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Developments of the Quarter: Comment and Chronology

Source: Middle East Journal, Vol. 9, No. 2 (Spring, 1955), pp. 163-176
Published by: Middle East Institute
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/4322693 .
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DEVELOPMENTS OF THE QUARTER:
COMMENT AND CHRONOLOGY
Iraqi-TurkishPact the Arab world embittered the issue of Arab
federation, thus prolonging and shaping the
THE VIOLENT criticismwhich greeted rivalry between Egypt and Iraq for Arab lead-
the Pact of Mutual Cooperationsigned by ership. The withdrawal of the British from
Turkey and Iraq on February241 is indicative Suez and the U.S.-sponsoredshift, during the
of the tenseness and uncertainty of relations past year, to a strategy based on a "northern
among the countries of the Middle East. tier" of states stretching from Turkey to Pak-
Treaty relations between Iraq and Turkey are istan have given this Iraqi-Egyptian rivalry a
not somethingnew - they were both partiesto significancebeyond personal jealousy and am-
the 4-power Sa'dabad Pact of I937, and in bition, or even pan-Arab aspirationsto unity.
I947 Iraq (on the initiative of Nuri al-Sa'id, Thus, it is not so much what the Iraqi-
as in the case of the present agreement) con- Turkish pact expresslyprovidesas what it im-
cluded a bilateral treaty of friendship with plies in the present situation that raised the
Turkey which providedfor mutual consultation wave of mutual incrimination. Whereas the
on foreign affairs and cooperation in regional pact of I947 was little more than a declaration
matters. Jordan followed suit in I947 by sign- of attitude, the present pact foreshadows a
ing both a treaty of friendship with Turkey supply of arms, an abandonmentof neutralism
and one of alliance and brotherhoodwith Iraq. and isolation in foreign affairs, and an exten-
These early postwar moves toward an align- sion of the regional structure of defense. Ar-
ment of the Hashemitestateswith Turkey were ticle I provides that the signatorieswill coop-
criticized by the other Arab governments as erate for their security and defense, and that
self-aggrandizementat the expenseof the Arab "such measures as they agree to take to give
League, but with none of the virulence that effect to this cooperationmay form the subject
met the current reaffirmation of an Iraqi- of special agreementswith each other." Article
Turkish community of interests. II adds that these measureswill be determined
The present mood is to be explained by the as soon as the pact is ratified (ratification by
diplomatic evolution of the Middle East since both parties took place on February 26). It is
I947. In that year the United States began its speculation as to what these measuresmay be
active support of Turkey, gradually assuming that has given particular edge to the fears of
over the years the dominant voice in shaping the pact's opponents.
Western strategic policy toward the Middle The pact also specifically provides for the
East, with emphasis on the threat of Com- entry of other parties: the membersof the Arab
munism and Soviet expansion. In I947-49 the League "or any other state actively concerned
Arab states suffered the defeat of Palestine, with the security and peace in this region and
which profoundlyaffectedtheir attitude toward which is fully recognized by both of the High
the West, in particular the United States. At Contracting Parties." No mechanismis set up
the same time, it brought about Arab solidarity to determinewhether an applicantfor member-
in foreign affairs, expressedthrough the Arab ship is "actively concerned with the security
bloc in the United Nations. It also brought and peace in this region" (members of the
about Arab neutralismin the Cold War, while Arab League are apparently exempted from
subsequent attempts to win Arab cooperation this proviso), but presumablythe Soviet Union
merely resulted in the creation of a structure is automaticallyexcluded. Israel would be eli-
for joint Arab defense in isolation from the gible only if fully recognized by Iraq.
West. The continuingpresenceof Israelwithin
It has been assumedthat membershipin the
1 For text, see pp. 177-78. pact will be expandedas soon as Israel and the
163

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I64 THE MIDDLE EAST JOURNAL

Arab states have had an opportunityto adjust the Arabs' only basis for defense against pos-
to the fact of its existence. A first logical sible Israeli expansion.No one knew quitewhat
move would be to tie it in with the already price Iraq had paid to join Turkey. It was
existing Turkish-Pakistani pact. The United accusedof deserting the Arab cause by allying
States might then join, thus supplementingand itself with the one Muslim countrywhich fully
roundingout its military agreementswith Tur- recognizes Israel, and, by extension, with the
key and Pakistan; or if Arab feeling is still too United States, which has been Israel's chief
sensitive to permit a direct political relation- supporter and in the minds of many Arab
ship with the United States, it might exert its nationalists is even now trying to undermine
influence indirectly through these two powers, Arab solidarity and freedom of action.
limiting direct assistanceto the supplyof arms, These accusations Iraq hotly denied. It
as at present. Great Britain may likewise join pointed to the terms of the pact itself, which
the set-up, in conjunctionwith a revisionof its both in the preambleand in Article IV make
treaty with Iraq.2The "northerntier" country it clear that in Iraq's view the Arab League
which most obviously needs to be drawn into Treaty of Joint Defense and Economic Coop-
the defense arrangement is Iran. Tehran is eration does not limit its freedom to sign the
eager for military support but is faced with presentpact, and that the presentpact does not
direct Soviet pressureagainst any military alli- contradict or derogate from any international
ance with a third power. Unlike Turkey, Iran obligations the signatories have assumed. Fur-
is in treaty relations with the USSR which ther than this, the Iraqi government, in ex-
permit the Soviet Union to send troops into plaining the purpose of the pact, has declared
Iran if it believes that Iran is being used as a its belief that it defends Arab interests by pro-
base for the developmentof armed forces with moting regional security. Prime Minister Nuri
aggressive intentions toward the USSR. al-Sa'id could also point to his exchange of
Arab reaction to Iraq's move was most letters with Prime Minister Menderesof Tur-
loudly voiced by Egypt. In the bitterness of key which accompaniesthe text and in which
Egyptian criticism one might detect a trace of Iraq secured Turkey's cooperationin effecting
sour grapes, for Egypt had forfeited an oppor- the carrying out of the United Nations resolu-
tunity to lead the Arab states into the Middle tions on Palestine. Iraq had not sold out to
East Defense Organization which was pro- Turkey; on the contrary, it had won Turkish
posed in i95 i. True, it was the pre-Revolution support for the Arab cause. In strengthening
regime of Prime Minister Nahhas which had its relationswith Turkey it was merely taking
turned down the offer and then abrogatedthe another step in the Arab-Turkish rapproche-
Anglo-Egyptian treaty of I936, but the gov- ment which had been initiated by Egypt- a
ernment of Nagib and 'Abd al-Nasir had con- reference to Egypt's agreement that British
tinued along the same line in building up the troops would be permitted to return to Suez
Arab Collective Security Pact and in getting in case of an attack on Turkey as well as on
British troops out of Suez. Once the Suez one of the Arab states. In moving to defend its
agreement had been signed in October I954 own independenceand ensure its security, Iraq
there was some suggestion that Egypt might was in no way weakening the Arab world as a
feel inclined to lead the Arab bloc into treaty whole.
relations with the West, but in the meantime To counter Iraq's move, Egypt at once at-
strategic emphasis had shifted from Suez and tempted to align the other Arab states on its
Egypt found itself watching from the sideline. side. Saudi Arabia, which has its own long-
To the element of jealousy and rivalry,how- standing grievanceswith the Hashemites, was
ever, must be added genuine fears for Arab no problem; it was over Syria, traditionally
security. Arab collective action had proved to pulled both east and west, that the struggle
be a weak reed on which to lean, yet in it lay developed. Syrian pan-Arabists favor closer
2
union with Iraq, in partial realization of the
On March 3o Britain announced the negotia-
tion of a new mutual defense agreement with Iraq
dreamof a single Arab state; at the same time,
and adherence to the Iraqi-Turkish pact, effective however, their attitude toward Turkey is chilly
April 5. because of the loss of the Sanjak of Alexan-

