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A new cutting-edge Pakistan specific Ballistic Missile Agni-

1P developed by DRDO
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Saturday, December 17, 2016

By: Ajai Shukla

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India is developing a brand new short-range, ballistic missile called the Agni-1P, equipped with
cutting-edge technologies. This will replace the old Prithvi and Agni-1 missiles that are still the
workhorses of our land-based nuclear deterrent.

The Agni-1P will have a range of 300-700 kilometres, which matches the ranges of the Prithvi
and Agni-1. That would make the Agni-1P predominantly Pakistan-focused, since targets in
China are beyond 3,000 kilometres.

Powering the Agni-1P will be the cutting-edge technologies developed for the Agni-4 and Agni-
5 missiles, which the Defence R&D Organisation (DRDO) claims matches those in intermediate
range ballistic missile (IRBM) anywhere. These advanced technologies will replace the
technologies of the 1990s that powered the Prithvi and the early Agni missiles.
Business Standard visited the DRDO’s missile complex in Hyderabad for a briefing on current
missile development programmes.

The Agni-1P will be a two-stage, solid propellant missile. Both stages will have composite
rocket motors, guidance systems with electro-mechanical actuators, and inertial navigation
systems based on advanced ring-laser gyroscopes.

“As our ballistic missiles grew in range, our technology grew in sophistication. Now the early,
short-range missiles, which incorporate older technologies, will be replaced by missiles with
more advanced technologies. Call it backward integration of technology,” explains a senior
DRDO missile scientist who wishes to remain anonymous.

India’s ballistic missile programme began in the early 1980s, under the Integrated Guided
Missile Development Programme (IGMDP). The DRDO first built the relatively primitive, liquid
fuelled, single-stage Prithvi missile that could dump a nuclear bomb with moderate accuracy on
a target 150-250 kilometres away. The Prithvi, like the two-stage Agni-1 and Agni-2 missiles
that came next, used conventional fuselages made of “maraging steel”, older propellants,
hydraulic actuation systems that were vulnerable to leaks and navigation systems that were
inaccurate compared to current systems.

By the time the DRDO built the Agni-4 in 2011, it had successfully developed composite rocket
motors, high-energy propellants, electro-mechanical actuators and navigation systems with ring-
laser gyros that can navigate a ballistic missile to a target thousands of miles away, striking it
within a few hundred metres.

Increased accuracy allows India’s to use relatively low-yield nuclear payloads. In 2011, then
DRDO chief, Avinash Chander, told Business Standard: “Megaton warheads were used when
accuracies were low. Now we talk of [accuracy of] a few hundred metres. That allows a smaller
warhead, perhaps 150-250 kilotons, to cause substantial damage.”

The DRDO’s major technology jump took place in the Agni-4 missile, in which cutting-edge
technologies that were being developing for years were first tested for use in the coming Agni-5.
These included on-board computers based on the Power PC platform, and avionics changes
involving integrated technologies. By combining several avionics packages into one, the
designers improved reliability and saved space and weight by reducing cabling and harnesses.

These are the technologies that will now power the Agni-1P.

Meanwhile, at the higher end of the spectrum, the Strategic Forces Command is just a single
successful test away from inducting into service the canisterised, composite rocket motor, three-
stage, Agni-5 IRBM. With a proven range of 5,000 kilometres, the Agni-5 can hold at risk
targets anywhere in China.

DRDO scientists say the Agni-5 will undergo a final confirmatory test in January. If that goes to
plan, the road-mobile, canisterised missile will joins India’s deployed nuclear deterrent.
DRDO Achievements in 2016 :: A look back at a year in
Indian Defence Technologies
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Monday, December 19, 2016

By: First Post

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The Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) has had a busy year, and we
look back at some of the most innovative technological solutions developed for the armed forces
over the course of 2016.

Portable Telemedicine System for Armed Forces ::

The Portable Telemedicine System (PDF) for Armed Forces was developed by the Defence
Bioengineering and Electromedical Laboratory (DEBEL), Bengaluru in early 2016. The system
is a means of providing remote assistance to injured personnel in a field hospital or a ship out at
sea. The rugged and portable system is capable of taking various readings including blood
pressure, temperature, heart rate, and includes an electrocardiogram.

