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A Four-Quadrant HEV Drive System

Sture Eriksson

Dept. of Electrical machines and Power Electronics The Royal Institute of Technology Stockholm, Sweden e-mail: sture@ekc.kth.se

AbstractA research project for a drive system for hybrid electric vehicles is described. The main target is to develop a system, which enables the combustion engine (ICE) to operate at optimal conditions, thus decreasing fuel consumption and emissions. The electrical system consists primarily of an electrical machine with two rotors and one stator, two converters and a battery. The concept enables the vehicle to be operated at different speed and torque independent of the engine’s operating point. The sizes of the electrical components are limited depending on the required variation in speed and torque. Simulations show a significant reduction of fuel consumption for vehicles in urban traffic. The concept, which is very compact, can be implemented with both radial and axial flux electrical machines. Several modes of operation are possible, such as hybrid mode, electrical mode, pure ICE driving, cranking and regenerative braking.

Keywords—hybrid vehicle, hybrid driveline, permanent magnet motor, double- rotor motor

I.

INTRODUCTION

Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) are currently the most realistic concept for introduction of vehicles with alternative drivelines. The battery electric vehicles suffer from the well known limitations in battery performance and the fuel cell vehicles are yet far from cost effective. The HEVs have become an interesting option to conventional vehicles due to their capability of reducing fuel consumption and emissions while maintaining the same high performance as conventional vehicles. A key factor for achieving this is to let the internal combustion engine (ICE) operate under as optimal conditions as possible.

A number of different HEV driveline concepts have been developed and demonstrated, a few also in commercial applications. All of them have their advantages and disadvantages related to the type of vehicles and drive cycles they are intended for. The series hybrid, in which the ICE drives a generator, which then provides the motor with electric power is a fairly simple concept. It is with respect to the drive system similar to the battery and fuel cell electric vehicles. It allows the ICE to operate under optimal conditions but it requires a full-sized electric system and the efficiency suffers from many series connected components. In the parallel hybrid, the electric motor and the ICE are both mechanically connected to the wheels. Such a system contains fewer

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Chandur Sadarangani

Dept. of Electrical machines and Power Electronics The Royal Institute of Technology Stockholm, Sweden e-mail: chandur@ekc.kth.se

components and the electric components have a lower rating.

A drawback however is that the ICE load is more dependent

on the actual driving situation. So called power-split hybrids, which try to combine the advantages of series and parallel hybrids have been introduced. The system described in this

paper belongs to this category.

The Department of Electrical Machines and Power Electronics at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm has been working with various HEV drive system projects for almost 15 years. The present paper presents some ideas from a currently on-going project, which engages four postgraduate students, and in addition a few seniors. The present project originates from an earlier one reported in a thesis by Thomas

Bäckström with the title “Integrated Energy Transducer Drive for Hybrid Electric Vehicles”, Stockholm 2000. In that project, the ICE was directly coupled to a double-rotor electric machine (DRM), thus enabling the ICE to operate at an optimal speed independent of the vehicle speed. In order to also allow variation of the torque, a CVT (continuously variable transmission) was inserted after the DRM. A CVT has some significant drawbacks related to cost and efficiency.

In the current project, an electrical machine (SM) is therefore

used to replace the CVT.

II.

CONCEPT

The main target for the present project is to find a compact and cost-effective HEV drive system, which allows for optimal operation of the ICE and consequently reduces fuel consumption and emissions. The proposed system combines advantages of a series hybrid with some of the advantages of parallel hybrids. Most important is that it allows independent ICE operation while it at the same time limits the size of the electrical components and the power these have to handle. A simple block diagram of the system is shown below (fig. 1).

Red. ICE DRM SM gear ~ ~ = = Battery
Red.
ICE
DRM
SM
gear
~
~
=
=
Battery

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Figure 1. System concept.

DRM Red. ICE + SM gear ~ ~ = = Battery
DRM
Red.
ICE
+ SM
gear
~
~
=
=
Battery

Figure 2. System with concentric electical machines.