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DEVELOPMENTS OF THE QUARTER: COMMENT AND CHRONOLOGY i65

dretta in I939 and Turkey's "desertion"of the Arab states with which Israel sharesa frontier.
East in favor of the West. The same group An extension of the Iraqi-Turkish pact
wishes the struggle with Israel prolonged, be- would mean the isolation, not of the Arabs,
cause Israel blocks complete fulfillment of the but of Israel. Hitherto Israel could hope that
pan-Arab goal. For this, the unity of at least regional defense would be built on Turkey
the states bounding Israel is essential. The and itself as the two Middle Eastern powers
balance therefore tipped toward Egypt as the strongest militarily and most friendly to the
champion of Arab resistance. But Turkey, to West. Zionists in the United States had loudly
put pressure on Syria as well as in response urged this course upon Washington, or failing
to anti-Turkish pronouncementsand demon- that, a policy of no arms to the Arabs before
strations, charged Syrian planes with violat- they made peace with Israel - or at least on a
ing Turkish territory and was reported, near basis of parity with Israel. But two factors
the end of March, to be maneuvering troops worked against a strategy of defense based on
near the Syrian frontier. An Egyptian-Saudi Israel: first, it is geographicallytoo small and
Arabian-Syrian defense pact, agreed upon in difficultof accessin time of war; and secondly,
principleearly in March, was never concluded, any such supportof Israel would automatically
and at the end of the month it was doubtful deprive the West of the cooperation of the
if it would take on either form or substance. Arab world. The geographicexpanse,location,
Iraq was also now beginningto work on Syria, oil resources, and manpower potential of the
while Lebanon aspiredto the role of mediator. latter outweighedthe presentmilitary efficiency
Jordan, bound to Iraq and Turkey by dynastic and pro-Western inclinations of the former.
and treaty ties, but with Palestine now domi- Nor does the U.S. appearto regard as serious
nant in its thinking, did not figure largely in any Arab military threat to Israel.
the web of negotiations. At one point even In granting arms to a foreign country the
Egypt seemed to be reconsideringits strategy United States exacts a guaranteethat they will
it intimated that it would join a broad re- not be used for aggressive purposes or the
gional defense scheme provided Israel surren- settlement of private disputes. In the case of
dered the Negev, therebyprovidingEgypt with the Arab countries,it also attempts to reassure
a land bridge to Jordan. Israel by pointing to the tripartite guarantee
Israel's criticism of the Iraqi-Turkish pact (with Great Britain and France) of 1950 to
was just as violent as Egypt's, but for different "immediately take action," both within and
reasons. Egypt saw it as splitting the Arab outside of the United Nations, to prevent any
League and therefore undermining Arab soli- violation of the frontiers and armistice lines
darity, hitherto based on antagonismto Israel surroundingIsrael. But to Israel these guaran-
and neutralism in the world conflict. Israel, tees are insufficientto compensate for a ring
on the other hand, saw it as a long-rangepoten- of well-armed, antagonistic neighbors.
tial gain in Arab strength. In isolation, the The only way out of isolation is for Israel
Arab states, even if united, would still be weak. to make peace with the Arabs, and the price
But now Iraq would receive training and arms asked by each side is far higher -if one can
in cooperation with Turkey, and eventually say it has been stated at all - than the other
with the U.S., Great Britain, and Pakistan. For is willing to pay. The only area in which there
the time being there might be disruptionin the are hopeful signs for agreement is in the pro-
Arab ranks, but sooner or later the attraction posed plan for joint utilization of the waters
of arms and internationalprestigewould begin of the Jordan valley. Mr. Eric Johnston re-
to work on the other Arab states and a new turned from his third trip to the Middle East
and much stronger grouping emerge. More- early in March expressing a good deal of op-
over, Israel is not at all confident that Iraq's timism. Basic issues, such as the use of the Sea
primary interest is security rather than a "sec- of Galilee for common storage and Israel's
ond round," and would be even less confident right to remove its portion of water from the
should the pact be extended to include other Jordan valley to the coastal plain if it so

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i66 THE MIDDLE EAST JOURNAL

wished, seemed to be settled. There remained Cairo. Likewise, early Israeli assertions that
only a gap of some 5 % in claims for a share the raid into Gaza was really the aftermath
in the water: Israel demanded 42%b whereas of an Egyptian raid into Israel failed to stand
the plan acceptableto the Arabs offered 37%. up under investigation. The Security Council,
Unless some serious incident occurredto make after hearing General Burns' full reporton the
further negotiationimpossible,there was strong incident, unanimously voted censure of Israel
hope that this gap would be bridged. on March 29.
The explanation for the raid was probably
Troublein the Gaza Strip to be found within Israel and on the border
itself. The Israeli government, since the raid
On the night of February 28, four days on Kibya in October I953, had been following
after the signing of the Iraqi-Turkish pact, a policy of periodic reprisal raids as the most
Israeli armed forces raided Egyptian military effective means of reducing the infiltration of
installations on the outskirts of Gaza, killing Arabs across its frontiers. The first raid on
38 and wounding 3I. Israeli casualties were Kibya had shocked the Israeli public because
8 killed and I3 wounded. of the large loss of civilian life, but there was
Coming so soon after the announcementof no repudiationof the policy. The frontier on
the pact, in the midst of a diplomatic crisis the Gaza strip had become increasinglyrestive
among the Arab states, the raid tempted ob- as more and more Jewish settlements con-
servers to look for broad strategic motivations. fronted it. A raid was what was needed to
Some professedto believe that Israel hoped to "settle" it. It would, moreover, be an answer
provoke an Arab counterattack which would
to Israeli public pressureto do something; and
give it the excuse to fill out its borders,at least
it would renew confidence by again demon-
to the old frontiers of Palestine, before the
strating the effectivenessand superiorityof the
Arabs could re-establishunity of action. Others
Israeli army. The recent execution of two
saw in it a warning to Egypt not to push too
far its attempts to form a Syrian-Egyptian- Jewish spies in Egypt and the detention of the
Saudi Arabian alliance directed against Israel. Israeli vessel Bat Galim added to the convic-
Still others saw the raid as provokedby Egypt tion that Egypt needed a salutary lesson. The
to win Arab support. None of these hypotheses government had been losing popularity just
entirely fitted the situation, however. It was when it needed to build it in preparationfor
just as cogent to argue that the split in the the general election scheduled to take place in
Arab League offered Israel its first real oppor- July. The return of Ben Gurion to the cabinet
tunity to make headway toward a separate as Defense Minister on February I7 was one
peace with Egypt, and that the last thing it bid for wider support; the raid may well have
should do at this juncture was to antagonize been another.

