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ByME Secondary Project: Geography and History 3

ByME Geography
and History 3
Programming

Secondary Stage: Year 3

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ByME Secondary Project: Geography and History 3

Contents

Introduction 3
Methodological guidance 4
Contributing to developing key competences 5
Overall stage objectives 18
Cross-curricular elements and values education 19
Attention to diversity 21
Encouraging reading 21
Cooperative learning 22
Evaluation of teaching practice 23

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ByME Secondary Project: Geography and History 3

Introduction
According to Royal Decree 1105/2014, of 26 December, which establishes the core curriculum of Compulsory Secondary
Education and Baccalaureate, knowledge of society, its organisation and functioning over time is essential in order to
understand the modern world. Finding out about the space in which societies develop, and natural resources and the use
that has been given to them provides us with information about the past and allows us to look at some of the problems of
the future. The disciplines of Geography and History are two important key subjects to help us understand society, as they
contemplate the human and social reality from a comprehensive global perspective and offer greater capacity for
structuring social facts; however the increasingly complex modern society requires the intervention of other disciplines like
Economics, Sociology, Ecology and History of Art, which provide different and complementary analyses for a better
understanding of social reality. In Compulsory Secondary Education, the subject of Geography and History aims to deepen
the knowledge acquired by students in Primary Education, promote understanding of social events, processes and
phenomena in the context in which they occur, analyse the processes that give rise to historic changes and continue to
acquire the competences needed to understand the reality of the world they live in, past and present collective
experiences, their orientation in the future, and the space in which life takes place in society. In the first cycle, Geography is
organised into the blocks “The physical environment” and “The human space”, and in the fourth year, it focuses on
globalisation. History studies societies throughout time, following a chronological criterion over the two cycles of Compulsory
Secondary Education.

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ByME Secondary Project: Geography and History 3

Methodological guidance
The project is based on the following methodological principles of teaching-learning:

• Appropriate selection and sequencing of content. The method structure facilitates the relationship between concepts and content to
reinforce topics covered.
• Meaningful learning. Any learning for the student is presented, as far as possible, based on knowledge from experiences that the
student already has, facilitating learning how to learn. In this sense, an inductive methodology must be favoured, which allows the
student to learn the theory for themselves from different activities, so that learning is as intuitive as possible.
• Functional approach. The student must be encouraged to look at the practical and critical aspects of what they have learnt.
• Student motivation. The need for the student to adopt an active role in the teaching-learning process is satisfied through a proposal
that attempts to convert learning into a motivating experience. For this reason, among other items, a meta-cognitive question is
included at the beginning and the end of each unit, encouraging the student to become aware of the point of learning and that
which they have achieved.
• Progress and reinforcement of learning. The process of teaching-learning must strike a balance between reinforcing assimilated
learning and introducing new items. It is paramount that the relationships between different contents are always sought, as well as the
link between these and the real and everyday life of students.
• Attention to the diversity of different learning styles of students. In order for the teaching staff to adapt the teaching-learning process
to the diversity of the classroom and the different learning styles of each student, this project must provide teachers with an extensive
and varied set of materials and teaching resources. These include, in addition to the student's book and the teaching guide, material
for attention to diversity and evaluation and an e-book, which includes multimedia resources, interactive activities and a test
generator. Various educationally-innovative proposals are offered based on group work, problem-solving and encouraging
entrepreneurial competence.

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ByME Secondary Project: Geography and History 3

Contributing to developing key competences


According to Order ECD/65/2015, of 21 January, which describes the relations between the competences, contents and assessment
criteria of primary education, compulsory secondary education and baccalaureate level, key competences are an essential element
in the educational process given that the process of teaching-learning has to be aimed at the personal, social and professional
development of citizens. In this sense, the most significant considerations of this order regarding the integration of key competences in
the educational curriculum are reflected below.
The competences are conceptualised as "know-how" which is applied to a range of academic, social and professional contexts. To
enable the transfer to different contexts, understanding the knowledge contained within the competences is essential as well as its links
to the practical skills and abilities it involves.
Learning by competences encourages learning processes and motivation, due to the close relationship between their components:
the concept is learnt at the same time as the procedure for learning it.
The definition of key competences according to the European Union has been adopted. It is considered that "key competences are
those which all individuals need for personal fulfilment and development, active citizenship, social inclusion and employment". Seven
key and essential competences have been identified for the welfare of European societies, economic growth and innovation, and the
knowledge, abilities and essential attitudes linked to each of them have been described.
The curricular review takes the new learning requirements very seriously. Learning based on competences is characterised by its
transversality, dynamism and comprehensive nature. The competence-based teaching-learning process must be employed across all
knowledge areas, and by the different authorities that make up the educational community, both in formal and non-formal and
informal areas; its dynamism relates to the fact that the competences are not acquired at a given moment and seem invariable, but
involve a development process through which individuals acquire greater levels of performance in their use.

Description of key competences


1. Linguistic communication
Competence in linguistic communication is the result of communicative action within certain social practices, in which the individual
acts with other partners and through texts in a variety of modalities, formats and media. These situations and practices can involve the
use of one or various languages, in different environments and can be individually or group-based. The individual uses their repertoire of
different languages, which may be incomplete but adjusted to the communicative experiences they are exposed to throughout life.
The languages used may have been acquired in different ways over various periods and therefore, constitute learning experiences in
the mother tongue or in foreign or additional languages.
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This overview of competence in linguistic communication linked to certain social practices offers an image of the individual as a
communicative agent that not only receives, but produces, messages through languages for different purposes. To assess the
relevance of this statement in educational decision-making is to opt for active learning methodologies (task-based and project-based
learning of problems, challenges, etc.), either in the students' mother tongue, or an additional language or a foreign language, in
comparison to more traditional methodologies.
Competence in linguistic communication also represents a way of knowing about and coming into contact with cultural diversity that
involves enriching own competences and acquires particular relevance in the case of foreign languages. Therefore, an inter-cultural
focus in teaching and learning of languages significantly contributes to the development of students' competence in linguistic
communication.
This competence is, by definition, always incomplete and constitutes a continuous and lifelong learning objective. Therefore, for
satisfactory language learning, it is vital that contexts in which languages are used in a rich and varied manner are created, with
regard to the tasks to be performed and the possible communicative exchanges, texts and partners.
Competence in linguistic communication is extremely complex. It is based primarily on knowledge of the linguistic component, but also
how it is produced and develops in specific communicative and contextualised situations. The individual needs to activate their
knowledge of the pragmatic-discourse and socio-cultural components.
This competence requires interaction with different skills, given that it is produced in many types of communication and in different
media. From speaking and writing to the more sophisticated forms of audiovisual or technology-based communication, individuals
participate in a complex framework of communicative possibilities thanks to which they extend their competence and their ability to
interact with other individuals. For this to occur, this range of communication types and media requires more complex literacy, as part
of the concept of multiple literacies, allowing the individual to participate as an active citizen.
Competence in linguistic communication is also a fundamental instrument for socialisation and harnessing of educational experiences,
as a privileged way of accessing knowledge inside and outside of education. It development depends largely on whether the different
types of learning occur in different contexts (formal, informal and non-formal). In this way, reading as a basic skill is especially relevant in
an educational context for extending the competence of linguistic communication and learning. As such, reading is the main access
route for all areas, and therefore, contact with a range of texts is fundamental for accessing original sources of knowledge.
The competence in linguistic communication is part of a framework of attitudes and values that the individual puts into operation:
respect for coexistence; actively exercising citizenship; development of a critical spirit; respect for human rights and pluralism; the
concept of dialogue as a primary tool for coexistence; conflict resolution and the development of affective abilities across the board;
curiosity, interest and creativity in learning and the recognition of skills inherent in this competence (reading, conversation, writing, etc.)

