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# AERO 303 Homework #1

## Due Wednesday, September 13, 2017 by 12:00pm

1. (8 points). Consider the reentry of a Space Shuttle orbiter into the atmosphere.

a. (4 points). Plot the corresponding Knudsen number as a function of altitude from 0 km to 300
km. Indicate the regions, in which the continuum flow and the free-molecular flows are
present.
b. (4 points). The graph below shows the reentry trajectory for STS-5 mission (NASA Technical
Paper 2657, 1986). Using the nominal profiles (solid lines) of the orbiter altitude and velocity,
calculate (approximately):

• Mach number at the start of the reentry, i.e., at the altitude of 100 km.
• Altitude, at which the orbiter transitioned from hypersonic to supersonic regime.

## You can find atmosphere properties at: http://omniweb.gsfc.nasa.gov/vitmo/msis_vitmo.html.

Select “Total Mass Density, g/cm-3” under “Calculated MSIS Model Parameters”. Assume the
reference length of the Space Shuttle to be 35 m and the atmosphere to be comprised only of
molecular nitrogen N2 with 𝜎 = 10%&' m2.

## Aero 303, Fall 2017. Homework 1 © Alexei Poludnenko, 2017 1

AERO 303 Homework #1
Due Wednesday, September 13, 2017 by 12:00pm
2. (4 points). Consider a high-speed projectile moving through air. The temperature and pressure at
the stagnation point are 500 K and 6.0 atm. Calculate the following quantities at the stagnation
point:
a. 𝑐)
b. 𝑐*
c. 𝑒
d. ℎ

3. (8 points). An airfoil is in a freestream, where 𝑃. = 0.61 atm, 𝜌. = 0.819 kg/m3, 𝑉. = 300 m/s.
Consider two points on the airfoil surface, in which the pressure is 0.5 atm (point A) and 0.3 atm
(point B).
a. (4 points). Assuming isentropic compressible flow, calculate density, temperature, and velocity
at points A and B.
b. (4 points). Using the incompressible Bernoulli equation (incorrectly), find the velocity at points
A & B. What is the percent error in velocity? What does this say about the flow regimes in
points A & B?

4. (12 points). Consider an incompressible flow of water with a constant density of 1000 kg/m3
through the diverging nozzle shown below. The nozzle inlet is 1 cm in diameter. Water discharges
with velocity of 1 m/s through the nozzle exit with diameter of 10 cm. The outlet static pressure is
100 kPa (absolute).
a. (4 points). What is the static pressure in the nozzle inlet plane?
b. (4 points). What force does the water exert on the nozzle?
c. (4 points). Assume that the flow is adiabatic and reversible, and no body forces are applied to
the flow. By how much does the internal energy of water increase across the control volume?

## Aero 303, Fall 2017. Homework 1 © Alexei Poludnenko, 2017 2

AERO 303 Homework #1
Due Wednesday, September 13, 2017 by 12:00pm
Honors

(4 points). Real air is a thermally, rather than calorically, perfect gas. Graph below shows the actual
temperature dependence of cp and cv for real air. Horizontal solid lines are the values for the calorically
perfect gas

1.3 Cv
Cp
1.2
Cp , Cv , kJ/(kg K)

1.1

1.0

0.9

0.8

0.7
500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000
T, K
As you can see, the deviation of the actual values of cp and cv from the calorically perfect ones grows
with temperature, which thus becomes an important consideration in hypersonic flows.

While the actual form of heat capacities is quite complex, assume for simplicity that both can be fitted
with a straight line (shown as dashed lines). In particular, for cp

𝑐) = 𝑐),8 + 𝐴 ∗ 𝑇 − 𝑇8 = 𝐴 ∗ 𝑇 + 𝑐),8 − 𝐴 ∗ 𝑇8 = 𝐴 ∗ 𝑇 + 𝐵

Here, cp,0 is the value for a calorically perfect gas, A and B are constants, and A = 0.11 J/(kg K2).

