10 views

Uploaded by Muhammad Mehadi

assignments for high speed fluid

- Control Valves Sizing
- Flow Separation Modes and Side Phenomena in an Overexpanded Nozzle
- Numerical Method in Gas Dynamics
- Gas Dynamics and Jet Propulsion - 2 Marks - All 5 Units
- Shock Wave and Detonation
- AirBlast Analysis With LS-DYNA
- IJR-Zhang
- v091n04p137
- 46151047-Compressible-Flow.pdf
- Valve Sizing Calculations
- UOT Fanno Flow
- Lecture 3
- Zhang 2014
- Masoneilan Control Valve Sizing Handbook
- f20
- r05322104 Computational Aerodynamics
- A.N. Dremin- Towards Detonation Theory
- presentasi kelompok 3.pptx
- CFD syllabus
- Modelling of Mitigation of Vapour Cloud Explosion Using Flame Inhibitors

You are on page 1of 138

1. (8 points). Consider the reentry of a Space Shuttle orbiter into the atmosphere.

a. (4 points). Plot the corresponding Knudsen number as a function of altitude from 0 km to 300

km. Indicate the regions, in which the continuum flow and the free-molecular flows are

present.

b. (4 points). The graph below shows the reentry trajectory for STS-5 mission (NASA Technical

Paper 2657, 1986). Using the nominal profiles (solid lines) of the orbiter altitude and velocity,

calculate (approximately):

• Mach number at the start of the reentry, i.e., at the altitude of 100 km.

• Altitude, at which the orbiter transitioned from hypersonic to supersonic regime.

Select “Total Mass Density, g/cm-3” under “Calculated MSIS Model Parameters”. Assume the

reference length of the Space Shuttle to be 35 m and the atmosphere to be comprised only of

molecular nitrogen N2 with 𝜎 = 10%&' m2.

AERO 303 Homework #1

Due Wednesday, September 13, 2017 by 12:00pm

2. (4 points). Consider a high-speed projectile moving through air. The temperature and pressure at

the stagnation point are 500 K and 6.0 atm. Calculate the following quantities at the stagnation

point:

a. 𝑐)

b. 𝑐*

c. 𝑒

d. ℎ

3. (8 points). An airfoil is in a freestream, where 𝑃. = 0.61 atm, 𝜌. = 0.819 kg/m3, 𝑉. = 300 m/s.

Consider two points on the airfoil surface, in which the pressure is 0.5 atm (point A) and 0.3 atm

(point B).

a. (4 points). Assuming isentropic compressible flow, calculate density, temperature, and velocity

at points A and B.

b. (4 points). Using the incompressible Bernoulli equation (incorrectly), find the velocity at points

A & B. What is the percent error in velocity? What does this say about the flow regimes in

points A & B?

4. (12 points). Consider an incompressible flow of water with a constant density of 1000 kg/m3

through the diverging nozzle shown below. The nozzle inlet is 1 cm in diameter. Water discharges

with velocity of 1 m/s through the nozzle exit with diameter of 10 cm. The outlet static pressure is

100 kPa (absolute).

a. (4 points). What is the static pressure in the nozzle inlet plane?

b. (4 points). What force does the water exert on the nozzle?

c. (4 points). Assume that the flow is adiabatic and reversible, and no body forces are applied to

the flow. By how much does the internal energy of water increase across the control volume?

AERO 303 Homework #1

Due Wednesday, September 13, 2017 by 12:00pm

Honors

(4 points). Real air is a thermally, rather than calorically, perfect gas. Graph below shows the actual

temperature dependence of cp and cv for real air. Horizontal solid lines are the values for the calorically

perfect gas

1.3 Cv

Cp

1.2

Cp , Cv , kJ/(kg K)

1.1

1.0

0.9

0.8

0.7

500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000

T, K

As you can see, the deviation of the actual values of cp and cv from the calorically perfect ones grows

with temperature, which thus becomes an important consideration in hypersonic flows.

While the actual form of heat capacities is quite complex, assume for simplicity that both can be fitted

with a straight line (shown as dashed lines). In particular, for cp

𝑐) = 𝑐),8 + 𝐴 ∗ 𝑇 − 𝑇8 = 𝐴 ∗ 𝑇 + 𝑐),8 − 𝐴 ∗ 𝑇8 = 𝐴 ∗ 𝑇 + 𝐵

Here, cp,0 is the value for a calorically perfect gas, A and B are constants, and A = 0.11 J/(kg K2).