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as sources of pleasure related to personal enjoyment and whose promotion and practice are essential tasks in the reinforcement of
motivation towards learning.

2. Mathematical competence and basic competences in science and technology


Mathematical competence and basic competences in science and technology bring on and strengthen certain essential aspects of
education that are fundamental for life.
In a society where the impact of mathematics, science and technologies is crucial, reaching and maintaining a level of social
wellbeing requires personal decision-making and behaviours that are closely linked to critical ability and reasoned and reasonable
perspectives. Mathematical competence and basic competences in science and technology contribute to this:
a) Mathematical competence involves the ability to apply mathematical reasoning and its tools to describe, interpret and predict
different phenomena in context.
Mathematical competence requires knowledge about numbers, measurements and structures, as well as mathematical operations
and representations, and the understanding of mathematical terms and concepts.
The use of mathematical tools involves a series of skills that require the application of mathematical principles and processes in
different contexts, that may be personal, social, professional or scientific, as well as make reasoned judgements and follow lines of
argument in performing calculations, analysing graphs and in mathematical representations and the manipulation of algebraic
equations, including digital media wherever appropriate. This skill includes the creation of mathematical explanations and
descriptions that involve the interpretation of mathematical results and reflection on their contextual suitability, as well as
determining whether the solutions are appropriate and make sense in the situation in which they present themselves.
It deals therefore, with recognising the role that mathematics plays in the world and using concepts, procedures and tools to apply
it to resolving problems which may arise in certain situations throughout life. Activation of mathematical competence requires the
learner to be able to establish a profound relationship between the conceptual knowledge and procedural knowledge involved in
resolving a certain mathematical task.
Mathematical competence includes a series of attitudes and values that are based on rigour, respect for data and veracity.
b) Basic competences in science and technology are those which bring the physical world closer, allowing responsible interactions
with it through both individual and collective actions aimed at conserving and improving the natural environment and which are
decisive in protecting and maintaining society's quality of life and progress. These competences contribute to the development of

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scientific thinking, as they include the application of methods of scientific rationale and technological skills, which lead to the
acquisition of knowledge, comparison of ideas and application of discoveries for the wellbeing of society.
Competences in science and technology enable responsible and respectful citizens to develop critical judgements on scientific
and technological facts that occur over time, either in the past or at present. These competences basically have to enable
students to identify, plan and resolve daily situations, both personal and social, at the same time as be challenged by and resolve
scientific and technological activity problems.
Suitable development of competences in science and technology requires tackling scientific knowledge or know-how relating to
physics, chemistry, biology, geology, mathematics and technology, which arise from concepts, processes and interrelated
situations.
It also requires the promotion of skills that allow technological machines and tools to be used and handled, as well as the use of
scientific data and processes to reach an objective; in other words, identify issues, resolve problems, arrive at a conclusion and
take decisions based on tests and arguments.
These competences also include attitudes and values related to the adherence to science and technology's ethical criteria,
interest in science, support for scientific research and the assessment of scientific knowledge; as well as a sense of responsibility for
the conservation of natural resources and environmental matters and the adoption of an appropriate attitude for a physically
and mentally healthy life in a natural and social environment.

3. Digital competence
Digital competence involves the creative, critical and secure use of information and communication technology to achieve objectives
related to work, employability, learning, the use of free time, inclusion and participation in society.
This competence also includes adaptation to the changes introduced by new technologies in literacy, reading and writing, a new set
of knowledge, skills and attitudes necessary today to be competent in a digital environment.
It requires knowledge related to specific basic language: textual, numeric, iconic, visual, graphic and audio, as well as guidelines for
decoding and transfer. This involves knowledge of the main I.T. applications. It also involves accessing information sources and
processing; and the knowledge of rights and freedoms of people in the digital world.
This competence also requires the development of various skills related to accessing information, processing and use for
communication, creation of content, security and problem solving, in formal, non-formal and informal contexts. The student has to be
able to regularly use technological resources available to resolve real problems efficiently, as well as assess and select new sources of
information and technological innovations, as they appear, depending on their use for performing specific tasks or objectives.
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The acquisition of this competence additionally requires attitudes and values that allow the user to adapt to technologies' new
requirements, assess their suitability and adapt them for their own purposes and be able to interact socially in this regard. It involves
developing an active, critical and realistic attitude towards technologies and technological media, assessing their strengths and
weaknesses and respecting ethical principles in their use. Digital competence similarly involves participation and collaborative work, as
well as motivation and curiosity for learning and improvement in the use of technologies.
Therefore, the appropriate development of digital competence requires:
 Information: this involves understanding how information is managed and how it is made available to users, as well as the
knowledge and handling of different search engines and databases, knowing how to select those which better respond to the
information requirements.
 It also involves analysing and interpreting information obtained, comparing and assessing the content from media in terms
of its source validity, reliability and suitability, both online and offline. Lastly, digital competence involves knowing how to
transform information into knowledge through suitably selecting different storage options.
 Communication: this involves being aware of the different digital media and various communication software packages
and of their functioning as well as their benefits and drawbacks in terms of context and who they are aimed at. At the same
time, it involves knowing which resources can be publicly shared and their value, in other words, knowing how technologies and
media can allow different forms of participation and collaboration in creating content for a common benefit. This entails the
knowledge of ethical issues such as digital identity and rules for digital interaction.
 Content creation: this involves knowing how digital content can be created in various formats (text, audio, video, images)
as well as identifying programs/applications that adapt the best to the type of content to be created. It also involves
contributing to knowledge in the public domain (wikis, public forums, journals), bearing in mind copyright guidelines and licences
for use and publication of information.
 Security: this involves knowing the various risks associated to the use of technologies and online resources and current
strategies to avoid them, which entails identifying the appropriate behaviour in the digital environment to protect personal
information and that of others, as well as recognising the addictive aspects of technology.
 Problem-solving: this dimension involves knowing what makes up digital devices, their potential and limitations with regard
to achieving personal goals, as well as learning where to seek help for resolving theoretical and technical problems. This involves
a diverse and well-balanced combination of the most significant digital and non-digital technology in this area of knowledge.
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4. Learning how to learn


