : Activates liver, intestines, pancreas, kidneys and lungs.
Caution : Do not bend the knees while lifting the legs.

5. DHANURASANA

Explanation : 'Dhanu' in Sanskrit mean a bow. In this posture, the bent body resembles a bow. Bhujangasana
Source : Gheranda Samhita, Hatharatnavali
Source: Gheranda Samhita
Description : Lie face down. Stretch arms to the sides towards the knees. Bending the legs upwards at the
knees, hold the ankles with the hands. Kicking the legs upwards, raise the head and chest off the floor. The weight of
the body should be borne by the region above the navel. Slowly release the ankles and come back to the ground.

Benefits : The muscles of the back, rectus and thigh are strengthened. Research the Vemana done by Vemana
yoga Research Institute has established that the asana is good for diabetes. Note : People with lumbar spondilitis
should not attempt the asana.

6. SHASHANKASANA

Explanation : 'Shashanka' in Sanskrit means the moon.


Description : Sit in Vajrasana. Hold each ankle with the hand of the same side. Bend forward with exhalation
and touch the ground with the forehead. Hold the posture until it becomes comfortable. Come back to vajrasana.
Benefits : The lower abdomen is exercised. Digestion improves. Stiffness of the spine is relieved.
Note : When the forehead touches the ground the buttocks should not rise.
Source: Kapalakurantaka Yoga

7. Vajrasana
Explanation : 'Vajra' means diamond. The body is as rigid and tough as a diamond in this posture.
Description : Sit in Dandasana. Place the palms on the floor near the thighs. Supporting your weight on the
right palm, bend the left leg at the knee and pull the ankle under the left buttock. Do the same with the right leg with
the support of the left arm. The toes point backwards and there is space between the ankles.
Benefits : Relaxes the knee caps, knees, ankles and feet, improves digestion, reduces gas. Sciatica is relieved.
Vajrasana done for 10 minutes after a full meal relieves heaviness.
Note : Do not sit on the ankles.

8. SUPTA VAJRASANA

Explanation : 'supta' in Sanskrit means supine. Vajrasana is performed lying on the back.
Position : Sit in vajrasana. Thrust the buttocks as deep as possible in the space between the ankles. Keep the
knees apart. With the support of the elbows, lower the back to the ground. Do this in stages according to your
capacity. After lying down, bring the forearms under the head. Once you can do this with ease, the knees may be
brought together. The abdomen or chest should not rise. The back should be touching the ground. Revert to normal
position in stages. Initial practice is.easier with pillows.
Benefits : The rectus muscles of the abdomen are stretched and digestion improves. Constipation is relieved.
People with sciatica and hypertension are also benefitted. .

* Source : Hatha Pradeepika

Vajrasana - Supta - Vajra

Note : Do not release the ankles from their position, without raising the back. People suffering from pain in the
hip-joint should not attempt the asana.

9. VICHITRA KARANI
Explanation : The hands are stretched and the legs are held stiff like a stick. This asana is also called
Naukasana.
Position : Lie on the back. Stretch the legs with the feet together. Stretch the arms beyond the head on the
ground. Take a deep breath and lift the body upwards, balancing on the buttocks.
Benefits: Strengthens the muscles of the abdomen, neck and shoulder,

Source:Hatha Ratnavali.

UTTANASANA

Position : Lie on the back, keep the fists on the ground. Inhale. With one leg straight on the ground, lift the other
first 30°' then 60° and finally 90° off the ground, slowly. Then lower the leg and do the same with the other leg. This is
one unit; three such units must be performed.
Benefits : Relieves sciatica, diabetes, indigestion, constipation and neurasthenia.
Note: Lumbar spondilitis is a contra-indication.

10. VIPAREETAKARANI

Explanation : This comes in the category of the Mudras. The feet are raised and not kept on the floor near the
head, but stretched in an unusual position.
Position: Lie on your back. Taking the support of the palms on the ground, raise the legs 90° off the ground,
without bending the knees. Next, supporting the buttocks on the hands, raise the hips 45° off the ground, balancing
on the elbows and shoulders. While returning to rest, first lower hips and hands to the ground.
Benefits : Improves digestion, tones buttocks. It is good for varicose veins.

 Source: Kapala Kurantaka Yoga •


 Source: Hatha Ratnavali

Viparitakarani

11. VAKRASANA

Explanation : Vakrasana was taught before Ardhamatsyendrasana, 'Vakra' means 'twisted'.


Position : Sit in Dandasana. Bend the right leg and bring the right foot near the left knee. Place the right palm on
the ground right behind the back, the fingers pointing backwards. With the left arm, kept straight, push the bent leg
towards the left. If possible, place the arm on the ground near the right foot. Pressing against the right leg and the
ground, twist the head and shoulders as far back as possible. While returning, first bring back the head and shoulders.
Doing the same motions on the other side completes the asana.

Benefits : Increases movement of the spine on its long axis. Strengthens the spine muscles and stimulates the
kidneys. It is beneficial to people suffering from neuritis, and kidney and liver diseases.
Note : Obese persons should not attempt to place the palm on the ground, in front. Instead, their weight should be
supported by the raised knee. The palm placed behind should be in line with the spine.

12. USHTRASANA

Explanation : 'Ushtra' in Sanskrit means camel. At the height of the asana, the body resembles the neck of a
camel.
Description : Stand on the toes. Slowly lower the knees to the ground. Bend the body backwards and hold the
ankles with both hands. Bend the head as far back as possible looking up at the sky.

Benefits : The chest grows wider, the vertebrae are energized. This asana relieves neck pain.

13. KULALA CHAKRASANA

Explanation : 'Chakra' in Sanskrit is a wheel. The bent body in this asana resembles a potter's wheel. This asana
is also called katichakrasana. Description : Stand with feet together, hands on the sides, touching the thighs, fingers
pointing downwards. Raise one arm straight above, touching the ear of that side.

Benefits : The spine becomes more flexible sideways.


Explanation: 'Jala' means water. Cleaning of the nose with water is called Jalaneti.
Description : Take tepid water in a Jalaneti container and add salt. Lift the nozzle of the container to either
nostril. Turn the face towards that side and bend forward slightly. The water is poured into the nostril. Breathing is
carried on through the mouth.

* Source : Kapala Kurantaka Yoga


** Source : Gheranda Samhita, Satkarma Sangraham
Benefits : Cold, sinusitis, eosinophilia, and migraine are all relieved. It

15. AKARSHANA DHANURASANA

Explanation : 'Dhanu1 in Sanskrit is a bow. The body resembles a stretched bow.

Akarshana Dhanurasana
• Source: Hatha Pradeepika, Hatha Ratnavali

Description : Sit in Dandasana. Hold each big toe with the hand of that side. Hooking the right big toe with the
right thumb, pull the foot towards the right ear. Release and repeat on the other side.
Benefits : The nadis are purified, hands and legs are energized.

16. PASCHIMOTANASANA

Explanation : The body is Stretched from the back to the heels,


Description : Sit in Dandasana with feet together. Bending forward, hook the big toes with the index fingers of
the respective sides. Bend forward from the pelvis. This stretches the muscles on the underside of the legs. Try to
touch the knees with the forehead.

Benefits : Hamstring muscles get exercised. Kidneys function better. Constipation, diabetes and sciatica are
relieved.
17. MATSYASANA

Explanation : 'Matsya' in Sanskrit means fish.


Description : Sit in Padmasana. Lie down on the back. Hook thumbs around the big toes. Arch the spine
forward, throwing up the chest. Bend the head back and touch the ground with the crown.
Benefits : The thyroid gland is stimulated. This asana is good for people with pain in the neck or back. Keeps tne
nose and larynx in good condition.

 Source : Hatha Pradeepika, Hatha Ratnavali,


 Source : Gheranda Samhita

18. Sarvangasana

Explanation : "Sarva" in Sanskrit means all. This asana involves all the parts of the body. It derives its name
and source from Shrikrishna Val-labhacharya's 'Kiran'.
Description : Assume vipareethakarani. With hands on the sides of the waist, lift the hips. When the body is
straight at 90°, keep the hands supporting the back. The chin should be pressing against the chest.
Benefits : Thyroid is stimulated. Gives relief in cases of asthma and constipation, respiratory and digestive
systems get strengthened. Piles in the initial stages regress.

19. YOGA MUDRA

Explanation : The word Togamudra' is derived from the two words 'Yogaj and 'mudra'.
Description: Sit in Padmasana. Keep both hands at the back, Hold one wrist with the other hand. Exhaling
slowly, bend forward. Draw the abdomeid inside and touch the ground with the forehead. Breathe normally in the
final pose.
Benefits : Strengthens the internal organs of the abdominal region. Constipation is relieved. It stimulates
overies and uterus in womenj Premature ejaculation is corrected in men.
caution : Diabetic patients should not do this.

20. PARYANKASANA

Explanation : "Paryanka" in Sanskrit means a cot. The asana is also called chakrasana.
Description : Lie down" on the back. Lift up the arms, keep both palms on either side of the head with fingers
pointing to the feet. The elbows point upwards in this position. Lift up the body on the hands and feet and arch it. The
navel is at the top of the arch in this position.

Benefits : Spinal movements become smooth and easy. The muscles of


the lower abdomen jre stretched;

21. LANGALASANA
Explanation : "Langal" means a plough. The body resembles a plough in this asana. It is also called Halasana.
Description : Start with Sarvangasana. Lower the legs towards the head. Keep the legs together, knees straight
and touch the ground with the toes. Hold the head with hands and cross fingers. Elbows rest on the ground.
Benefits : Spine is strengthened. Backache and joint pains are relieved. Paunch is reduced. Pancreas is
stimulated.

 Source: Kapalakurantaka Yoga


 ** Source : Kapalakurantaka Yoga
Langalasana

22. ARDHA MATSYENDRASANA

Explanation : Sage Matsyendra developed this asana. 'Ardha' means half.


Description : Start with Dandasana. Bend the left knee and bring the foot under the right thigh. Keep the ankle
near the anus. Bend the right knee and keep the right foot on the ground next to the left knee at its outer aspect. The
left hand is stretched across the right leg and the right big toe is grasped with the hand. The right arm is stretched
behind the back and the right hand rests on the left thigh. Breathing out slowly turn the chest towards the right side
and look back. Repeat this on the other side.
Benefits : The spine is turned on its long axis. It stimulates the liver, spleen, kidneys and pancreas. Constipation
is relieved. It has been established in Vemana Yoga Research Institute that it is very beneficial to diabetics.

Ardha-Matsyendra

 Source : Hatha Ratnavali

23. DANDA MAYURASANA


Explanation : 'Danda' in Sanskrit means stick, and 'mayura' means peacock. Description : One should perfect
Hamsasana before attempting this asana. Kneel down and sit on the heels. Bend forward and keep the palms on the
ground. Let the elbows touch the abdomen slightly below the navel. The fingers of the palms must point towards the
feet. Hold the breath, and balancing on the palms, stretch the body parallel to the ground.

Danda Mayurasana

Benefits : It controls the abodominal aorta and increases the blood supply to the internal or digestive organs. The
pancreas is stimulated.
24. NAULI (MADHYAMA)

 Source : Hatha Ratnavali


Source : Hatha Pradeepaka

of the rectus muscles from other abdominal muscles, and their movement. This is to be practised when the stomach is
empty.
Description : It is only when one has control over Uddiyana that Nauli can be practised. The final state in uddiyana is
the starting point of Nauli. After attaining Uddiyana, take a few second's rest. Press the hands on the thighs. Drawing
the abdominal wall inwards, the navel must be pushed forward with the muscles on the sides of the recti muscles.
This makes the recti standing in a straight line in the middle of the abdomen and the sides of the abdomen cave in.
This is Madhya Nauli.

Benefits : It activates the liver, gall bladder and Kidneys. It exercises the abdominal organs. Indigestion and
constipation are corrected.
Note : People with headache should not do this practice.

25. KAPALASANA Source : Kapala Kurantaka Yoga

Explanation : 'Kapala' in Sanskrit means cranium. This asana is also called Sirshasana.
Description : Lay a thickly folded cloth on the floor. Kneel on it and sit on the heels. Bending forward, place the
elbows and hands on the cloth and entwine fingers. Bending further, place the head in the space between the hands.
Balancing on the head and toe, straighten the legs lifting thelegs, lifting the hips off the ground. Gradually, lift the legs
and hold them straight above the torso, so that the whole body is straight. The return to rest should also be in stages.
Benefits : The pineal and pituitary glands are reactivated, liver and spleen are stimulated, and asthma is relieved.
Memory improves.
Note : Persons with ear diseases, rheumatism, high blood pressure, heart disease and constipation should not do
this asana. Also do not perform this asana when tired, or next to a wall for support. After this asana, Talasana, and
Shavasana must follow.