Derive an equation relating P and T for an isentropic process analogous to the calorically perfect gas
relation.

## Aero 303, Fall 2017. Homework 1 © Alexei Poludnenko, 2017 3

AERO 303 Homework #2
Due Wednesday, September 20, 2017 by 12:00pm via eCampus upload

1. (4 points). The atmosphere of Mars predominantly consists of CO2 with a mean temperature and
pressure of 200 K and 600 Pa, respectively. Calculate the corresponding speed of sound.

## Note: use the correct value of 𝛾 for CO2.

2. (4 points). Consider the flow of air (R = 287 J/kg∙K, 𝛾 = 1.4) from location 1 to location 2. For
each of the sets of conditions listed, state whether the flow is or isn’t isentropic and give details

## c. 𝑃( = 101 kPa, 𝑇( = 300 K, 𝜌, = 0.44 kg/m3, 𝑇, = 202 K

3. (4 points). Consider a subsonic aircraft flying in Earth’s atmosphere. A Pitot tube on the aircraft
measures P = 630 psf (absolute), 𝑃2 = 960 psf. Neglecting the aerodynamic interference from the
aircraft, find

• 𝑀6
• Aircraft altitude (find using 𝑃6 and a standard atmosphere table)
• 𝑉6 (for the conditions at that altitude)

4. (4 points). Consider the isentropic flow of air through a blow-down wind tunnel, which is fed from
a reservoir. Assume that the flow in the wind tunnel is isentropic and air is calorically perfect.
Flow conditions in the test section are 𝑃 = 1.2 atm, 𝑇 = 300 K, 𝑉 = 250 m/s.

## • Find the reservoir conditions, namely 𝑃2 , 𝑇2 .

• Find 𝑃2 , 𝑇2 , 𝑃 ∗ , 𝑇 ∗ , and 𝑀 ∗ in the test section.

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Aero 303, Fall 2017. Homework 2 © Alexei Poludnenko, 2017
Honors

(4 points). On its return to Earth, the Apollo command module entered Earth atmosphere at Mach 36.
Assume that reentry occurred at an altitude of 50 km.

1. Assume that air is a calorically perfect gas with 𝛾 = 1.4, and calculate the gas temperature at the
stagnation point of the Apollo at the moment of reentry.

2. The actual stagnation temperature on the Apollo vehicle was 11,000 K – much different from the
value predicted above. The difference is due to chemical reactions that occur in air at such high
temperatures as well as the radiative transport of heat in hot gases. Assumption of a calorically
perfect gas is not valid for such chemically reactive and radiative flows. At the same time, the effect
of such additional physics can often be approximated by considering a different value of the ratio of
specific heats, a so-called “effective gamma”.

For the same conditions as in part 1, find the effective 𝛾 necessary to yield a temperature of 11,000
K at the stagnation point.

3. Consider an isentropic compression of a gas with an “effective gamma” → 1. How would the
temperature change in this case? What does this mean from a physical point of view, and in
particular what additional physical processes may be present in the flow, which such low effective
gamma is intended to represent?

2
Aero 303, Spring 2017. Homework 1 © Edward White and Alexei Poludnenko, 2017
AERO 303 Homework #3
Due Wednesday, September 27, 2017 by 6:00pm via eCampus upload

1. (12 points). Consider a blow-down supersonic wind tunnel (illustrated below) with reservoir
conditions of P0 = 150 atm and T0 = 1000 K. Find P0, T0, P, T, P*, and T*:

a. (4 points) in the throat (station 1), where M = 1.0 (assume the flow is isentropic);

b. (4 points) in the test section (station 2), where M = 4.0 (again, assume the flow to be
isentropic from the reservoir to station 2);

c. (4 points) in the tail pipe of the wind tunnel (station 3) downstream of a stationary normal
shock at the aft end of the test section (assume that the flow does not change after the
shock).