The competence of learning how to learn is fundamental for constant lifelong learning and occurs in different formal, non-formal and
informal contexts.
It is characterised by the ability to initiate, organise and stay with learning and primarily requires the ability to motivate oneself to learn.
This motivation depends on the generation of curiosity and the need to learn, for the student to feel at the centre of the learning
process and its result, and finally, that they reach the proposed learning goals and this creates a feeling of self-efficiency. This all helps
to motivate them to tackle future learning tasks.
Secondly, in terms of learning management and organisation, this competence of learning how to learn requires knowing and
controlling learning processes to adjust the times and requirements of tasks and activities that lead to learning. The competence of
learning how to learn leads to increasingly efficient and autonomous learning.
This competence also includes a series of skills and knowledge that require reflection and awareness of individual learning processes. In
this way, learning processes become a subject of knowledge which also requires learning how to properly execute them.
Learning how to learn includes knowledge on the mental processes involved in learning. This competence also includes the knowledge
which the student possesses regarding their own learning process which can be divided into three areas:
a) Knowledge regarding what they know and do not know, what they are capable of learning, what interests them, etc.;
b) Knowledge of the discipline which involves the learning task and the knowledge of the specific content and the demands
of the task itself;
c) Knowledge regarding the different strategies open to tackling the task.
All of this knowledge is channelled into skills involving self-regulation and control inherent in the competence of learning how to learn,
which result in planning strategies that reflect the learning goal pursued, as well as the action plan intended to be applied to achieve
it; monitoring strategies which the student uses to examine the appropriateness of the actions developed and whether they are
working to achieve the goal; and evaluation strategies for analysing the result as well as the process carried out. Planning, monitoring
and evaluation are essential for developing increasingly efficient learning. These all include a reflective process that allows for thought
before action (planning), analysing the year and adjusting the process (monitoring) and consolidating the application of positive plans
or modifying those which are incorrect (evaluating the result and process). These three strategies should be reinforced in the learning
processes and problem solving that involve the students.

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Learning how to learn manifests itself both individually and on a group level. In both cases proficiency of this competence starts with
consciously reflecting on the learning processes to which the individual or group are subjected. This relates not only to individual
processes of learning, but also the way in which others learn becomes subject to scrutiny. The competence of learning how to learn
may also be acquired in the context of team work. Teachers have to try to make students aware of what they are doing to learn and
seek alternatives. These alternatives often appear when they are attempting to discover what others are doing during cooperative
work in groups.
With regard to attitudes and values, motivation and confidence are crucial for acquiring this competence. Both are reinforced by
planning realistic short, medium and long-term goals. Reaching goals increases the perception of self-efficiency and confidence, and
progressively improve learning objectives. People must be able to use previous life and learning experiences as support, to use and
apply new knowledge and abilities in other contexts, such as in the private and professional life, education and training.
Knowing how to learn in a certain environment involves being able to acquire and assimilate new knowledge and master skills and
abilities from this environment. The competence of learning how to learn may entail a certain transfer of knowledge from one field to
another, although knowing how to learn in one area does not necessarily mean that one knows how to learn in another. Therefore, its
acquisition must be carried out within the formal teaching framework of the different areas and materials, as well as within non-formal
and informal areas.
It may be concluded that the appropriate development of the competence of learning how to learn requires a reflection that
encourages knowledge of people's mental processes when they learn, knowledge about their own learning processes, as well the
development of the skills of regulating and controlling their own learning.

5. Social and civic competences


Social and civil competences involve the ability and capacity to: use knowledge and attitudes about society, understood from
different perspectives to be dynamic, changing and complex; interpret social phenomena and problems in increasingly more diverse
contexts; create responses; take decisions and resolve conflicts; as well as to interact with other people and groups in accordance to
rules based on mutual respect and democratic beliefs. It also includes actions that are closer or more immediate to the individual as
part of their civil and social involvement.
Therefore, it concerns combining the interest in furthering and ensuring participation in society's democratic functioning, both in the
public and private spheres, with preparing people to exercise their democratic citizenship and fully participate in civic and social life
due to knowledge of concepts and social and political structures and the commitment to active and democratic participation.