Chronology
DECEMBER 1, 1954- FEBRUARY 28, 1955
Aden and Aden Protectorates ment to maintain the friendliest relations with
Yemen and that they attached great importance
to a "strict observance" of all agreements with
'955 that government.
Jan. 9: British Minister of State for Colonial Af-
Jan. 3z: President Tito of Yugoslavia arrived in
fairs Henry Hopkinson arrived in Western Aden
Aden for a short visit.
Protectorate for talks with Arab tribal chiefs. He
was received by the Awdhali Sultan.
Jan. 18: Shortly before leaving for Britain after a Algeria
tour of 6 of the Aden Protectorates, Henry Hop- '954
kinson told newsmen that it was the earnest desire Dec. 29: French troops and police arrested 200
of the British government and the Aden govern- suspected Arab terrorists in a 2-day mopping-up

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DEVELOPMENTS OF THE QUARTER: COMMENT AND CHRONOLOGY I67

operation in the mountains in the northwestern President Chamoun met with the Egyptian Am-
part of the country. bassador at Beirut.
Jan. 26: A 3-man Iraqi delegation, led by former
1955 Prime Minister Fadil al-Jamali, arrived in Cairo
Jan. i8: The Algerian Assembly convened in ex- to attend the emergency session. Yemeni Prime
traordinary session. Speaker Raymond Laquiere Minister Amir Sayf al-Islam al-Hasan also ar-
read a letter from French Interior Minister Mit- rived, while Libyan Ambassador Khalil Kallal
terrand promising that his reform plan would be was permitted to attend on behalf of his govern-
submitted to the Assembly in time for considera- ment.
tion during its present session. Jan. 27: The Iraqi delegates held a private meeting
Jan. 26: Jacques Soustelle was appointed Governor with the Egyptian Prime Minister, Foreign Min-
General of Algeria. ister, and Minister of National Guidance.
Feb. I5: Governor General Jacques Soustelle ar- Jan. 28: Libyan Prime Minister Mustaf a bin Halim
rived in Algiers to take up his duties. arrived in Cairo to participate in the emergency
meeting.
Arab League Jan. 29: At the 12th meeting of the emergency con-
ference a 5-man committee was appointed to draft
(See also Pakistan) a communique on results of the deliberations. The
'954 chief Iraqi delegate, Dr. al-Jamali, proposed that
Dec. 9: The Political Committee concluded its the communique should include a clause recog-
meeting at Cairo and presented its resolutions to nizing Iraq's right - as a sovereign power - to
the League Council. conclude military pacts outside the scope of the
Dec. zz: The League Council began consideration Arab Collective Security Pact. The Egyptian
of the proposals of the Political Committee, which delegation rejected the Iraqi proposal and the
included exploitation of oil and prevention of its meeting adjourned without action.
being smuggled into Israel, the strengthening of Jan. 30: The emergency conference decided to send
the Collective Security Pact, Israel's diversion of to Baghdad a 4-man mission (Lebanese Prime
Jordan waters, and the question of North Africa. Minister Sami al-Sulh, Egyptian Minister of Na-
Dec. i6: A conference of Arab Foreign Ministers, tional Guidance Salah Salim, Syrian Foreign
supplementary to the League Political Committee Minister Faydi al-'Atasi, and Jordanian Foreign
and Council meetings, ended with tentative agree- Minister Walid Salah) for discussions with Iraqi
ments for the evolution of a foreign policy toward Prime Minister Nuri al-Sa'id. The conference was
the Western powers, including such matters as adjourned until Feb. 3.
Iraq's intention to seek cancellation of the Anglo- Jan. 3I: Lebanese Deputy Emile Bustani arrived in
Iraqi treaty. Baghdad with a special message from President
Chamoun to King Faysal. He told newsmen that
'955
Jan. i6: Egypt called an emergency conference of in his view the Iraqi-Turkish pact was a blow
Arab Prime Ministers and Foreign Ministers to to Israel.
discuss Iraq's decision to conclude an alliance Feb. 2: Despite provisos that no signatory could
with Turkey announced by a joint communique secede from the Collective Security Pact until Io
at Baghdad on Jan. I2. years after its signature and that i2 months'
The gth session of the Cultural Committee was notice was necessary for withdrawal, Egyptian
opened at Jidda by Amir Fahd, Saudi Minister Prime Minister Gamal 'Abd al-Nasir warned
of Education. Dr. Taha Husayn, Director of the that Egypt would withdraw if Iraq persisted in
League Cultural Department, presided. The teach- signing the proposed pact with Turkey.
ing of Arabic in both Eastern and Western coun- Feb. 3: The emergency conference resumed its ses-
tries was one of the principal topics on the sions in Cairo.
agenda. Feb. 6: The emergency conference adjourned with-
Jan. 22: The emergency conference called by Egypt out reaching any decision.
on Jan. i6 opened in Cairo with representatives Feb. 7: Egyptian Minister of National Guidance
of Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Syria, and Salah Salim told a delegation of Lebanese jour-
Lebanon in attendance. Iraqi Prime Minister nalists visiting Cairo that Egypt would secede
Nuri al-Sa'id was unable to attend because of from the Collective Security Pact the day Iraq
illness. signed the proposed pact with Turkey and would
Jan. 24: Iraq's Deputy Prime Minister Ahmad seek to conclude a new military alliance with
Mukhtar Baban flew to Beirut to discuss with "like-minded" Arab states opposed to foreign
Lebanon's President Camille Chamoun Egypt's alliances.
strong reaction to the proposed Iraqi-Turkish Feb. 8: Saudi Arabian Prime Minister Amir Faysal
p act. told pressmen in Cairo that his government was
Jan. 25: Iraq's acting Foreign Minister Burhan in complete agreement with the Egyptian govern-
al-Din Bashayan and Dr. Fadil al-Jamali joined ment on all matters of Arab and foreign policy.
Deputy Prime Minister Baban in Beirut for fur- Feb. 12: Addressing the Arab peoples from Mecca,
ther discussions with the Lebanese president. King Su'ud set forth his determination to oppose