26. MAKARASANA
Explanation : Makara' in Sanskrit is crocodile.
Description : Lie prostrate. Spread the legs, so that the feet are two feet
* Source : Gheranda Samhita

apart. The heels should be opposed. The thighs, abdomen and chest should touch the ground, the arms should be
folded one on top of the other, forming a triangle under the face, and palms should clasp the shoulders. The head
rests on the triangle, and the shoulders are off the ground. Do deep chest breathing.

MAKARASANA

Benefits : Since the stomach and intestines are stimulated, digestion improves. Respiratory problems and
asthma are relieved.

27. SHAVASANA **

Explanation : "Shavam" in Sanskrit means a corpse "Asana" is posture.

Description : All the parts of the body are completely relaxed. The legs are at 30, and the arms 15° c away from
the body. Elbows are prostrate. The arms are on their sides, fingers half-bent. The feet are 18 inches apart. The hands
should be 6 inches distant from the body. The eyes are closed, but the eye balles move. Breathing is slow, rhythmic,
and abdominal. The mind should concentrate on breathing. This is called "Pranadharana". Benefits : Headache,
dizziness, mental weakness, hot flushes, insomnia, high blood pressure are relieved. Caution : People with low blood
pressure should not do this.
CHAPTER - 3

28. SURYA CHANDRA BEDHA

Explanation : In Yoga connotation, surya is the right nostril and Chandra, the left. Bheda is activity.
Description : It differs from nadisodhana in that breathing is done through one nostril.
Sit up straight. Close one nostril and breathe in and out. This is one round. Make four such rounds. Repeat with the
other nostril. In ordinary language, this amounts to stomach exercise. This froms a part of kapalabhati, hence it is also
called "Ardha kapalabhati", meaning "half-kapalabhati".
Benefits : Stomach, kidneys, spleen and pancreas are activated. It is beneficial to people with low blood pressure,
hyperacidity, peptic ulcer and constipation.
Caution : Do not put any strain on the facial muscles. The chest should not move; only the lower abdomen must
move back and forth. People
with very high blood pressure, and heart diseases, should not do this.

29. KANTA BHATI *


Explanation : "Kanta" is throat and "Bhati" is cleansing in Sanskrit. Description : Sit in vajrasana. Close
the pharynx partiolly, and forcefully let out the breath through the pharynx in small quantities, with the mouth
closed. The tongue should be touching the back of the teeth all the time. The sound produced during this practice
resembles that made by a steam engine. Holding in the abdomen helps produce the sound easier.
Benefits : This cleans the throat and cranium and stimulates the thyroid gland. It clears the secretions of the
throat and is particularly helpful to

30. BHADRASANA **

Explanation : "Bhadra" in Sanskrit means 'auspicious' or 'prime'. This asana prevents disease; hence the name.
Description : Sit in Dandasana, fold the legs sideways and keep both feet opposed and touching. Hold the
ankles with the hands and bring the feet closer to the body. The heels should be on either side of the Shivanee Nadi.
The body is kept straight.
Benefits: It prevents hernia. Sciatica is relieved. The leg muscles are strengthened.

* Source : Satkarma Sangraham


'* Source: Hatha Pradeepika, Hatha Ratnavali

31. BADDHA PADMASANA *

Explanation : "Baddha" in Sanskrit means 'tied up1 or 'rolled up1.


Description : Sitting in Padmasana, hold the toes of the right foot with I the right hand extended from behind
the back. Similarly hold the toes ofl the left foot with the left hand.
31

Baddhapadmasana
Benefits : Arthritic pain of the knee joints is relieved. Concentration oft
the mind improves.

32. UTTANA MANDUKASANA **

Explanation : "Manduka" in Sanskrit means frog. The body in Uttana Man-1 dukasana resembles an erect frog.
Description : Sit in vajrasana. Straddle the knees half-way behind the back,! the big toes should oppose each
other. The body should be straight. Cross! both arms behind the head and place the hands on the upper part of thet
back. The chin comes into the Jalandhara bandha in this asana.
Benefits : Lung power is improved. Circulation in the walls of the chestj and abdomen, tone is increased. The
bandhas of Jalandhara, Uddiyana and! Moola are all partly involved in this asana.
* Source : Bruhad Yoga Sopanam
♦* Sources: Hatharatnavali, Gheranda Samhita.

32

Utana/Mandukasana

33. TOLANGULASANA

Explanation : Thula1 or 'tolangin' means weighing scales. The body is. balanced as the pans in weighing scales.
Description : Sit in Padmasana. Slowly lean back with the help of the elbows. Keep the body weight on the back
and lift the legs. Each palm is placed below the buttock on the respective side. The centre of gravity lies on the
buttocks and hands.

Tolangulasana

Benefits : Muscles of the abdomen, back and neck are strengthened. The muscles of the abdomen and waist become
taut. This asana is good foi
diabetes and piles.

34. PARVATASANA

Explanation : 'Parvatham' in Sanskrit means a hill. Description: Assume padmasana. Raise arms above the
head touching the ears. While lowering the arms, exhale. Keep the palms on the knees. Repeal 3 times.

PARVATASANA

Benefits : The stiffness in the neck and shoulders is relieved. Lung power is increased. This asana is good for
people with neck pain.
35. Gomukhasana (Baddha Hastasana) *
Explanation : 'Gomukha' means head of a cow. The legs assume a triangular form and the body in this posture
resembles the head of the cow. Description : Sit in Dandasana. Fold the lift leg and let the left ankle touch
Source : Hatha Pradeepika, Hatha Ratnavali.
the right buttock. Fold the right leg over the left ? so that the knees are on top of the other. Let the right ankle touch
the left buttock. The testicles should be free of pressure. Sit straight and raise the right arm over the head. Fold the
left arm behind the back. Let the hands hook up behind the back.Benefits : Prepares one for mulabandha. Lung
capacity increases.

GOMUKHASANA

Caution : Persons with bleeding piles should consult an expert on Yoga before attempting the asana.

Gomukhasana (Baddhahasta)

36. SIMHASANA*

Explanation : The body resembles a lion., with claws drawn, tongue dangling and eyes centred on the middle of
the brows.
Description: Start with Dandasana. Fold the right knee and keep the right foot under the left buttock and the left foot
under the right buttock, the right ankle should be over the left one. The knees are to be kept wide apart and touching
the floor. To make this asana easier, the body weight should be on the thighs and knees. The trunk should lean
forward, and the buttocks should be slightly off the ground. Place the hands on the knees, the fingers spread out. The
trunk and spine should be kept straight protrude the tongue and roar like a lion. If the chin touches the suprasternal
notch, the asana becomes Jalandhara bandha.

Benefits : Throat diseases in the initial stages, and tonsilitis are cured. The neck becomes toned.

37. KUKKUTASANA **

Explanation : 'Kukkutam' in Sanskrit means a fowl. The body in this posture resembles a fowl.

 Source: Hatha Pradeepika, Hatha Ratnavali ** Source: Hatha Pradeepikarflatha Ratnavali

Description : As in Padmasana, start with a foot-lock. Insert the arms through the spaces between the knee of
one leg and the skin of the other leg. Spread the fingers on the floor this makes balancing the body easier. With the
support of the palms and elbows, lift the body above the ground.
Kukkutasana
Benefits : The muscles of the abdomen are stretched due to the footlock. This increases the pressure over the
abdominal organs and improves digestion. With maximum inhalation of air, intra abdominal pressure increases. The
functioning of the heart and lungs improves.
Caution : Gastric ulcer, enlarged spleen, heart and lung diseases are contraindications.

38. BAKASANA
Explanation: "Baka' means a crane.
Description: Start with Dandasana and assume Padmasana. Spread the hands on the floor. Supporting the weight of
the body on the hands and elbows, lift the body off the ground. Patience, dexterity and control are a must to balance
the body like this. A different method is to keep the palm on the floor, keep the buttocks close and, without
Padmasana bring both knees to the umbilicus.

 Source: Kapala Kurantaka Yoga

Bakasana
A tip: The distance between the hands must be adjusted conveniently. Do not fold the fingers.
Benefits : The muscles of the arms and shoulders become istrong. Chest muscles also become strong.
Caution : When the body is lifted up with a jerk, there is a chance of falling forward.

39. UTTANA KURMASANA *

Explanation : 'Kurma1 in Sanskrit means a tortoise. This is one of the ten avatars of Lord Vishnu.
Description: Start with kukkutasana. Hold the hands behind th eneck and lie on the back. Uttana denotes lying on the
back.
Benefits : It is a fine structuring practice for the long and short spinal muscles and the large muscles of the back
such as trapezius, latissimus, dorsi, rhomboids and hamstrings group of muscles in the thighs. It vigorously
compresses the abdominal viscera and the positive intra-abdominal pressures produced during the performance of
the asana help to relieve congestion of the visceral organs. It improves their tone resulting
* Source: Hatha Ratnavali

Uttana Kurmasana
in better Digestion and elimination.
Caution : Patients suffering from high blood pressure, cardiovascular diseases, peptic or intestinal ulceration etc.
should not perform this practice.
40. Svottanasana or Pavana Muktasana *
This asana is known as Svottana because of practising in lying down on back. Another name of this asana is Pavana
Muktasana. Pavana Mukta releasing wind (bad gases) means gases from the stomach.
Ardha- Svottanasana :
Sthiti: Lie supine on the ground over the mat or blanket with heels together
and arms stretched above the head.
1. Raise the right leg keeping it straight to 45° from the ground. Keep the left? firmly on the ground. Inhale
partially.

2.
3.

Place the right? perpendicular to the ground and complete inhalation.


Bend the right leg and press the knees over the chest holding the legs by interlocked fingers of the hand. Exhale,
continue the movement keeping the knee straight and bringing the leg perpendicular to the ground.

4.

Take the chin above the knees. Rotate the left leg 3 times in an elliptical fashion and 3 times in the anticlockwise
direction. Breathe normally.
Svottanasana ;
• Source: Kapala Kurantaka Yoga
Svottanasana

l.

Take both legs to 45° position; keep the knees straight and inhale slowly.

2.
3.
4.
Bring the legs perpendicular to the ground and complete inhalation.
Bend the knees, press them on the chest by the hands with interlocked fingers and exhale.
Keep the chin touching or above the knees and maintain the posture in of relaxing way.
Benefits : Svottanasana helps to remove accumulation of gases in the stomach, increase the digestive power and
removes constipation.
Caution: The patients with neck-pain are advised not to raise the head during this practice.

41. TALASANA

Explanation : Tala' means a palm tree. With upward stretched arms, the body resembles a palm tree. This
asana is also called Tadasana.
Description : Stand straight, keep the feet 3 to 6 feet apart, lift up the arm straight above the head and stand on
tip of the toes. Breathe in slowly with the arms up and palms together. Stretch all the parts of the body upwards. Then
breathe out slowly bringing the hands down.
Benefits : It helps to increase the height Spine is strengthened. Stomach and intestines are cleansed. The fat
around the stomach and intestines is removed.

42. VRIKSHASANA *
Talasana
Explanation : In this asana, the body is upright like a tree. This is also
called Ardha Chandrasana.

Description: Stand straight, keep both the legs together. With the right hand lift the right foot and keep the heel
against the right thigh near the hip. The right foot is kept against the left thigh, toes pointing down. Balance the body
in this position. The palms must be kept together in the middle of the chest in namaskar(greeting). Reverse all the
steps and repeat on the other side.

Benefits : Done regularly, the stiffness of the joints of the feet, ankles and
knees is relieved. The muscles of the legs are strengthened. Arthritic pains
are improved.

43. PADA PEETHASANA*


Explanation: In this asana the person stands on one foot, winds the body and brings the other leg up towards the back
and balances.
Description: Fold the leg as in Vajrasana, Stand on the left foot, bend the right knee, folding the lower half against the
upper. Balancing the body, pull the right foot up with both hands and hold it against the right buttock. Keep both
hands straight Repeat on the other side.
Benefits : All the muscles of the thigh, legs, ankles and feet are stretched. Rheumatic pains are relieved. The
sciatic nerve is activated.

44. KAPALA BHATI

Explanation : 'Kapala' is 'Cranium', 'Bhati' means 'to clean'. Surya chandra bheda is called Ardha kapala Bhati.
In this, breathing in and out occur very fast with both nostrils. If done suddenly, the abdomen gets cramped. The
pharynx should not be closed. The lower abdominal muscles must move back and forth. The rate of breathing should
be 120 breaths per minute.
Benefits : In this, the oxygen intake is enhanced. Circulation is stimulated, cardio-respiratory endurance
increases. It is beneficial to people with low B.P.