Derive an equation relating P and T for an isentropic process analogous to the calorically perfect gas

relation.

AERO 303 Homework #2

Due Wednesday, September 20, 2017 by 12:00pm via eCampus upload

1. (4 points). The atmosphere of Mars predominantly consists of CO2 with a mean temperature and

pressure of 200 K and 600 Pa, respectively. Calculate the corresponding speed of sound.

2. (4 points). Consider the flow of air (R = 287 J/kg∙K, 𝛾 = 1.4) from location 1 to location 2. For

each of the sets of conditions listed, state whether the flow is or isn’t isentropic and give details

about how you arrived at your conclusion:

3. (4 points). Consider a subsonic aircraft flying in Earth’s atmosphere. A Pitot tube on the aircraft

measures P = 630 psf (absolute), 𝑃2 = 960 psf. Neglecting the aerodynamic interference from the

aircraft, find

• 𝑀6

• Aircraft altitude (find using 𝑃6 and a standard atmosphere table)

• 𝑉6 (for the conditions at that altitude)

4. (4 points). Consider the isentropic flow of air through a blow-down wind tunnel, which is fed from

a reservoir. Assume that the flow in the wind tunnel is isentropic and air is calorically perfect.

Flow conditions in the test section are 𝑃 = 1.2 atm, 𝑇 = 300 K, 𝑉 = 250 m/s.

• Find 𝑃2 , 𝑇2 , 𝑃 ∗ , 𝑇 ∗ , and 𝑀 ∗ in the test section.

1

Aero 303, Fall 2017. Homework 2 © Alexei Poludnenko, 2017

Honors

(4 points). On its return to Earth, the Apollo command module entered Earth atmosphere at Mach 36.

Assume that reentry occurred at an altitude of 50 km.

1. Assume that air is a calorically perfect gas with 𝛾 = 1.4, and calculate the gas temperature at the

stagnation point of the Apollo at the moment of reentry.

2. The actual stagnation temperature on the Apollo vehicle was 11,000 K – much different from the

value predicted above. The difference is due to chemical reactions that occur in air at such high

temperatures as well as the radiative transport of heat in hot gases. Assumption of a calorically

perfect gas is not valid for such chemically reactive and radiative flows. At the same time, the effect

of such additional physics can often be approximated by considering a different value of the ratio of

specific heats, a so-called “effective gamma”.

For the same conditions as in part 1, find the effective 𝛾 necessary to yield a temperature of 11,000

K at the stagnation point.

3. Consider an isentropic compression of a gas with an “effective gamma” → 1. How would the

temperature change in this case? What does this mean from a physical point of view, and in

particular what additional physical processes may be present in the flow, which such low effective

gamma is intended to represent?

2

Aero 303, Spring 2017. Homework 1 © Edward White and Alexei Poludnenko, 2017

AERO 303 Homework #3

Due Wednesday, September 27, 2017 by 6:00pm via eCampus upload

1. (12 points). Consider a blow-down supersonic wind tunnel (illustrated below) with reservoir

conditions of P0 = 150 atm and T0 = 1000 K. Find P0, T0, P, T, P*, and T*:

a. (4 points) in the throat (station 1), where M = 1.0 (assume the flow is isentropic);

b. (4 points) in the test section (station 2), where M = 4.0 (again, assume the flow to be

isentropic from the reservoir to station 2);

c. (4 points) in the tail pipe of the wind tunnel (station 3) downstream of a stationary normal

shock at the aft end of the test section (assume that the flow does not change after the

shock).

2. (4 points). Consider a skydiver (in a pressure suit) diving headfirst at a high altitude. At the

altitude of 60,000 ft, the skydiver reaches a terminal M = 3.0. Assuming that the skydiver creates

a 1.5 ft2 equivalent drag area (D/q), calculate the person’s weight (including equipment).

Hint: Find the properties downstream of a M = 3.0 normal shock at 60,000 ft and perform a force

balance between weight and drag.

3. (4 points). Consider a cylinder containing air at 100 kPa, 300 K air. A piston is impulsively

accelerated inside the cylinder to the speed of 500 m/s. Calculate:

1

Aero 303, Fall 2017. Homework 3 © Alexei Poludnenko, 2017

Honors

2

Aero 303, Fall 2017. Homework 3 © Alexei Poludnenko, 2017

AERO 303 Homework #4

Due Monday, October 9, 2017 by 6:00pm via eCampus upload

1. (4 points). Consider conditions in problem #3 in HW 3, i.e., a cylinder containing air at 100 kPa,

300 K. What type of a wave will be produced if a piston is impulsively accelerated inside the

cylinder to the speed of 250 m/s, rather than 500 m/s as was the case in problem 3? Explain your

reasoning.

