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Properties of stainless super austenitic PM

material made by gas atomization and HIP
casting which increases the risk of
Hot isostatically pressed (HIP) near net shape (NNS) formation of unwanted intermetallic
components in highly alloyed stainless steels are used in phases. One way to circumvent
a wide range of applications. The process of manufacturing this problem is to employ powder
metallurgy for which the solidification
NNS components includes gas atomisation of powder, is orders of magnitudes faster due to
filling the powder in containers, HIPing the containers the typically very small size of the
and thereafter subjecting them to heat treatment before individual powder grains (typically
final machining. less than 500 µm). Some of the powder
technologies result in porosity and/
In this paper, some recent results such as corrosion or very high oxygen content that result
resistance and mechanical properties, from gas atomized in material with inferior mechanical
stainless steel powder produced by powder metallurgy (PM) properties. However, by using gas
and HIPed to full density are presented. The properties of atomization and HIP, as in this study, a
fully dense material with comparably
the super austenitic PM-HIP material are compared to other low oxygen content can be obtained.
commonly used PM-HIP material solutions such as duplex, The advantage of using PM is that it
super duplex and austenitic stainless steels. allows for complex geometry shapes in
a wide range of sizes to be used without
the segregations and inhomogeneity
By Karin Jakobsson, Christophe Cr, up to 22wt% Ni, up to 7 wt% Mo, associated with forgings. The PM-HIP
Pellegrini & Stefan Sundin, Erasteel up to 0,50wt% N and this inevitably process results in a component that is
Kloster AB, Sweden, Jean-Marc Lardon, results in segregations during traditional homogenous and isotropic in nature.
Aubert & Duval, France

Components produced by the use of [wt%] C Ni N Mo Cr Cu W Mn Si

PM are often used in harsh environments
with a high demand on mechanical UNS S31266
0.024 20.3 0.55 5.42 23.9 1.72 1.45 3.44 0.50
properties and corrosion resistance.
Forged bar
Components manufactured by NNS 0.025 22.5 0.50 5.61 24.4 1.58 2.18 3.22 0.20
UNS S31266
technology using gas atomized metal
powder and HIP are finding increasing 0.022 18.3 0.20 6.29 20.1 0.66 -- 0.71 0.76
UNS S31254
use in demanding applications such
as oil & gas, pulp and paper, nuclear, Forged bar
0.019 18.1 0.20 6.13 20.0 0.68 -- 0.97 0.56
UNS S31254
aeronautic et cetera. One trend in these
applications is to go towards more PM-HIP
0.024 6.0 0.27 3.05 25.8 1.58 -- 0.61 0.48
UNS S32505
advanced materials in order to gain
advantage from improved properties Forged bar
0.033 6.2 0.26 3.29 25.9 1.47 -- 0.89 0.40
UNS S32505
such as mechanical properties and
corrosion resistance. An example Table 1. Actual compositions in wt-% of the materials studied.
of such material is super austenitic
stainless steels. The family of super
austenitic stainless steels exhibit great [wt%] C Ni N Mo Cr Cu W Mn Si PRENW **)
resistance to chloride containing
environments commonly encountered UNS S31266 ≤ 0.03 22 0.50 5.5 24 2 2 3 ≤ 0.50 53
in the oil industry, especially to pitting
corrosion and stress corrosion cracking. ≤ 0.02 22 0.50 7.0 24 0.5 -- 3 0.40 55
UNS S32654
High nitrogen content superaustenitic
steels are comparably new materials, ≤ 0.03 18 0.20 6 20 0.5 -- 1 0.50 43
UNS S31254
which are seen as a cost effective PM-HIP
alternative to Ni-base materials due to ≤ 0.03 5.5 0.27 3.5 25.5 2.0 -- 1 0.50 41
UNS S32505
the usage of high nitrogen (up to about PM-HIP
≤ 0.03 6.0 0.17 3.2 22.5 -- -- 1 0.50 36
0.5 wt %) to obtain good corrosion UNS S32205*)
properties as well as good toughness at *) This grade also includes the grade UNS S31803
low temperatures and high strength. **) PRENW is calculated as (% Cr + 3.3 x (0.5W+Mo) + 16 x %N)
The high nitrogen superaustenitic grades Table 2. Nominal compositions in wt-% of materials commonly used in the oil and gas
are all highly alloyed with up to 24wt% industry. Stainless Steel World May 2014 49