The system can store and transmit annoted data, and can open up a real time live channel for
high quality video conferencing. The data can be transmitted over various communication
channels, and includes the capability to interface with satellites. The Biomedical Data
Acquisition System (BioDAS) on board was developed indigenously. An archival software on
board the system maintains records in a secure environment. The telemedicine system was
successfully demonstrated on board the ships INS Deepak, Gomati, and Talwar.

Devastating new Tank Ammunition ::

Armament Research and Development Establishment (ARDE) and the High Energy Materials
Research Laboratory (HEMRL), research wings of the DRDO based in Pune designed new
ammunition meant specifically for the Arjun tank. The Penetration-cum-Blast (PCB) and
Thermobaric (TB) Ammunition were successfully test fired in Odisha, demonstrating the
devastating power of the ammunition against concrete structures, fortifications and armour
The HEMRL lab researchers new high energy materials to be used in warheads and ammunition.
The newly developed ammunition uses atmospheric oxygen for the explosions instead of the
oxidiser included in the compound, as is done in conventional explosives. This means that the
resulting mixture is far more explosive for the same amount of weight. The test firing
successfully managed to destroy a derelict tank that had been fitted with various sensors to
measure the shock, blast pressure and temperature of the new ammunition. It was the first time in
India that the effectiveness of the new ammunition was measured in such detail.

Indian Navy goes green with biodiesel patrolling boats ::

The Indian Navy has created a Energy and Environment Cell that is tasked with making the
Indian Navy an environmentally responsible force. The Indian Navy took the opportunity of
World Environment Day to outline some of the initiatives to reduce the carbon footprint of the
Indian Navy. During the International Fleet Review held at Visakhapatnam in, the Navy
showcased Fast Interception Craft (FIC) in the Presidential column that were running on

The biodiesel was produced by the Defence Institute of Bio-Energy Research (DIBER). The
efficiency and performance of the machines and Navy equipment using the biodiesel is not
compromised, but there are environmental benefits to using alternative fuels. The FIC running on
biodiesel are marked with two green stripes, and are known as the Green Strike Force.

Indigenous Sonar Dome ::

The Defense Minister Manohar Parrikar flagged off the first indigenous composites Sonar dome
during the Defexpo 2016. India joined a select group of countries capable of manufacturing such
structures. The Sonar dome is attached to the bottom of ships, and scans the seas for submarine
threats. The requirements of manufacturing such domes are technologically demanding, with a
need for a solid and robust structure that is also acoustically transparent.

The research and development needed for manufacturing the dome was conducted by a Pune
based DRDO lab known as Research and Development Establishment (Engrs) (RDE(E)). The
dome was manufactured by Kineco Ltd, a composites manufacturing company based in Pilerne,
Goa. The Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM) Process with a process
monitoring capability, to ensure that a quality product was manufactured. Sucessfully
manufacturing the Sonar Dome indigenously means that India now has the capability for
manufacturing more advanced structures, such as entire ship hulls. There are land based and
aerospace applications that stand to benefit from the advancement in manufacturing capabilities.

Varunastra torpedo ::

The Defense minister Manohar Parrikar handed over the Varunastra to the Indian Navy at the
end of June. Varunastra is a ship launched heavy weight torpedo, also known as an underwater
missile. The torpedo was developed by Naval Science and Technological Laboratory (NSTL) in
partnership with Bharat Dynamics. The torpedo is manufactured by using 95 per cent of
indigenous parts.

During the handover, Parrikar said “In these high technology areas, DRDO’s contribution with
95 per cent of indigenous content is an apt example of Indigenously Designed Developed and
Manufactured category.” The torpedo was an important milestone in pushing India towards self
reliance when it comes to underwater defense capabilities. The Rajput and Delhi class of
warships can be equipped with the new torpedos, and future Anti-Submarine Warfare capable
ships will also have the capability. The torpedo is capable of taking down stealth submarines in
deep or shallow waters.

HAL Tejas ::

The Indian Air Force inducted two Tejas aircraft into its 45th Squadron on July 1. The Light
Combat Aircraft were jointly developed by Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) and
Aeronautical Development Agency (ADA). The aircraft can take up a variety of roles in combat,
and are supersonic. India has been developing the aircraft since 1980. Prior to the induction, the
aircraft participated in 3,200 sorties to demonstrate their capabilities.