The core of the system consists of two electrical machines and two converters. The first machine is a double rotor machine directly connected to the ICE. The inner rotor has a three-phase winding, which is connected to the converter via sliprings and brushes. The outer rotor, which has permanent magnets mounted on its inside, is mechanically directly connected to the rotor of the second machine, the SM. This machine is also a permanent magnet machine and has a three- phase winding connected to the other converter. The rotor of the SM is also connected to a mechanical transmission, which in this case can be a simple reduction gear or perhaps a two- shift gear. In order to build the system as compact as possible, it is possible to integrate the DRM and the SM and place the stator concentrically around the outer double rotor, which in such a case has to be provided with magnets on both its inside and outside (Fig. 2).

III.

FUNCTION

The basic idea is to let the ICE operate at its optimal operation line, i. e. with best efficiency in a torque-speed diagram. This is achieved through control of the speed and torque of the DRM and the SM.

The system allows the vehicle to operate in all four quadrants relative to almost any operating point of the ICE. That is why the system is referred to as “Four Quadrant Transducer” (4QT). The DRM transfers the torque from the ICE and it can increase or decrease the speed depending on the slip-frequency between the two rotors. It has to be dimensioned for transmitting the ICE torque, but the power is limited depending on which maximum slip-speed is required. The SM (stator machine) increases or decreases the torque and its size depends on the level of the required torque variations. Therefore, with a reference to the torque-speed diagram in Fig. 3, the sizes of these machines and of the two converters are determined by the required T and n.

The efficiency of this system can be considerably better than in a traditional series hybrid because the amount of electric power, which is transmitted, is mostly much lower than in the series hybrid. At steady-state operation with T and n close to zero, the electric power is limited to the losses in the machines and the converters. It is possible to further reduce these losses through introduction of a mechanical lock-

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up between the two rotors. Then remain only the iron losses in the SM and some windage losses.

IV. OPERATION MODES

The system can be operated in several different modes. It

can operate in hybrid mode, when extra power can be either drawn from or delivered to the battery. During acceleration and other high load situations, the electric system serves as a powerful booster with power drawn from the battery. Power is supplied to the battery during regenerative braking or when there is surplus power from the ICE. There are of course certain limitations if the battery is already fully charged. Also at power balance between the ICE and the vehicle, a certain power can be circulated between the electrical machines and through the converters in order to obtain the optimum operation conditions.

Furthermore, pure electrical operation can be obtained with the ICE switched off and locked. Both the DRM and the SM can then operate as motors and the performance of the vehicle is mainly determined by the battery capacity. Special arrangements might be necessary to avoid currents through non-rotating slip rings. Electric operation will probably be fairly limited due to battery costs.

The system is able to crank the ICE so that even stop and go functions can be implemented. It replaces thus the ordinary start-motor. It eliminates also the necessity of a separate alternator for auxiliary power, provided a suitable DC-DC converter is installed in the system. As mentioned earlier, a lock-up function between the two DRM rotors combined with switch off of the electric system turns the vehicle into a pure ICE-driven vehicle.

V. CONTROL STRATEGY OF THE ICE

There are of course several methods of controlling the ICE. The choice of the most suitable control strategy will depend on the drive cycle and the overall total cost of the system taking into consideration both the reductions in fuel consumption and emissions from the vehicle.

Torque ICE operating point Vehicle ∆T SM operating point ∆n DRM
Torque
ICE operating point
Vehicle
∆T
SM
operating
point
∆n
DRM

Speed

Figure 3. The vehicle can be operated in all four quadrants relative to any optimal ICE operating point through variaton of torque and speed.

Two different control strategies have been studied in the project, these are the power tracking and the load leveling strategies, which will be briefly described in the following.

A. Power Tracking

In this mode of operation, the power output of the ICE is made to track the road load demand, while the electrical energy storage is used to take over the acceleration and retardation demand. The signal of the output power is fed into the control system where it is first filtered and then used to determine the optimal operating point of the engine from its efficiency map. A feedback between the battery and the

engine is also required to assure that the state-of-charge (SOC)

of the battery does not fall below a certain lowest acceptable

value. At this point the engine is made to operate at a maximum power level until the SOC has reached its maximum acceptable value.