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i68 THE MIDDLE EAST JOURNAL

military alliances between the Arabs and foreign Dec. 20: Prime Minister Nasir announced that his
powers. government would restore democratic constitu-
Feb. I4: Yemen's Foreign Minister Qadi Muham- tional life in Jan. 1956.
mad al-'Umari told newsmen in Cairo that his Dec. 21: Max Bennett, one of the I3 Israelis on
country was prepared to follow the example of trial for espionage, committed suicide in his cell
Egypt and Saudi Arabia and withdraw from the at Cairo.
Collective Security Pact if Iraq signed the pro- Dec. 23: Five members of the Muslim Brotherhood
posed pact with Turkey. were sentenced to life terms for terrorist activities
Feb. 20: Egyptian Minister of National Guidance against the government; 35 others were given
Salah Salim flew to Beirut with Prime Minister sentences of from IO to 15 years; 45 others re-
Nasir's reply to an invitation by President Cha- ceived io-year suspended sentences.
moun that Nasir meet Prime Minister Nuri al-
Sa'id of Iraq in Beirut to iron out Egyptian-Iraqi 1955
difficulties. Nasir replied that he would welcome Jan. 5: Trial of 13 alleged spies for Israel ended
a meeting with any Arab leader to discuss "uni- at Cairo.
fication of the Arabs." Jan. lo: Dr. Hasan Marai, Minister of Commerce,
Feb. 22: Syria's new Prime Minister Sabri al- announced discovery of a potentially rich oil field
'Asali announced that Syria would not join the near Wadi Firan on the Red Sea coast of the
Turkish-Iraqi pact. Sinai Peninsula.
Jan. 27: The Supreme Military Tribunal made
Feb. 28: It was reported from Damascus that after
public its sentences against io of the 1I3 Jews
several days of secret talks between Egypt's
being tried for espionage: 2 were sentenced to
Minister of Guidance Salah Salim and Syrian
death; 2 to hard labor for life; 2 to I5 years'
leaders, the two countries had decided to sign an
hard labor; 2 to 7 years' hard labor; and 2 were
agreement for the setting up of a new Arab
acquitted.
alliance, excluding Iraq.
Jan. 31: The 2 Jews condemned to death as spies
for Israel were executed at Cairo.
Cyprus Feb. 16: Indian Prime Minister Nehru left Cairo
after 2 days of talks with Egyptian officials.
'954 Before his departure a joint communique was
Dec. 15: The UN Political and Security Committee
issued declaring identity of views of the two
voted 28-I5-i6 to postpone "for the time being" governments regarding international issues.
a consideration of the Greek proposal endorsing
Feb. 20: British Foreign Secretary Sir Anthony
self-determination for Cyprus. Eden had a brief, informal meeting with Prime
Dec. 17: The UN General Assembly by a vote of Minister Nasir when he stopped at Cairo on his
50--8 approved the Committee decision of Dec. way to the SEATO conference at Bangkok.
15 regarding the Greek proposal for Cyprus. Feb. 21: King Husayn of Jordan arrived in Cairo
for a 6-day visit.
Feb. 27: Henry A. Byroade arrived in Cairo to take
Egypt up his duties as U.S. Ambassador.
(See also Arab League, Jordan, Palestine
Problem)
'954
Ethiopia
Dec. 1: Sudanese Prime Minister Isma'il al-Azhari '954
conferred with Egyptian Prime Minister Gamal Dec. 7: Emperor Haile Selassie returned to Addis
'Abd al-Nasir. Ababa after a 2-month tour of Western Europe.
Dec. 4: Seven Muslim Brotherhood leaders were 1955
condemned to death for complicity in the at- Jan. 4: The British Foreign Office announced sig-
tempted assassination of the Prime Minister on nature of an agreement by which certain areas
Oct. 26. The sentence for Supreme Guide al- near the southern border of the Somaliland Pro-
Hudaybi was later commuted to life at hard tectorate of Ethiopia under British administration
labor. Seven other leaders were sentenced to would be returned to Ethiopian administration.
life imprisonment, 2 to imprisonment for 15 years,
and 3 were acquitted. Three additional panels of
the court were to begin trials of other Muslim India
Brethren arrested after the assassination attempt. (See also Egypt, Kashmir)
Dec. 7: The 6 Muslim Brotherhood leaders con-
'954
demned to death on Dec. 4 were hanged at Cairo. Dec. 7: Six new Ministers assumed office, resulting
Dec. II: The Supreme Military Tribunal began in the following Cabinet (see also Jan. io):
trial of I3 persons accused of spying for Israel. Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru-Prime Minister,
Two were to be tried in absentia, having escaped Commonwealth Relations, Foreign Affairs,
the country before the arrests took place. Defense

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DEVELOPMENTS OF THE QUARTER: COMMENT AND CHRONOLOGY I69

Govind Ballahb Pant - Without Portfolio Jan. 25: Pakistan's Governor General Ghulam
K. N. Katju -Home Affairs and States Mohammed arrived in New Delhi at the invita-
Ajit Prasad Jain -Food and Agriculture tion of President Prasad to assist in India's Inde-
Maulana Abul Kalam Azad -Education pendence Day celebrations.
Chintaman D. Deshmukh - Finance Jan. 29: Prime Minister Nehru arrived in London
Lal Bahadur Shastri -Railways and Trans- to attend the Commonwealth Prime Ministers'
port conference.
Khandubhai Desai -Labor Feb. 2: An agreement was signed with the Soviet
Julzarilar Nanda -Planning, Irrigation & Union, by which the latter would construct a
Power i-million-ton steel plant in central India, provided
Jagjivan Ram -Communications satisfactory plans were submitted within 9 months.
K. C. Reddy - Production The cost was estimated at $9I million.
Rajkumari Amrit Kaur -Health Feb. 8: The Socialist government of Travancore-
T. T. Krishnamachari - Commerce & In- Cochin was defeated on a vote of confidence on
dustry economic matters.
Swaram Singh - Works, Housing & Supply Feb. II: Voting began in Andhra for a new state
B. V. Keskar- Information & Broadcasting government. Elections were to continue through
C. C. Biswas -Law Feb. 27.
Keshava Deva Malaviya - Natural Re- Feb. 12: The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission in
sources & Scientific Research Washington announced the sale of io tons of
Mehr Chand Khanna- Rehabilitation heavy water to India for use in research on
Dec. lo: The permanent secretary of the Congress peaceful applications of atomic energy.
Party's executive committee announced the elec- Feb. I6: Sixteen persons were reported injured in
tion of Mr. Uchharangrai N. Dhebar to succeed clashes between Congress and Communist Party
Prime Minister Nehru as president of the Con- workers during the elections in Andhra.
gress Party.
Dec. I7: Marshal Tito, president of Yugoslavia,
was greeted by President Rajendra Prasad and Iran
Prime Minister Nehru when he arrived in New '954
Delhi to begin a 4-week tour of India. Dec. 6: Shah Mohammad Reza and Queen Soraya
Dec. 22: The International Bank announced at arrived in New York for a 2-month unofficial
Washington that it would lend $Io million to the visit in the U.S.
new Industrial Credit and Investment Corpora-
tion of India, Ltd. '955
Feb. 7: President Eisenhower nominated Julius C.
Dec. 24: Leaders of the Congress, Praja Socialist,
Holmes to be U.S. Ambassador to Iran. He was
and Krishikar Lok (Farmers) parties signed an
to succeed Loy Henderson, who had been trans-
agreement at New Delhi to support each other's
ferred to the Department of State.
candidates in the February elections in Andhra
Feb. II: The Shah and Queen Soraya sailed from
state, and if successful to form a new united
New York for a visit to England and Germany.
party to run the state government.
Ajoy Ghosh, general secretary of the Com-
munist Party of India, appealed to all Commu- Iraq
nists and sympathizers to donate I day's pay to
the Communist election fund for Andhra.
(See also Arab League)
Dec. 30: The government announced a substantial 1954
liberalization of imports for the first 6 months of Dec. i_?: Foreign Minister Musa al-Shabandar,
I955. attending the League meetings in Cairo, told
pressmen that Iraq desired a new agreement with
'955 Britain similar to that signed by Britain and
Jan. 6: The Gazette of India issued a notification Egypt on Suez, i.e., in exchange for a treaty by
that the former French establishments would which Britain maintained small air units in Iraq,
henceforth be known as the State of Pondicherry. he offered an arrangement by which British
Jan. so: Govind Ballahb Pant, Minister Without forces could re-enter Iraq in the event of Iran's
being attacked.
Portfolio, assumed the Ministry of Home Affairs
Dec. 17: With expiry of the period during which
and States from Dr. K. N. Katju, who took over
newspapers could apply for new licenses, it was
Defense, formerly held by Prime Minister Nehru.
announced that I5 applications had been rejected.
Jan. 15: Prime Minister Nehru appealed to thou- Dec. I9: The first consignment of American mili-
sands at a harvest festival at Vijayavada to pre- tary aid under the agreement of Apr. 25, 1954,
vent Andhra from becoming the first Communist- arrived in Basra.
ruled state in India. Dec. 21: Prime Minister Nuri al-Sa'id announced
Jan. 17: The Congress Party's 6oth annual confer- that agreement had been reached with the oil
ence opened at Madras. companies operating in Iraq to increase Iraq's