2. (4 points). Consider a typical experimental shock tube, which represents a cylinder with one

capped end and the other end containing a diaphragm, which initially separates high-pressure air

in the reservoir and low-pressure air inside the shock tube. After the diaphragm is ruptured, high-

speed flow is initiated from a reservoir producing a shock wave, which propagates toward the

capped end of the shock tube.

Imagine that we are unable to measure the velocity of the resulting flow (which is often the case).

However, we have instrumented the shock tube with pressure probes and temperature sensors,

which show that upstream of the shock, pressure and temperature are 1 atm and 300 K, while

downstream they are 12.5 atm and 915 K.

Assume that the flow in the shock tube is one-dimensional and uniform behind the shock.

b. What is the shock velocity?

c. What is the velocity of the post-shock gas?

3. (4 points). In shock tube experiments, measurements are carried out in the test section near the

capped end after the shock reaches a capped end and reflects from it. We need to determine

those test conditions produced by the reflection of the shock considered in Problem 2. In

particular:

b. What is the velocity of the reflected shock in the laboratory reference frame, i.e., relative to

the shock tube?

c. What are the static pressure and temperature of the air downstream of the reflected shock?

4. (4 points). Consider choked isentropic flow through a quasi-1D nozzle. The nozzle diameter is

𝑑(𝑥) = 3 – 2𝑐𝑜𝑠(𝜋𝑥). The throat (A*) is at x = 0 and the exit is at x = 1. Assume that the reservoir

pressure is P0.

a. What are the subsonic isentropic exit conditions, Pexit / P0 and Mexit?

b. What are the supersonic isentropic exit conditions, Pexit / P0 and Mexit?

c. Plot P(x)/P0 and M(x) from x = 0 to 1 for both the isentropic supersonic and subsonic

solutions.

d. Imagine a normal shock exists at the nozzle exit. What are Mexit, as well as Pexit / P0 and

P0,exit / P0, i.e., just downstream of that shock?

1

Aero 303, Fall 2017. Homework 4 © Alexei Poludnenko, 2017

Honors

1. (4 points). Consider the mass flow in a compressible flow. Mass flow per unit area, i.e., mass

flux, is 𝜌𝑢 (mass passing through unit area per unit time). Intuitively, in order to increase the mass

flux, we need to increase the flow velocity. Consider how the mass flux varies with velocity, and

in particular:

• Find the corresponding M and M*, at which it reaches maximum and 0.

𝜌𝑢 𝜌2 𝑎2 𝜌 𝑎

= 𝑀

𝜌 ∗ 𝑢 ∗ 𝜌 ∗ 𝑎 ∗ 𝜌2 𝑎2

Subsequently, express this normalized mass flux in terms of just M (and g ) and then in terms of

M*. Finally, plot this normalized mass flux as a function of M*.

2. (4 points). Next, derive the following expression for the mass flow through a choked nozzle:

(=>?)/(=@?)

𝑃2 𝐴∗ 𝛾 2

𝑚=

𝑇2 𝑅 𝛾+1

Hint: similar to problem 1 above, express 𝑚 in terms of the ratios 𝜌 ∗ /𝜌2 and 𝑎 ∗ /𝑎2 .

2

Aero 303, Spring 2017. Homework 1 © Edward White and Alexei Poludnenko, 2017

AERO 303 Homework #5

Due Wednesday, October 18, 2017 by 6:00pm via eCampus upload

Consider a quasi-1D nozzle with a cross-section area 𝐴(𝑥)/𝐴&'()*& = 1 + 3.235|𝒙| (bars indicate

absolute value of x), where –0.25 ≤ x ≤ 1. The reservoir pressure is P0.

Do not use tables for this homework assignment. Program all relevant formulas into Matlab or

another similar tool of your choice.

a. Calculate Mexit and Pexit/P0 corresponding to the subsonic and supersonic solutions.

b. Calculate M and P/P0 at the location x = -0.25, i.e., at the nozzle inlet.

c. Plot P(x)/P0 for the two isentropic solutions on the domain –0.25 ≤ x ≤ 1.