2. (4 points). Consider a skydiver (in a pressure suit) diving headfirst at a high altitude. At the
altitude of 60,000 ft, the skydiver reaches a terminal M = 3.0. Assuming that the skydiver creates
a 1.5 ft2 equivalent drag area (D/q), calculate the person’s weight (including equipment).

Hint: Find the properties downstream of a M = 3.0 normal shock at 60,000 ft and perform a force
balance between weight and drag.

3. (4 points). Consider a cylinder containing air at 100 kPa, 300 K air. A piston is impulsively
accelerated inside the cylinder to the speed of 500 m/s. Calculate:

## b. Speed, at which the shock is propagating into the stationary air.

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Aero 303, Fall 2017. Homework 3 © Alexei Poludnenko, 2017
Honors

## No honors problem this week.

2
Aero 303, Fall 2017. Homework 3 © Alexei Poludnenko, 2017
AERO 303 Homework #4
Due Monday, October 9, 2017 by 6:00pm via eCampus upload

1. (4 points). Consider conditions in problem #3 in HW 3, i.e., a cylinder containing air at 100 kPa,
300 K. What type of a wave will be produced if a piston is impulsively accelerated inside the
cylinder to the speed of 250 m/s, rather than 500 m/s as was the case in problem 3? Explain your
reasoning.

2. (4 points). Consider a typical experimental shock tube, which represents a cylinder with one
capped end and the other end containing a diaphragm, which initially separates high-pressure air
in the reservoir and low-pressure air inside the shock tube. After the diaphragm is ruptured, high-
speed flow is initiated from a reservoir producing a shock wave, which propagates toward the
capped end of the shock tube.

Imagine that we are unable to measure the velocity of the resulting flow (which is often the case).
However, we have instrumented the shock tube with pressure probes and temperature sensors,
which show that upstream of the shock, pressure and temperature are 1 atm and 300 K, while
downstream they are 12.5 atm and 915 K.

Assume that the flow in the shock tube is one-dimensional and uniform behind the shock.

## a. Calculate the Mach number of the resulting shock.

b. What is the shock velocity?
c. What is the velocity of the post-shock gas?

3. (4 points). In shock tube experiments, measurements are carried out in the test section near the
capped end after the shock reaches a capped end and reflects from it. We need to determine
those test conditions produced by the reflection of the shock considered in Problem 2. In
particular:

## a. What is the Mach number of the reflected shock?

b. What is the velocity of the reflected shock in the laboratory reference frame, i.e., relative to
the shock tube?
c. What are the static pressure and temperature of the air downstream of the reflected shock?

4. (4 points). Consider choked isentropic flow through a quasi-1D nozzle. The nozzle diameter is
𝑑(𝑥) = 3 – 2𝑐𝑜𝑠(𝜋𝑥). The throat (A*) is at x = 0 and the exit is at x = 1. Assume that the reservoir
pressure is P0.

a. What are the subsonic isentropic exit conditions, Pexit / P0 and Mexit?
b. What are the supersonic isentropic exit conditions, Pexit / P0 and Mexit?
c. Plot P(x)/P0 and M(x) from x = 0 to 1 for both the isentropic supersonic and subsonic
solutions.
d. Imagine a normal shock exists at the nozzle exit. What are Mexit, as well as Pexit / P0 and
P0,exit / P0, i.e., just downstream of that shock?
1
Aero 303, Fall 2017. Homework 4 © Alexei Poludnenko, 2017
Honors
1. (4 points). Consider the mass flow in a compressible flow. Mass flow per unit area, i.e., mass
flux, is 𝜌𝑢 (mass passing through unit area per unit time). Intuitively, in order to increase the mass
flux, we need to increase the flow velocity. Consider how the mass flux varies with velocity, and
in particular:

## • Show that, in fact, it reaches a maximum and subsequently 0.

• Find the corresponding M and M*, at which it reaches maximum and 0.