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a) Social competence is related to individual and collective wellbeing. It requires understanding how people can achieve optimal
physical and mental health, both for themselves and their family and their close social environment, and know how a healthy
lifestyle can contribute to this.
To be able to fully participate in social and interpersonal environments it is essential to acquire the knowledge that allows them to
understand and critically analyse the codes of conduct and uses that are generally accepted in different societies and
environments, as well as tensions and processes of change. It is equally important to learn the basic concepts relating to the
individual, group, organisation or work, equality and non-discrimination between men and women and between different ethnic or
cultural groups, society and culture. It is similarly essential to understand the inter-cultural and socio-economic dimensions of
European societies and perceive cultural and national identities as a dynamic and changing socio-cultural process interacting with
the European identity, within a context of growing globalisation.
Fundamental elements of this competence include the development of certain skills such as the ability to communicate
constructively in different social and cultural environments, show tolerance, express and understand different points of view,
negotiate knowing how to instil confidence and feel empathy. Students should be able to constructively express respectful
behaviour to differences.
This competence also includes attitudes and values as a way of collaboration, self-assurance and integrity and honesty. Students
should be interested in socio-economic development and its contribution to greater social wellbeing for the entire population, as
well as inter-cultural communication, diversity of values and respect for differences, as well as being ready to overcome prejudices
and make commitments to this regard.
b) Civil competence is based on the critical knowledge of concepts of democracy, justice, equality, citizenship and human and
civil rights, as well as being included in the Spanish Constitution, the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union and in
international declarations, and its application by various institutions on a local, regional, national, European and international scale.
This includes knowledge of contemporary events, as well as the main events and trends in national, European and world history, and
understanding of social and cultural migratory processes which create the existence of multi-cultural societies in a globalised world.
This competence's skills are related to the ability to interact effectively in the public sphere and show solidarity and interest in
resolving problems that affect the school and community environment, either on a local or larger scale. It involves critical and
creative reflection and constructive participation in all community activities or in the close and immediate environment, as well as
decision-making in local, national and European contexts and, in particular, through voting and social and civic activity.
Attitudes and values that are inherent in this competence are those which fully address and respect human rights and the will to
participate in democratic decision-making at all levels, regardless of the system of values adopted. It also includes demonstrating
the meaning of responsibility and showing understanding and respect of shared values which are necessary for ensuring community

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cohesion, based on respecting democratic principles. Constructive participation likewise includes civic activities and the support of
social cohesion and diversity and sustainable development, as well as the willingness to respect the values and intimacy of others
and the reflective and critical reception of information from media.
Therefore, for the appropriate development of these competences, it is necessary to appreciate and understand: collective
experiences and the organisation and functioning of the past and present of societies; the social reality of the world in which one lives;
its conflicts and motivations and common and different elements; as well as spaces and territories in which human groups live and their
achievements and challenges. This is to commit individually and collectively to their improvement, thus participating actively, efficiently
and constructively in social and professional life.
Similarly, these competences include forms of individual behaviour which enable people to live together in a society that is increasingly
plural, dynamic, changing and complex to relate to other people in. They also allow them to cooperate, apply themselves and tackle
conflicts and actively propose perspectives for coping, as well as gain perspective, develop the perception of the individual with
regard to their ability to influence socially and create arguments based on evidence.
Acquiring these competences involves being able to put oneself in another's position, accept differences, be tolerant and respect
values, beliefs, cultures and the personal and collective history of others.

6. Sense of initiative and entrepreneurial spirit


The competence of sense of initiative and entrepreneurial spirit involves the ability to transform ideas into actions. This means gaining
awareness of the situation to intervene in or resolve, and know how to choose, plan and manage the necessary knowledge, skills or
abilities and attitudes with personal criteria, in order to reach the proposed objective.
This competence is present in the personal, social, educational and occupational areas in which people operate, allowing them to
develop their activities and make the most of new opportunities. It also acts as the building blocks for other more specific skills and
knowledge, and includes the awareness of related ethical values.
The acquisition of this competence is crucial in the formation of future entrepreneurial citizens, thus contributing to an entrepreneurial
culture. In this sense, education in this competence must include knowledge and skills related to career opportunities and the world of
work, economic and financial education and the knowledge of the organisation and entrepreneurial processes, as well as the
development of attitudes that involve a shift in mentality encouraging entrepreneurial initiative, the ability to think creatively, manage
risk and handle uncertainty. These skills are extremely important in encouraging the birth of social entrepreneurs, known as intrapreneurs
(entrepreneurs who work within other companies or organisations), as well as future entrepreneurs.

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Among the knowledge that the competence of sense of initiative and entrepreneurial spirit requires is the ability to recognise existing
opportunities for personal, professional and commercial activities. It also includes broader aspects which provide the context in which
people live and work: such as the comprehension of the general lines that govern the functioning of societies and trade union and
business organisations, as well as economic and financial organisations; business organisation and processes; the design and
implementation of a plan (human and/or financial resource management); as well as the ethical position of organisations and the
knowledge about how these can provide a positive boost, for example through fair trade and social companies.
Similarly, this competence requires the following essential skills or abilities: ability to analyse, plan, organise, manage and take decisions;
the ability to adapt to change and resolve problems; effective communication, presentation, representation and negotiation; skills for
work, both individually and as part of a team; participation, leadership ability and delegation; critical thinking and sense of
responsibility; self-confidence, evaluation and self-evaluation, given that it is essential to determine personal strong and weak points
and those of a project, as well as evaluate and assume risks when justified (handling uncertainty and assuming and managing risk).
Finally, it requires the development of attitudes and values such as: the predisposition to act in a creative or imaginative way, self-
knowledge and self-esteem; autonomy or independence, interest and effort and an entrepreneurial spirit. It is characterised by
initiative, pro-activity and innovation, in the private, social and professional spheres. It is also related to motivation and determination
when it comes down to fulfilling objectives, either personal objectives or those established in conjunction with others, including in the
workplace.
Therefore, the appropriate development of this competence of the sense of initiative and entrepreneurial spirit involves the following:
 Creative ability and innovation: creativity and imagination; self-knowledge and self-esteem; autonomy and independence;
interest and effort; entrepreneurial spirit; initiative and innovation.
 The proactive ability to manage projects: ability to analyse, plan, organise, manage and take decisions; resolve problems; the
ability to work both individually and collaboratively within a team; sense of responsibility; evaluation and self-evaluation.
 The ability to assume and manage risks and handle uncertainty: understand and assume risks; the ability to manage risk and
handle uncertainty.
 The qualities of leadership and individual and teamwork: leadership ability and delegation; ability to work individually and in a
team; representation and negotiation abilities.
 Critical and responsible: critical thinking and inclination; sense of responsibility.