2. (4 points). Next, assume that the nozzle exit pressure is Pexit/P0 = 0.993.

a. For this pressure ratio at the nozzle exit, use isentropic flow equations to compute the

corresponding Mexit and Aexit/A*.

b. Use your result from (a) to find Athroat/A* and write the equation for A(x)/A* corresponding to

the specified exit pressure.

c. Using the obtained equation for A(x)/A*, plot P(x)/P0 on the domain –0.25 ≤ x ≤ 1. Confirm

that you indeed arrive at Pexit/P0 = 0.993.

b. Calculate P2/P1 and P0,2/P0,1 for the shock.

c. Given M2 behind the shock, what is A(x=0.5)/A*2? This is the sonic area ratio downstream of

the shock and is an isentropic flow property based on M2.

d. Use your result from (c) to compute Athroat/A*2 and write the equation for A(x)/A*2 downstream

of the shock.

e. Compute Mexit and Pexit/P0 (be careful to give Pexit/P0 and not Pexit/P0,2 ! )

f. Using the equations for A(x)/A* as well as for A(x)/A*2 obtained in (d), plot P(x)/P0 on the

domain –0.25 ≤ x ≤ 1. Confirm that you indeed arrive at the Pexit/P0 that you found in (e). Also

confirm that your plot shows a sharp pressure jump at x = 0.5.

4. (4 points). Finally, assume that the nozzle exit pressure is Pexit/P0 = 0.6.

For this, you will need to repeat the procedure outlined in problem (3) several times for

different shock locations until you determine the desired shock location, which gives the

correct exit pressure.

b. Plot the corresponding P(x)/P0 on the domain –0.25 ≤ x ≤ 1.

1

Aero 303, Fall 2017. Homework 5 © Alexei Poludnenko, 2017

Honors

No honors problems.

2

Aero 303, Spring 2017. Homework 1 © Edward White and Alexei Poludnenko, 2017

AERO 303 Homework #5 Solutions

Quasi-1D nozzle with a cross-section area 𝐴(𝑥)/𝐴&'()*& = 1 + 3.235|𝒙| (bars indicate absolute value

of x), where –0.25 ≤ x ≤ 1. The reservoir pressure is P0.

1. (4 points). Assume that the flow through the nozzle is choked.

Subsonic solution: Mexit = 1.382202e-01, Pexit/P0 = 9.867408e-01

b. Inlet conditions: Minlet = 3.430780e-01, Pinlet/P0 = 9.217909e-01

c. See plots below (supersonic – left, subsonic – right)

2. (4 points). Next, assume that the nozzle exit pressure is Pexit/P0 = 0.993.

4 5 4 5 4789:;7

b. Athroat/A* = 1.371632. = ∗ = 1.371632 ∗ (1 + 3.235|𝒙|).

4∗ 4789:;7 4∗

1

Aero 303, Fall 2017. Homework 5 © Alexei Poludnenko, 2017

3. (4 points). Now imagine that a normal shock exists at x = 0.5.

b. Pressure ratios: P2/P1 = 7.079330e+00, P0,2/P0,1 = 5.021613e-01

c. A(x=0.5)/A*2 = 1.314407e+00

d. Athroat/A*2 = (A(x=0.5)/ A*2) / (A(x=0.5)/Athroat) = 5.021613e-01.

4 5 4 5 4789:;7

= ∗ = 0.5021613 ∗ (1 + 3.235|𝒙|). Valid only for x > 0.5 !!!

4∗ > 4789:;7 4∗ >

f. See plot below. Note that we indeed arrive at the Pexit/P0 = 4.744996e-01 and there is a sharp

pressure jump at x = 0.5.

4. (4 points). Finally, assume that the nozzle exit pressure is Pexit/P0 = 0.6.

b. See plot below.

2

Aero 303, Fall 2017. Homework 1 © Alexei Poludnenko, 2017

Mohammad M Reza HW 5

Question 1 part a)

location of interest to find the area is 1 where the area Ratio is 4.235

Pexit/P01 = 0.977

Pexit/P01Supersonic = 0.00217

Question 1-part b)

location of interest to find the area x= -.25

The area Ratio is 1.8087

PexitOverP01 = 0.8697

Question 1 part c)

initial value x_0 for subsonic solution is .1

plot:

Question 2 part a)

Given Pexit/P01 ratio is .993

MachExit =0.1002

AexitOverAstar = 5.808861249488184

Question 2 part b)

Athroat/A*=1.372

Question 2 part c)

Given initial value x_0 to compute the subsonic value is .1

Question 3 part a)

location of interest to find the area x= .5

The area Ratio is 2.6175

(estimation for supersonic x_0 at the x is 2)