45. VAMANA DHOUTI


This is one of the five practices of Ayurveda. In this practice the contents are vomitted.
Description: This should be done on an empty stomach early in the morning. Add 10 grams of salt in a litre of boiled
and cooled water. The water should not be cooled to room temperature, but should be warm. Drink 4 to 5 gassess of
this. After a few seconds bend forward; tickle the throat with the index and middle fingers of right hand. Vomiting
ensues.
Benifits : Respiratory diseases and bronchial asthma are lessened in severity. Flatulence and hyperacidity are relieved.
Gas passage through the anus is also relieved. Digestive juices are increased and hunger is increased.
♦Source: Hatha Ratnavali

CHAPTER - 4

Introduction : In the previous chapters we have presented a few of the Asanas and other preparatory practices. Now
we move on to Bandhas and Mudras. They are neuro-muscular locks and gestures. Bandhas are safety locks used
during the process of breath-holding-Kumbhakas. These Bandhas and Mudras are advanced techniques in Hathayoga
used mainly for culturing of emotions.

Types of Bandhas:

JALANDHARA BANDHA (THE CHIN LOCK)

Explanation : Jalandhara Yogi discovered this Bandha. Hence Jalandhara Bandha was named after him. There
is the Jalandhar city in Punjab. The word "JALA" refers to the brain and the nerves passing through the neck and
"DHARA" denotes the upward pull.
Description: (a) Sit in a comfortable position like Vajrasana, Padmasana in any meditative posture.

 Keep the back erect.


 Place the palms on the top of the knees.
 Relax the whole body and close the eyes.
 Inhale deeply, retain the breath inside, bend the head forward and press the
chin tightly against the sternum.
 The chin is to be tightly set in the Jugular notch.
 Stay in the final pose for as long a time you can comfortably able to retain
the breath.

(h) This is Jalandhara Bandha.

Benefits : The chin lock closes the wind pipe and compresses various organs including the sinus receptors which
are located in the throat region. The receptors are pressure sensitive and so the compression they receive during the
Jalandhara Bandha slows down the heart
The bandha cleans the nasal passages and regulates the flow of blood and prana to the heart, head and the endocrine
glands in the neck. The thyroid and parathyroid glands are massaged and their functioning improved. If Pranayama is
performed without Jalandhara Bandha pressure is immediately felt in the heart, brain, eye balls and in the inner ear.
This may lead to dizziness.
Jalandhara accelerate venous drainage from the cephalic region i.e. vital
organs in head and neck. The improved venous drainage will check the
accumulation of CO2in and around the respiratory centres and thereby enable
a person to hold the breath for a longer time.
Concentration : Concentration on Vishuddhi Chakra
Caution: Persons with neck pain, high blood pressure or heart ailments should
not practice without expert guidance.

2. MULA BANDHA (PERINEUM CONTRACTION LOCK)

Explanation : Mula means root or origin or corner. It refers to the principal


region between the anus and the genitals.
Description: (a) Mula bandha should be attempted first in the internal retention
after inhalation.
(b) The practice of contracting the anal sphincter muscles (asvim mudra) helps
one to master mula bandha.
(c) Asva means a horse. This mudra is so called because it suggests the staling
of ahorse.(d) It should also be learnt while doing various asans like pavana muktasana, ustrasana, paschimottanasana
and vipareetakami mudra. Concentration : Concentration on Muladhara Chakra. Sequence : Jalandhra, Mula and
Uddiyana Bandhas in Pranayama practice. Benefits :The pelvic nerves are stimulated and the associated sexual
and eliminative organs toned. The sphincter muscles of the anus are strengthened and intestinal peristalsis is
stimulated. In this way constipation and piles can be removed. This generates vitality and helps to awaken the
Kundalini. Caution : It should be practised step by step with proper care and perfect guidance. If any mistake occurs
in mulabhanda dry stools are passed.

3. UDDIYANA BANDHA (NAVEL LOCK)

Explanation : Uddiyana, which means flying up, is an abdominal grip. Uddiyana is different from the uddiyana
bandha Description : (a) Sit in meditative pose.

 Close the eyes and relax the whole body.


 The abdominal viscera, particularly above and below the navel are to be
pulled back with lock.
 This is practised at the end of Kumbhaka before the beginning of Rechaka.
 The practice is optional during Pranayama.

UDDIYANA BANDHA (NAVEL LOCK)


Concentration: On Manipura chakra. Sequence : Jalandhara Bandha, Mula Bandha and Uddiyana Bandha. Benefits:
Manipura chakra, located in the region of the navel is stimulated. It purifies the navel through which the wind is
purified.
These three Bandhas Jalandhara, Mula and Uddiyana form one group called Bandha Traya (the lock trinity). These
Bandhas are used exclusively as locks during Kumbhaka i.e. to restrain and close the passage for the breath.
Jalandhara Bandha is used during Antara-Kumbhaka and Uddiyana Bandha in Baashya Kumbhaka. Mula Bandha
can be done during Purakas, Kumbhaka, Rechaka and also in Japa and meditation. These Bandhas prevent the
building up of tension in the head.

TYPES OF MUDRAS
Mudras in general are used mainly in three fields.

1. Rituals in performing certain worships.


2. Dance (to express the emotions and feelings through bodily gestures) and
3. Hathayoga (to help in stabilizing the mind)

We will limit ourselves to the region of Hatha yoga which includes Asanas, Pranayamas, Bandhas, Mudras and Shat
kriyas. Many of the Sanskrit yoga texts take Bandhas and Mudras as a single unit.
According to Gheranda samhita, there are mainly 25 Mudras, where as Hatha pradipika and Hatharatnavali describes
only 10 of these. Among them the following eleven are the most important ones :-
(1) Mahaa mudra, (2) Mahaa Bandha, (3) Mahaa vedha (4) Viparitakarani, (5) Vajroli, (6) Sakticalani
(7) Uddiyana Bandha (8) Jalandhara Bandha (9) Mula Bandha (10) Yoni Mudra (11) Khecari - Mudra.

Now we will briefly describe few common mudras.


1. YONI OR SHANMUKHI MUDRA (SIX FACED PSYCHIC GESTURE)

Explanation : This is a technique of Nada yoga " Sravanaputanaayanayugala Ghranamukhanam Nirodhanam


Karyam Suddhasusumnasaranau Sphutamamalah Sruyate Nadah (HP - IV - 68) i.e. Of closing both the ears, both the
eyes, both the nostrils and the mouth is practiced, a clear distinct sound is heard in the path of susamna nadi when it
is clean.
Siddhasanam Samasadya Kamacaksurnasamukham Angustha Tarjanimadhyinidyaih pidadhita vai Assuming
Siddhasana, one should close the ears with thumbs, the eyes with index-fingers, the nostrils with the middle fingers
and the mouth with the ring and little fingers.
(GHE S. Ch-LQ-33)
Kaki Mudra (Crow Gesture) is recommeded in the practice. Technique: (a) Sit in any comfortable meditative pose
preferably Padmasana

or Siddhasana.
1. Inhale slowly and deeply retain the breath.
2. Raise the hands to the face and the elbows to the level of the shoulders.
3. Close the ears with the thumb, the eyes with the index fingers, the nostrils
with the middle fingers and place the ring and small fingers above and below the
lips to close the mouth.

SHANMUKHI MUDRA
Cencentration on Bindu Chakra
Duration : According to your own capacity.
Benefits: This is apowerful practice for with drawing the mind from association
with sense objects (pratyahara). It stimulates awareness of psychic sound which
emanate from Bindu Chakra in the back of the head (Shiva Samhita). It cuts off
all external stimuli coming from the four special senses. It is useful in persons
suffering from tension headaches.
Caution: Patients of high blood pressure and heart problems should not practice
without any expert guidance.

a)
b)
c)

2. MAHA MUDRA (ROYAL GESTURE)


Sit with legs stretched, bend the left leg at the knee and press the perineum
with the heel.
Inhale completely and hold the breath. Catch hold of the big toe of the
stretched right leg with both hands by bending the waist forward. Keep
the chest up. Have Mula Bandha.
While making a swallowing movement, bend the neck forward and press
the chin on the chest Inhale and have Jalandhara Bandha.
While maintaining, relax the head region and feel the locking of air below
the throat. Maintain for equal number of times on either side every day.
Many diseases of the stomach are cured by this. Very useful in curing seminal weakness.

Maha Mudra (Royal Gesture)

3. ASVNI MUDRA (HORSE-ANUS GESTURE)


Sit erect in Padmasana, Exhale.
Hold the breath and pull up the anus by contracting the sphincter; hold for about 10 seconds and inhale.
Release the anus.
Repeat this rhythmically about 10 to 30 times.
This Mudra is useful in evoking the spiritual forces dormant in the lower centres. Useful for pregnant women, and in
curing urinary and anal incontinence. Asvini Mudra done in Viparitakarani posture is useful in treating piles and
prolapse uterus.
4. Vipareetakarni Mudra
Refer II Chapter P-15.
5. Yoga Mudra
Refer HI Chapter, P-22.
6. Brahmamu The Name: Brahma is the name of one of the gods of the Hindu trinity, who possesses four heads.
Mudra means a symbol.
The Technique: (a) The student sits erect in acomfortable 'asana'. He then turns his head slowly to the right without
moving his trunk the chin brought almost in the line with the right shoulder line. The final position is maintained for
a few seconds before returning slowly to the starting position.
1. Then comes a similar movement and pause on the left side.
2. Returning to the original position, the head is in the same manner
taken backward, so that the muscles of the throat are stretched to the maximum,
and again brought to starting position.
3. This is followed by bending the head forward, chin pressing on the
jugular notch and again coming to the original position. This completes one
round of Brahmamudra.

Thus the head is turned to the right, to the left, backward and forward imitating the four heads of Brahma.

BRAHMA MUDRA
Advantages: Brahmamudra, though it looks very simple, is very efficacious for removing psycho-physiological
tensions, regulating blood pressure and bringing vasomotor tone and also for curing functional disorders of the
cervical spine such as stiff neck.
It stimulates the carotid nerve and the carotid arteries which bring supply to the brain.
The cervical spine is turned forward and backward and is twisted. The cervical ganglia and the spinal nerves of the
cervical spine are also favourably influenced.
The practice of Brahmamudra gives added advantage when it is accompanied by two other practices, namely,
Jihvabandha and Simhamudra.
(Cha-2-P.36)

PRANAYAMA
_Breathing and Life Process
More than five thousand years ago, the Yogis of ancient India discovered the correlation between the subtle rhythm of
breathing and the mind. The "nasal cycle" was not documented in the west until late in the 19th century. Man's
lifespan (HR-II-Ch-I) depends on his mode of respiration. A person who breathes in short, quick gasps is likely to
have a shorter life than a person who breathes slowly. The ancient munis and Yogis measured a person's lifespan not
by years but by the number of his respirations. They considered that everyone is allocated a fixed number of
respirations in his or her life time, which differs from person to person. There were no laboratories at that time.
Forests and surroundings were the laboratories. The yogis were the scientists and animals their subjects. They
investigated and found that animals with slow breathing rate, such as snakes, elephants and tortoises have longer
lifespans than animals with fast breathing rates, such as dogs, birds, and rabbits, which live only for a few years. From
this observation they realised the importance of slow breathing.

Respiration is directly related to the heart. Slow respiration occurs with a slow beating of heart, and a slow beating
heart is conducive to long life. The heart of a mouse beats one thousand times per minute; it has a short lifespan. A
whale's heart beat is about sixteen times per minute and an elephant's about twenty five. Both are known for their
long lifespans.