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7. Cultural expressions and awareness


The competence of cultural expression and awareness involves knowing, understanding, appreciating and evaluating, with a critical
mindset and an open and respectful attitude, different cultural and artistic manifestations, use them as a source of personal enjoyment
and enrichment and consider them as part of the people's wealth and heritage.
This competence also includes an expressive component regarding personal aesthetic and creative ability and proficiency in those
abilities relating to different artistic and cultural codes, in order to be able to use them as a means of personal expression and
communication. It similarly involves demonstrating interest in participating in cultural life and contributing to the conservation of cultural
and artistic heritage, both of one's own community and of others.
Therefore, the competence for cultural expression and awareness requires knowledge that allows different manifestations of cultural
heritage to be accessed (cultural, historic-artistic, literary, philosophical, technological, environmental heritage etc.) on a local,
national and European scale or indeed wherever one is in the world. It comprises the realisation of culture by different authors and in
different works, as well as genres and styles, both fine arts (music, painting, sculpture, architecture, cinema, literature, photography,
theatre and dance) as other artistic-cultural manifestations of daily life (housing, dress, food, applied arts, folklore, festivals). It also
includes basic knowledge of the main techniques, resources and conventions of different artistic languages and the identification of
relations existing between different manifestations and society, which also means being aware of the evolution of thought, aesthetic
trends, fashion and taste, as well the representational, expressive and communicative importance of aesthetic factors in daily life.
This knowledge is necessary for gaining skills such as the application of different abilities relating to thought, perception,
communication, sensitivity and aesthetics to be able to understand, evaluate, anticipate and enjoy them. Cultural and artistic
expression also requires developing initiative, imagination and creativity expressed through artistic codes, as well as the ability to
employ different materials and techniques in project design.
Also, as far as cultural and artistic activities often involve collective work, it is necessary to have cooperative skills and awareness of the
importance of supporting and appreciating outside contributions.
The development of this competence entails personal interest values and attitudes, recognition and respect for different artistic and
cultural manifestations and for the conservation of heritage.
It also requires that freedom of expression be valued, as well as the right to cultural diversity, dialogue between cultures and societies
and the realisation of shared artistic experiences. In turn, it involves an interest in participating in cultural life, and therefore, in
communicating and sharing knowledge, emotions and feelings from artistic expressions.
Therefore, the appropriate development of this competence of cultural expression and awareness involves the following:

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 The knowledge, study and understanding of the different artistic styles and genres as well as the main cultural and artistic
heritage items and productions from different historical periods, their characteristics and relations with the society in which they
are created, as well as the characteristics of works of art produced, all the while in contact with works of art. This is all linked to
the creation of cultural identity as a citizen of a country or member of a group.
 Learning of the techniques and resources of different artistic languages and forms of cultural expression, as well as integration of
different languages.
 Development of the ability and intention of expressing oneself and communicating ideas, experiences and own emotions,
sharing the identification of personal artistic potential (aptitude/talent). It also refers to the ability to perceive, understand and
enrich oneself with productions from the world of art and culture.
 Enhancement of personal initiative, creativity and imagination of each individual in terms of the expression of own ideas and
feelings, in other words, the ability to imagine and carry out productions that require recreation, innovation and transformation. It
involves the promotion of skills that allow personal ideas and feelings and those of others to be reformed and demands the
development of self-knowledge and self-esteem, as well as the ability to resolve problems and assume risks.
 Interest, appreciation, respect, enjoyment and critical evaluation of artistic and cultural works that are created in society, with
an open, positive and caring spirit.
 The promotion of lifelong participation in the life and cultural activity of the society in which they live. This implicitly entails
behaviour that encourages social harmony.
 The development of skills involving effort, constancy and discipline as necessary requirements to create any quality artistic
production, as well as cooperative skills that allow collective work to be carried out.

Guidelines to facilitate the development of methodological strategies for competences to be worked on in the classroom
Any teaching-learning process must stem from rigorous planning of what is set out to be achieved, with clear objectives and goals,
necessary resources, appropriate teaching methods and how learning is evaluated and feeds back into the process.
Teaching methods must be chosen depending on the best option for reaching proposed goals and depending on teaching
constraints.
The nature of the material, socio-cultural situation, resources available and the characteristics of students condition the teaching-
learning process, and therefore, the method followed by the teacher will need to adapt to these circumstances in order to facilitate
the student's competence learning.
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ByME Secondary Project: Geography and History 3

Methods must be built on the perspective of the teacher as a guide, promoter and facilitator of competence development in students.
They must also focus on the performance of tasks or problem situations, proposed with a specific objective, which the students must
resolve using the different types of knowledge, skills, attitudes and values; similarly they must heed diversity and respect for the different
learning paces and styles through individual and cooperative practical work.
In the current process of inclusion of competences as an essential element of the curriculum, it is vital to indicate that any of the
methodologies selected by the teachers to encourage the development of competences in students must be adapted to their initial
level of competence. It is also necessary to stage teaching so that learning is initially focused on simple skills and builds up gradually to
more complex learning.
One of the key elements of teaching by competences is to awaken and maintain students' motivation for learning, which involves a
new active and autonomous approach to the role of students and the awareness of being responsible for their learning.
Active methodologies must be supported by cooperative learning structures, such that, through joint task-solving, group members learn
the strategies used by their classmates and are able to apply them in similar situations.
For the process of teaching and learning competences, interactive strategies are the most appropriate, as they allow knowledge to be
shared and constructed and the class session invigorated through verbal exchanges and sharing of ideas. Methodologies that
contextualise learning, centres of interest, case studies and problem-based learning encourage active participation, experimentation
and functional learning that is going to facilitate the development of competences, as well as student motivation for decisively
contributing to the transfer of learning.
The use of a variety of materials and resources must be promoted, particularly considering the integration of information and
communication technologies in the teaching-learning process, allowing access to virtual resources.

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ByME Secondary Project: Geography and History 3

Overall stage objectives


According to article 11 of Royal Decree 1105/2014, of 26 December, which establishes the core curriculum for compulsory secondary
education and baccalaureate level, compulsory secondary education will help students to develop the abilities that allow them to:
a) Responsibly assume their duties, know and exercise their rights with regard to others, practice tolerance, cooperation and
solidarity with people and groups, engage in dialogue affirming their human rights and equal treatment and opportunities between
men and women, as common values of a plural society, and be prepared to exercise democratic citizenship.
b) Develop and consolidate habits of discipline, study and individual and team work as a necessary condition for efficiently carrying
out learning tasks and as a way of developing personally.
c) Value and respect the difference between sexes and equal rights and opportunities between them. Reject discrimination of
people on the grounds of their sex or any other condition or personal or social circumstance. Reject stereotypes that discriminate
between men and women, as well as any manifestation of gender violence.
d) Strengthen affective abilities in all areas of personality and in their relations with others, as well as reject violence, any type of
prejudice, sexist behaviour and peacefully resolve conflicts.
e) Develop basic skills in using sources of information, for critically acquiring new knowledge. Acquire basic training in the field of
technology, especially in information and communication.
f) Consider scientific knowledge as integrated knowledge structured into different disciplines, as well as learning and applying
methods to identify problems in different areas of knowledge and experience.
g) Develop an entrepreneurial spirit and self-confidence, participation, critical ability, personal initiative and the ability to learn,
plan, take decisions and assume responsibilities.
h) Understand and express with accuracy complex spoken and written messages and texts in Spanish and where appropriate, a co-
official language of the region, and begin to become familiar with, read and study literature.
i) Understand and appropriately express oneself in one or more foreign languages.
j) Know, value and respect the basic aspects of one's own culture and history and that of others, as well as artistic and cultural
heritage.
k) Know and accept the functioning of one's own body and that of others, respect differences, reinforce habits for looking after
them and for good health and include physical education and the practice of sports to develop personal and social development.