Mach1 =2.4922

Mach2 =0.2639

Question 3 part b)

P2/P01 = 0.4194

P02/P01 =0.4402

Question 3 part c)

For Area(x=.5)/A*2

A5/As2 =2.2855

Question 3 part d)

A(x=5)/Athroat

As2/At =1.1452

Question 3 part e)

Area Ratio of last equation at the exit

Aexit/Astar2 =3.1587

Mach at exit in terms of the area Ratio from new AreaEquation = 3.1587

Mach2Exit =0.1871

Pexit2/P01 =0.4296

Question 3 part f)

Initial value x_0 for the subsonic solution from -.25 to 0 is .1

initial value x_0 to compute the supersonic solution from 0 to .5 is 2

For shockwave to the end of nozzle:

initial value x_0 to for the subsonic solution for last interval from .5 to 1 is .1

P/P01 at the end

P/P01exit =0.4296

Graph:

Question 4

a)location of interest for shockwave? .22

P/P01exit =0.59776

b) Plot:

AERO 303 Homework #6

Due Wednesday, 25 October 2017 by 6:00pm via eCampus upload

1. (4 points). A M = 4.0 flow passes through an oblique shock with the wave angle 𝛽 = 30°.

Assuming that γ = 1.4, what are

b. M2

c. P2 / P1

d. P0,2 / P0,1

2. (4 points). Repeat problem 1, except assume that a deflection angle is 𝜃 = 30° and find the

corresponding shock angle 𝛽.

3. (12 points, 4 x 3 regions). The figure below shows a 2D inlet that contains two oblique

shocks followed by a normal shock. Using Matlab or some other program (not Anderson’s

tables or the NACA 1135 chart) complete the following table for the properties in each of

the regions.

from horizontal

𝑖 = 2

𝑖 = 3

𝑖 = 4

Honors

1. (4 points). A point source of sound moves at some altitude h through a stationary

atmosphere at velocity V0 (see the illustration below). It emits sound waves with constant

frequency f0. Assume that the sound speed, a, is constant in the atmosphere, i.e., assume

the atmosphere is homogeneous.

a. Find the apparent sound frequency for an observer on the ground as a function of the

source frequency f0, source Mach number M0 = V0/a, and the ground distance, d, of the

source from the observer at the time of sound emission (not at the time when sound

reaches the observer).

played backwards.

c. Study the Integrated Work Challenge in Section 9.14 of the Anderson’s book (6th

edition).

Hint: Note that wave frequency is f0, and the motion of the source does not change the

wave speed, but it changes its wavelength. Consider the illustrations in slide 3 of

Lecture Pack 6 and find the change in the wavelength (distance between successive

wave crests) caused by the moving source. Use this result to find the resulting wave

frequency. For part b, consider the rightmost figure in slide 3 of Lecture Pack 6.

2

Aero 303, Spring 2017. Homework 1 © Edward White and Alexei Poludnenko, 2017

AERO 303 Homework #6

Mohammad Reza

1. (4 points). A M = 4.0 flow passes through an oblique shock with the wave angle

beta= 30°.

Assuming that γ = 1.4, what are

M1=4.0;

beta=30;

gamma=1.4;

theta=atand(2*cotd(beta)*((m1*sind(beta))^2-1)/(m1^2*(gama+cosd(2*beta)+2)))

theta = 17.7837

Mn1=M1*sin(beta)= 2;

%from chart B

Mn2=.5774;

p2_p1=4.50;

p02_p01=0.7209;

M2=mn2/sin(beta-theta)

M2=.58

a. the deflection angle,= 17.7837ᵒ

= b. M2 = 2.7287

c. P2 / P1 = 4.50

d. P0,2 / P0,1 = 0.7209

2. (4 points). Repeat problem 1, except assume that a deflection angle δ = 30° and find

the corresponding shock angle .

m1=4.0;

theta=30;

gama=1.4;

propulsion 351 code

clc;

clear all;

close all;

M1 = 4;

Gamma = 1.4;

R = 287.16;

