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Tony Gambino

Kevin Kelleher
English 102
February 16th, 2018

Annotated Bibliography - “The Internet of Things”

Statement of Scope:

The theme of the topic revolves around the Internet of Things. The “The Internet of

Things” refers to devices of machinery that are interconnected through the internet. Whether we

know it, mostly everything that we use throughout the day is somehow connected to another

device or piece of technology in some way. It could be on the same social media platform,

physically connected, or even speaking to The Internet of Things. Examples such as Alexa and

Siri are great examples of voice recognition being connected through multiple platforms. These

platforms could include your phone, tablet, watch, etc… Some argue that integrating this

technology into every facet of our existence could be harmful and leave society vulnerable to

privacy and security. On the contrary, many believe that implementing The Internet of Things

devices into society will help it become more efficient and improve quality of life. While many

people have not heard of the Internet of Things, it is becoming more integrated into everyday
life, from internet connected refrigerators to connected pacemakers. The debate surrounds the

question: Should we continue implement the Internet of Things into society on a large scale?

Blake, Brian. Internet of Things for Health Care. University of Miami, Aug. 2015

Professor M. Brian Blake of Miami University first accounts a personal experience in

which he has used the internet of things to self-diagnose an injury. He goes on to explain how

important the internet has become in helping people self-diagnose their ailments before seeking

medical advice. He then explains how new technologies involved with the Internet of Things

have begun to change medicine. He describes biometric sensors a patient could wear on have that

could measure things such as blood pressure, cholesterol, heart rate, blood sugar, white blood

cell count, etc. Blake describes a future in which doctors could be alerted to patient statuses at

real time allowing for lives to be improved and even saved through the Internet of Things. In

addition to helping improve patient care, it would also increase the efficiency of hospitals

dramatically. Blake delves into how the implementation of the Internet of Things could

dramatically improve the healthcare sector but fails to address possible risks. For example, if a

pacemaker was in fact connected to the internet, it could be vulnerable to security breaches in

which someone could remotely induce cardiac arrest. Examples such as these leave many

skeptical of the prudence of connecting so much to the internet.

Morgan, Jacob. “A Simple Explanation Of 'The Internet of Things.'” Forbes,

Forbes Magazine, 20 Apr. 2017

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This short article details exactly what the Internet of Things is. Jacob Morgan explains

the rapid rate at which this technology is expanding. Morgan explains that the expansion of

broadband internet connection has grown along with increased speeds. He explains that this has

allowed for an increased number of The Internet of Things devices. He explains that analysts

predict by 2020 there will be 26 billion connected devices comprising the Internet of Things. He

explains certain examples of how The Internet of Things will become essential in the very near

future. Morgan describes the concept of “smart cities” in which almost every aspect of city life

would be connected. Explaining that the Internet of Things is an inevitable advancement of

technology, he begins to question how this will impact our lives. He explains that one of the

most prominent concerns is that of privacy. With so much of our data being collected many

questions involving where this information will go and who will see it is raised. Also, Morgan

suggests that security, being separated from privacy, will need to retrofitted to function with the

vast number of devices connected to the Internet of Things.

This article will be used to introduce the reader to what the Internet of Things is and what

it is comprised of. To determine whether it will change society for the better, one must first have

knowledge of what it is today and what it is expected to be shortly. Morgan provides an easy to

comprehend introduction of the Internet of Things, providing valuable initial insight to the

reader.

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Talbot, David and Maria Paz-Canales. 2017. Smart Grid Paybacks: The Chattanooga Example.

The Municipal Fiber Project, Berkman Klein Center for Internet & Society Research

Publication.

This case study, located in Harvard University's DASH repository, provides a valuable

example of how the Internet of Things has already been used effectively on a large city scale.

The case study displays the implementation of the Internet of Things devices inside power grid

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systems in Chattanooga Tennessee. This implementation has allowed for vast amounts of energy

and money to be saved. The study provides useful statistics that will be used to portray how the

Internet of Things devices have already been used and can continue to be used effectively in the

future. The case study explains that Chattanooga has saved over 23 million dollars on average

per year after the power grid system was modernized with The Internet of Things technology.

The findings in this case study will be used to demonstrate that the Internet of Things is, in fact,

a technology that can provide extensive benefits to various facets of society.

Hardt, Moritz. “Understanding Unintended Sources of Unfairness in

Data-Driven Decision Making.” The University of California, Berkeley, 26 Sept. 2014.

Moritz Hardt from the University of California Berkeley in this article explains the

concept and repercussions of data aggregation. He explains that there are companies that exist

for the sole purpose of collecting people's data and selling it to advertising companies for profit.

This process is legal but raises ethical issues. Hardt goes on to explain that the rise of the Internet

of Things will allow for these aggregation companies to collect more and more data from

consumers. Another topic Hardt discusses is that of inaccuracies when data is aggregated from

The Internet of Things devices. He explains that oftentimes peoples data is grouped into sects

that render the collection of that data purposeless. He explains that sensitive personal information

such as race, gender, orientation, and others are not directly denoted by aggregation companies.

However, predictive algorithms are often able to deduce this information using other information

correctly. This, of course, raises an ethical and moral issue with the aggregation of data through

smart objects in the Internet of Things. This is one source that will provide the viewpoint of

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skepticism regarding the Internet of Things and specifically the information that is pooled from

these devices. The article shows not only how these devices can be improperly utilized in the

future but also how they have already been abused with today's technology. It can be easily

inferred that the more objects, devices, and machinery that become connected to the internet, the

more that people's personal information will be taken.

McFarland, Michael. “Ethical Implications of Data Aggregation.” Markkula Center for

Applied Ethics, Santa Clara University, 1 June 2012.

This article provides further insight on the topic of data aggregation collected from The

Internet of Things devices and general internet usage. He explains that one major aspect of data

aggregation revolves around transaction data. This idea involves aggregation companies looking

for what a consumer buys. This data is sold to advertisement companies to help them better

target certain consumer groups. Often credit card reports and records can be sold to aggregation

companies to view consumers purchases. On a more basic level, companies such as Amazon

record purchases and use them to create their own advertisement, predicting what a consumer

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might want based on previous purchases. While some might see this as convenient others see this

as an invasion of privacy. McFarland states that data aggregation companies such as Acxiom

bring in revenues of over 850 million dollars a year simply by collecting and selling consumer

personal information all quite legally. He explains that companies such as these know your

information such as age, race, sex, weight, height, marital status, education level, political

beliefs, buying habits, vacation dreams and much more. He explains that while most digital

crumbs left behind by consumers are small and considered meaningless after they are compiled

and analyzed, the results are often very revealing. As could be expected, the rise of internet-

connected devices will lead to a more holistic destruction of personal privacy. This article will be

used to demonstrate the extensive privacy concerns that arise with the implementation of the

Internet of Things into everyday life. This article paints a pessimistic picture of the Internet of

Things and data aggregation. It provides startling data that most Americans would find extremely

unsettling. This article can utilize to portray what the Internet of Things could facilitate if it is

not regulated.

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