B. Load Leveling In this mode of operation, the vehicle is made to operate as

a pure electric vehicle until the SOC reaches its lowest

acceptable value. Then, the ICE is switched on and used to provide the road load and at the same time charge the battery until the SOC has reached the highest acceptable value. Once this value is reached the engine is switched off and the vehicle again is made to operate as a pure electric vehicle. Each time the engine is switched on, it is made to operate at its optimal efficiency point (full throttle).

VI.

SIMULATIONS

Using the above strategies and their combination, simulations have been carried out for both passenger cars and heavier vehicles for optimization and comparison with other systems. The engine is modeled with its efficiency map while the electrical machines are represented by models for copper, iron and stray losses. The copper losses are dependent on the current and torque, the iron losses are dependent on the flux and the speed, while the stray losses are dependent on a combination of these parameters. The simulations were carried out for the EC, Japan 10-15 and FTP75 drive cycles. Typical results of the fuel consumption for the 4QT system are shown for a passenger car (Fig. 4) and for a heavy vehicle (Fig. 5).

8

6

4

2

0

EC Japan 10-15 FTP 75
EC
Japan 10-15
FTP 75
Conv. Car 4QT HEV
Conv. Car
4QT HEV

Figure 4. Calculated fuel consumption (lit/100 km) for a mid-sized passenger car with 4QT system compared to a conventional car.

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35

30

25

20

15

10

5

0

FTP 75 FTP 75 100 km/h 4 kW 13 kW 4 kW
FTP 75
FTP 75
100 km/h
4 kW
13 kW
4 kW
Conv. Vehicle 4QT HEV
Conv. Vehicle
4QT HEV

Figure 5. Calculated fuel consumption (lit/100 km) for a 12-ton distribution truck. The power levels stated in the diagram are required auxiliary power.

For comparison the fuel consumption of a similar conventional vehicle (ICE only) are also shown in the figures. As can been seen from the results of the simulations the fuel savings in city traffic are quite substantial, they are of the order of 40-50 % for passenger car and 20-30 % for the heavy vehicles [2].

VII. 4QT TOPOLOGIES

Both the DRM and the SM are foreseen to be permanent magnet synchronous machines, although other alternatives have also been considered. One important advantage of the 4QT machine-topology is that a high degree of integration can be achieved between the two machines that make up the 4QT machine-topology. In fact, it would be illustrative to describe it as one slip-ring electrical machine with an extra permanent magnetized rotor in the air gap.

Several topologies are possible as illustrated in the figure below, which shows the radial-radial, axial-axial and radial- axial topologies.

The different topologies have different space requirements and thermal properties. In the radial-radial arrangement, the inner rotor is the most critical from a thermal point of view, while in the axial-axial arrangement the two machines are almost equivalent from a cooling point of view. The axial- radial arrangement is a compromise of the first two arrangements from a cooling point of view and has potentially the highest power density of the three arrangements.

The final choice of topology will greatly depend on the available space in the vehicle, the performance requirements and the cost of the different arrangements.

VIII. PROTOTYPE ARRANGEMENTS

To verify the simulations, a laboratory prototype for the radial-radial concept has been built and will be ready for testing in autumn this year. Figure 7 below shows a three dimensional view of the prototype. A special cooling arrangement is made to ensure an adequate cooling of the inner rotor [3].