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ByME Secondary Project: Geography and History 3

Know and assess human sexuality in all its diversity. Critically evaluate social habits related to health, consumption, looking after humans
and the environment, aiding its conservation and improvement.
l) Appreciate artistic creation and understand the language of different artistic manifestations, using diverse means of expression and
representation.

Cross-curricular elements and values education


Spain's Quality Education Improvement Act (LOMCE) determines a series of aspects and elements that due to their importance in
student education are not specifically linked to any subject, but must be dealt with across the board provided that the educational
contexts and opportunities for classroom work in the classroom allow or require it. For this reason they are considered cross-curricular
and are directly related with the education of values aimed at training students to be world citizens. The most relevant include:
 Reading comprehension, spoken and written expression, audiovisual communication and the use of information and
communication technologies.

 Real equality between men and women, the prevention of gender violence or against people with disabilities and values
inherent to the principle of equal treatment and non-discrimination for any reason or personal or social circumstance.

 Learning about the prevention and peaceful resolution of conflicts in all areas of private, family and social life, as well as
values that underpin justice, equality, political pluralism, peace and democracy.
 With regard to human rights, respect for men and women equally, people with disabilities and the rule of law.
 Rejection of terrorist violence and respect and consideration for victims of terrorism, as well the prevention of terrorism and any
type of violence.
 Sustainable development and the environment.
 Risks of exploitation and sexual abuse.
 Situations of risk arising from the inappropriate use of information and communication technologies.
 Protection against emergencies and disasters.

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ByME Secondary Project: Geography and History 3

 Development and reinforcement of an entrepreneurial spirit, acquisition of competences for the creation and development
of various business models and promotion of equal opportunities. Respect for the entrepreneur and business people, as well as
entrepreneurial ethics, from aptitudes such as creativity, autonomy, initiative, team work, self-confidence and critical ability.
 Road safety and education; improved social harmony and prevention of traffic accidents, so that students know their rights
and duties as road users, pedestrians, passengers, cyclists and motorists, respect rules and signs, and promote social harmony,
tolerance, care, self-control, dialogue and empathy with appropriate actions for the avoidance of traffic accidents and their
consequences.

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ByME Secondary Project: Geography and History 3

Attention to diversity
The ByME project is aimed at students' overall development as individuals and as members of a group and community. To this end,
various materials and proposals are provided to tend to the diversity of cognitive and emotional circumstances presented by the
students.
Attention to individuality is translated into responding to specific requirements arising from personal development, learning style,
weaknesses and strengths and any other particular circumstances of students.
To facilitate the adaptation of teaching to individual student progress, this project considers the previous knowledge of students and
their attitude to the different content proposed. Provided that it is possible, an attempt is made to link the different concepts students
have studied to their experience and environment.
The materials provided pay attention to diversity in the different proposals for educational innovation, as well as through a range of
complementary resources that reinforce or extend content through various activities. Equally, contents can be used in a printable or
digital version, which allows students to be motivated from the functionality of the different media.

Encouraging reading
The ByME project proposes various ways to encourage reading habits and building on reading comprehension in English in each of the
subjects through texts that are used in the different sections of the students' books, such as Read and Think and Revision Activities.
Reading is a complex cognitive process that not only involves the skill of deciphering phonemes and spelling, but also the ability to
understand the text and interpret it as a reader. It also involves recognising a large number of communicative situations and contexts,
as well as intentions behind the text.
In the desire to bring the project to life from beyond the pages of the textbook, students must be encouraged to search for personal
growth and enrichment through new readings from various sources: literature, journalism, the internet, etc.
A need and essential link must be created between the experience of the student as a learner and as a reader, such that each
subject proposes options and ways of personal growth through reading.

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ByME Secondary Project: Geography and History 3

Cooperative learning

1. What is cooperative learning?


In a classroom transformed into a small "learning community", cooperative learning is the educational use of small groups of students
(between three and five) to make the most of the simultaneous interaction between them and equal participation of all, in order for
them to learn to their fullest potential.
The emphasis on the students and their active participation, on the one hand, and the shared responsibility in teaching, together with
cooperation and mutual help, on the other, are the two basic presumptions of cooperative learning. Effectively, the learning requires
students' active and direct participation.

2. Advantages of cooperative learning


 The experiences of cooperative learning, compared to those of competitive or individual learning, encourage the establishment of
much more positive relationships, characterised by friendliness, attention, politeness and mutual respect.
 Cooperative organisation of learning activities, compared with competitive and individual organisation, is superior overall in terms of
performance levels and productivity of participants.
 Cooperative strategies encourage learning for all students: not only those who have problems with learning, but also those who are
more able to learn.
 Cooperative teaching methods encourage the acceptance of differences.
 Cooperative methods offer new teaching possibilities. As such, they allow students to be attended to personally, and for new
professionals to enter the classroom (special needs or support staff, educational psychologists) who work together with the form or
subject teacher.
In order to encourage the development and application of cooperative learning, an educational section can be found in the
Teacher’s Reference volume. This section has been written by our cooperative learning consultant, José Manuel Palomino Fernández.

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ByME Secondary Project: Geography and History 3

Evaluation of teaching practice


In order for the teaching staff to evaluate their own work to detect areas for improvement and new work possibilities, a basic form is
provided to gather this information.

Evaluation of teaching practice

YEAR: ______ GROUP: ______ EVALUATION 1. 2. 3.