EVOLUTION OF PRANAYAMA:
Pranayama in Vedas
The evolution of Pranayama is worth mentioning here. The word PRANA is frequently mentioned in Vedas, among
which the ATHAR VAVEDA is most important for the study of yoga practices. A Yogi can realise the presence of
"CHAKRAS1 within his body which contain nine gates. The description of these eight circles (CHAKRAS) and nine
gates (holes) in the human body is clearly given in the ATHAR VAVEDA as follows:
"ASTACAKRA NAVDVARA DEVANAM PURAYODHYA TASYAM HIRANYAH KOSAM SVARGO JYOTISAVRTAH'
(ATHARVAVEDA - 10-2-31)
PRANA VIDYA is the essence of practical yoga, and a complete sukta has been devoted to the description of the prana
in the Atharvaveda. It is mentioned that Prana is the essence of the whole universe. We bow before Prana which
controls everything. The different forms of prana are also mentioned in this hymn as Prana and Apana. Further, it is
said that all gods worship the Prana. Man takes birth in this world due to prana and can even conceive in the womb
due to prana. Past, present and future exist in the pranas. But Pranayama has not been clearly mentioned in the
Atharvaveda and further yogangas were also still in the state of growth.
Pranayama in the Brahmanas
With the Brahmanas and the Upanishads, we enter the later vedic age. The Brahmana literature mainly represents the
further development of the ritualism of the yajurveda samhitas. Satapatha Brahmana text is affiliated to the sukla
yajurveda.
It is stated that desire of mind goes to PRANA, PRANA informa it to VAYU and VAYU tells gods how the man's mind
is. At several places, three pranas viz. Prana, apana and vyana have been mentioned. But in a few places, all the five
pranas have also been enumerated.
The Brahmanas affiliated to the Samaveda and the Atharvaveda seem to have been composed at a much later date.
Amongst the many Brahmanas of the Sama Veda, the Jaiminiya Brahmana (JB) is the oldest and the most important.
It contains a good deal of discussion on the PRANA VIDYA.
We come across the concept of the VAGBRAHMA in connection with the recital of various samanas. The unity of S
VARA and PRANA has also been emphasized at several places (JB 1.140,164,215 etc.). Here we can find the root of the
SVARA concept in the yogic treatise like svarodaya. This Brahmana states that by yoking mind and speech at the time
of offering oblations, one can transcendbothbadandgoodactions(JB-i.l6).SHIVASVARODAYA,SWARA CMNTAMANI
(by Sveu&etu) and SVARASASTRA MANJARI (by Gana-panardhya, Telugu, 1324-1345 A.D) are important treatises
in Swara Yoga. The number of pranas have been mentioned at different place as two three, five, nine and ten.
Pranayama in the Chandogya and Brahdaranyaka Upanishads
The age of the Upanishads was a peak period of Indian thought and yoga forms a very solid part of the same. The term
PRANA is used in the UPANISHADS as on excellent concept. Most of the early upanishads have certainly revealed in
highest transpsychic yogic state of mind. Among the upanishads, the earliest ones are the CHANDOGYA and
BRAHADARANYAKA.
We can find the basis for KRIYAYOGA as also of the YAMAS and NIYAMAS in these two oldest upanishads. There is
no specific description of ASANA in these upanishads. But PRANA forms a very important topic of discussion. The
Chandogya describes prana, vyana, apana and samana as forming respectively the Eastern, Southers, Western and
Northers gates of the heart, whereas UDANA is said to be the upper gate (CU-III-13.1-5).
The different NADIS of the heart have been described in both these upanishads. The colours of these NADIS have also
been described. We find here the root of the yogic concept of PINGALA or the SURY A NADI. These are said to be
thinner than the thousandth part of a hair. The NADI going to the head is said to be the most important one and it has
been declared that one gets immorality going upwards through this NADI. Here, we find the root of the yogic concept
of SUSUMNA and KUNDALINI. We do not come across the idea of concentration on the NADIS or vital regions of
human body, in these upanishads.

PRANAYAMA IN BHAGVAD GITA


Amongst the different sections of the Mahabharata dealing with yoga, the oldest and by far the most important one is
the famous Bhagvad Gita from the BHISMA PARV AN. This treatise of original GITA of seven hundred and forty five
verses has become one of the most important and popular scriptures of the world. It has been estimated that the
Mahabharat war commenced in September, 3138 B.C. Pranayama, the next accessor of Patanjali Yoga, has not been
described in the Bhagvad Gita in the context of meditation. However, while describing different types of sacrifices in
the fourth chapter, the Bhagvad Gita has mentioned two types of practisants of Pranayama. Some practisants suspend
exhalation and retain the breath inside. They have been said to offer the oblation of exhaled air (prana) into the
inhaled air (apana). The other type of practisants suspend inhalation and retain the exhaled breath outside. These
have been described as offering the oblation of inhaled air (apana) into the exhaled (prana). Both of them are said to
be devoted to Pranayama. Thus, the Bhagvad Gita seems to have recognised two types of pranayama as two
independent means. In the fifth chapter, it has been stated that in the state of meditation, the practisant makes the
exhaled and the inhaled airs move inside the nostrils. It may also be looked upon as suspension of breathing, in a way.
It may be noted that Pratyahara has been mentioned here before Pranayama. This order has been retained in the
Hatha Yoga tradition. Patanjali has altered it. According to him Pratyahara comes after pranayama.

PRANAYAMA IN THE PURANAS


The Kurma Purana
The puranas form a vast literature of Hinduism. Among the eighteen Mahapuranas, the KURMA PURANA and
MARKANDEYA PURANA occupy an important place in dealing with Pranayama. The Lord says:
"Those who practise this yoga of mine, twice or thrice a day or all the time, are known to be identified with
Mahesvara" (4).
Pranayama is considered to be of three kinds, viz. Superior, middle and low. This again admits of another two fold
division viz. With something inside (Sagarbha) and without anything (Agarbha). A Pranayama is called low when it
has the duration of twelve moras (Mathas), a midding when the duration is of twenty four moras, and the best when
of thirty-six moras. These three kinds of Pranayama cause sweating, trembling and lifting of the body, The
Markandeya Purana
The Markendeya Purana is replete with yoga philosopy. In this purana, there is mention of seven stages of yoga
practice viz. (1) Vrata, (2) Niyama, (3) Asana, (4) Pranayama (5) Pratyahara, (6) Dharana and (7) Dhyana.
Pranayama is defined as regulation of breath. Just as in the case of metals (like gold and silver) impurites are burnt
when they are melted in the furnance, so passions of the organs of sense are destroyed by the control of breath. The
control of breath is three-fold: (1) Laghu, (2) Madhyama, (3) Uttama. The time of matra is that of the winking and
opening of the eye-lids. Laghu P/anayama of 12 matras, Madhyama of 24, and uttama of 36 matras. This Purana
explains how breath is controlled (MKS -38-20).

PRANAYAMA IN SUTRA PERIOD


ancient period we find the^ractice of Pranayama m the context of religious rituals. Control of Prana is recommended
in the Apasthambha Dharma Sutra 2.5-15(atamitohpranamavacxhet) Breath exhausted (Yavadanganam
Glanirbhavati tavatprananayacchet) isthe explanation of this sutra by the commentator Haradatta. This position of
Pranayama in the Sutra period may be considered to be the first stage in its evoluUon. Sansknt and SansEtic culture
appear to have flourished in Andhra areas as early as the Sutra period(600B.C.).P.V.Kane concludes that it is natural
to suppose ApasuTambhaschoolhaditsorigioninthesouthprobablyinAndhra. During this
period Pranayama had no independent position. Some Sutra texts prescnbe
Lemantmstobementallyreciteddu^
mantras was not recognised as an essential technique of Pranayama during the
Sutra period.
After the UPANISHADIC scripture, SMRITIS have a great place in Indian culture. There are more than twenty
smriitis but MANUSMRITI and BRHADYOGIYAJNAV ALKYASMRITI occupies the foremost place among
them.
Authorities on smriti, like Manu and Yajnavalkya, have described the technique of Pranayama with pranava and
Gayatri mantra. Pranayama unaccompanied by mantra is not at all acceptable to the Smritikaras. In puranas,
however, we get both the varieties of pranayama with and without mantras. Pranayma accompanied by mantras is
called "SAGARBHA' and the one unaccompanied by mantras is called 'AGARBHA'. The smritis tried to combine
pranayama with the daily rituals. Thus, Pranayma together with Aacamana became part and parcel of every ritual.
Manu lays emphasis on three types ("PRANAYAMAISTRIBHIH PUTASTATAOMIKARAMARHATIA MANUSMRITI
(II-75).ofPranayama i.e PURAKA, KUMBHAKA and RECHAKA. According to Manu, prana can purify a person and
make him fit for the recitation, OMKARA. Omkara represents the supreme Brahman recited by the yogis. Pranayama
is the (PRANAYAMAH PARAM TAPAH (Ibid -11-83) PARAM TAPAS for the highest form of austerity. Both these
varieties are of the type of internal retention of the breath. Describption of an external retention of breath is seen in
limited texts like Patanjali Yogasutras, yogavasistha etc. Hathayoga texts refer to two types of Kumbhakas, viz. Sahita
kumbhaka and Kevala Kumbhaka. Systematic description of the three aspects of PURAKA, KUMBHAKA AND
RECHAKA in Pranayama is the special feature of the Hathayogic texts.

SEQUENCE OF PRANAYAMA
What should be the sequence of asana and pranayama? The answer to the question is so simple and clear that there is
no room for confusion, if we follow the instructions of Atmarama (HP-I-Cha-56) and Srinivasabhatta Mahayogin-dra
(HR-I-Ch-16). Atmarama and Srinivasabhatta have clearly said:
"Asanas, different types of Kumbhakas, practices called Mudras, Nada-nussandhana-this is correct sequence for the
practice of Hathayoga".
Patanjali has also said:
Tasmin Sati Svasaprasvasyogati Vicchedah Pranayamah"
(PS - II - 49)
i.e. after establishing oneself in a stable posture, Pranayama has to be performed.
There is difference opinion among the Hatha Texts. Gheranda advocates shatkriyas purifies nadis. Brahmananda a
well-known commentator onHP, states here that some teachers like Yajnavalkya accepted pranayama to purify the
nadis and not shatkriyas (HP-I-ch-38-HR-I-Ch-85).
Basic Unit for Pranayama
According to Adisankara, a yogi attains perfection in pranayama when his nerves are purified. Further it is said that a
yogi should make his PRANA subtle while sitting at a place which is pure and clean. The whole atmosphere should be
calm, quiet and attractive to the eyes.
(SHYETASVATARA UPANISHAD 2-10) and (YOGATARAVALI - 3)
But according to Vasistha one should purify one's nadis before commencing pranayama (VS-Ich-81).
Sloka : "KRTVA TU NADIKA SUDDHIM
PRANAYAMAM TATAH KURU'.

At first the Rechaka must be performed by one nostril followeed by the puraka by the same nostril. Then the air
should be expelled through the other nostril, and so on. Vasistha names this process not as pranayama but as
NADISODHANA. Vasistha gives the correct procedure for the purification of nadis which is controlled inspiration and
expiration without kumbhaka. This is the reason we prescribe nadisodhana at the beginning of the yogic practices
(Chapter-II-p-8)
VARIETIES OF PRANAYAMA
Pranayamais apause in the movement of breath. In Sanskrit prana means
breath and ayama means a pause. ATMARAMA, the author of HATHAPRAD-IPIKA, and SRINIVASABHATTA
MAHAYOGINDRA, the author of HATHARATNAVALI both authoritative textbooks on Hatha yoga, mention eight
and nine varieties of Kumbhakas respectively. They are Suryabhedana, Ujjayi, Sitkari, Sitali, Bhastrika, Bhrameri,
Murccha, Plavani and Bhujangee-karana. Kumbhaka is another name for pranayama in Hathayoga. The technique of
all the eight or nine kumbhakas is the same. But the technique of inhalations and exhalations differ is every case. Each
round of Pranayama is generally a complex act and consists of PURAKA (inhalation), RECHAKA (exhalation),
KUMBHAKA (pause), and SUNYAKA (holding without air) The duration in pranayama should be judged mentally.
The mind should very closely follow the movement of breath. The aim of all types of Pranayama is to work up the
dormant kundali. Influence of Seasons and Geographical Conditions
During different seasons of the year, the dhatus undergo certain changes. If certain precautionary measures are not
taken during these seasons, the person would be exposed to disease. Geographical locations also exert certain
influence on the individuals. The Himalayan range is distinctively cold and the plains are distinctively warm. They
have an influence on prakriti and yogic practices. Seasons are considered, particularly in the selection of
"PRANAYAMA'. Brahmananda (1830 A.D) adisciple of Merusastry, the authoritative commentator on HP, attributes
cause not only to seasons, but also to individuals's nature, i.e. he develops the tridosha concept. He further says in
Jyosna (HP-II-66) that Suryabedhana and Ujjayi generate heat, while Sitali and Sitakari are cool. Bhastrika preserves
an equable temperature. Suryabedhana primarily controls excess of wind, Ujjayi phlegm, Sitakari and Sitali bile, and
Bhastrika all three. Suryabedhana Pranena Vataharam. Ujjayi pranena slesmaharah. Sitkari Sitalyo pranena
pittahara. Bhastrakhyah kumbhakah tridoshahara it bodhyam.
Oxygen value versus nerve culture of Pranayama
Recently, this nasal cycle has re-emerged as a promising focus of scientific research. We are conducting a number of
experiments in our most sophisticated laboratory of our Institute on the oxygen value of Pranayama for the past one
decade.
The westerner takes to exercise in deep breathing mainly from the point of view of its oxygen value. He appreciates
these exercises mainly because they give him a larger quantity of oxygen to vitalise his system with us the oxygen
value of Pranayama is subordinate. We value it more for its nerve culture. The effects of pranayama is more on the
nervous system than on the lungs. The practice of Pranayama helps to clean the "NADIS'. The purpose of pranayama
is to make the respiratory system function at its best. This automatically improves the circulatory system, without
which the processes of digestion and elimination would suffer. The respiratory system is the gateway to the
purification of the body, mind and intellect. The key to this is Pranayama.
Respiration may be classified into four types (a) High or clavicular breathing, where the relevant muscles in the neck
mainly activate the top parts of the lungs, (b) Intercostal or midbreathing, where only the central parts of the lungs
are activated (c) Low or diaphramatic breathing, where the lower portions of the lungs are activated chiefly, while the
top and central portions remain less active and (d) Total or Pranayamaic breathing in which the entire lungs are used
to their fullest capactiy.
Conclusion
In concluding this short introductory chapter on Pranayama, we have to point out to our reader that the subject is
very vast and requires a lot of information for its full practice. Pranayama is a weapon that easily lends itself to abuse.
Yoga texts caution against wrong ways of practising pranayama (HP-II-Cha-16-HR-cha-III-92). In practising
Pranayama a man plays with his nerves, heart and lungs.
Extra strain or improper methods in pranayama may damage and harm these delicate parts of the body. So every
practitioner should do this practice with due caution and care. Now we will briefly describe a few easy and common
pranayamas.