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I 70 THE MIDDLE EAST JOURNAL

royalties for 1954 in accordance with the in- Feb. 21: The appointment of Ben-Gurion as Minis-
creased royalties of neighboring countries. He ter of Defense was confirmed by the Knesset by
also stated that the Iraq Petroleum Company had a vote of 74 to 22.
agreed to divert the unused Kirkuk-Haifa pipe-
line to Sidon in Lebanon.
Dec. 25: The Council of Ministers upheld a decision Jordan
by the Minister of Interior rejecting an applica- (See also Arab League, Egypt, Palestine
tion by Kamil al-Chadirchi to form a new politi- Problem)
cal party under the name of the National Demo-
1954
cratic Party. Dec. 8: One thousand secondary school students
paraded before the Egyptian Embassy at Amman
1955
Jan. 3: The Soviet Embassy was closed in response protesting Egypt's hanging of 6 Muslim Brother-
to the government's decision of Nov. 7 to close hood members convicted of plotting to overthrow
the Iraq embassy in Moscow. the Egyptian government.
Dec. lo: A general strike took place in Amman in
Jan. 6: Turkey's Prime Minister Adnan Menderes
protest against Egypt's hanging of 6 members of
arrived in Baghdad for an 8-day visit with Iraqi
the Muslim Brotherhood.
officials. He was accompanied by a large party, in-
Dec. i8: King Husayn, accompanied by Prime Min-
cluding Turkey's Foreign Minister Fuad Koprulu.
ister Tawfiq Abu al-Huda and Defense Minister
Jan. 7: The International Bank announced that Iraq
Anwar Nusaybah, left for London for talks with
had waived the remaining $6.5 million of its 1950
the British government on a possible revision of
Wadi Tharthar loan. This was made possible by
the Anglo-Jordanian Treaty of 1948.
increased income from oil royalties.
Dec. 22: It was announced simultaneously in Lon-
Jan. 12: Following talks with the visiting Turkish don and Amman that as a result of financial dis-
officials, a joint communique was issued stating cussions between the two countries, Jordan would
that Iraq would conclude a military alliance with receive ?;z,5oo,000 in economic aid from Britain
Turkey which other Middle East states would be during I955. Of this, ?I,750,00o would be an
invited to join. interest-free loan to be spent on certain projects
Jan. 14: The Turkish Prime Minister and his party of Jordan's Five-Year Plan.
left Baghdad by air for Damascus and Beirut.
Jan. IS: The Chamber of Deputies approved the 1955
Arab Postal Union Agreement. Jan. I: Prime Minister al-Huda returned from
Feb. 14: King Husayn of Jordan arrived in Bagh- London.
dad on a 3-day "private" visit. Jan. 2: It was announced at Amman that the
Feb. 24: A 5-year defense pact with Turkey was British-Jerusalem Electric Company would turn
signed at Baghdad. (For text, see page 177.) over to Jordan its installations serving the Old
Feb. 26: Parliament ratified the pact signed with City of Jerusalem.
Turkey on Feb. 24. The Chamber of Deputies Jan. 3: The Chamber of Deputies recommended
vote was zi6 to 4; the Senate, 26 to I. that the government "study with sympathy" the
demands of the Arab Women's Union in Jordan
Prime Minister Nuri al-Sa'id called on the U.S.,
for political rights for women.
Britain, Iran, and Pakistan to join the Iraqi-
Feb. 7: King Husayn distributed 8,ooo dunums of
Turkish pact.
land in the Jordan valley to tribesmen who par-
ticipated in the Arab Revolt led by his great-
Israel grandfather, Sharif Husayn.
Feb. so: Speaking at a press conference, Prime
(See also Palestine Problem) Minister al-Huda announced that he had received
'955 a note from Britain embodying its viewpoint on
Jan. 12: In a Knesset debate, Prime Minister Moshe the various points raised during the December
Sharett announced that an exploratory trade mis- talks in London. He said that Britain believed
sion would leave for Communist China to look revision of the treaty should be considered only
into the possibilities of a trade agreement. in the light of a defense system for the entire
Jan. 17: A no-confidence motion against the gov- Middle East. His delegation had pointed out to
the British the necessity for consulting the Arab
ernment, introduced by members of the Herut
League members regarding joint defense. Until
Party, was defeated 66 to 7.
this was done, Jordan would merely fulfill its
Jan. 24: A law was passed setting elections to the
commitments under the present treaty.
Third Knesset for July 26, 1955. Feb. I4: King Husayn flew to Baghdad for a
Feb. 17: The resignation of Defense Minister Pinhas "private visit." It was believed that he would
Lavron, reportedly submitted on Feb. 2, was attempt to mediate tension between Egypt and
accepted by Prime Minister Sharett. David Ben- Iraq.
Gurion, former Prime Minister, was appointed Feb. 16: British Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden
Minister of Defense in his stead. told the House of Commons that Britain would

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DEVELOPMENTS OF THE QUARTER: COMMENT AND CHRONOLOGY 17 1

grant a special subsidy of ?35o,ooo for Jordan's offices and kept the students inside for the night,
National Guard, and that subject to parliamen- making many arrests.
tary approval further support up to a maximum Jan. 27: Most of the students arrested by police on
of ?25o,ooo would be given for the following Jan. 25 were released; 2 of those dismissed at the
4 years. This was to be in addition to the annual American University on the same day were re-
subsidy for the Arab Legion. admitted to classes.
Feb. s: President Camille Chamoun inaugurated
Lebanon's second oil refinery, located at Sidon
Kashmir and named the Mediterranean Refinery.
'954
Dec. 6: The last 2 American observers on the UN
cease-fire commission in Kashmir left for the Libya
U.S. Withdrawal of American observers had been (See also Arab League)
demanded by Prime Minister Nehru after the
U.S. decided to give military aid to Pakistan. '954
Dec. 25: Prime Minister Mohammed 'Ali sent a Dec. i: John Tappen, U.S. Ambassador, officially
handed over 3,000 tons of wheat, a gift from the
telegram to Prime Minister Nehru requesting that
the Kashmir issue be discussed "exclusively" by U.S. to victims of famine areas.
the Prime Ministers, while other outstanding Dec. 5: It was announced that the Wali of Tripoli-
issues be settled by a joint steering committee. tania, Sayyid Siddiq al-Muntasir, and the Presi-
Dec. 31: It was announced at Karachi that Prime dent of the Tripolitania Executive Council, Dr.
Ministers Mohammed 'Ali and Jawaharlal Nehru Muhi al-Din Fekini, had been relieved of their
would meet during March to discuss the Kashmir posts, which were given to Dr. 'Abd al-Salam
issue. al-Busayri and Mahmud al-Bishti respectively.
Dec. 9: In the Speech from the Throne read by
Prime Minister Bin Halim, the King reiterated
Lebanon Libya's demand for the withdrawal of the French
(See also Arab League, Palestine Problem) garrison from the Fezzan.
Dec. is: Al-Sharif Muhi al-Din al-Sanusi, nephew
'954
of the Queen, was sentenced to death by the Ben-
Dec. *6: An agreement was signed with Turkey
ghazi Criminal Court for the killing of Ibrahim
extending for an additional 2 years the provi-
al-Shalhi, Chief of the Royal Estates, on Oct. 5,
sions of the Lausanne Treaty of 1924, by which
1954.
persons of Lebanese origin living in Turkey are
able to claim Lebanese nationality if they wish. Dec. 12: It was announced that diplomatic repre-
Dec. 28: It was announced at Beirut that the sentation with Turkey had been raised to Em-
Medrico Oil Company would resume operations bassy status.
in Lebanon, now that an agreement had been Dec. I9: Changes in several ministerial posts re-
reached with the government on a price for sulted in the following Cabinet:
products from the company's refinery at Sidon. Mustafa bin Halim- Prime Minister
Dec. 3o: The temporary economic agreement with 'Abd al-Salam al-Busayri - Foreign Affairs
Syria was extended for 3 months from Jan. I, Ibrahim bin Sha'ban -Defense
'955. Muhammad bin 'Uthman -Public Health
Dr. 'Ali Nur al-Din al-'Unayzi -Finance
'955 'Abd al-Rahman al-Jalhud- Justice
Jan. 2: The government announced that the number Mustaf a al-Sarraj -Education
of governorates would be increased from 5 to 6; 'Ali al-Sahli - Communications
Aley is the principal town in the new governorate. Salam al-Kadi -National Economy
Jan. 8: An International Bank mission, which had Dec. 20: A gift from Turkey of I2 mortars and
been studying the Litani River project to provide 6 field guns, together with ammunition, was
water and electric power for south Lebanon, left handed over to Libya at a ceremony at Palace
for Washington. Square.
Jan. 14: Turkish Prime Minister Adnan Menderes The Libyan Development and Stabilization
arrived in Beirut for talks with Lebanese leaders. Agency was instructed to establish an electric
Jan. I8: President Eisenhower nominated Donald A. power station in Tripoli at a cost of ?2,50o,oo.
Heath to be U.S. Ambassador to Lebanon, to suc- Dec. 29: A delegation headed by Prime Minister
ceed Raymond A. Hare. bin Halim flew to Paris via London for talks with
Jan. 25: Authorities at the American University of the French on the future of their garrison in the
Beirut ordered the student organization Arwah Fezzan.
al-Wuthqah to disband and dismissed I7 students
for their connections with political demonstrations. '955
Immediately 2oo students went on a "sit-down" Jan. 6: The Prime Minister, returning from Paris,
strike at the offices of the National Party in announced that an agreement had been reached
Beirut. Police and security men surrounded the regarding the future of the French garrison in