1. DEPARTMENT COORDINATION DURING THE EVALUATION


1.1 Number of coordination meetings held:
1.2 Meeting attendance figure:
1.3 Number of evaluation sessions held:
1.4 Meeting attendance figure:
1.5 Observations:

2. ALTERATIONS TO TEACHING PROGRAMME


2.1 Number of classes during term

No. of classes planned

No. of classes given

Percentage

2.2 Assessable learning standards proposed in the evaluation:

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ByME Secondary Project: Geography and History 3

No. of planned learning standards covered

No. of planned learning standards not covered.

2.3 Planned standards or criteria not covered:


REASON YES

a) Planning unrealistic in terms of time available.

b) Missed classes.

c) Other (specify).

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ByME Secondary Project: Geography and History 3

2.4 Teaching proposal with regard to the learning standards not covered:
PROPOSAL STANDARDS

a) Will be covered in following evaluation.

b) Will be covered in homework.

c) Will be covered next year.

d) Will not be covered.

e) Other (specify).
2.5 Teaching organisation and methodology:

ASSESSMENT
INDICATORS
4 3 2 1

a) Spaces

b) Times

c) Teaching resources and materials

d) Groupings

e) Other (specify).

Observations:
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ByME Secondary Project: Geography and History 3

2.5.1 Appropriateness of evaluation instruments used:

2.5.2 Other notes:

3. ACHIEVEMENT OF LEARNING STANDARDS DURING EVALUATION


3. 1 Percentage of students who obtain a certain qualification, compared to the rest of the student group total

Excellent Very Good Pass Fail


good

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Percentage

4. DEGREE OF SATISFACTION OF FAMILIES AND STUDENTS IN GROUP


4.1 Degree of satisfaction of students with the teaching process:
DEGREE OF SATISFACTION
INDICATORS
4 3 2 1

a) Cooperative work

b) Use of ICT

c) Materials and teaching resources

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ByME Secondary Project: Geography and History 3

d) Evaluation instruments

e) Other (specify)
4.2 Proposals for improvement formulated by students:

4.3 Degree of satisfaction of families with the teaching process:


DEGREE OF SATISFACTION
INDICATORS
4 3 2 1

a) Homework

b) Complementary or extra-curricular
activities

c) Centre communication with families

d) Other (specify)
4.4 Proposals for improvement formulated by families:

In ________________, on ______ ____________ _______


TEACHER

Signed: __________________________

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ByME Secondary Project: Geography and History 3

THE ECONOMY AND SUSTAINABILITY


UNIT 00. GETTING STARTED

KEY COMPETENCES
CONTENTS EVALUATION CRITERIA LEARNING STANDARDS 1
PAGES
 Spain, Europe and the world: 4-5
population; migration; cities
and urbanisation.

1
Key competences: competence in linguistic communication (LIN); competence in mathematics, science and technology (MST); digital competence (DIG); competence in learning to
learn (LTL); competence in social awareness and citizenship (SOC); competence in autonomous learning and personal initiative (AUT); competence in artistic and cultural awareness
(CUL).

Curriculum blocks:
Block 2. Human geography (B2)
Block 3. History (B3)

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ByME Secondary Project: Geography and History 3

THE ECONOMY AND SUSTAINABILITY


UNIT 01. ECONOMIC ACTIVITY

KEY
CONTENTS EVALUATION CRITERIA LEARNING STANDARDS PAGES
COMPETENCES 2
B2 11. Know the characteristics of 11.1. Recognises specific aspects of an SOC 10-20
various types of economic system. economic system and how they are inter- LTL
 Economic sectors and related. AUT
systems.

2
Key competences: competence in linguistic communication (LIN); competence in mathematics, science and technology (MST); digital competence (DIG); competence in learning to
learn (LTL); competence in social awareness and citizenship (SOC); competence in autonomous learning and personal initiative (AUT); competence in artistic and cultural awareness
(CUL).

Curriculum blocks:
Block 2. Human geography (B2)
Block 3. History (B3)

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ByME Secondary Project: Geography and History 3

THE ECONOMY AND SUSTAINABILITY


UNIT 02. THE PRIMARY SECTOR

KEY
CONTENTS EVALUATION CRITERIA LEARNING STANDARDS PAGES
COMPETENCES 3
B2 13. Locate agricultural and 13.1. Finds the main cereal-growing areas and the MST 24-40
natural resources on a map of most important areas of forest cover on a map of SOC
• Human activities: production the world. the world. LTL
around the world. DIG

• Geographical areas by
economic activity. The primary
sector

3
Key competences: competence in linguistic communication (LIN); competence in mathematics, science and technology (MST); digital competence (DIG); competence in learning to
learn (LTL); competence in social awareness and citizenship (SOC); competence in autonomous learning and personal initiative (AUT); competence in artistic and cultural awareness
(CUL).

Curriculum blocks:
Block 2. Human geography (B2)
Block 3. History (B3)

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ByME Secondary Project: Geography and History 3

THE ECONOMY AND SUSTAINABILITY


UNIT 03. THE SECONDARY SECTOR

KEY
CONTENTS EVALUATION CRITERIA LEARNING STANDARDS PAGES
COMPETENCES 4
B2 13. Locate natural resources on 13. 2. Locates and identifies the main mineral- MST 45
a map of the world. producing areas on a map of the world. SOC
• Human activities: production LTL
around the world. 13.3. Locates and identifies the main energy- MST 46-49
producing and consuming areas on a map of SOC
• Geographical areas by the world. LTL
economic activity. The 13.4. Identifies and names some alternative LIN 48-49
secondary sector. energies. SOC
MST
AUT
14. Explain the unequal global 14.1. Locates the most industrialised countries on MST 56-57
distribution of industrialised a map of the world, interpreting the relevant SOC
regions. symbols and key. LTL
14.2. Locates and identifies the main energy- MST 46-49
producing and consuming areas on a map of SOC
the world. LTL

4
Key competences: competence in linguistic communication (LIN); competence in mathematics, science and technology (MST); digital competence (DIG); competence in learning to
learn (LTL); competence in social awareness and citizenship (SOC); competence in autonomous learning and personal initiative (AUT); competence in artistic and cultural awareness
(CUL).

