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Predictive Model for HCI (Beta Version)

Hot-carrier-Instability (HCI) manifests itself as an increase in the threshold voltage (Vth) and the
degradation of the carrier mobility, especially for the NMOS transistor.

Threshold voltage degradation


The following analytical models describe the shift of Vth due to HCI.

q ⎛E ⎞ ⎛ ϕ ⎞
∆Vth = K Cox (VGS − Vth ) exp⎜⎜ ox ⎟⎟ exp⎜⎜ − it ⎟⎟t n
Cox ⎝ E0 ⎠ ⎝ qλEm ⎠

Vds − Vdsat (Vgs − Vth + 2Vt ) Leff Esat


where, Em = , Vdsat =
l Vgs − Vth + 2Vt + Abulk Leff Esat

V gs − Vth ε ox kT
E ox = , Cox = , Vt =
Tox Tox q
Default values of model coefficients (technology independent):

K E0 φit λ L Esat
Abulk n
(nm/C0.5) (V/nm) (eV) (nm) (nm) (V/nm)
1.7e8 0.8 0.005 3.7 7.8 0.45 17 0.011

Mobility degradation

1
µ= µ , where α = 5, m = 1.6 ,
(1 + αN it )m eff
Nit: interface traps which can be extracted from the threshold voltage degradation model:

q
∆Vth = N it
Cox

Technology extrapolations:

Technology
250 180 130 90 65 45 32
Node (nm)
VDD (V) 1.8 1.5 1.3 1.2 1.1 1.0 0.9
Vth (V) 0.371 0.3 0.265 0.263 0.258 0.257 0.242
EOT (nm) 4 2.3 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.1 1
2
µeff (cm /V/sec) 591 402 295 247 197 166 138