[ Powder Metallurgy ]
Materials crevice corrosion, was an accelerated capsule were taken from the centre of
In this study, the PM-HIP steel NYB66 testing where a fixed potential of 700mV the capsule. For each material, three
(UNS S31266) will be compared with vs SCE is applied to a sample in an identical samples were tested.
the properties of PM-HIP duplex steel electrolyte.
UNS S32205/S31803, PM-HIP super Then a temperature sweep is applied Results
duplex steel UNS S32505, PM-HIP super to determine the temperature at which The tensile testing values are shown in
austenitic UNS S31254 as well as the pitting occurs, called the critical pitting Figure 1. For yield strength, the super
forged super austenitic UNS S32654, temperature (CPT), or if a crevice austenitic PM-HIP NYB66 has similar
which composition is slightly lower setup is used, the crevice corrosion properties as the duplex alloy PM-HIP
alloyed than the NYB66. All of these temperature (CCT). This methodology UNS S32205. They both have yield
materials are commonly used in the oil was first standardized in ASTM G150. strengths well above that of the forged
and gas industry for their high strength The current criteria used to determine super austenitic steels UNS S32654 and
and excellent corrosion resistance a propagating corrosion level were UNS S31266.
properties. The typical values used are 1 min at 100µA/cm2 for CPT and 1 min The results from impact toughness
obtained from commercial datasheets at 10µA/cm2 for CCT. Different chloridic testing of the PM-HIP NYB66 are
and representative production data. electrolytes were used depending on shown in Figure 2. As can be seen, the
The NYB66 powder used in the study the material’s resistance to localized impact toughness of PM-HIP NYB66 is
was produced in a small scale pilot plant corrosion: concentrated CaCl2 or 2M in between that of the PM-HIP duplex
by gas atomisation at Erasteel, sieved NaCl. Here, two different positions and PM-HIP super duplex steels tested
to -500µm and filled in cylindrical of the bar were tested, at the centre at -50°C, the test temperature commonly
capsules of approximately 50 kg each. and surface. Samples from the PM-HIP required in oil and gas standards.
After HIPing to full density, the capsule
dimension was Ø200mm. Heat treatment 1000
after HIPing was carried out at a solution Rp0.2 [MPa]
annealing temperature of 1150°C Rm [MPa]

followed by subsequent quenching 800

in water. All the properties studied
were measured on material in the final,
solution annealed condition. The forged 600

bar of UNS S31266 was commercially

obtained in the dimension of Ø270mm, 500

in forged, machined and annealed 400


Method 200
Basic material properties such as
micro structure characterization has 100

been investigated and correlated with

macro properties of the material. In the Actual value Typical value Typical value PM HIP Typical value PM HIP Minimum value,
SuperausteniƟc PM HIP SuperausteniƟc Forged Duplex UNS S32205 Superduplex UNS S32505 benchmark Forged UNS
present study, the PM-HIP material was NYB66 UNS S31266 UNS S31266 S32654 *)
compared to the forged bar in the same
test. The mechanical properties that Figure 1. Mechanical properties, typical and measured, for the materials studied.
have been studied are yield and tensile
strength and impact toughness.
Tensile tests were carried out according
to the ISO 6892-1 standard, triple tests 300

with 12.5 mm diameter specimen.

Impact toughness Charpy-V-notch 250

measurements were carried out

according to the ISO 148-2 standard 200
PM HIP Duplex UNS S32205
with 10x10 mm size specimen, using
a cooling bath or liquid nitrogen for PM HIP SuperaustenŝƟĐhES S31254
Impact toughness [J]

treating the samples prior to low PM HIP SuperaustenŝƟĐhES S31266

temperature testing. The impact PM HIP Superduplex UNS S32505

toughness was measured with two 100
Forged SuperausteniƟĐhE^ S32654,
samples at each temperature, namely at minimum *)

-196°C, -120°C, -50°C, -20°C, 0°C and 50

room temperature.
Electrochemical corrosion testing
has been carried out to determine -200 -150 -100 -50 0 50
Temperature [°C]
the critical pitting temperature. The
method used to test the susceptibility to
localized corrosion, such as pitting and Figure 2. Impact toughness at different temperatures of the materials studied.