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I72 THE MIDDLE EAST JOURNAL

the Fezzan. Details of the agreement would be


worked out in Tripoli.
Pakistan
Feb. 6: Al-Sharif Muhi al-Din al-Sanusi was (See also Kashmir)
hanged for the murder of the Chief of the Royal '954
Estates on Oct. 5, 1954. Dec. 6: The Chief Court of Sind Province began
hearings on the legality of Governor General
Ghulam Mohammed's dissolution of the Constit-
Morocco uent Assembly on Oct. 24.
(See also Tunisia) Dec. 12: Hussein Suhrawardy, leader of the Awami
Muslim League, arrived in Karachi after a 6-
1954
months' stay in Europe.
Dec. 9: At the opening of a debate on North Africa
Dec. 14: A conference composed of the Central
in the French National Assembly, M. Rene Mayer
Ministers, the 4 Provincial Governors, and 6 of
attacked the policies of Premier Mendes-France
the io Rulers of Princely States, voted to consti-
and reaffirmed France's intention to remain in tute West Pakistan into a single province. It was
Morocco as well as in its other North African hoped that the merger would be accomplished in
territories. April.
Twelve Asian and Arab countries submitted to Sixty-two delegates to an emergency conference
the UN a resolution recommending that "an at- of the Awami League voted "full powers" to
mosphere conducive to peaceful settlement of the Mr. Suhrawardy "to take any decisions for res-
question be created in Morocco," and that nego- toration of democracy in the country."
tiations take place between France and the "true Dec. 15: Mr. Fazlul Huq, former Chief Minister of
representatives of the Moroccan people." East Bengal, arrived in Karachi at the invitation
Dec. so: In the continuing debate on North Africa, of Prime Minister Mohammed 'Ali.
French Premier Mendes-France called attention Dec. I9: Admiral Arthur W. Radford, Chairman of
to the decline in terrorism in Morocco and said the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff, arrived in Karachi
political and social reforms were being prepared. for talks with Pakistani officials.
Dec. 17: The UN General Assembly approved a Dec. 20: Mr. Suhrawardy was sworn in as Minister
modification of the Arab-Asian resolution of Dec. of Law. He stated that he would begin drafting
9. It "postponed" for the time being further con- a Constitution that would enable the government
sideration of the Moroccan question. to prepare early elections.
Dec. 22: A terrorist's bomb exploded in the Euro- Dec. 21: The Foreign Ministry announced that
pean quarter of Casablanca, killing a nurse and Pakistan had extended recognition to Communist-
wounding 6 other persons. ruled North Vietnam and the independent states
Dec. 27: A police inspector and 2 other persons of Cambodia and Laos.
were killed in Casablanca by terrorists. Dec. 25: Prime Minister Mohammed 'Ali left for
Indonesia to attend a meeting of representatives
'955 of the Colombo Plan powers which was to adopt
Jan. 2: Arab shopkeepers in Casablanca closed their an agenda for the proposed April conference of
shops after 2 traders (i French and i Moroccan) African and Asian nations.
were killed in terrorist attacks. A Moroccan
policeman in Rabat was killed by a terrorist. '955
Jan. i: Import restrictions imposed in I1952 on a
Jan. 4: Six persons convicted of terrorism were
broad list of consumer and industrial items were
executed by a firing squad at Adir Prison, about
lifted.
50 miles southwest of Casablanca.
Jan. 3: Muslim youth leaders from 32 countries
Jan. 6: Three persons were killed and I8 wounded
opened an International Assembly of Muslim
in renewed terrorist attacks in the vicinity of Youth at Karachi.
Casablanca.
Jan. II: The first of 4 agreements by which the
Jan. II: Terrorists shot and killed a British subject, U.S. would grant Pakistan $Iio million in eco-
Anthony Bonnet, who was employed at the Amer- nomic aid for the fiscal year ending June 30,
ican airbase I2 miles east of Casablanca. 1955, was signed at Karachi.
Jan. I3: The French Minister for Moroccan and Jan. I8: Three agreements were signed with the
Tunisian Affairs, Christian Fouchet, received U.S., covering the remainder of the $iio million
Resident General Lacoste as he arrived in Paris in economic aid granted by the U.S.
after failure of discussions among representative Jan. I9: The Cabinet unanimously approved Pak-
elements of the Moroccan population for a reform istan's participation in the Southeast Asian de-
program. Nationalists remained adamant over the fense alliance.
question of the return of the former Sultan. Jan. 20: Prime Minister Mohammed 'Ali arrived
Jan. 22: Eight persons were killed and 25 injured in London to attend the Commonwealth Prime
when a train was derailed at Meknes. Ministers' Conference.