UJJAYI (HISSING PRANAYAMA)

Explanation : The prefix "UD" means upwards or expanding; "JAYA" means conquest or success. "UJ J A Y A1
a variant reading noticed by Brahmananda in his commentary on HP, actually means "pronounced loudly". Ujjayi
might be interpreted to mean leading to success. Ujjayi is that which is sonorous. Technique: Sit in Dhyanasana..
Close the eyes. Breathe in and out through both nostrils. Do chest breathing. While breathing in, keep the chest
expanded and close the glottis partially. This partial closure of the glottis will produce a continous sound like the
sound that is produced in sobbing. The difference is that in sobbing the sound is abrupt and borken. Here it is
continuous. At the time of inhalation the facial muscles or the muscles of the nose should not be contracted. As a
result, there is a noise from the throat with every breath. The amount of air exhaled is more than that inhaled. The
eyes must focus on the tip of the nose. Release the lock by raising the head back and exhale slowly. Hold the breath
out as long as you comfortably can. Rechaka is to be done through the left nostril. The time proportion between
puraka, kumbhaka and rechaka is 1:2:2. The glottis should all along remain partially closed and then released. This
completes one cycle. Again it is repeated. What is the orthodox way of closing the nostrils in yoga?
Preparation for closing of nostril
For closing the nose during kumbhaka, the use of fingers except the index and middle fingers seems to belong to
Hathayogic and tantric tradition. Smriti's allow the use of all the 5 fingers during pranayama practice for closing the
nose.
The right palm is spread out, the index and the middle fingers are turned down, the other two fingers and the thumb
remain extended (vide fig.). Now the thumb and the extended fingers and placed on the bridge of the nose, the thumb
on the right side of it, and the fingers on the left.
Equation of Ujjayi
DRAW IN AIR THROUGH BOTH THE NOSTRILS + KUMBHAKA+ EXHALATION ONLY THROUGH LEFT
NOSTRIL.
Benefits : Ujjayi removes from the throat diseases caused by phlegm (slesma dosa haram) and increases the
gastric fire. It has a soothing effect on the nervous system and calms the mind. This practice is also good for low blood
pressure, asthma and depression.
Caution : The airway resistance at the palate is the important aspect of this
pranayama.

SURYA BEDANA PRANAYAMA


In Suryabedhana Pranayama all inhalations are done through the right nostril and all exhalations through the left.
Explanation : In Hatha yoga literature Surya means the right and Chandra means the left. Bhid, the root of
bhedana, means to pierce, or pass through. Another meaning of Bhedhana is activity.
Sit in a comfortable meditation pose preferably in Vajrasana. Raise the right hand, placing the middle and index
fingers on the forehead and the thumb and the ring finger gently on each side of the nose.
Close the left nostril with the ring finger and inhale deeply through the right nostril. Close both hostrils, retain the
breath and perform Bhandhas. Maintain according to your own capacity. Release Moola and them Jalandhara
Bandhas.
Exhale through the right nostril by keeping the left nostril closed. This is followed by uddiyana Bandha. This is one
round. Repeat the same process. EQUATION OF SURYABEDANA: Draw the air through the right nostril +
Kumbhaka and exhale only through the left nostril. Benefits: This Pranayama activates SUR Y AN ADI (right side of
the nostril) and therefore, increases heat in the body and digestive power. It controls the VATA DOSHA. It is also
good for persons suffering from low blood pressure. Caution : Do not perform Surya Bhedana and Chandra
Bhedana or Sitali or Sitkari pranayama at the same sitting.

CHANDRA BHEDANA PRANAYAMA

Explanation : The explanation is given in the above pranayama. Source : This Pranayama has been described in
YOGA CHUDAMANI UPANISHAD (95-97) without mentioning the name Chandra bedhana, but giving only the
method.
The name and full technique of Chandrabhedana, Pranayama is de scribed in the "ORIGINAL HATHAPRADIPIKA"
(M.S) (IV-Cha-54 to 60) Technique : Follow the same techniques as are given in all the stages of Suryabedhana,
reading the word "right" for "left" and viceversa. Equation of Chandrabhedana : Draw the air through the left nostril +
Kumbhaka and exhale only through the right nostril. Benefits: This Pranayama activates CHANDRANADI (left side of
the nostril) and therefore, increases cool in the body. It controls the PITTA DOSHA. It is also good for persons
suffering from the early stages of high blood pressure. Caution: Do not perform Chandrabedhana and Suryabhedana
Pranayama at the same sitting.

BHRAMARI PRANAYAMA

Explanation: "BHRAMARI" is the feminine form of "BHRAMARA" meaning a bee. This kumbhaka is called
BHRAMARI because its technique requires the
production of a sound resembling that of a bee both in puraka and Rechaka. Technique : Sit erect in a comfortable
meditative posture, keep the mouth closed throughout the practice; inhale (puraka) deeply through both nostrils.
It will be found that the palate is lifted and drawn towards the nasal part of the pharynx. This movement can be made
closer and closer to the pharynx, and inhale. A beautiful sound produced by a combination of the gentle vibrations of
the soft plate and the nasal friction will be heard. Retain the breath inside and perform jalandhara and moola
bhandas.
Slowly exhale (Rechaka) while producing a sound from the mouth and nose, So as to produce a sweet musical
humming sound like a female bee. S lowly release. Repeat the cycle several times.
Equation of Bhramari: Inhale air through both the nostrils + Kumbhaka + exhale producing a sound from mouth and
nose.
Benefits : Relieves cerebral tensions removes anxiety and stress and reduces blood pressure. Eliminates ENT
disorders and creates awareness of NADA. Caution : Do not practise Kumbhaka phase in case of high B.P and
heart ailments without consulting yoga experts.
Variation : Gheranda Samhita in V_Cha-77-88 gives another technique (plug both ears with index fingers) and
SHIVA SAMHITA in V ch-39 to 48 describe yet another under the name of Rajayoga i.e. Sanmukhi Mudra (refer-cha-
IV-9)

SITALI PRANAYAMA

Explanation : The name of this Pranayama is derived from its cooling effect on the body. SITALI is the feminine
form of SITAL meaning cool. This pranayama cools the dystem; hence the name. Technique : Sit in any confortable
meditative posture.
Keep the spine erect, and close the nostril with the right hand. Open the mouth and form the lips into an 0 shape.
Push out the tongue and folding about 3/4 of an inch outside the lips. This lingual channel is to be used for inhaling
air from outside at the time of puraka. In this pranayama inhalation is done through the mouth and not through the
nostrils. After inhalation, the tongue is to be withdrawn and lipsare to be closed. Kumbhaka is of the usual type.
Rechaka is to be done slowly as in other cases, but through both the nostrils at the same time. Repeat the cycle.
Equation of sitali: Drawn the air through the (folding tongue) through mouth + Kumbhaka and exhale air through
both the nostrils. Note : Kakacanch (Shiva Samhita -111-84) is the tongue folded like a crow's beak.

THE TONGUE ARRANGED AS BIRDS BEAK

Explanation : "SITKAR" means the sound "SEET" AND SITAKARI means the pranayama in which the sound
"SEET" is produced. Technique : Follow the same techniques as are given in all the stage of "SITALI", reading the
word "FOLDING-TONGUE" for "Teeth".
Press the upper teeth on the lower ones. Suck in air through the crevices of the teeth slowly steadily and continously.
There is no reference to Kumbhaka. But the authors of HP and HR has included Sitkari in the list of kumbhakas. So to
say kumbhaka is of the usual type and exhale through both the nostrils. Equation of Sitkari : Draw the air through the
mouth (pressing teeth) + Kumbhaka + and exhale air through both the nostrils. Benefits: These are cooling
pranayamas. They cool the system and smooth the eyes and ears. They are beneficial in cases of low fever. They
activate the liver and spleen, improve degistion and relieve thirst. They also help in calming down the mind by
removing mental anxiety and tension. These two pranayamas may be done by the practitioner, even when the nostrils
are blocked. Traditional texts suggest pranayamas may be done by the practitioner, even when the nostrils are
blocked. Traditional texts suggest pranayamas control the "PITTADHOSA" (bile)

2. 3. 4. 5.
1.
2.

Cleansing of the systems of the human body and


the 8 limbs of yoga Note : any six of the above are to be practised
Class 9 10 periods
(syllabus so far to be repeated)
Shalabhasana 6.
Bakasana 7.
Dhanadamayursana 8.
Ardha Paschimottasana 9.
Ushtrasana 10.
Introduction of Yoga Vision Note: Any six of the above are to be practised
Class 10 10 periods
(Syllabus of the previous classes to be repeated)

1. Kukkutasana
2. Uttana Kurmasana

Introduction to Swarayoga and Benefits of the above Yogic Practices.


Time of practice :
Yoga should be practised 4 hours after a meal or 2 hours ato a snack. If L school is residential, the time of pracuce
shou d tabetween 5 a.m. and 8 a.m. If it is a day school, the time of pracuce should be between 2 p.m. and 4 p.m, at
least 4 hours after the last meal.
Note:

1. Each class or grade should practise at least 6 of the prescribed asanas.


2. A batch should not contain more than 30 pupils.
3. the instructor must explain yoga. Instances from theJives of Yogic
and other great men should be cited. Audio aids should be employed.
4. Students must be taken to Yoga Research Institutes as a part of their
excursion programmes.

BIOMEDICAL INSTRUMENTS
As the world's population grows, the need for health care increase. In recent years progress in medical care has been
rapid, especially in such fields as neurology and cardiology. A major reason for this progress has been the marriage of
two important disciplines: medicine and engineering. The problem of biomedical engineering involves
communication between the engineer and the medical profession.
The branch of science that includes the measurement of physiological variables and parameters is known as
BIOMETRICS. Biomedical instruments provide the tools by which these measurements can be achieved.
The basic objectives of any instrumentation system generally fall into one of the following major categories:

o INFORMATION GATHERING
o DIAGNOSIS
o EVALUATION
o MONITORING
o CONTROL

CHAPTER - 4

Introduction : In the previous chapters we have presented a few of the Asanas and other preparatory practices. Now
we move on to Bandhas and Mudras. They are neuro-muscular locks and gestures. Bandhas are safety locks used
during the process of breath-holding-Kumbhakas. These Bandhas and Mudras are advanced techniques in Hathayoga
used mainly for culturing of emotions.

Types of Bandhas:

JALANDHARA BANDHA (THE CHIN LOCK)

Explanation : Jalandhara Yogi discovered this Bandha. Hence Jalandhara Bandha was named after him. There
is the Jalandhar city in Punjab. The word "JALA" refers to the brain and the nerves passing through the neck and
"DHARA" denotes the upward pull.
Description: (a) Sit in a comfortable position like Vajrasana, Padmasana in any meditative posture.

 Keep the back erect.


 Place the palms on the top of the knees.
 Relax the whole body and close the eyes.
 Inhale deeply, retain the breath inside, bend the head forward and press the
chin tightly against the sternum.
 The chin is to be tightly set in the Jugular notch.
 Stay in the final pose for as long a time you can comfortably able to retain
the breath.
(b) This is Jalandhara Bandha.

Benefits : The chin lock closes the wind pipe and compresses various organs including the sinus receptors which
are located in the throat region. The receptors are pressure sensitive and so the compression they receive during the
Jalandhara Bandha slows down the heart
The bandha cleans the nasal passages and regulates the flow of blood and prana to the heart, head and the endocrine
glands in the neck. The thyroid and parathyroid glands are massaged and their functioning improved. If Pranayama is
performed without Jalandhara Bandha pressure is immediately felt in the heart, brain, eye balls and in the inner ear.
This may lead to dizziness.
Jalandhara accelerate venous drainage from the cephalic region i.e. vital
organs in head and neck. The improved venous drainage will check the
accumulation of CO2in and around the respiratory centres and thereby enable
a person to hold the breath for a longer time.
Concentration : Concentration on Vishuddhi Chakra
Caution: Persons with neck pain, high blood pressure or heart ailments should
not practice without expert guidance.