## Hint: Consider a normalized mass flux 𝜌𝑢/(𝜌 ∗ 𝑢 ∗ ) and express it as:

𝜌𝑢 𝜌2 𝑎2 𝜌 𝑎
= 𝑀
𝜌 ∗ 𝑢 ∗ 𝜌 ∗ 𝑎 ∗ 𝜌2 𝑎2

Subsequently, express this normalized mass flux in terms of just M (and g ) and then in terms of
M*. Finally, plot this normalized mass flux as a function of M*.

2. (4 points). Next, derive the following expression for the mass flow through a choked nozzle:
(=>?)/(=@?)
𝑃2 𝐴∗ 𝛾 2
𝑚=
𝑇2 𝑅 𝛾+1

Hint: similar to problem 1 above, express 𝑚 in terms of the ratios 𝜌 ∗ /𝜌2 and 𝑎 ∗ /𝑎2 .

2
Aero 303, Spring 2017. Homework 1 © Edward White and Alexei Poludnenko, 2017
AERO 303 Homework #5
Due Wednesday, October 18, 2017 by 6:00pm via eCampus upload

Consider a quasi-1D nozzle with a cross-section area 𝐴(𝑥)/𝐴&'()*& = 1 + 3.235|𝒙| (bars indicate
absolute value of x), where –0.25 ≤ x ≤ 1. The reservoir pressure is P0.
Do not use tables for this homework assignment. Program all relevant formulas into Matlab or
another similar tool of your choice.

## 1. (4 points). Assume that the flow through the nozzle is choked.

a. Calculate Mexit and Pexit/P0 corresponding to the subsonic and supersonic solutions.
b. Calculate M and P/P0 at the location x = -0.25, i.e., at the nozzle inlet.
c. Plot P(x)/P0 for the two isentropic solutions on the domain –0.25 ≤ x ≤ 1.

2. (4 points). Next, assume that the nozzle exit pressure is Pexit/P0 = 0.993.

a. For this pressure ratio at the nozzle exit, use isentropic flow equations to compute the
corresponding Mexit and Aexit/A*.
b. Use your result from (a) to find Athroat/A* and write the equation for A(x)/A* corresponding to
the specified exit pressure.
c. Using the obtained equation for A(x)/A*, plot P(x)/P0 on the domain –0.25 ≤ x ≤ 1. Confirm
that you indeed arrive at Pexit/P0 = 0.993.

## a. Calculate M1 and M2 just upstream and downstream of the shock.

b. Calculate P2/P1 and P0,2/P0,1 for the shock.
c. Given M2 behind the shock, what is A(x=0.5)/A*2? This is the sonic area ratio downstream of
the shock and is an isentropic flow property based on M2.
d. Use your result from (c) to compute Athroat/A*2 and write the equation for A(x)/A*2 downstream
of the shock.
e. Compute Mexit and Pexit/P0 (be careful to give Pexit/P0 and not Pexit/P0,2 ! )
f. Using the equations for A(x)/A* as well as for A(x)/A*2 obtained in (d), plot P(x)/P0 on the
domain –0.25 ≤ x ≤ 1. Confirm that you indeed arrive at the Pexit/P0 that you found in (e). Also
confirm that your plot shows a sharp pressure jump at x = 0.5.

4. (4 points). Finally, assume that the nozzle exit pressure is Pexit/P0 = 0.6.

## a. Find the shock location, which results in this exit pressure.

For this, you will need to repeat the procedure outlined in problem (3) several times for
different shock locations until you determine the desired shock location, which gives the
correct exit pressure.
b. Plot the corresponding P(x)/P0 on the domain –0.25 ≤ x ≤ 1.
1
Aero 303, Fall 2017. Homework 5 © Alexei Poludnenko, 2017
Honors
No honors problems.

2
Aero 303, Spring 2017. Homework 1 © Edward White and Alexei Poludnenko, 2017
AERO 303 Homework #5 Solutions
Quasi-1D nozzle with a cross-section area 𝐴(𝑥)/𝐴&'()*& = 1 + 3.235|𝒙| (bars indicate absolute value
of x), where –0.25 ≤ x ≤ 1. The reservoir pressure is P0.
1. (4 points). Assume that the flow through the nozzle is choked.