Prime minister Modi said “Induction of indigenously made Tejas fighter jet into the Air Force
fills our hearts with unparalleled pride and happiness. I laud HAL and ADA on the induction of
Tejas fighter jet. This illustrates our skills and strengths to enhance indigenous defence
manufacturing.” The Tejas is capable of carrying four tonnes of weapons. The aircraft are
capable of firing air-to-air missiles, and dropping laser guided bombs. The aircraft includes a
head mounted display for the pilot, and a glass cockpit on which realtime information is
displayed. The Indian Air Force has placed an order for an additional 20 Tejas fighter jets.

Medium Range Surface-to-Air Missile ::

Even as the Tejas fighter jet was being inducted into the Indian Air Force, there were a series of
three tests of medium range surface-to-air missiles (MRSAM) conducted on the Integrated Test
Range off Odisha Coast. The Research Centre Imarat (RCI), Hyderabad developed the MRSAM
in a collaboration with Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI). A number of other DRDO laboratories,
private and public companies contributed to the various sub systems that are part of the missile.

All three tests went of flawlessly, and the missile hit the designated target every time. President
Pranab Mukerjee said “I extend hearty congratulations to all those associated with the successful
test-firing of the Medium Range Surface-to-Air Missile (MRSAM), developed jointly with
Israel. The nation is proud of the achievement made by the DRDO and looks upon DRDO to
make even greater efforts to boost India’s indigenous defence capabilities in technologically
challenging areas.” The missiles have a range of 70 kilometres, and are meant to handle any kind
of aerial threats including fighter aircraft and helicopters.
Long Range Surface-to-Air Missile ::

In September, the DRDO conducted two tests of a Long Range Surface-to-Air Missile
(LRSAM). The missiles were developed jointly by DRDO and Israel Aerospace Industries,
similar to the MRSAM. The LRSAM was test fired against two pilotless target aircraft, at
different ranges and altitudes. Both missiles successfully hit their targets. President Pranab
Mukerjee congratulated the defence establishment by saying “The nation is proud of this
achievement. I am sure that this success will further boost India’s defence capabilities in
technologically challenging areas.”

A number of Indian companies contributed various components to the missile. The missiles are
tracked using Radar. During the tests, all the systems on board functioned as expected. These
included the radar guidance system, the communications launch system, and the missile system.
The missiles were also tested on a flying target in Israel. The MRSAM test was one of the
landmark achievements of the cooperation of the two countries in an effort to create advanced
weapons systems.

Rustom-II UAV ::

In November, DRDO successfully carried out the maiden flight of the Rustom-II unmanned
aerial vehicle (UAV). The UAV is combat capable and can be equipped with electro optic
sensors, radar, electronic intelligence, communication intelligence and situational awareness
payloads. The Rustom-II is a Medium Altitude Long Endurance (MALE) UAV. The maiden
flight was carried out at the Aeronautical Test Range (ATR), Chitradurga, near Bengaluru, a new
facility dedicated to testing UAVs and manned aircraft. The tests proved the capabilities of the
flying platform, including take-off, banking, level flight and landing.

The development of the UAV contributes to the Make in India initiative, as many sub systems
were developed and manufactured entirely in India, with the participation of private companies.
The air frame, landing gear, flight control, and avionics sub systems were made entirely in India.
The UAV is meant for Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) roles. The UAV is
going to undergo further test and trials, for validation of the design parameters. The next step for
the UAV is user validation trials.

Nag anti-tank missile ::

The Nag anti-tank missile joined the ranks of indigenously developed missiles by the Integrated
Guided Missile Development Programme (IGMDP) a program that was lead by former president
Abdul Kalam. The Nag joins Agni, Prithvi, Trishul and Akash. The Nag is a lockon-before-
launch (LOBL), fire-and-forget, anti-tank guided missile, and was successfully tested against
targets up to a range of four kilometres.
The test flights tested the the indigenously developed Thermal Target System and the Infrared
Imaging Seeker on board the missile. Real time image processing algorithms on board the
missile process the accuracy of the flight in real time. The Nag missile is meant to tackle modern
battle tanks and other heavily armoured tanks. There is a high chance of neutralising the target
with a single missile. The Nag can be fired from land or air based platforms, and and there are
amphibious and mobility tests being conducted. The Nag missile is ready for induction into the
Indian Army.