%% problem 1

delta_rad = 30*pi/180; %given value in radians

sigma_rad = 20*pi/180; %setting default initial value in radians

i = 1;

f1 =

tan(sigma_rad)*(((Gamma+1)*M1^2)/(2*(M1^2*(sin(sigma_rad))^2-

1))-1)-1/tan(delta_rad);

while i>10^-5 %setting while loop error to 10^5 solving for

sigma

fprim1 =

(sec(sigma_rad))^2*((Gamma+1)*M1^2/(2*(M1^2*(sin(sigma_rad))^

2-1))-1)-

(Gamma+1)*M1^4*cos(sigma_rad)*sin(sigma_rad)*tan(sigma_rad)/

(M1^2*(sin(sigma_rad))^2-1)^2;

sigma11 = sigma_rad - (f1/fprim1);

i = abs(sigma11-sigma_rad); %error correction

sigma_rad = sigma11; %update

f1 =

tan(sigma_rad)*(((Gamma+1)*M1^2)/(2*(M1^2*(sin(sigma_rad))^2-

1))-1)-1/tan(delta_rad);

end

%display final ratios and mach number

sigma1d = sigma_rad*180/pi

beta = 45.2241

3. (12 points, 4 x 3 regions). The figure below shows a 2D inlet that contains two

oblique shocks followed by a normal shock. Using Matlab or some other program

(not Anderson’s tables or the NACA 1135 chart) complete the following table for the

properties in each of the regions.

Took help from mathworks.com to implicate equation and numerical methods

from horizontal

1 0° 5.0 1.0 1.0

2 18 3.212307 6.072668 0.5777675

3 0 2.240943 21.83950 0.4705787

4 0 0.5417019 124.3133 0.2868642

AERO 303 Homework #7

Due Wednesday, 01 November 2017 by 6:00pm via eCampus upload

1. (4 points). Consider a thin airfoil (flat plate) pictured below. It is flying in air (γ = 1.4) at an

angle of attack α. Lift is provided by the high pressure on the lower side generated by an

attached oblique shock and low-pressure attached flow on the upper side that turns

through an isentropic expansion fan.

What is the highest angle of attack for which this situation can be realized if…

b. M = 1.5? Explain the limitation.

2. (8 points). Using Matlab or some other program (not Anderson’s tables or the NACA 1135

chart), calculate and plot CL and CD for all angles of attack α between 0° and the maximum

angle of attack determined in problem 1 above for

a. (4 points). M = 8

b. (4 points). M = 1.5

b. (4 points). Calculate CL and CD.

se>9

AJøna Gra pt•nc s

Bryan,

TX

BCS

P

0芍 、

よ い

、

O

し 0

0

0 34

0

(

4

"

の

ニ

よ

XI・

《

=

ん9

-第

一

- I-JE

SO日ud印 9 d

ミ

三

を

Gra 1

盟 BCS 0

& n、TX

0

い

2.4

ド

0。

フ ア

第

ゞ

0

、

、

,2

>3 い で

ⅱ/よ 6、

0、

い 01

0

2

イ

を

文

デ

2q い こ

3

お い

い す

0

も

ざ

な 。

x・ 。

.,2

2、 ( ド )る

も 3ミ

0

AlphaGraphics 0

Bryan.

TX

、

BCS

SO

0

9

を

、

新

ア 0ノ

び

2 卩

2-

ド

L

0

、

7 ,2

び

戸

5

0 2

,

0

0 フあ( レ

第

三

三

を

を

三

三

イ

い彡、キ 、みヤ 》~ )

A

SS ~ ~ -0 一

aG

Bryan,TX

乛

h

一

05

、 BCS

一

「

CSIv8

AERO 303 Homework #8

Due Wednesday, 8 November 2017 by 6:00pm via eCampus upload

(20 points). Analysis of the performance of a slender, half-diamond airfoil in a supersonic

flow.

Consider the half-diamond airfoil pictured below. It is flying in air (γ = 1.4) at M1 = 5.0

freestream and angle of attack α.

1. (4 points). What type of wave will exist below the lower surface at α = 0° angle of

attack? What is the pressure ratio, P3 / P1, behind that wave?

2. (4 points). What is the maximum value of α, for which there is an attached oblique shock

on the lower surface and attached expanded flow on both upper surfaces?

3. (4 points). Using Matlab or some other program (not Anderson’s tables or the NACA

1135 charts), calculate and plot CL(α) and CD(α) from α = 0° to 5°.

4. (4 points). Continue the plots from part (3) from α = 5° to the maximum angle you found

in part (2).

5. (4 points). Finally, recall that in class we discussed that hypersonic aircraft, such as X-

15 or Space Shuttle, had blunt rather than slender, sharp nose bodies.

In order to get a feeling for how the aerodynamic performance of the two compares,

consider a circular cylinder (oriented with its axis perpendicular to the flow). The

thickness of the airfoil considered above and the diameter of the cylinder are the same.