## a. Supersonic solution: Mexit = 3.000107e+00, Pexit/P0 = 2.721931e-02

Subsonic solution: Mexit = 1.382202e-01, Pexit/P0 = 9.867408e-01
b. Inlet conditions: Minlet = 3.430780e-01, Pinlet/P0 = 9.217909e-01
c. See plots below (supersonic – left, subsonic – right)

2. (4 points). Next, assume that the nozzle exit pressure is Pexit/P0 = 0.993.

## a. Exit conditions: Mexit = 1.002260e-01, Exit Area Ratio = 5.808861e+00

4 5 4 5 4789:;7
b. Athroat/A* = 1.371632. = ∗ = 1.371632 ∗ (1 + 3.235|𝒙|).
4∗ 4789:;7 4∗

## c. See plot below.

1
Aero 303, Fall 2017. Homework 5 © Alexei Poludnenko, 2017
3. (4 points). Now imagine that a normal shock exists at x = 0.5.

## a. Mach numbers: M1 = 2.492159e+00, M2 = 5.137451e-01

b. Pressure ratios: P2/P1 = 7.079330e+00, P0,2/P0,1 = 5.021613e-01
c. A(x=0.5)/A*2 = 1.314407e+00
d. Athroat/A*2 = (A(x=0.5)/ A*2) / (A(x=0.5)/Athroat) = 5.021613e-01.
4 5 4 5 4789:;7
= ∗ = 0.5021613 ∗ (1 + 3.235|𝒙|). Valid only for x > 0.5 !!!
4∗ > 4789:;7 4∗ >

## e. Post-shock exit solution: Mexit = 2.856615e-01, Pexit/P0 = 4.744996e-01

f. See plot below. Note that we indeed arrive at the Pexit/P0 = 4.744996e-01 and there is a sharp
pressure jump at x = 0.5.

4. (4 points). Finally, assume that the nozzle exit pressure is Pexit/P0 = 0.6.

## a. Shock location = 0.3183.

b. See plot below.

2
Aero 303, Fall 2017. Homework 1 © Alexei Poludnenko, 2017

Question 1 part a)
location of interest to find the area is 1 where the area Ratio is 4.235

## Mach Subsonic = 0.138

Pexit/P01 = 0.977

## Mach Supersonic = 3.00

Pexit/P01Supersonic = 0.00217

Question 1-part b)
location of interest to find the area x= -.25
The area Ratio is 1.8087

## Mach Subsonic 0.3430

PexitOverP01 = 0.8697
Question 1 part c)
initial value x_0 for subsonic solution is .1

## initial value x_0 to the supersonic is 3

plot:
Question 2 part a)
Given Pexit/P01 ratio is .993

## estimation for Mexit is .1

MachExit =0.1002
AexitOverAstar = 5.808861249488184

Question 2 part b)
Athroat/A*=1.372

## The area equation is: A(x)/A* = 4.4372*X +1.3716

Question 2 part c)
Given initial value x_0 to compute the subsonic value is .1

## Graph (all values are subsonic):

Question 3 part a)
location of interest to find the area x= .5
The area Ratio is 2.6175
(estimation for supersonic x_0 at the x is 2)

Mach1 =2.4922
Mach2 =0.2639

Question 3 part b)

P2/P01 = 0.4194
P02/P01 =0.4402

Question 3 part c)
For Area(x=.5)/A*2
A5/As2 =2.2855

Question 3 part d)
A(x=5)/Athroat

As2/At =1.1452

## The Area(x)/A2* equation A(x)/Astar2 = 2.2855*X +0.87317

Question 3 part e)
Area Ratio of last equation at the exit

Aexit/Astar2 =3.1587

## estimation for subsonic solution due to the shockwave x_0= .1

Mach at exit in terms of the area Ratio from new AreaEquation = 3.1587

Mach2Exit =0.1871

## Computing the pressure ratio Pexit/P01

Pexit2/P01 =0.4296
Question 3 part f)