The many technological advancements over the year, show a serious dedication to developing
the technological capabilities on home ground. A number of research labs by DRDO across the
country are involved in the Make in India initiative, and the participation of private and public
sector defense contractors increases the capability of manufacturing in India.

Nine factors that will decide India's NSG dream in Vienna

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Wednesday, December 21, 2016

By: ET

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India’s bid to join the elite club of nations that control nuclear trade continues to stoke concern
among arms-control advisers, who warn that membership may undermine rules designed to cap
the spread of atomic weapons.

Members of the 48-nation Nuclear Suppliers Group meet this week in Vienna to discuss nine
general commitments India and other countries outside the Non-Proliferation Treaty would need
to make in order to receive the fullest atomic trading privileges, according to a two-page
document prepared for the meeting and seen by Bloomberg News. The meetings are informal
and a official plenary won’t be convened, according to an NSG spokesman.

“The formula outlined in the draft note sets an extremely low bar on Nuclear Supplier Group
membership and does not require India to take any additional non-proliferation commitments,”
according to Daryl Kimball, executive director at the Arms Control Association, a non-partisan
policy group based in Washington.

The remaining concerns over India’s nuclear program means that U.S. President Barack
Obama’s pledge to bring New Delhi into the NSG is likely to go unfulfilled. In a June meeting
with Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi in Washington, Obama repeated that the world’s
second-most-populous nation was ready to join the nuclear mainstream. U.S. Secretary of State
John Kerry sent a letter pleading with skeptics to let India into the group.

The NSG was created in response to India’s 1974 atomic bomb test that challenged the
credibility of laws written to prohibit nuclear proliferation. Its network of diplomats, customs
and trade officials are supposed to prevent the unauthorized transfer of nuclear materials and
technologies that could be used in weapons.

“China is the principal opponent in the NSG on India’s membership,” said Tariq Rauf, the
director of disarmament and arms control at the Stockholm International Peace Research
Institute, in an e-mail. “Traditional nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament supporters such as
Austria, Ireland and New Zealand are resisting growing pressure from India, the U.S. and

Because NSG decisions are taken by consensus, a minority of members could block India’s bid
to join. After months of wrangling in 2008, India won NSG trade exemptions -- without being
granted full membership -- giving it access to advanced reactor technologies. Obama began the
U.S. campaign to make India a member in 2010.

Diplomats have said they’re concerned that admitting India before strengthening the NSG
eligibility requirements would weaken the rules for other non-recognized nuclear-weapons states
to join. Pakistan, India’s neighbor and regional rival, has also submitted an application to join the
NSG, according to the envoys.

"We continue to remain engaged and hopeful for an early decision," Indian foreign ministry
spokesperson Vikas Swarup said.

The draft commitments that India and Pakistan would need to make to eventually join the NSG
are also soft in the area of nuclear tests, according to the Arms Control Association. Neither
country would need to sign the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, the accord which outlaws
atomic tests.

“If the NSG fails to establish that signature of the CTBT is one of the key criteria for
membership, its participating governments will have squandered an opportunity,” Kimball said.
“The NSG will have lost an opportunity to enforce the global norm against nuclear testing.”

The following nine points will be discussed this week in Vienna in relation to India’s bid to join
the NSG:

Do “clear and strict separation of current and future civilian nuclear facilities from non-civilian
nuclear facilities” exist?

Do documents to the International Atomic Energy Agency identify “all current and future
civilian nuclear facilities?”

Is there an adequate IAEA safeguards agreement “covering all declared civilian nuclear facilities
and all future civilian nuclear facilities?”

Is there a so-called Additional Protocol in effect giving IAEA inspectors the ability “to detect the
diversion of safeguarded nuclear material and to ensure that safeguarded nuclear material is used
exclusively for peaceful purposes?”

Is there “a commitment not to use any item transferred either directly or indirectly from a NSG
Participating Government” for military purposes?
Is there adequate “commitment not to conduct any nuclear explosive test?

Will there be adequate “support of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty upon becoming”
an NSG member?

How will support be given to “strengthen the multilateral nuclear non-proliferation and
disarmament regime by working towards the total elimination of all nuclear weapons and
enhancing the peaceful uses of nuclear energy?”

The understanding that should India eventually gain NSG access, it “would join a consensus of
all other Participating Governments on the merits of any additional non-NPT Party applications”
like that of Pakistan.

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