The drag coefficient (based on the projected frontal area) of the cylinder is 4/3.

• Calculate the ratio of the cylinder drag to the half-diamond airfoil drag that you

found in parts (3) and (4) above.

• What does this say about the aerodynamic performance (ignoring the

considerations of thermal loading on the airfoil) of a blunt body compared to a

sharp-nosed slender body in a supersonic flow? Explain your reasoning.

AERO 303 Homework #9

Due Friday, 17 November 2017 by 6:00pm via eCampus upload

velocity potential is known:

50 sin(𝜋𝑥/2) = 8>

89: ;<

𝜙 𝑥, 𝑦 = 𝑉' 𝑥 + 𝑒

4

𝑀' −1

The freestream conditions are: 𝑉' = 700 m/s, 𝑃' = 0.5 atm, and 𝑇' = 220 K. Calculate the

following properties at the location (0.1 m, 0.1 m):

b. (4 points.) P and T.

2. (12 points.) Consider the half-diamond airfoil similar to the one discussed in HW #8.

Assume the same airfoil geometry. The freestream conditions are: air with 𝛾 = 1.4 and

𝑀' = 3.0 (note a different Mach number from HW #8).

a. (4 points.) Use the code that you wrote to solve HW#8 to calculate and plot 𝑐I 𝛼

and 𝑐K 𝛼 for the angle of attack from 𝛼 = 5° up to the maximum value, at which the

oblique shock and the expanded flow are both attached.

b. (4 points.) Next, use the linearized theory to calculate and plot 𝑐I 𝛼 and 𝑐K 𝛼 for

the same angles of attack 𝛼 as in part (a) (plot on the same graph as in part (a)).

c. (4 points.) What is the maximum relative error between the values of 𝑐I 𝛼 and 𝑐K 𝛼

predicted by the linearized theory and the exact values for the same angles of

attack considered in parts (a) and (b)? At what angle of attack does this maximum

error occur? What does this say about the accuracy of the linearized theory?

3. (8 points.) Consider an asymmetric slender airfoil, in which the upper and lower surfaces

are formed by the two respective parabolas:

𝑥4

𝑦M 𝑥 = 0.2 𝑥 −

𝑐

𝑥4

𝑦O 𝑥 = −0.1 𝑥 − .

𝑐

Here, 𝑐 is the chord length. This airfoil is illustrated in the figure below (airfoil thickness is

exaggerated):

For the angle of attack 𝛼 = 5° and 𝑀' = 3.0, calculate:

a. (4 points.) 𝑐I

b. (4 points.) 𝑐K

:Q 8:R T :U :Q W:R

Hint: note that the airfoil height is ℎ 𝑥 = and 𝛼S = , where 𝑦S 𝑥 = is the

4 TV 4

mean camber line.

2

Aero 303, Fall 2017. Homework 9 © Alexei Poludnenko, 2017

AERO 303 Homework #10

Due Friday, 1 December 2017 by 6:00pm via eCampus upload

Expansion fans revisited: their internal structure and associated physical effects.

the internal structure of a Prandtl-Meyer expansion fan.

Consider a uniform flow of air with 𝑀" = 1.775 and 𝑃" = 1 atm making a 16° expansive turn

formed by a circular arc followed by a straight section. This situation is illustrated in the

figure below.

Use the method of characteristics to determine the flow pattern inside of the resulting

expansion fan and find the final 𝑀2 and 𝑃2. This example was considered at the end of the

Lecture Pack 9.

In particular, fill out the following table by specifying flow properties along each of the 9

characteristics 𝐶* .

𝐶* 𝜃 𝜈 𝑀 𝜇 𝜃+𝜇

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

2. (10 points.) Consider the photo below, similar to the ones you must have seen before many

times. What causes the formation of the vapor cloud above the aircraft during this

rapid pitch-up maneuver?

Problem 9.21 at the end of Chapter 9 in Anderson’s book is aimed at studying the

mechanism of formation of vapor clouds in expansion fans around high-speed aircraft.

a) Solve part a) of the problem.

b) Solve part b) of the problem.

Also plot the water vapor saturation curve in the vicinity of the conditions considered in the

problem.