2. MULA BANDHA (PERINEUM CONTRACTION LOCK)

Explanation : Mula means root or origin or corner. It refers to the principal


region between the anus and the genitals.
Description: (a) Mula bandha should be attempted first in the internal retention
after inhalation.
(b) The practice of contracting the anal sphincter muscles (asvim mudra) helps
one to master mula bandha.
(c) Asva means a horse. This mudra is so called because it suggests the staling
of ahorse.(d) It should also be learnt while doing various asans like pavana muktasana, ustrasana, paschimottanasana
and vipareetakami mudra. Concentration : Concentration on Muladhara Chakra. Sequence : Jalandhra, Mula and
Uddiyana Bandhas in Pranayama practice. Benefits :The pelvic nerves are stimulated and the associated sexual
and eliminative organs toned. The sphincter muscles of the anus are strengthened and intestinal peristalsis is
stimulated. In this way constipation and piles can be removed. This generates vitality and helps to awaken the
Kundalini. Caution : It should be practised step by step with proper care and perfect guidance. If any mistake occurs
in mulabhanda dry stools are passed.

3. UDDIYANA BANDHA (NAVEL LOCK)

Explanation : Uddiyana, which means flying up, is an abdominal grip. Uddiyana is different from the uddiyana
bandha Description : (a) Sit in meditative pose.

 Close the eyes and relax the whole body.


 The abdominal viscera, particularly above and below the navel are to be
pulled back with lock.
 This is practised at the end of Kumbhaka before the beginning of Rechaka.
 The practice is optional during Pranayama.

UDDIYANA BANDHA (NAVEL LOCK)


Concentration: On Manipura chakra. Sequence : Jalandhara Bandha, Mula Bandha and Uddiyana Bandha. Benefits:
Manipura chakra, located in the region of the navel is stimulated. It purifies the navel through which the wind is
purified.
These three Bandhas Jalandhara, Mula and Uddiyana form one group called Bandha Traya (the lock trinity). These
Bandhas are used exclusively as locks during Kumbhaka i.e. to restrain and close the passage for the breath.
Jalandhara Bandha is used during Antara-Kumbhaka and Uddiyana Bandha in Baashya Kumbhaka. Mula Bandha
can be done during Purakas, Kumbhaka, Rechaka and also in Japa and meditation. These Bandhas prevent the
building up of tension in the head.

TYPES OF MUDRAS
Mudras in general are used mainly in three fields.
1. Rituals in performing certain worships.
2. Dance (to express the emotions and feelings through bodily gestures) and
3. Hathayoga (to help in stabilizing the mind)

We will limit ourselves to the region of Hatha yoga which includes Asanas, Pranayamas, Bandhas, Mudras and Shat
kriyas. Many of the Sanskrit yoga texts take Bandhas and Mudras as a single unit.
According to Gheranda samhita, there are mainly 25 Mudras, where as Hatha pradipika and Hatharatnavali describes
only 10 of these. Among them the following eleven are the most important ones :-
(1) Mahaa mudra, (2) Mahaa Bandha, (3) Mahaa vedha (4) Viparitakarani, (5) Vajroli, (6) Sakticalani
(7) Uddiyana Bandha (8) Jalandhara Bandha (9) Mula Bandha (10) Yoni Mudra (11) Khecari - Mudra.

Now we will briefly describe few common mudras.


1. YONI OR SHANMUKHI MUDRA (SIX FACED PSYCHIC GESTURE)

Explanation : This is a technique of Nada yoga " Sravanaputanaayanayugala Ghranamukhanam Nirodhanam


Karyam Suddhasusumnasaranau Sphutamamalah Sruyate Nadah (HP - IV - 68) i.e. Of closing both the ears, both the
eyes, both the nostrils and the mouth is practiced, a clear distinct sound is heard in the path of susamna nadi when it
is clean.
Siddhasanam Samasadya Kamacaksurnasamukham Angustha Tarjanimadhyinidyaih pidadhita vai Assuming
Siddhasana, one should close the ears with thumbs, the eyes with index-fingers, the nostrils with the middle fingers
and the mouth with the ring and little fingers.
(GHE S. Ch-LQ-33)
Kaki Mudra (Crow Gesture) is recommeded in the practice. Technique: (a) Sit in any comfortable meditative pose
preferably Padmasana or Siddhasana.

1. Inhale slowly and deeply retain the breath.


2. Raise the hands to the face and the elbows to the level of the shoulders.
3. Close the ears with the thumb, the eyes with the index fingers, the nostrils
with the middle fingers and place the ring and small fingers above and below the
lips to close the mouth.

SHANMUKHI MUDRA
Cencentration on Bindu Chakra
Duration : According to your own capacity.
Benefits: This is apowerful practice for with drawing the mind from association
with sense objects (pratyahara). It stimulates awareness of psychic sound which
emanate from Bindu Chakra in the back of the head (Shiva Samhita). It cuts off
all external stimuli coming from the four special senses. It is useful in persons
suffering from tension headaches.
Caution: Patients of high blood pressure and heart problems should not practice
without any expert guidance.

2. MAHA MUDRA (ROYAL GESTURE)


Sit with legs stretched, bend the left leg at the knee and press the perineum
with the heel.
Inhale completely and hold the breath. Catch hold of the big toe of the
stretched right leg with both hands by bending the waist forward. Keep
the chest up. Have Mula Bandha.
While making a swallowing movement, bend the neck forward and press
the chin on the chest Inhale and have Jalandhara Bandha.
While maintaining, relax the head region and feel the locking of air below
the throat. Maintain for equal number of times on either side every day.
Many diseases of the stomach are cured by this. Very useful in curing seminal weakness.

Maha Mudra (Royal Gesture)

3. ASVNI MUDRA (HORSE-ANUS GESTURE)


Sit erect in Padmasana, Exhale.
Hold the breath and pull up the anus by contracting the sphincter; hold for about 10 seconds and inhale.
Release the anus.
Repeat this rhythmically about 10 to 30 times.
This Mudra is useful in evoking the spiritual forces dormant in the lower centres. Useful for pregnant women, and in
curing urinary and anal incontinence. Asvini Mudra done in Viparitakarani posture is useful in treating piles and
prolapse uterus.
4. Vipareetakarni Mudra
Refer II Chapter P-15.
5. Yoga Mudra
Refer HI Chapter, P-22.
6. Brahmamu The Name: Brahma is the name of one of the gods of the Hindu trinity, who possesses four heads.
Mudra means a symbol.
The Technique: (a) The student sits erect in acomfortable 'asana'. He then turns his head slowly to the right without
moving his trunk the chin brought almost in the line with the right shoulder line. The final position is maintained for
a few seconds before returning slowly to the starting position.

1. Then comes a similar movement and pause on the left side.


2. Returning to the original position, the head is in the same manner
taken backward, so that the muscles of the throat are stretched to the maximum,
and again brought to starting position.
3. This is followed by bending the head forward, chin pressing on the
jugular notch and again coming to the original position. This completes one
round of Brahmamudra.

Thus the head is turned to the right, to the left, backward and forward imitating the four heads of Brahma.

BRAHMA MUDRA
Advantages: Brahmamudra, though it looks very simple, is very efficacious for removing psycho-physiological
tensions, regulating blood pressure and bringing vasomotor tone and also for curing functional disorders of the
cervical spine such as stiff neck.
It stimulates the carotid nerve and the carotid arteries which bring supply to the brain.
The cervical spine is turned forward and backward and is twisted. The cervical ganglia and the spinal nerves of the
cervical spine are also favourably influenced.
The practice of Brahmamudra gives added advantage when it is accompanied by two other practices, namely,
Jihvabandha and Simhamudra.
(Cha-2-P.36)

PRANAYAMA
_Breathing and Life Process
More than five thousand years ago, the Yogis of ancient India discovered the correlation between the subtle rhythm of
breathing and the mind. The "nasal cycle" was not documented in the west until late in the 19th century. Man's
lifespan (HR-II-Ch-I) depends on his mode of respiration. A person who breathes in short, quick gasps is likely to
have a shorter life than a person who breathes slowly. The ancient munis and Yogis measured a person's lifespan not
by years but by the number of his respirations. They considered that everyone is allocated a fixed number of
respirations in his or her life time, which differs from person to person. There were no laboratories at that time.
Forests and surroundings were the laboratories. The yogis were the scientists and animals their subjects. They
investigated and found that animals with slow breathing rate, such as snakes, elephants and tortoises have longer
lifespans than animals with fast breathing rates, such as dogs, birds, and rabbits, which live only for a few years. From
this observation they realised the importance of slow breathing.

Respiration is directly related to the heart. Slow respiration occurs with a slow beating of heart, and a slow beating
heart is conducive to long life. The heart of a mouse beats one thousand times per minute; it has a short lifespan. A
whale's heart beat is about sixteen times per minute and an elephant's about twenty five. Both are known for their
long lifespans.

EVOLUTION OF PRANAYAMA:
Pranayama in Vedas
The evolution of Pranayama is worth mentioning here. The word PRANA is frequently mentioned in Vedas, among
which the ATHAR VAVEDA is most important for the study of yoga practices. A Yogi can realise the presence of
"CHAKRAS1 within his body which contain nine gates. The description of these eight circles (CHAKRAS) and nine
gates (holes) in the human body is clearly given in the ATHAR VAVEDA as follows:
"ASTACAKRA NAVDVARA DEVANAM PURAYODHYA TASYAM HIRANYAH KOSAM SVARGO JYOTISAVRTAH'
(ATHARVAVEDA - 10-2-31)
PRANA VIDYA is the essence of practical yoga, and a complete sukta has been devoted to the description of the prana
in the Atharvaveda. It is mentioned that Prana is the essence of the whole universe. We bow before Prana which
controls everything. The different forms of prana are also mentioned in this hymn as Prana and Apana. Further, it is
said that all gods worship the Prana. Man takes birth in this world due to prana and can even conceive in the womb
due to prana. Past, present and future exist in the pranas. But Pranayama has not been clearly mentioned in the
Atharvaveda and further yogangas were also still in the state of growth.
Pranayama in the Brahmanas
With the Brahmanas and the Upanishads, we enter the later vedic age. The Brahmana literature mainly represents the
further development of the ritualism of the yajurveda samhitas. Satapatha Brahmana text is affiliated to the sukla
yajurveda.
It is stated that desire of mind goes to PRANA, PRANA informa it to VAYU and VAYU tells gods how the man's mind
is. At several places, three pranas viz. Prana, apana and vyana have been mentioned. But in a few places, all the five
pranas have also been enumerated.
The Brahmanas affiliated to the Samaveda and the Atharvaveda seem to have been composed at a much later date.
Amongst the many Brahmanas of the Sama Veda, the Jaiminiya Brahmana (JB) is the oldest and the most important.
It contains a good deal of discussion on the PRANA VIDYA.
We come across the concept of the VAGBRAHMA in connection with the recital of various samanas. The unity of S
VARA and PRANA has also been emphasized at several places (JB 1.140,164,215 etc.). Here we can find the root of the
SVARA concept in the yogic treatise like svarodaya. This Brahmana states that by yoking mind and speech at the time
of offering oblations, one can transcendbothbadandgoodactions(JB-i.l6).SHIVASVARODAYA,SWARA CMNTAMANI
(by Sveu&etu) and SVARASASTRA MANJARI (by Gana-panardhya, Telugu, 1324-1345 A.D) are important treatises
in Swara Yoga. The number of pranas have been mentioned at different place as two three, five, nine and ten.
Pranayama in the Chandogya and Brahdaranyaka Upanishads
The age of the Upanishads was a peak period of Indian thought and yoga forms a very solid part of the same. The term
PRANA is used in the UPANISHADS as on excellent concept. Most of the early upanishads have certainly revealed in
highest transpsychic yogic state of mind. Among the upanishads, the earliest ones are the CHANDOGYA and
BRAHADARANYAKA.
We can find the basis for KRIYAYOGA as also of the YAMAS and NIYAMAS in these two oldest upanishads. There is
no specific description of ASANA in these upanishads. But PRANA forms a very important topic of discussion. The
Chandogya describes prana, vyana, apana and samana as forming respectively the Eastern, Southers, Western and
Northers gates of the heart, whereas UDANA is said to be the upper gate (CU-III-13.1-5).
The different NADIS of the heart have been described in both these upanishads. The colours of these NADIS have also
been described. We find here the root of the yogic concept of PINGALA or the SURY A NADI. These are said to be
thinner than the thousandth part of a hair. The NADI going to the head is said to be the most important one and it has
been declared that one gets immorality going upwards through this NADI. Here, we find the root of the yogic concept
of SUSUMNA and KUNDALINI. We do not come across the idea of concentration on the NADIS or vital regions of
human body, in these upanishads.