Curriculum blocks:
Block 2. Human geography (B2)
Block 3. History (B3)

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ByME Secondary Project: Geography and History 3

THE ECONOMY AND SUSTAINABILITY


UNIT 04. THE TERTIARY SECTOR

KEY
CONTENTS EVALUATION CRITERIA LEARNING STANDARDS COMPETENCES PAGES
5

B2 15. Analyse the impact of 15.1. On a map of the world, marks the route SOC 70-75
means of transport on the followed by a crop product and that followed by a LIN
• Human activities: production environment. livestock product, from their place of production to AUT
around the world. their place of consumption in a distant region, and
draws conclusions.
• Geographical areas by 16. Analyse data regarding 16.1. Compares the working population in each SOC 66-68
economic activity. The tertiary the importance of a country's sector in various countries and analyses the level of MST
sector. tertiary sector in comparison development these data indicate. LTL
with its primary and
secondary sectors. Draw
conclusions.
18. Identify the role that large 18.1. Describes the function of international trade MST 70-75
cities play in driving forward using maps and charts showing trade routes. MST, LTL
their regional economies.

5
Key competences: competence in linguistic communication (LIN); competence in mathematics, science and technology (MST); digital competence (DIG); competence in learning to
learn (LTL); competence in social awareness and citizenship (SOC); competence in autonomous learning and personal initiative (AUT); competence in artistic and cultural awareness
(CUL).

Curriculum blocks:
Block 2. Human geography (B2)
Block 3. History (B3)

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ByME Secondary Project: Geography and History 3

KEY
CONTENTS EVALUATION CRITERIA LEARNING STANDARDS COMPETENCES PAGES
5

20. Analyse bar charts for 20.1. Creates concept maps (using printed and LTL 70-75
different countries showing digital media) to explain the function of trade, and MST
unequal trade. names the organisations and trade blocs formed to DIG
promote trade between their members. SCC
AUT

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ByME Secondary Project: Geography and History 3

THE ECONOMY AND SUSTAINABILITY


UNIT 05. ENVIRONMENT AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

KEY
CONTENTS EVALUATION CRITERIA LEARNING STANDARDS PAGES
COMPETENCES 6
B2 3. Know and analyse the environmental 3.1. Compares human-made LIN 90-91
problems and challenges faced by Spain, landscapes in Spain according to their SOC
• Exploitation and future of their causes and possible solutions. economic activity.
natural resources. Sustainable 4. Know the main protected natural spaces 4.1. Locates Spain's natural parks on a SOC 92-93
development. on the peninsula and islands. map and explains the current situation LIN
of some of them. MST
• The three sectors. DIG
Environmental impact and LTL
exploitation of resources. 12. Understand the idea of "sustainable 12.1. Defines "sustainable LIN 86
development" and its implications. development" and describes key SOC
related concepts. AUT

6
Key competences: competence in linguistic communication (LIN); competence in mathematics, science and technology (MST); digital competence (DIG); competence in learning to
learn (LTL); competence in social awareness and citizenship (SOC); competence in autonomous learning and personal initiative (AUT); competence in artistic and cultural awareness
(CUL).

Curriculum blocks:
Block 2. Human geography (B2)
Block 3. History (B3)

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ByME Secondary Project: Geography and History 3

THE ECONOMY AND SUSTAINABILITY


UNIT 06. THE WORLD OF GLOBALISATION

KEY
CONTENTS EVALUATION CRITERIA LEARNING STANDARDS COMPETENCES PAGES
7

B2 19. Analyse texts on the different 19.1. Compares the characteristics of domestic LIN 102-
levels of consumption in different consumption of countries such as Brazil and SOC 103
• The world: territorial countries and draw conclusions. France.
organisation. 20. Analyse bar charts for 20.1. Creates concept maps (using printed and LTL 102-19
different countries showing digital media) to explain the function of trade, DIG
• Economic sectors and systems. unequal trade and the foreign and names the organisations and trade blocs SOC
debt of developing and formed to promote trade between their
developed countries. members.
21. Relate areas of conflict 21.1. Writes a report on measures to try to LIN 108-
around the world to economic overcome poverty. SOC 111
and political factors. AUT
21.2. Locates areas of conflict on a map of the LIN 110-
world and relates them to economic and political DIG 111
factors. SOC

7
Key competences: competence in linguistic communication (LIN); competence in mathematics, science and technology (MST); digital competence (DIG); competence in learning to
learn (LTL); competence in social awareness and citizenship (SOC); competence in autonomous learning and personal initiative (AUT); competence in artistic and cultural awareness
(CUL).

Curriculum blocks:
Block 2. Human geography (B2)
Block 3. History (B3)

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ByME Secondary Project: Geography and History 3

SPAIN AND THE EU


UNIT 01. ORGANISATION OF THE SPANISH STATE

KEY
CONTENTS EVALUATION CRITERIA LEARNING STANDARDS COMPETENCES PAGES
8

B2 1. Know the territorial organisation of Spain, 1.1. Distinguishes the territorial SCS 10-11
and its administrative competences and divisions of Spain on a political map:
• Spain. The population: attributions. autonomous communities, capitals,
- Territorial divisions. provinces, islands.

1.2. Produces an organigram on the LL 6-11


territorial and political organisation of
Spain, including the most important
institutions and their functions.

8
Key competences: linguistic communication (LC); mathematical competence and key competences in science and technology (MCST); digital competence (DC); learning to learn
(LL); social and civic competences (SCS); sense of initiative and entrepreneurship (SIE); cultural awareness and expression (CAE).

Blocks according to the curriculum are:


Block 2. The human space (B2)
Block 3. History (B3)

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ByME Secondary Project: Geography and History 3

SPAIN AND THE EU


UNIDAD 02.THE EU AND SPANISH ECONOMIES

KEY
CONTENTS EVALUATION CRITERIA LEARNING STANDARDS PAGES
COMPETENCES 9
B2 3. Know and analyse the environmental 3.1. Compares human-made LIN 33-42
problems and challenges faced by Spain landscapes in Spain according to SOC
• Geographical areas by and their causes. their economic activity.
economic activity. The three 5. Identify the main human-made 5.1. Classifies the main human-made LTL 33-42
sectors. landscapes in Spain and the Autonomous landscapes using pictures. SOC
Communities in which they are located LIN

8. Recognise the economic activities in 8.1. Distinguishes between Europe's SOC 30-31
Europe's three sectors, identifying different various economic sectors. LTL
economic policies.

9
Key competences: competence in linguistic communication (LIN); competence in mathematics, science and technology (MST); digital competence (DIG); competence in learning to
learn (LTL); competence in social awareness and citizenship (SOC); competence in autonomous learning and personal initiative (AUT); competence in artistic and cultural awareness
(CUL).

Curriculum blocks:
Block 2. Human geography (B2)
Block 3. History (B3)

37