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Journal of Research in Ecology ISSN No: Print: 2319 –1546; Online: 2319– 1554

An International Scientific Research Journal

Short Communication

The determination of crude protein degradation of fruit and vegetable

wastes using different mathematical models
Authors: ABSTRACT:
Journal of Research in Ecology

Mahmood Hamedi The aim of this research is to analyze the crude protein degradation of fruit
and vegetable wastes. Two fistulated wethers (35±1.8 kg) were utilized as a part of
Institution: the nylon bag technique. The crude protein disappearance were measured at 0, 4, 6,
Department of Animal 8, 12, 16, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. CP (Crude Protein) degradability of carrot wastes at
Science, Faculty of 96 h was 64.56 which was higher than the vegetable waste showing significant
Agriculture, Maragheh
differences (P<0.05). The gas generation of carrot wastes at 72 h was higher than the
Branch, Technical and
vegetable wastes. Reports of this investigation revealed that model 4 for carrot
Vacational University
(TVU), Maragheh, Iran. wastes and model 2 for vegetable wastes were the best fitted models.

Corresponding author: Keywords:

Mahmood Hamedi Carrot wastes, Vegetable wastes, Crude protein.

Email ID: Article Citation:

Mahmood Hamedi
The determination of crude protein degradation of fruit and vegetable wastes using
different mathematical models
Journal of Research in Ecology (2018) 6(1): 1372-1376

Received: 19 July 2017 Accepted: 25 Oct 2017 Published: 18 Jan 2018
Web Address:
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Journal of Research 1372-1376 | JRE | 2018 | Vol 6 | No 1

in Ecology
An International www.ecologyresearch.info
Scientific Research Journal
Hamedi, 2018
INDRODUCTION tions led by Ørskov and McDonald (1979), are very
The vast majority of the developing nations much acknowledged in many nations for evaluating the
have been battling to give enough feed to their animals, level of ruminal CP (Crude Protein) degradation of
as a result of lacking production of customary ingredi- feedstuffs (Koelen et al., 1992; Cottrill, 1993; Hunting-
ents for domesticated animals feeding. So the shortage don and Givens, 1995; Michalet-Doreau and Nozière,
of feed sources frequently forces a noteworthy chal- 1998). In situ measures can be utilized to acquire assess-
lenge in livestock farming in these nations (Ezeldin et ments of UDP estimations of feedstuffs inside a general-
al., 2016). The test can be eased by the utilization of ly brief timeframe yet this technique requires cannulated
unconventional feedstuffs in animal feeding relying animals and there is a proceeding requirement for less
upon their nutrient, accessibility and palatability to ani- complex research facility strategies to estimate the pro-
mals; which should also be economical nourish fixings. tein estimation of feeds. There is a revived concentrated
Keeping in mind the end goal to compensate for discussion about the accuracy and importance of the
feed deficiencies and to decrease feeding costs, endeav- estimation of soluble CP portions to anticipate the ru-
ors have been made to utilize agricultural and food men CP degradation of feedstuffs. The solvent utilized
industrial by-products as feed ingredients. In developing must enhance solubilization and degradation in the ru-
nations, the usage of agricultural and food industry by men as reasonably as expected. The protein degradation
products for animal feeding could be viewed as an in the rumen depends on the soluble and insoluble pro-
answer. As of late, high feed expenses and accessibility teins as well as on the degree of the gradually digestible
restrictions have constrained livestock breeders to and indigestible proteins. A wide range of strategies to
utilize rural and food processing by-products and resi- decide soluble and insoluble nitrogen or CP in
dues as animal feed encourage (Karkoodi et al., 2012). feedstuffs have been reported (e.g. Crawford et al.,
This won't just diminish the interest for cereal grains 1978; Crooker et al., 1978; Krishnamoorthy et al.,
utilized as feeds, enabling the grain to be utilized by 1982), yet no single strategy has so far been acknowl-
people, however may likewise tackle the monetary and edged as being dependably precise for anticipating the
environmental issues of FVR and waste disposal. Fruit rumen CP degradation in feedstuffs. The goal of this
and vegetable production is a critical part of the total investigation was to analyze in situ CP degradability of
agricultural products delivered in Iran; 3-5 million tons fruit and vegetable utilizing nylon bag method and over-
of leafy foods are lost every year, in any case, in light of view to utilize this feed as animal feedstuffs.
deficiencies in preparing and preservation facilities in
this nation (Nagashi et al., 2008).
In situ process, like the fundamental investiga-