Hint: You can find the relevant data for the curve in the NIST Standard Reference Database

(select “Water” and choose “Saturation properties” for the desired data type):

http://webbook.nist.gov/chemistry/fluid/

2

Aero 303, Fall 2017. Homework 9 © Alexei Poludnenko, 2017

- Control Valves SizingUploaded byAdoBrod
- Flow Separation Modes and Side Phenomena in an Overexpanded NozzleUploaded byAakash Patil
- Numerical Method in Gas DynamicsUploaded byneub15
- Gas Dynamics and Jet Propulsion - 2 Marks - All 5 UnitsUploaded byMohan Prasad.M
- Shock Wave and DetonationUploaded bySeindahNya
- AirBlast Analysis With LS-DYNAUploaded byAmir Iskandar
- IJR-ZhangUploaded bybruce1312
- v091n04p137Uploaded byarabasmohammadrezsey
- 46151047-Compressible-Flow.pdfUploaded byAnish Kumar
- Valve Sizing CalculationsUploaded byask_friend
- UOT Fanno FlowUploaded byVishnu Sreekumar
- Lecture 3Uploaded byrussell_mahmood
- Zhang 2014Uploaded byanaani
- Masoneilan Control Valve Sizing HandbookUploaded bynajamsyed6754
- f20Uploaded byOlumide Babarinsa
- r05322104 Computational AerodynamicsUploaded bySRINIVASA RAO GANTA
- A.N. Dremin- Towards Detonation TheoryUploaded byGhoree23456
- presentasi kelompok 3.pptxUploaded byAnonymous COen9BWfzz
- CFD syllabusUploaded byHemal Barot
- Modelling of Mitigation of Vapour Cloud Explosion Using Flame InhibitorsUploaded byx2y2z2rm
- 3704[1]Uploaded byJoao Abelange
- Bulletin PG 2015Uploaded bykmssailesh
- Ch 1 Gas Deliverability LectureUploaded byKesev Keshav
- imprimir investigacion melchorUploaded byfidel88
- Pra Sanjit Das 11Uploaded byPruthviraj
- Assignment 2Uploaded byAshlin Augusty
- Wind DatasUploaded bykundra kepuca
- Airflow in Ramjet InletsUploaded bySuzanne Matthews
- Ada Advt 102Uploaded byPinky Bhagwat
- supersonic-flutter-buckling (3).pdfUploaded byCésar Augusto

- Heat Transfer and Thermal Radiation ModellingUploaded byandrecruzbe
- Submarine RadomeUploaded byKarthikeya Reddy
- Class 02 - Operation ManagmentUploaded byb_shadid8399
- CIGRE 2012 B2 205 on Line Wireless PD Monitoring System for Contamination DetectionUploaded byAPPU
- Capacity Monitoring Guide (1)Uploaded byPraveen Dubey
- SAP Crystal Reports, Developer Version for Microsoft Visual Studio - Supported PlatformsUploaded byarif jauhari
- L6Uploaded byMahi Fatima
- CFD Analysis of Biomass Downdraft GasifierUploaded byArup Das
- Iwatsu Adix vs R1.3 Owners ManualUploaded byKhaled Ihmidan
- Diffusion of InnovationsUploaded byId Mohammad
- 2chemyyyy4Uploaded byultimatorZ
- DRMF3Uploaded byShreepal Chila
- Discussion- Design of W-Shapes for Combined Bending and TorsionUploaded bynaim
- Energy_Balance_Notes_2008.pdfUploaded byDyo Mande
- Www.swarthmore.edu NatSci Echeeve1 Class e72 E72L1 Lab1(Schem)Uploaded byDayanand Gowda Kr
- Flowsheet Proses & Filling With Margin Revisi 3Uploaded byGin Ramadonal
- 3828VD0193DUploaded byEddy Harsono
- Commearcial polymer3Uploaded byMrunalini Lakhe
- Manual Herramientas 2803241e NewUploaded byRodrigoCastilloAcosta
- B57238S0100M000Uploaded byLullaby summer
- Live PensUploaded byaugust1929
- Implementation of Density-based Solver for All Speeds in the-In-openfoamUploaded bypratikmitra30
- Basic Electrical EngineeringUploaded bychinnujagan
- Ucar SolUploaded byBenjamin Mendoza Chavez
- 212CE3053-18Uploaded byAafan Shahid
- De Valk Yachtbrokers Mcvbvcby Sila Inua (350879) FullUploaded byhell_sing_Z
- BurnerUploaded byAhmed Mohamed Khalil
- man_psx1Uploaded byKURBULDK
- Design and Analysis of Microstrip Antenna Array Using CST SoftwareUploaded bycesarinigillas
- A10-A-PID-VA-718577-201Uploaded byzhang