PRANAYAMA IN BHAGVAD GITA


Amongst the different sections of the Mahabharata dealing with yoga, the oldest and by far the most important one is
the famous Bhagvad Gita from the BHISMA PARV AN. This treatise of original GITA of seven hundred and forty five
verses has become one of the most important and popular scriptures of the world. It has been estimated that the
Mahabharat war commenced in September, 3138 B.C. Pranayama, the next accessor of Patanjali Yoga, has not been
described in the Bhagvad Gita in the context of meditation. However, while describing different types of sacrifices in
the fourth chapter, the Bhagvad Gita has mentioned two types of practisants of Pranayama. Some practisants suspend
exhalation and retain the breath inside. They have been said to offer the oblation of exhaled air (prana) into the
inhaled air (apana). The other type of practisants suspend inhalation and retain the exhaled breath outside. These
have been described as offering the oblation of inhaled air (apana) into the exhaled (prana). Both of them are said to
be devoted to Pranayama. Thus, the Bhagvad Gita seems to have recognised two types of pranayama as two
independent means. In the fifth chapter, it has been stated that in the state of meditation, the practisant makes the
exhaled and the inhaled airs move inside the nostrils. It may also be looked upon as suspension of breathing, in a way.
It may be noted that Pratyahara has been mentioned here before Pranayama. This order has been retained in the
Hatha Yoga tradition. Patanjali has altered it. According to him Pratyahara comes after pranayama.

PRANAYAMA IN THE PURANAS


The Kurma Purana
The puranas form a vast literature of Hinduism. Among the eighteen Mahapuranas, the KURMA PURANA and
MARKANDEYA PURANA occupy an important place in dealing with Pranayama. The Lord says:
"Those who practise this yoga of mine, twice or thrice a day or all the time, are known to be identified with
Mahesvara" (4).
Pranayama is considered to be of three kinds, viz. Superior, middle and low. This again admits of another two fold
division viz. With something inside (Sagarbha) and without anything (Agarbha). A Pranayama is called low when it
has the duration of twelve moras (Mathas), a midding when the duration is of twenty four moras, and the best when
of thirty-six moras. These three kinds of Pranayama cause sweating, trembling and lifting of the body, The
Markandeya Purana
The Markendeya Purana is replete with yoga philosopy. In this purana, there is mention of seven stages of yoga
practice viz. (1) Vrata, (2) Niyama, (3) Asana, (4) Pranayama (5) Pratyahara, (6) Dharana and (7) Dhyana.
Pranayama is defined as regulation of breath. Just as in the case of metals (like gold and silver) impurites are burnt
when they are melted in the furnance, so passions of the organs of sense are destroyed by the control of breath. The
control of breath is three-fold: (1) Laghu, (2) Madhyama, (3) Uttama. The time of matra is that of the winking and
opening of the eye-lids. Laghu P/anayama of 12 matras, Madhyama of 24, and uttama of 36 matras. This Purana
explains how breath is controlled (MKS -38-20).

PRANAYAMA IN SUTRA PERIOD


ancient period we find the^ractice of Pranayama m the context of religious rituals. Control of Prana is recommended
in the Apasthambha Dharma Sutra 2.5-15(atamitohpranamavacxhet) Breath exhausted (Yavadanganam
Glanirbhavati tavatprananayacchet) isthe explanation of this sutra by the commentator Haradatta. This position of
Pranayama in the Sutra period may be considered to be the first stage in its evoluUon. Sansknt and SansEtic culture
appear to have flourished in Andhra areas as early as the Sutra period(600B.C.).P.V.Kane concludes that it is natural
to suppose ApasuTambhaschoolhaditsorigioninthesouthprobablyinAndhra. During this
period Pranayama had no independent position. Some Sutra texts prescnbe
Lemantmstobementallyreciteddu^
mantras was not recognised as an essential technique of Pranayama during the
Sutra period.
After the UPANISHADIC scripture, SMRITIS have a great place in Indian culture. There are more than twenty
smriitis but MANUSMRITI and BRHADYOGIYAJNAV ALKYASMRITI occupies the foremost place among
them.
Authorities on smriti, like Manu and Yajnavalkya, have described the technique of Pranayama with pranava and
Gayatri mantra. Pranayama unaccompanied by mantra is not at all acceptable to the Smritikaras. In puranas,
however, we get both the varieties of pranayama with and without mantras. Pranayma accompanied by mantras is
called "SAGARBHA' and the one unaccompanied by mantras is called 'AGARBHA'. The smritis tried to combine
pranayama with the daily rituals. Thus, Pranayma together with Aacamana became part and parcel of every ritual.
Manu lays emphasis on three types ("PRANAYAMAISTRIBHIH PUTASTATAOMIKARAMARHATIA MANUSMRITI
(II-75).ofPranayama i.e PURAKA, KUMBHAKA and RECHAKA. According to Manu, prana can purify a person and
make him fit for the recitation, OMKARA. Omkara represents the supreme Brahman recited by the yogis. Pranayama
is the (PRANAYAMAH PARAM TAPAH (Ibid -11-83) PARAM TAPAS for the highest form of austerity. Both these
varieties are of the type of internal retention of the breath. Describption of an external retention of breath is seen in
limited texts like Patanjali Yogasutras, yogavasistha etc. Hathayoga texts refer to two types of Kumbhakas, viz. Sahita
kumbhaka and Kevala Kumbhaka. Systematic description of the three aspects of PURAKA, KUMBHAKA AND
RECHAKA in Pranayama is the special feature of the Hathayogic texts.

SEQUENCE OF PRANAYAMA
What should be the sequence of asana and pranayama? The answer to the question is so simple and clear that there is
no room for confusion, if we follow the instructions of Atmarama (HP-I-Cha-56) and Srinivasabhatta Mahayogin-dra
(HR-I-Ch-16). Atmarama and Srinivasabhatta have clearly said:
"Asanas, different types of Kumbhakas, practices called Mudras, Nada-nussandhana-this is correct sequence for the
practice of Hathayoga".
Patanjali has also said:
Tasmin Sati Svasaprasvasyogati Vicchedah Pranayamah"
(PS - II - 49)
i.e. after establishing oneself in a stable posture, Pranayama has to be performed.
There is difference opinion among the Hatha Texts. Gheranda advocates shatkriyas purifies nadis. Brahmananda a
well-known commentator onHP, states here that some teachers like Yajnavalkya accepted pranayama to purify the
nadis and not shatkriyas (HP-I-ch-38-HR-I-Ch-85).
Basic Unit for Pranayama
According to Adisankara, a yogi attains perfection in pranayama when his nerves are purified. Further it is said that a
yogi should make his PRANA subtle while sitting at a place which is pure and clean. The whole atmosphere should be
calm, quiet and attractive to the eyes.
(SHYETASVATARA UPANISHAD 2-10) and (YOGATARAVALI - 3)
But according to Vasistha one should purify one's nadis before commencing pranayama (VS-Ich-81).
Sloka : "KRTVA TU NADIKA SUDDHIM
PRANAYAMAM TATAH KURU'.

At first the Rechaka must be performed by one nostril followeed by the puraka by the same nostril. Then the air
should be expelled through the other nostril, and so on. Vasistha names this process not as pranayama but as
NADISODHANA. Vasistha gives the correct procedure for the purification of nadis which is controlled inspiration and
expiration without kumbhaka. This is the reason we prescribe nadisodhana at the beginning of the yogic practices
(Chapter-II-p-8)

VARIETIES OF PRANAYAMA
Pranayamais apause in the movement of breath. In Sanskrit prana means
breath and ayama means a pause. ATMARAMA, the author of HATHAPRAD-IPIKA, and SRINIVASABHATTA
MAHAYOGINDRA, the author of HATHARATNAVALI both authoritative textbooks on Hatha yoga, mention eight
and nine varieties of Kumbhakas respectively. They are Suryabhedana, Ujjayi, Sitkari, Sitali, Bhastrika, Bhrameri,
Murccha, Plavani and Bhujangee-karana. Kumbhaka is another name for pranayama in Hathayoga. The technique of
all the eight or nine kumbhakas is the same. But the technique of inhalations and exhalations differ is every case. Each
round of Pranayama is generally a complex act and consists of PURAKA (inhalation), RECHAKA (exhalation),
KUMBHAKA (pause), and SUNYAKA (holding without air) The duration in pranayama should be judged mentally.
The mind should very closely follow the movement of breath. The aim of all types of Pranayama is to work up the
dormant kundali. Influence of Seasons and Geographical Conditions
During different seasons of the year, the dhatus undergo certain changes. If certain precautionary measures are not
taken during these seasons, the person would be exposed to disease. Geographical locations also exert certain
influence on the individuals. The Himalayan range is distinctively cold and the plains are distinctively warm. They
have an influence on prakriti and yogic practices. Seasons are considered, particularly in the selection of
"PRANAYAMA'. Brahmananda (1830 A.D) adisciple of Merusastry, the authoritative commentator on HP, attributes
cause not only to seasons, but also to individuals's nature, i.e. he develops the tridosha concept. He further says in
Jyosna (HP-II-66) that Suryabedhana and Ujjayi generate heat, while Sitali and Sitakari are cool. Bhastrika preserves
an equable temperature. Suryabedhana primarily controls excess of wind, Ujjayi phlegm, Sitakari and Sitali bile, and
Bhastrika all three. Suryabedhana Pranena Vataharam. Ujjayi pranena slesmaharah. Sitkari Sitalyo pranena
pittahara. Bhastrakhyah kumbhakah tridoshahara it bodhyam.
Oxygen value versus nerve culture of Pranayama
Recently, this nasal cycle has re-emerged as a promising focus of scientific research. We are conducting a number of
experiments in our most sophisticated laboratory of our Institute on the oxygen value of Pranayama for the past one
decade.
The westerner takes to exercise in deep breathing mainly from the point of view of its oxygen value. He appreciates
these exercises mainly because they give him a larger quantity of oxygen to vitalise his system with us the oxygen
value of Pranayama is subordinate. We value it more for its nerve culture. The effects of pranayama is more on the
nervous system than on the lungs. The practice of Pranayama helps to clean the "NADIS'. The purpose of pranayama
is to make the respiratory system function at its best. This automatically improves the circulatory system, without
which the processes of digestion and elimination would suffer. The respiratory system is the gateway to the
purification of the body, mind and intellect. The key to this is Pranayama.
Respiration may be classified into four types (a) High or clavicular breathing, where the relevant muscles in the neck
mainly activate the top parts of the lungs, (b) Intercostal or midbreathing, where only the central parts of the lungs
are activated (c) Low or diaphramatic breathing, where the lower portions of the lungs are activated chiefly, while the
top and central portions remain less active and (d) Total or Pranayamaic breathing in which the entire lungs are used
to their fullest capactiy.
Conclusion
In concluding this short introductory chapter on Pranayama, we have to point out to our reader that the subject is
very vast and requires a lot of information for its full practice. Pranayama is a weapon that easily lends itself to abuse.
Yoga texts caution against wrong ways of practising pranayama (HP-II-Cha-16-HR-cha-III-92). In practising
Pranayama a man plays with his nerves, heart and lungs.
Extra strain or improper methods in pranayama may damage and harm these delicate parts of the body. So every
practitioner should do this practice with due caution and care. Now we will briefly describe a few easy and common
pranayamas.
UJJAYI (HISSING PRANAYAMA)

Explanation : The prefix "UD" means upwards or expanding; "JAYA" means conquest or success. "UJ J A Y A1
a variant reading noticed by Brahmananda in his commentary on HP, actually means "pronounced loudly". Ujjayi
might be interpreted to mean leading to success. Ujjayi is that which is sonorous. Technique: Sit in Dhyanasana..
Close the eyes. Breathe in and out through both nostrils. Do chest breathing. While breathing in, keep the chest
expanded and close the glottis partially. This partial closure of the glottis will produce a continous sound like the
sound that is produced in sobbing. The difference is that in sobbing the sound is abrupt and borken. Here it is
continuous. At the time of inhalation the facial muscles or the muscles of the nose should not be contracted. As a
result, there is a noise from the throat with every breath. The amount of air exhaled is more than that inhaled. The
eyes must focus on the tip of the nose. Release the lock by raising the head back and exhale slowly. Hold the breath
out as long as you comfortably can. Rechaka is to be done through the left nostril. The time proportion between
puraka, kumbhaka and rechaka is 1:2:2. The glottis should all along remain partially closed and then released. This
completes one cycle. Again it is repeated. What is the orthodox way of closing the nostrils in yoga?