## Computing the points for -.25 to 0

Initial value x_0 for the subsonic solution from -.25 to 0 is .1
initial value x_0 to compute the supersonic solution from 0 to .5 is 2
For shockwave to the end of nozzle:

initial value x_0 to for the subsonic solution for last interval from .5 to 1 is .1
P/P01 at the end
P/P01exit =0.4296
Graph:
Question 4
a)location of interest for shockwave? .22

P/P01exit =0.59776

b) Plot:
AERO 303 Homework #6
Due Wednesday, 25 October 2017 by 6:00pm via eCampus upload

1. (4 points). A M = 4.0 flow passes through an oblique shock with the wave angle 𝛽 = 30°.
Assuming that γ = 1.4, what are

## a. the deflection angle, 𝜃

b. M2
c. P2 / P1
d. P0,2 / P0,1

2. (4 points). Repeat problem 1, except assume that a deflection angle is 𝜃 = 30° and find the
corresponding shock angle 𝛽.

3. (12 points, 4 x 3 regions). The figure below shows a 2D inlet that contains two oblique
shocks followed by a normal shock. Using Matlab or some other program (not Anderson’s
tables or the NACA 1135 chart) complete the following table for the properties in each of
the regions.

from horizontal

𝑖 = 2

𝑖 = 3

𝑖 = 4

## Aero 303, Fall 2017. Homework 6 © Alexei Poludnenko, 2017 1

Honors
1. (4 points). A point source of sound moves at some altitude h through a stationary
atmosphere at velocity V0 (see the illustration below). It emits sound waves with constant
frequency f0. Assume that the sound speed, a, is constant in the atmosphere, i.e., assume
the atmosphere is homogeneous.

a. Find the apparent sound frequency for an observer on the ground as a function of the
source frequency f0, source Mach number M0 = V0/a, and the ground distance, d, of the
source from the observer at the time of sound emission (not at the time when sound
reaches the observer).

## b. Determine whether propaganda broadcast from a supersonic source would have to be

played backwards.

c. Study the Integrated Work Challenge in Section 9.14 of the Anderson’s book (6th
edition).

Hint: Note that wave frequency is f0, and the motion of the source does not change the
wave speed, but it changes its wavelength. Consider the illustrations in slide 3 of
Lecture Pack 6 and find the change in the wavelength (distance between successive
wave crests) caused by the moving source. Use this result to find the resulting wave
frequency. For part b, consider the rightmost figure in slide 3 of Lecture Pack 6.

2
Aero 303, Spring 2017. Homework 1 © Edward White and Alexei Poludnenko, 2017
AERO 303 Homework #6

1. (4 points). A M = 4.0 flow passes through an oblique shock with the wave angle
beta= 30°.
Assuming that γ = 1.4, what are
M1=4.0;
beta=30;
gamma=1.4;
theta=atand(2*cotd(beta)*((m1*sind(beta))^2-1)/(m1^2*(gama+cosd(2*beta)+2)))
theta = 17.7837

Mn1=M1*sin(beta)= 2;
%from chart B
Mn2=.5774;
p2_p1=4.50;
p02_p01=0.7209;
M2=mn2/sin(beta-theta)
M2=.58
a. the deflection angle,= 17.7837ᵒ

= b. M2 = 2.7287
c. P2 / P1 = 4.50
d. P0,2 / P0,1 = 0.7209
2. (4 points). Repeat problem 1, except assume that a deflection angle δ = 30° and find
the corresponding shock angle .
m1=4.0;
theta=30;
gama=1.4;

## USED newton rampson method taught from aero thermal

propulsion 351 code
clc;
clear all;
close all;

M1 = 4;
Gamma = 1.4;
R = 287.16;
%% problem 1
i = 1;
f1 =
while i>10^-5 %setting while loop error to 10^5 solving for
sigma
fprim1 =
2-1))-1)-
f1 =
end
%display final ratios and mach number

beta = 45.2241
3. (12 points, 4 x 3 regions). The figure below shows a 2D inlet that contains two
oblique shocks followed by a normal shock. Using Matlab or some other program
(not Anderson’s tables or the NACA 1135 chart) complete the following table for the
properties in each of the regions.
Took help from mathworks.com to implicate equation and numerical methods