Radial-radial flux

Axial-axial flux

Radial-radial flux Axial-axial flux Flux line Rotor connected to engine Stator Rotor connected to gearbox Winding
Radial-radial flux Axial-axial flux Flux line Rotor connected to engine Stator Rotor connected to gearbox Winding

Flux lineRadial-radial flux Axial-axial flux Rotor connected to engine Stator Rotor connected to gearbox Winding

Rotor connected to engineRadial-radial flux Axial-axial flux Flux line Stator Rotor connected to gearbox Winding Axial/radial-radial flux Permanent

flux Axial-axial flux Flux line Rotor connected to engine Stator Rotor connected to gearbox Winding

Stator

Rotor connected to gearboxAxial-axial flux Flux line Rotor connected to engine Stator Winding Axial/radial-radial flux Permanent Magnets Slip

Rotor connected to engine Stator Rotor connected to gearbox Winding Axial/radial-radial flux Permanent Magnets Slip

Winding

Axial/radial-radial flux

Rotor connected to gearbox Winding Axial/radial-radial flux Permanent Magnets Slip rings Figure 6. Illustration of three

Permanent MagnetsRotor connected to gearbox Winding Axial/radial-radial flux Slip rings Figure 6. Illustration of three different

gearbox Winding Axial/radial-radial flux Permanent Magnets Slip rings Figure 6. Illustration of three different

Slip rings

Figure 6. Illustration of three different electrical machine concepts for the 4QT system.

A major goal for the project is to investigate the different 4QT topologies and evaluate their advantages and disadvantages. To this goal, a radial-axial arrangement has also been designed [4].

A special theoretical and experimental study of an innovative design of a toroidal winding, axial flux machine has also been carried out as part of the project. It was also a permanent magnet machine and primarily intended as SM in the 4QT system [5].

machine and primarily intended as SM in the 4QT system [5]. Figure 7. A blow-up of

Figure 7. A blow-up of the radial-radial flux prototype machines for a 4QT system. The outer rotor is shown in the center of the picture and is provided with permanent magnets on both the outer and the inner sides.

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IX. LABORATORY TESTING

A laboratory test rig has been developed for testing the different 4QT topologies that are under investigation. The test rig uses the DRM and a separate SM to represent the 4QT concept. In a future arrangement these machines will be replaced by the developed 4QT prototypes. Figure 8 below shows the laboratory set up [6] that has been built in the Electrical Machine Laboratory at the department.

in the Electrical Machine Laboratory at the department. Figure 8. Laboratory set up for testing of

Figure 8. Laboratory set up for testing of 4QT prototypes.

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In the laboratory set up the ICE and the load are represented by 2 separate electrical machines, which are each controlled by their respective converters. Testing of the 4QT topologies will include drive cycle testing and efficiency measurements of the different machines.

X.

CONCLUSIONS

A unique hybrid drive system, the so-called 4QT hybrid system has been presented. This system belongs to the group of split power hybrids and the basic idea is to enable the ICE to operate at its optimal operating point independent of the working point at the wheel.

Simulations of the system show that a substantial fuel saving of the order of 40-50% can be achieved in urban traffic for passenger cars and 20-30% for heavy vehicles.

Several 4QT topologies are presented and advantages and disadvantages are characterized. A prototype has been built and will be ready for testing in the autumn of 2002.

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A laboratory test rig has been built and tested using the double-rotor machine and a separate synchronous machine, awaiting the actual 4QT prototypes.

REFERENCES

[1] T. Bäckström, Integrated Energy Transducer Drive for Hybrid Electric Vehicles, PhD-thesis, June 2000, Stockholm, Sweden. [2] E. Nordlund, P. Thelin, C. Sadarangani, Four-quadrant Energy Trandsducer for Hybrid Electric Vehicles, 15 th International Conference on Electrical Machines, ICEM, August 2002, Brugge, Belgium. [3] E. Nordlund, C. Sadarangani, Four-quadrant Energy Transducer for Hybrid Electrical Vehicles Simulations and System Description, EVS19, 2002, Busan, Korea. [4] F. Magnussen, C.Sadarangani, Electromagnetic Transducer for Hybrid Electric Vehicles, NORPIE, August 2002, Stockholm, Sweden.

[5]

M. Cirani, Analysis of an innovative design of an axial flux Torus-

[6]

machine, Licentiate thesis, June 2002, Stockholm, Sweden S. Chatelet, C.Sadarangani, Four-Quadrant Energy Transducer Test Bench, EVS19, 2002, Busan, Korea.

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