50 Stainless Steel World May 2014

[ Powder Metallurgy ]
a smooth curve without
100 sharp transitions. 100
In this aspect, the
90 90
material has an
advantage over the
80 duplex materials,

CPT [°C] in 2M NaCl

CCT [°C] in conc. CaCl2

which normally
exhibit a sharper
70 70
drop in impact
toughness properties
60 60 and are usually not
recommended for use
at low temperature.
50 50
Previous experience

CPT of SuperausteniƟc UNS S31254 PM HIP

CPT of SuperaustenŝƟĐ UNS S31254 Forged

CPT of SuperaustenŝƟĐ UNS S31254 Forged

has shown that in
CCT of SuperausteniƟc NYB66 UNS

CCT of SuperausteniƟc NYB66 UNS

CCT of SuperausteniƟc NYB66 UNS

CPT of Superduplex UNS S32505 PM HIP

CPT of Superduplex UNS S32505 Forged

CPT of Superduplex UNS S32505 Forged

S31266 Forged material, surface
S31266 PM HIP material, centre

S31266 Forged material, centre

40 40 scaling up the process

to larger powder
batches (Pearl®

material, surface
material, centre

material, surface
material, centre
30 30
powder range) in the

Dvalin™/Durin™ gas
20 20 atomization towers
from Erasteel, it is
possible to reduce
10 10
the amount of residual
elements such as
0 0 oxygen, which has
been shown for similar
materials to have
Figure 3. Crevice corrosion temperature and Critical Pitting temperature of the materials studied.
a substantial effect
on the mechanical properties of the
The impact toughness of PM-HIP is superior in corrosion resistance to material, such as impact toughness at
NYB66 is well above the minimum both other materials, since the CCT low temperature.
required impact toughness of forged testing is a more severe method of
superaustenitic steel. For the duplex evaluation than the CPT testing. Conclusion
materials, there is a sharp transition The material characterisations carried
in the impact toughness curve. More Discussion out in this study show that the super
importantly, the PM HIP superaustenitic Owing to their finer microstructure, the austenitic PM-HIP NYB66 has a high
materials all indicate a clearly PM-HIP steels usually exhibit a higher strength and impact toughness that is
ductile behaviour down to cryogenic yield strength than the forged material, positioned between the duplex and
temperatures. confirmed by the results on this study. In superduplex PM-HIP materials, while
The first trial of provoking pitting the case of the super austenitic NYB66, it is superior to these materials in
corrosion in the UNS S31266 steel the higher strength is also explained corrosion resistance. This introductory
revealed that it is fully resistant to by the slightly higher Nitrogen content study to comparing conventionally
pitting corrosion in concentrated of the PM alloy. Super austenitic steels forged and PM-HIP material shows that
boiling CaCl2, as no pitting was in general are inferior in yield strength the PM-HIP material exhibits equal
observed. Therefore, crevice corrosion to the duplex and super duplex alloys, crevice corrosion resistance to the
measurements were conducted in a which get their high yield strengths forged.
subsequent test. Three measurements from the high amount of ferrite in the
References are available on request to:
were conducted for each type of microstructure.
material, and the standard deviation Regarding the corrosion properties
shown by error bars in Figure 3 can be the PM-HIP NYB66 are on similar level
considered quite small. For the UNS as the forged bar regarding sensitivity Acknowledgement: The corrosion testing
S31254 and UNS S32505 materials, the to localized corrosion. There is an carried out by Swerea KIMAB is kindly
CPT could be determined using 2M apparent difference between the CCT acknowledged.
NaCl as the electrolyte. values for the centre and surface of the
It can clearly be seen from Figure 3 that forged bar, which can be attributed to Erasteel, a part of the French Eramet Group,
for the same type of material, the forged normal and local variations in composition is a steel manufacturer of high speed steel
bar and the PM-HIP capsule are on a and microstructure. and stainless steel powders. The paper is a
similar level. The 6Mo superaustenitic Regarding the impact toughness collaboration between Erasteel and its sister
UNS S31254 material have a significantly properties of the PM-HIP NYB66, one can company Aubert & Duval. Pearl® is a registered
higher corrosion resistance than the observe the low temperature behaviour trademark of Erasteel.
superduplex material. The UNS S31266 of the superaustenitic material, showing Stainless Steel World May 2014 51