## Region Flow angle Mi Pi / P1 P0,i / P0,1

from horizontal
1 0° 5.0 1.0 1.0
2 18 3.212307 6.072668 0.5777675
3 0 2.240943 21.83950 0.4705787
4 0 0.5417019 124.3133 0.2868642
AERO 303 Homework #7
Due Wednesday, 01 November 2017 by 6:00pm via eCampus upload
1. (4 points). Consider a thin airfoil (flat plate) pictured below. It is flying in air (γ = 1.4) at an
angle of attack α. Lift is provided by the high pressure on the lower side generated by an
attached oblique shock and low-pressure attached flow on the upper side that turns
through an isentropic expansion fan.

What is the highest angle of attack for which this situation can be realized if…

## a. M = 8? Explain the limitation.

b. M = 1.5? Explain the limitation.

2. (8 points). Using Matlab or some other program (not Anderson’s tables or the NACA 1135
chart), calculate and plot CL and CD for all angles of attack α between 0° and the maximum
angle of attack determined in problem 1 above for

a. (4 points). M = 8
b. (4 points). M = 1.5

## a. (4 points). Calculate M2, P2 /P1, M3, P3 /P1, M4, and P4 /P1.

b. (4 points). Calculate CL and CD.

## Aero 303, Fall 2017. Homework 7 © Alexei Poludnenko, 2017 1

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AERO 303 Homework #8
Due Wednesday, 8 November 2017 by 6:00pm via eCampus upload
(20 points). Analysis of the performance of a slender, half-diamond airfoil in a supersonic
flow.

Consider the half-diamond airfoil pictured below. It is flying in air (γ = 1.4) at M1 = 5.0
freestream and angle of attack α.

1. (4 points). What type of wave will exist below the lower surface at α = 0° angle of
attack? What is the pressure ratio, P3 / P1, behind that wave?

2. (4 points). What is the maximum value of α, for which there is an attached oblique shock
on the lower surface and attached expanded flow on both upper surfaces?

3. (4 points). Using Matlab or some other program (not Anderson’s tables or the NACA
1135 charts), calculate and plot CL(α) and CD(α) from α = 0° to 5°.

4. (4 points). Continue the plots from part (3) from α = 5° to the maximum angle you found
in part (2).

5. (4 points). Finally, recall that in class we discussed that hypersonic aircraft, such as X-
15 or Space Shuttle, had blunt rather than slender, sharp nose bodies.

In order to get a feeling for how the aerodynamic performance of the two compares,
consider a circular cylinder (oriented with its axis perpendicular to the flow). The
thickness of the airfoil considered above and the diameter of the cylinder are the same.
The drag coefficient (based on the projected frontal area) of the cylinder is 4/3.

• Calculate the ratio of the cylinder drag to the half-diamond airfoil drag that you
found in parts (3) and (4) above.
• What does this say about the aerodynamic performance (ignoring the
considerations of thermal loading on the airfoil) of a blunt body compared to a
sharp-nosed slender body in a supersonic flow? Explain your reasoning.

## Aero 303, Fall 2017. Homework 8 © Alexei Poludnenko, 2017 1

AERO 303 Homework #9
Due Friday, 17 November 2017 by 6:00pm via eCampus upload

## 1. (8 points.) Consider a supersonic compressible flow in Cartesian coordinates where the

velocity potential is known:

50 sin(𝜋𝑥/2) = 8>
89: ;<
𝜙 𝑥, 𝑦 = 𝑉' 𝑥 + 𝑒
4
𝑀' −1

The freestream conditions are: 𝑉' = 700 m/s, 𝑃' = 0.5 atm, and 𝑇' = 220 K. Calculate the
following properties at the location (0.1 m, 0.1 m):

## a. (4 points.) Velocity components 𝑢, 𝑣 and the corresponding M.

b. (4 points.) P and T.

