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# NIRMA UNIVERSITY

INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
B.TECH. SEM- III (CH)
SUBJECT – MA301, MATHEMATICS FOR CHEMICAL ENGINEERS
LAPLACE TRANSFORMS

## Objective: The Laplace transformation is a very useful tool in solving differential

equation arising out of many physical situations. Because of its simplicity and
usefulness it is widely used in engineering mathematics. Laplace transforms
reduce the problem of solving a differential equation to algebraic problem. The
switching form operations of calculus to algebraic operations is called
Operational Calculus, a very important area of applied mathematics, and the
Laplace transform method is practically the most important method for this
purpose.
The are particularly useful I problems where the mechanical or electrical
driving force has discontinuities, for instance it actions for a short duration only,
or is periodic but not merely a sine or cosine function. Another advantage is that
it solves problems directly. Initial value problems are solved without first finding a
general solution.

 Laplace transforms:
Let f(t) be a given function of t defined for all t  0, then the Laplace transform of f(t) ,

 st

denoted by L {f(t)} or f (s) is defined as L {f(t)} = f (s) = e f (t ) dt
0
Provided the integral exists, where s is a parameter real or complex.

##  Linearity of the Laplace transform

If L[f(t)] = f (s) and L[g(t)] = g (s) , then for any constants a and b
L [a f(t) + b g(t)] = a L[f(t)] + b L[g(t)]

## Sr. f(t) L[f(t)] Sr. f(t) L[f(t)]

n
1. 1 1 7. t n 1
s (s > 0 , n > -1)
s n 1
2. eat 1 8. eat sin bt b
sa (s  a) 2  b 2
3. sin at a 9. eat cos bt sa
s2  a2 (s  a) 2  b 2
4. cos at s 10 eat cos h bt sa
s2  a2 (s  a) 2  b 2
5 Sin h at a 11. eat sin h bt b
s2  a2 (s  a) 2  b 2
6. Cos h at s 12. eat tn n 1 n!
2 2 or
s a ( s  a) n  1 (s  a) n  1

##  First shifting theorem:

If L[f(t)] = f (s) , then L[eat f(t)] = f (s-a)

##  Change the scale property:

1  sa 
If L[f(t)] = f (s) , then L [eat f(bt)] = f  ,b>0
b  b 
 Inverse Laplace Transform:
If L[f(t)] = f (s), then f(t) is called the inverse Laplace transform of f (s) and is denoted by
L-1 { f (s)} = f(t)}.
 Rules for Partial fraction:
Case 1: Non repeated linear factor (s-a) in the denominator
A
Partial fraction =
sa
Case 2: Repeated linear factor (s-a), r times in the denominator
A1 A2 Ar
Partial fractions =   ... 
( s  a) ( s  a) 2 ( s  a) r
Case 3: Non repeated linear factor (s2+as+b) in the denominator
As  B
Partial fraction = 2
( s  as  b)
Case 4: Non repeated linear factor (s2+as+b),r times in the denominator
A s  B1 A s  B2 A s  Br
Partial fractions = 2 1  2 2  ...  2 r
( s  as  b) ( s  as  b) 2
( s  as  b) r

##  Laplace transform of the derivative of f(t):

If f(t) is continuous for all t  0 , and f(t) is piecewise continuous, then L{f(t)} exists and
L{f(t)} = s L {f(t)} – f(0).

##  Laplace transform of the Integral of a function:

Laplace transform of the integration of f(t) , if
t  1
L{f(t)} = f (s), then L   f (u ) du   f ( s)
 0  s
 Differentiation of Laplace Transforms:
dn
If L[f(t)] = f (s) then L [tn f(t))] = (-1)n [ f (s) ], where n = 1,2,3….
ds n
 Integration of Laplace Transforms:

f (t )  f (t ) 
If L[f(t)] = f (s) and
t
has Laplace transform, then L 
 t 
  f (s) ds .
s
 Convolution theorem:
If L-1 { f (s)} = f(t) and L-1 { g (s)} = g(t),
t
Then L { f (s) g (s)} =
-1
 f (u ) g (t  u ) du  f  g.
0

##  Laplace Transform of Periodic Functions:

A function f(t) is said to be periodic function with period p (> 0) if f(t + p) = f(t) for all t > 0.
The Laplace transform of a piecewise continuous periodic function f(t) with period p is
p
1  st
L {f(t)} =
1 e  ps e f (t ) dt (s > 0).
0

##  Unit step function (Heaviside’s Unit Function):

The unit step function u (t-a) is defined as
u (t-a) = 0 if t < a (a  0)
= 1 if t  a
 Laplace transform of Unit Step Function:
1 -as
L {u(t-a)} = e
s
 Second shifting theorem:
If L[f(t)] = f (s) , then If L{f(t - a) u(t-a)} = e-as f (s).

##  Unit Impulse Function (Dirac Delta Function):

As   0 in such a manner that the area enclosed by f(t) and t - axis remains unity. The
function obtained as the limit of f(t) as   0 is called the Dirac delta function or The unit
impulse function and is denoted as  (t-a). thus
lim 0 ,    t  a
0

1
 (t  a)  , a t  a 

0 , a   t  
 Laplace transform of Dirac delta function  (t-a):
L { (t-a)} = e-as