Preparation for closing of nostril


For closing the nose during kumbhaka, the use of fingers except the index and middle fingers seems to belong to
Hathayogic and tantric tradition. Smriti's allow the use of all the 5 fingers during pranayama practice for closing the
nose.
The right palm is spread out, the index and the middle fingers are turned down, the other two fingers and the thumb
remain extended (vide fig.). Now the thumb and the extended fingers and placed on the bridge of the nose, the thumb
on the right side of it, and the fingers on the left.
Equation of Ujjayi
DRAW IN AIR THROUGH BOTH THE NOSTRILS + KUMBHAKA+ EXHALATION ONLY THROUGH LEFT
NOSTRIL.
Benefits : Ujjayi removes from the throat diseases caused by phlegm (slesma dosa haram) and increases the
gastric fire. It has a soothing effect on the nervous system and calms the mind. This practice is also good for low blood
pressure, asthma and depression.
Caution : The airway resistance at the palate is the important aspect of this
pranayama.

SURYA BEDANA PRANAYAMA


In Suryabedhana Pranayama all inhalations are done through the right nostril and all exhalations through the left.
Explanation : In Hatha yoga literature Surya means the right and Chandra means the left. Bhid, the root of
bhedana, means to pierce, or pass through. Another meaning of Bhedhana is activity.
Sit in a comfortable meditation pose preferably in Vajrasana. Raise the right hand, placing the middle and index
fingers on the forehead and the thumb and the ring finger gently on each side of the nose.
Close the left nostril with the ring finger and inhale deeply through the right nostril. Close both hostrils, retain the
breath and perform Bhandhas. Maintain according to your own capacity. Release Moola and them Jalandhara
Bandhas.
Exhale through the right nostril by keeping the left nostril closed. This is followed by uddiyana Bandha. This is one
round. Repeat the same process. EQUATION OF SURYABEDANA: Draw the air through the right nostril +
Kumbhaka and exhale only through the left nostril. Benefits: This Pranayama activates SUR Y AN ADI (right side of
the nostril) and therefore, increases heat in the body and digestive power. It controls the VATA DOSHA. It is also
good for persons suffering from low blood pressure. Caution : Do not perform Surya Bhedana and Chandra
Bhedana or Sitali or Sitkari pranayama at the same sitting.

CHANDRA BHEDANA PRANAYAMA

Explanation : The explanation is given in the above pranayama. Source : This Pranayama has been described in
YOGA CHUDAMANI UPANISHAD (95-97) without mentioning the name Chandra bedhana, but giving only the
method.
The name and full technique of Chandrabhedana, Pranayama is de scribed in the "ORIGINAL HATHAPRADIPIKA"
(M.S) (IV-Cha-54 to 60) Technique : Follow the same techniques as are given in all the stages of Suryabedhana,
reading the word "right" for "left" and viceversa. Equation of Chandrabhedana : Draw the air through the left nostril +
Kumbhaka and exhale only through the right nostril. Benefits: This Pranayama activates CHANDRANADI (left side of
the nostril) and therefore, increases cool in the body. It controls the PITTA DOSHA. It is also good for persons
suffering from the early stages of high blood pressure. Caution: Do not perform Chandrabedhana and Suryabhedana
Pranayama at the same sitting.

BHRAMARI PRANAYAMA

Explanation: "BHRAMARI" is the feminine form of "BHRAMARA" meaning a bee. This kumbhaka is called
BHRAMARI because its technique requires the
production of a sound resembling that of a bee both in puraka and Rechaka. Technique : Sit erect in a comfortable
meditative posture, keep the mouth closed throughout the practice; inhale (puraka) deeply through both nostrils.
It will be found that the palate is lifted and drawn towards the nasal part of the pharynx. This movement can be made
closer and closer to the pharynx, and inhale. A beautiful sound produced by a combination of the gentle vibrations of
the soft plate and the nasal friction will be heard. Retain the breath inside and perform jalandhara and moola
bhandas.
Slowly exhale (Rechaka) while producing a sound from the mouth and nose, So as to produce a sweet musical
humming sound like a female bee. S lowly release. Repeat the cycle several times.
Equation of Bhramari: Inhale air through both the nostrils + Kumbhaka + exhale producing a sound from mouth and
nose.
Benefits : Relieves cerebral tensions removes anxiety and stress and reduces blood pressure. Eliminates ENT
disorders and creates awareness of NADA. Caution : Do not practise Kumbhaka phase in case of high B.P and
heart ailments without consulting yoga experts.
Variation : Gheranda Samhita in V_Cha-77-88 gives another technique (plug both ears with index fingers) and
SHIVA SAMHITA in V ch-39 to 48 describe yet another under the name of Rajayoga i.e. Sanmukhi Mudra (refer-cha-
IV-9)

SITALI PRANAYAMA

Explanation : The name of this Pranayama is derived from its cooling effect on the body. SITALI is the feminine
form of SITAL meaning cool. This pranayama cools the dystem; hence the name. Technique : Sit in any confortable
meditative posture.
Keep the spine erect, and close the nostril with the right hand. Open the mouth and form the lips into an 0 shape.
Push out the tongue and folding about 3/4 of an inch outside the lips. This lingual channel is to be used for inhaling
air from outside at the time of puraka. In this pranayama inhalation is done through the mouth and not through the
nostrils. After inhalation, the tongue is to be withdrawn and lipsare to be closed. Kumbhaka is of the usual type.
Rechaka is to be done slowly as in other cases, but through both the nostrils at the same time. Repeat the cycle.
Equation of sitali: Drawn the air through the (folding tongue) through mouth + Kumbhaka and exhale air through
both the nostrils. Note : Kakacanch (Shiva Samhita -111-84) is the tongue folded like a crow's beak.

THE TONGUE ARRANGED AS BIRDS BEAK

Explanation : "SITKAR" means the sound "SEET" AND SITAKARI means the pranayama in which the sound
"SEET" is produced. Technique : Follow the same techniques as are given in all the stage of "SITALI", reading the
word "FOLDING-TONGUE" for "Teeth".
Press the upper teeth on the lower ones. Suck in air through the crevices of the teeth slowly steadily and continously.
There is no reference to Kumbhaka. But the authors of HP and HR has included Sitkari in the list of kumbhakas. So to
say kumbhaka is of the usual type and exhale through both the nostrils. Equation of Sitkari : Draw the air through the
mouth (pressing teeth) + Kumbhaka + and exhale air through both the nostrils. Benefits: These are cooling
pranayamas. They cool the system and smooth the eyes and ears. They are beneficial in cases of low fever. They
activate the liver and spleen, improve degistion and relieve thirst. They also help in calming down the mind by
removing mental anxiety and tension. These two pranayamas may be done by the practitioner, even when the nostrils
are blocked. Traditional texts suggest pranayamas may be done by the practitioner, even when the nostrils are
blocked. Traditional texts suggest pranayamas control the "PITTADHOSA" (bile)

2. 3. 4. 5.
1.
2.
Cleansing of the systems of the human body and
the 8 limbs of yoga Note : any six of the above are to be practised
Class 9 10 periods
(syllabus so far to be repeated)
Shalabhasana 6.
Bakasana 7.
Dhanadamayursana 8.
Ardha Paschimottasana 9.
Ushtrasana 10.
Introduction of Yoga Vision Note: Any six of the above are to be practised
Class 10 10 periods
(Syllabus of the previous classes to be repeated)

1. Kukkutasana
2. Uttana Kurmasana

Introduction to Swarayoga and Benefits of the above Yogic Practices.


Time of practice :
Yoga should be practised 4 hours after a meal or 2 hours ato a snack. If L school is residential, the time of pracuce
shou d tabetween 5 a.m. and 8 a.m. If it is a day school, the time of pracuce should be between 2 p.m. and 4 p.m, at
least 4 hours after the last meal.
Note:

1. Each class or grade should practise at least 6 of the prescribed asanas.


2. A batch should not contain more than 30 pupils.
3. the instructor must explain yoga. Instances from theJives of Yogic
and other great men should be cited. Audio aids should be employed.
4. Students must be taken to Yoga Research Institutes as a part of their
excursion programmes.

BIOMEDICAL INSTRUMENTS
As the world's population grows, the need for health care increase. In recent years progress in medical care has been
rapid, especially in such fields as neurology and cardiology. A major reason for this progress has been the marriage of
two important disciplines: medicine and engineering. The problem of biomedical engineering involves
communication between the engineer and the medical profession.
The branch of science that includes the measurement of physiological variables and parameters is known as
BIOMETRICS. Biomedical instruments provide the tools by which these measurements can be achieved.
The basic objectives of any instrumentation system generally fall into one of the following major categories:

o INFORMATION GATHERING
o DIAGNOSIS
o EVALUATION
o MONITORING
o CONTROL

This is one of the Lectures delivered by "Poorna Yogi" Poorna Singh Khatri
During 12 Year Jubilee POORNA YOGA CONVENTION - 2005 held at Pokhara
Nepal :--
" COPE BETTER WITH LIFE'S PROBLEMS THROUGH POORNA YOGA"

Life is meant for enjoyment . No one can deny it. No one takes advice on how to enjoy life.. It comes naturally to every
one. In the process of enjoying Life , you begin to get some aches and pains . You begin to feel unhappy. You begin to
feel dissipated within.
The remedy formula is to introduce the formula of Poorna Yoga, with a little philosophy into your life. Gradually add
more practice , 15 minutes, 20 minutes , 3 to 4 days a week. In this way you will find that you are able to enjoy life
with fewer aches and pains and that you are slowly stabilising and enriching your enjoyment. in fact , you will have
more enjoyment because you will be more sensitive and a little more in harmony with yourself. This is the main secret
of life which I would like to share with every one.

So, the body is the means to enjoy life , to give one pleasure , and to earn money. At the same time the body is also a
means for bringing about a direct change in your pranic body. In my experience , Yoga science of biological
engineering because it can bring about change in your personality and can even change your genes. This is the other
use of the body.

The Tools of POORNA YOGA are not directly relevant to the physical body.They are more related to your Pranic
body, your Energy body, your Chakras and your Nadis. For example , every Breath is related to some movement of
energy. However, no one or very few of us , can feel the happenings in our Pranic body and thus Science has not
accepted this claim of Yoga. The average individual believes more in external enjoyment and the phylosophy of money
rather than in the science of Feeling, in experiencing and knowing the great Power , the great subtle body, the great
Pranaand its latent potential.

Another main Principle of POORNA YOGA is LOVE (Prem ). The Love and Prem of Mrabai, Ramakrishna
Paramahamsa was the Sublime state of Emotion. They never did the practice of Hatha Yoga. How many of us have
that quality of Love and Prem ?

I would say that almost all the people on this Planet should practise Asana , Pranayama, Mudra , Bandha, Mantra,
Trataka and some Yogic kriyas so as to become individuals who enjoy Life and earn money with better health , with
better states of mind, with harmony and more sensitive feelings.

Life is full of Problems and short periods of enjoyment . So, you need Something to cope better with Life's problems.
This Something is POORNA YOGA.

Let's examine the practice of Asanas. I look upon Asana practice as a physical Meditation. Asanas have an effect on
your body, on your mind, on your emotions , bhavanaas, and they go further than that although you can't feel it. They
have an effect on your deeper subtle bodies. These multiple effects give you Spiritual benefits. People tend to
underestimate Asanas. Even a simple practice of Pawanmuktasana , which are designed to remove energy
blocks and generate energy, have an effect on your Ajnya Chakra. Asanas are usually done with Pranayama.

But what is happening at the Pranic Level ? When you breath in , there is a movement of Prana. When hold the Breath
, there is something powerful taking place in the Chakras , in the Kundalini. What is this powerful process ? A reaction
is taking place whereby Dormant energy is being activated, ignited and inflamed and being released into the body,into
the organs. It is similar to Generatorproducing electricity . Now this reaction is more important than the bending of
your body. You can't feel it but it is taking place. It is THIS ENERGY that is going to improve the function of your
body. It is this energy , generated through Asana Practice which is also going to sensitize your Feelings.

So, Asanas affect not only your body but your mind and emotions as well. I also regard Pranayama Practice as
Breathing Meditationbecause if you do regular Pranayama , effects are felt in your head and you feel like closing your
eyes. If you do some Asanas, Pranayamas, some Mudras and Bandhasand Trataka in sequence , they will prepare you
for Meditation.

This is how one progresses towards POORNA YOGA.

CONTACT::

Poorna Yoga Mission


Basundhara, KMNP-3
P.O. Box- 19420
Email:-
poornayogamission@yahoo.com