Table 1. In situ CP (Crude Protein) degradability

Incubation time (h)
0 4 8 12 16 24 36 48 72 96
Carrot wastes 13.31a 12.12a 16.80a 21.20a 25.65b 36.69a 39.81 46.65 61.39a 64.56
b b b b a b b
Vegetable wastes 9.99 10.48 12.42 17.56 30.43 33.60 37.84 43.80 54.82 62.31
SEM 0.213 0.480 0.340 0.300 0.644 0.744 0.856 0.950 0.761 1.643
Values within a row with different superscripts differ significantly at P<0.05

1373 Journal of Research in Ecology (2018) 6(1): 1372-1376

Hamedi, 2018

Table 2. Measurement of CP (Crude Protein) degradation characteristics of fruit and vegetable wastes using
different mathematical models

Model a b c L d k SSM CSST R-Square

Carrot wastes
1 10.069 71.489 0.0158 - - - 9813.0 10024.1 0.9789
2 12.717 63.345 0.0193 4.061 - - 9870.3 10024.1 0.9846
3 10.998 60.317 0.0293 - - 0.285 9826.1 10024.1 0.9802
4 12.717 76.353 0.0071 5.484 0.0723 - 9875.3 10024.1 0.9851
Vegetable wastes
1 7.605 64.952 0.0184 - - - 9196.8 9473.4 0.9708
2 9.993 58.481 0.022 3.587 - - 9230.7 9473.4 0.9744
3 - - - - - - - - -
4 - - - - - - - - -
1- Ørskov and Mc Donald (1979) without leg phase, 2- Ørskov and Mc Donald (1979) with leg phase 3- France et al.
(1999) and 4- Danoa et al. (2004)
a= Fastly soluble fraction; b = slowly soluble fraction c= insoluble fraction L = leg phase d and k = Model Constants

MATERIALS AND METHODS (monomolecular, Mitscherlich, or first-order kinetics

In situ degradation model) with and without a lag phase (Ørskov and
In situ procedures were done in light of the McDonald, 1979). Model III is Gompertz curve, asym-
methodology by Nocek et al. (1988) and reviewed by metrical around an inflection point M, which can be
Palangi et al. (2012), the ground tests (5g) were put in figured from K=exp (cm) (France et al., 1999). Model
Dacron packs (5.5×10 cm; 47-µm pore measure) and IV is Generalized Mitscherlich, speculation of the mod-
were closed utilizing gum. Each feed sample was incu- el I (results in the model I for d = 0), with the addition
bated in 6 repeats (2 duplicates for each climate) in the of a square root time dependence component (Dhanoa et
rumen. The incubation times were 0, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 24, al., 1995).
48, 72 and 96 h. Nylon bags were suspended in the ru- Statistical analysis
men in a polyester mesh bag (25×40 cm; 3mm pore The yield of ruminal CP degradation of fruit and
measure) and were expelled from the rumen in the vegetable wastes were investigated utilizing SAS
meantime with the goal that all packs could be washed (1999).
at the same time. The nylon bags were then expelled
from the mesh bag and washed until the point when the RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
rinsed water stayed clear. Samples were then dried in a In situ ruminal degradability
stove at 55˚C until the point that a consistent weight was The degradability parameters of CP are given in
accomplished before evaluation of CP disappearance. Table 1. Carrot wastes indicated high values for the
Mathematical models soluble portion of CP contrasted with vegetable wastes.
Two diminishing returns and two sigmoidal The accomplished information for CP degrada-
models were utilized to assess ruminal degradation of tion of this work was lower than that reported by
the CP of fruit and vegetable wastes. The models, I and Palangi et al. (2012).
II, are Simple negative exponential curve models

Journal of Research in Ecology (2018) 6(1): 1372-1376 1374

Hamedi, 2018
Statistical models output mental model to describe for age degradation kinetics
The examination of different fitted models for during incubation in polyester bags in the rumen. British
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and model 2 for vegetable wastes, respectively (Table
forages during the spring growth. Journal of Dairy
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