2. (12 points.) Consider the half-diamond airfoil similar to the one discussed in HW #8.
Assume the same airfoil geometry. The freestream conditions are: air with 𝛾 = 1.4 and
𝑀' = 3.0 (note a different Mach number from HW #8).

a. (4 points.) Use the code that you wrote to solve HW#8 to calculate and plot 𝑐I 𝛼
and 𝑐K 𝛼 for the angle of attack from 𝛼 = 5° up to the maximum value, at which the
oblique shock and the expanded flow are both attached.

b. (4 points.) Next, use the linearized theory to calculate and plot 𝑐I 𝛼 and 𝑐K 𝛼 for
the same angles of attack 𝛼 as in part (a) (plot on the same graph as in part (a)).

c. (4 points.) What is the maximum relative error between the values of 𝑐I 𝛼 and 𝑐K 𝛼
predicted by the linearized theory and the exact values for the same angles of
attack considered in parts (a) and (b)? At what angle of attack does this maximum
error occur? What does this say about the accuracy of the linearized theory?

3. (8 points.) Consider an asymmetric slender airfoil, in which the upper and lower surfaces
are formed by the two respective parabolas:
𝑥4
𝑦M 𝑥 = 0.2 𝑥 −
𝑐
𝑥4
𝑦O 𝑥 = −0.1 𝑥 − .
𝑐

Here, 𝑐 is the chord length. This airfoil is illustrated in the figure below (airfoil thickness is
exaggerated):

## Aero 303, Fall 2017. Homework 9 © Alexei Poludnenko, 2017 1

For the angle of attack 𝛼 = 5° and 𝑀' = 3.0, calculate:

a. (4 points.) 𝑐I

b. (4 points.) 𝑐K
:Q 8:R T :U :Q W:R
Hint: note that the airfoil height is ℎ 𝑥 = and 𝛼S = , where 𝑦S 𝑥 = is the
4 TV 4
mean camber line.

2
Aero 303, Fall 2017. Homework 9 © Alexei Poludnenko, 2017
AERO 303 Homework #10
Due Friday, 1 December 2017 by 6:00pm via eCampus upload

Expansion fans revisited: their internal structure and associated physical effects.

## 1. (10 points.) Example of the application of the Method of Characteristics to calculate

the internal structure of a Prandtl-Meyer expansion fan.

Consider a uniform flow of air with 𝑀" = 1.775 and 𝑃" = 1 atm making a 16° expansive turn
formed by a circular arc followed by a straight section. This situation is illustrated in the
figure below.

Use the method of characteristics to determine the flow pattern inside of the resulting
expansion fan and find the final 𝑀2 and 𝑃2. This example was considered at the end of the
Lecture Pack 9.

In particular, fill out the following table by specifying flow properties along each of the 9
characteristics 𝐶* .

𝐶* 𝜃 𝜈 𝑀 𝜇 𝜃+𝜇
11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

## Aero 303, Fall 2017. Homework 10 © Alexei Poludnenko, 2017 1

2. (10 points.) Consider the photo below, similar to the ones you must have seen before many
times. What causes the formation of the vapor cloud above the aircraft during this
rapid pitch-up maneuver?

Problem 9.21 at the end of Chapter 9 in Anderson’s book is aimed at studying the
mechanism of formation of vapor clouds in expansion fans around high-speed aircraft.

## Study the theoretical background described in the problem.

a) Solve part a) of the problem.
b) Solve part b) of the problem.

## Show all steps of the solution.

Also plot the water vapor saturation curve in the vicinity of the conditions considered in the
problem.

Hint: You can find the relevant data for the curve in the NIST Standard Reference Database
(select “Water” and choose “Saturation properties” for the desired data type):
http://webbook.nist.gov/chemistry/fluid/

2
Aero 303, Fall 2017. Homework 9 © Alexei Poludnenko, 2017