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DEVELOPMENTS OF THE QUARTER: COMMENT AND CHRONOLOGY I73

Jan. 23: The Prime Minister left London by air for Jan. 19: Israeli authorities reported finding the body
New York and Canada. of a Jordanian near El Kabu village after an
Jan. 25: Governor General Ghulam Mohammed Israeli patrol had opened fire upon hearing sus-
left for New Delhi on a 3-day visit celebrating picious movements in the vicinity. Israel charged
India's Independence Day at the invitation of Jordan with a breach of the armistice agreement,
India's President Prasad. saying the Jordanian was illegally in Israeli
Feb. 5: A parliamentary expert disclosed that a territory.
draft constitution very similar to that of the U.S. Jan. 2_': Lt. Col. Charles Brewster, American chair-
had been completed on Jan. 24. Cabinet members man of the Israeli-Jordanian Mixed Armistice
had been presenting it at various provincial capi- Commission, reported that Jordanian authorities
tals and it was hoped that it would be adopted had arrested z men for the murder of 2 Israelis
before Aug. I4, the 8th anniversary of the found- on Jan. iS.
ing of the state. Jan. 25: An Israeli tractor driver and 2 armed
Feb. 8: The government confiscated i,Ioo,ooo acres Arabs were found dead in Israeli territory in
of cultivable land belonging to 124 of the wealth- the Negev, 4 miles from the armistice line. UN
iest men in the country. observers followed the tracks of 3 men from the
Feb. 9: The Provincial Court of Sind Province scene to the border of the Gaza Strip.
ruled illegal the Governor General's dismissal of Jan. 26: Eric Johnston arrived in Tel Aviv to
the National Assembly on Oct. 24. The court also resume negotiations regarding joint development
invalidated the appointment of 5 Cabinet minis- by Israel and the Arab states of the Jordan River
ters sworn in after the dismissal of the Assembly. valley. He was also to visit the Arab capitals.
Advocate General Fayyaz 'Ali declared that the Feb. 16: It was reported from Damascus, where
government would appeal the decision to the Eric Johnston was holding negotiations with Arab
Federal High Court. leaders, that Israel, Jordan, Syria, and Lebanon
Feb. 12: Despite the Governor General's dismissal had agreed to the use of Lake Tiberias as the
of the Assembly, its president, Tamizuddin Khan, main water storage reservoir in the proposed
called a meeting for Mar. 7. Jordan Valley development plan. The chief re-
Feb. i8: The Federal High Court announced that maining item of disagreement was the share of
it would hear the government's appeal against the water each state would get.
the decision of the Sind Provincial Court invali- Feb. 20: Eric Johnston returned to Israel from
dating the Governor General's dismissal of the
Jordan.
National Assembly. It also announced that the
Feb. 22: Egypt complained to the Joint Egyptian-
government's application for a stay order on the
Sind Court ruling would be considered Feb. 22. Israeli Mixed Armistice Commission that an Is-
Turkey's President Celal Bayar arrived in raeli army unit had kept up mortar fire for a
Karachi for a io-day state visit. half-hour on an Egyptian army position near
Rafah, causing serious injuries to 4 Egyptian
soldiers.
Palestine Problem Israel lodged a complaint with the Egyptian-
1954
Israeli Mixed Armistice Commission that an
Dec. 7: The UN Security Council reopened debate, Egyptian army position had fired on a Israeli
suspended in November, on Israel's charges that patrol with 3-inch mortars. No casualties were
Egypt was restricting passage through the Suez reported.
Canal of ships trading with Israel. Feb. 25: Israel complained to the Egyptian-Israeli
Mixed Armistice Commission that 3 men had
'955 crossed the boundary into Israel from Egyptian-
Jan. I: Egypt released the io Israeli sailors seized controlled territory, had come 24 miles inside
on the Israeli ship Bat Galim on Sept. 28, I954. Israeli territory, and had killed an Israeli at
Jan. 14: Maj. Gen. E. L. M. Burns proposed that Rehovot.
Israel and Syria divide the demilitarized zone Feb. 28: Lt. Col. Nachman Karni of the Israeli
lying between the two countries into administra- army accused the Egyptian army of operating an
tive areas. extensive intelligence network in southern Israel.
Jan. i8: Two Israeli tractor drivers were killed at He said that 24 Egyptian agents were appre-
Agur, 20 miles southwest of Jerusalem. hended during I954, IO others had been killed,
The Israeli Foreign Ministry, in a letter to and 5 escaped.
General Burns, stated that the latter's suggestion Israeli armed forces of about half-battalion
to partition the demilitarized zone between Israel strength crossed the armistice lines at Gaza and
and Syria was unacceptable. destroyed the Gaza Garrison Headquarters of
Israel lodged a complaint with the UN commis- the Egyptian Army. Thirty-eight Egyptians were
sion in Jerusalem that 2 Israeli farmers had been killed and 31 wounded. Israeli casualties were
killed by Jordanians in the Jerusalem corridor. unknown.

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I74 THE MIDDLE EAST JOURNAL

Yahya al-Fadli -Social Affairs


Saudi Arabia Muhammad Nur al-Din -Works
(See also Arab League) Hamad Tawfiq- Finance, Economy
Mubarak Zarrug - Communications
1954
Dec. 8: King Su'ud ordered the establishment of Muhammad Ahmad al-Maradi -Local Gov-
free ports for goods in transit at Dammam and ernment
Jidda. Bullen Alier deBior -Animal Husbandry
Dec. 13: The Minister of Finance and National Dr. Muhammad Amin al-Sayyid - Health
Economy announced that if no agreement was Dec. 28: 'Ali al-Mirghani, leader of the Khatmiyah
reached between the government and Aramco sect, who had been convalescing in Egypt, re-
regarding modification of the Onassis tanker turned to the Sudan.
agreement by Jan. I5, 1955, the dispute would be Dec. 29: The Cabinet approved all recommenda-
referred to an arbitration commission. tions of the Sudanization Committee regarding
Dec. 29: Radio Mecca announced that Prof. Charles the Railways and Posts and Telegraphs Adminis-
de Visscher of Belgium, Dr. Mahmud Hasan of trations. The Minister of Communications was
Pakistan, and Prof. Ernesto Dihigo of Cuba had charged with putting them into effect.
accepted assignments on the al-Buraimi Arbitra- Dec. 31: It was announced in London and Cairo
tion Tribunal as the 3 neutral members. They that the resignation of Governor General Sir
were nominated by Shaykh Yusuf Yasin of Saudi Robert Howe had been accepted, and that he
Arabia and Sir Reader Bullard of Great Britain. would be succeeded by Sir Alexander Knox Helm
early in 1955.
'955
Feb. 8: A Royal Decree was issued providing for '955
the construction of an asphalt highway between Jan. 6: The secretariat of the new Republican
Jidda and Dammam, via Mecca, Taif, Riyad, Independence Party, under the leadership of the
and al-Hasa. 3 ministers dismissed from the Cabinet on Dec.
A Royal Decree was issued authorizing the 23, issued a statement of its aims and principles,
Minister of Finance and National Economy to among which were the establishment of an inde-
mint 50 million riyals to back pilgrim receipts pendent Sudanese Republic and cooperation with
now in circulation. Egypt on economic, cultural, and other questions
Feb. 26: Radio Mecca broadcast the text of a Royal in a way compatible with the sovereignty of both
Decree providing for the establishment of a countries.
military academy at Riyad to be known as the Jan. i8: Southern opposition members of Parliament
King 'Abd al-'Aziz Royal Academy. met at Juba to discuss partitioning of the Sudan
into North and South, and also the establishment
Sudan of a Federal Government which would include
North and South Sudan and Egypt.
'954
Dec. s5: The Juba Supreme Court acquitted 4 Feb. I2: The second anniversary of the conclusion
persons who had been on trial for an attempt on of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudanese Agreement was
the life of Prime Minister Isma'il al-Azhari on celebrated with prayers at the mosques and
Oct. 23. churches, and public parades and celebrations.
Dec. i8: Prime Minister al-Azhari and 2 other
Cabinet members returned to Khartoum from a
week's tour of Darfur Province.
Syria
Dec. 21: The Governor General's C'ommission ap- (See also Arab League, Palestine Problem)
proved the appointment of Judge Muhammad '954
Ahmad Abu Rannat to the post of Chief Justice, Dec. II: The Chamber of Deputies approved a law
effective July 1955. pardoning all those convicted of political crimes
Dec. 23: Three Ministers - Mirghani Hamza al- during the "unconstitutional" regime of General
Balla, Khalafallah Khalid, and Ahmad Gali- Shishakli.
were dismissed from the Cabinet.
Der. 25: A reshuffled Cabinet was approved by the 1955
Governor General as follows: Jan. 6: A 22-man parliamentary committee was
Isma'il al-Azhari -Prime Minister, Interior, appointed to work out a new oil policy for the
Defense country.
Hasan Awadallah- Agriculture Jan. 14: Turkish Prime Minister Adnan Menderes,
Mudathir al-Busi - Justice enroute to Beirut from Baghdad, stopped in Da-
Ibrahim al-Mufti - Mineral Wealth, Com- mascus for a short talk with Prime Minister
merce & Supplies Faris al-Khuri. Following the meeting it was
Santino Deng Teng - Stores announced that Turkey and Syria had agreed to
Dak Dei - Mechanical Transport form a committee to study the question of prop-
Khadr Hamad - Irrigation erty held by Turks in Syria and by Syrians in
'Ali 'Abd al-Rahman al-Amin -Education Turkey.

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DEVELOPMENTS OF THE QUARTER: COMMENT AND CHRONOLOGY 175

Jan. 15: Demonstrations were staged in Aleppo Dec. 17: The UN General Assembly voted to post-
protesting the visit of Turkish Prime Minister pone "for the time being" a discussion of the
Menderes. Thirty-five persons were injured. difficulties between France and Tunisia.
Jan. 16: Students tried to storm the main govern-
ment building in Damascus demanding release of 1955
Jan. 3: Salah bin Yussef, secretary general of the
the Aleppo students who had been detained by Tunisian Neo-Destour Party, stated at Geneva,
police on Jan. 15. Switzerland, that 5 months of negotiations over
Feb. 5: The Ministers of Public Health and Econ- the form of autonomy to be given Tunisia had
omy resigned from the Cabinet. shown that the government of Mendes-France
Feb. 7: Prime Minister Faris al-Khuri submitted was determined to "perpetuate the colonial regime
the resignation of his Cabinet on grounds that it in Tunisia." In addition to insisting on immediate
had lost its "coalition" character. transfer of the police, schools, and courts to
Feb. lo: President Hashim al-Atasi asked Faris Tunisian control, he called for the establishment
al-Khuri to form another Cabinet, but the latter of a Tunisian national army and diplomatic
admitted defeat within 24 hours. Sabri al-'Asali, service.
Secretary General of the Syrian National Party, Jan. 4: Negotiations regarding autonomy were re-
was then assigned the task. sumed at Paris.
Feb. 13: Sabri al-'Asali announced the formation Jan. I4: Prime Minister Tahar bin Ammar held a
of a new Cabinet, composed of 3 political parties Cabinet meeting to discuss ways of ending the
and 2 Independents, as follows: impasse in the talks with French leaders regard-
Sabri al-'Asali -Prime Minister, acting In- ing Tunisian autonomy.
terior Jan. 24: It was announced at Paris that agreement
Fakhr al-Kayali -National Economy on I8 of 20 points had been reached in a 9-hour
Khalid al-Azm - Foreign Affairs, acting De- session on autonomy.
fense Feb. 3: Rene Mayer, member of Mendes-France's
Raif al-Mulki - Education Radical party, joined the opposition in the French
Leon Zamarya - Finance Parliament in attacking the Premier's North Afri-
'Abd al-Baki Nazam al-Din - Public Works can policy.
Hamad al-Khuja-Agriculture Feb. 5: French Premier Mendes-France was de-
Dr. Wahib al-Ghanim - Minister of State, feated in a vote of confidence, ostensibly on his
acting Health North African policy.
Dr. Ma'mun al-Kuzbari- Justice Feb. 8: Resident General Pierre Georges de Latour
Feb. I5: Tribal representatives, the Islamic Social- flew to Paris to seek emergency relief for Tunisia
ist bloc, and a number of Independents, totalling to avert a threat of famine caused by drought.
about 30 in all, formed a "United Constitutional Feb. 28: Edgar Faure, new French Premier, called
Front" in the Chamber. for resumption of negotiations with the Tunisian
The High Court cancelled the membership of government on proposed internal autonomy for
4 deputies on charges of having contravened the protectorate.
regulations during the October elections, bring-
ing to 17 the number dismissed since the forma-
tion of the new Chamber. Turkey
Feb. 24: The government of Sabri al-'Asali won a (See also Arab League, Iraq, Pakistan)
vote of confidence by a vote of 66-53-2.
'954
Feb. 25: Elections were held in Latakia, Sweida, Dec. 6: Minister of Industries Fethi Qelikbas re-
and the Ghuta section of Damascus to elect depu- signed from the Cabinet because of differences
ties for the seats declared vacant by court order. with Prime Minister Adnan Menderes over eco-
Former incumbents were returned except for the nomic policy. Samet Akao'lu was named to suc-
Ghuta section of Damascus. ceed him.
Feb. 26: Egypt's Salah Salim arrived in Damascus Dec. z3: Sugar rationing was imposed in Istanbul
for a 5-day visit. to conserve short supplies and prevent hoarding.
Dec. 21: An agreement was initialed with West
Germany by which the latter would grant Turkey
Tunisia a further credit of DM 225 million ($45,250,000)
'954 for exports to Turkey.
Dec. IO: The Residency at Tunis announced that Dec. 27: In a policy statement Prime Minister
over 2,500 fellaghas had obtained safe-conduct Menderes in effect rejected Egypt's efforts to
certificates in return for surrendering their arms persuade Turkey to join a regional alliance based
to French and Tunisian authorities in accordance on the Arab Collective Security Pact. He urged
with the peace offer of Nov. 22. instead that the Arab states adhere to the West-
Dec. 14: Several explosions caused property dam- ern defense system.
age in the Tunis area. Special security measures Dec. 28: Trial began at Izmir of 556 dock union
were enforced and an enquiry was ordered. members who staged a walkout in July 1954.

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I76 THE MIDDLE EAST JOURNAL

They were charged with attempting to exert cussed means of strengthening NATO in eco-
pressure on port authorities for higher wages and nomic, social, and military fields.
better working conditions. Feb. i8: President Celal Bayar flew to Karachi for
a io-day state visit.
1955 Feb. 24: Prime Minister Adnan Menderes and
Jan. 6: Prime Minister Menderes and an official Prime Minister Nuri al-Sa'id of Iraq signed a
party of 20 left for Baghdad for talks with Iraqi Turkish-Iraqi defense pact at Baghdad. (For
officials. They also planned to visit Lebanon and text, see page 177.)
Syria before returning.
Feb. 26: The Grand National Assembly ratified the
Jan. 18: The Prime Minister and his party arrived defense pact signed with Iraq on Feb. 24.
in Istanbul from Beirut. Feb. 27: The Foreign Ministers of Greece and
Jan. 27: It was announced that Yugoslavia had Yugoslavia arrived in Ankara for talks with
halted all exports to Turkey. Foreign Minister Koprulu. It was believed that
Jan. 3o: Prime Minister Menderes and Foreign the talks would revolve around the political and
Minister Fuad Koprulu arrived in Rome for dis- economic aspects of the 3-nation alliance, in-
cussions regarding Italian participation in the cluding the setting up of a consultative assembly.
Balkan alliance and Turkish cooperation in the
Western European union.
Feb. 2: A joint Turkish-Italian communique issued Yemen
at Rome declared that the 2 countries had dis- (See Aden, Arab League)

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