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CEN 323

Ultimate Strength Design (USD) of Beam:

The nominal strength of a proposed member is calculated based on the best current knowledge of

member and material behavior. That nominal strength is modified by a strength reduction factor, less

than unity, to obtain the design strength.

The required strength, should the hypothetical overload stage actually be realized, is found by

applying load factors, greater than unity.

Flexural Design

The distribution of concrete compressive stresses at or near ultimate load have no well-defined shape

–parabolic, trapezoidal, or other shape. For this and other reasons, wholly rational flexural theory for

reinforced concrete has not yet been developed. Present methods of analysis, therefore, are based in

part on known laws of mechanics and are supplemented, where needed, by extensive test

information.

It has been mentioned before that an exact criterion for concrete compression failure is not yet

known, but that for rectangular beams, strains of 0.003 to 0.004 have been measured immediately

preceding failure. If one assumes, usually slightly conservatively, that the concrete is about to crush

when the maximum strain reaches = 0.003.

Let

(1)

(2)

Then

For a given distance c to the neutral axis, the location of C can be defined as some fraction of the

distance. Thus, as indicated in Fig. 1 for a concrete of given strength it is necessary to know only and

to completely define the effect of the concrete compressive stresses.

Extensive direct measurements, as well as indirect evaluations of numerous beam tests, have shown

that the following values for and are satisfactorily accurate.

If this experimental information is accepted, the maximum moment can be calculated from

the laws of equilibrium and from the assumption that plane cross sections remain plane.

Equilibrium requires that

Also, the bending moment, being the couple of the forces C and T, can be written as either

(4)

(5)

For failure initiated by yielding of the tension steel, . Substituting this value in Eq. (3), one obtain the

distance to the neutral axis

(6)

(7)

giving the distance to the neutral axis when tension failure occurs. The nominal moment is then

obtained from Eq. (4), with the value for c just determined, and ; that is

(8)

With the specific, experimentally obtained values for and given previously, this becomes

The above equation is valid only for a steel ratio less than the balance steel ratio, (9)

(10)

A equivalent rectangular stress distribution of concrete stress was proposed by C. S. Whitney and

was subsequently elaborated and checked experimentally by others and accepted in many countries

are presented below

Where

0.425 0.400 0.375 0.350 0.325

0.85 0.80 0.75 0.70 0.65

0.85 0.85 0.85 0.86 0.86

(11)

(12)

Overerreinforced Beams

A compression failure in flexure, should it occur, gives little if any warning of distress.

Distress is obvious from observing the large deflections and widening of concrete cracks

associated with yielding of the steel reinforcement, and measures can be taken to avoid total

collapse.

Strain-hardening of the reinforcing steel is not considered, which provide substantial strength

to the beam.

That is why to design a beam, which fail by yielding of steel, reinforcement ration, is chose less the

balance reinforcement ration.

To ensure underreinforced behavior, ACI Code 10.3.4 establishes a minimum net tensile strain at the

nominal strength of 0.005 for members subjected to axial loads less than . By way of comparison, the

steel strain at the balanced condition, is 0.00207 for

Using in Eq. (12) provides the maximum reinforcement ratio allowed by ACI code for beam

The value of reduction factor depend upon the net tensile strain of steel of which can be

determined by following figure.

Minimum Steel Ratio

Example 1

A rectangular beam has the dimensions and is reinforced with three No.

8 (No. 25) bars. The concrete cylinder strength and yield point of steel

is Compute the nominal and design strength of the section.

Solution:

Nominal Moment,

Design Moment,

Example 2

A rectangular beam must carry a distributed live load of 680 plf and support the dead load of a wall

weighing 380 plf, in addition to its own weight, on a simple span of 24 ft. Design the beam for

flexure, using

Solution 1:

The total load acting on the beam includes its own weight, which must be estimated. As a trial a total

depth equal to 1 in. per ft of span and a width of one-half that amount are assumed; the beam weight

is estimated as ,

Dead load

Live load

Factored load

Factored Moment,

Now we have,

assume,

This could be provided by two No. 6 (No.19) and two No.5 (No.16) bars in a row which provide a

steel area , which is sufficiently close to the required steel.

(1.50)

Solution 2:

The total load acting on the beam includes its own weight, which must be estimated. As a trial a total

depth equal to 1 in. per ft of span and a width of one-half that amount are assumed; the beam weight

is estimated as ,

Dead load

Live load

Factored load

Factored Moment,

Taking

Now we have,

Assume

Then

This could be provided by six No. 6 (No.19) bars in two rows which provide a steel area , which is

slightly greater to the required steel.

6#6 bars

(2.64)

An improved economy may be possible, refining the steel area based on the actual larger

effective depth and smaller concrete section.

Dead load

Live load

Factored load

Factored Moment,

Now we have,

solving this two degree equation

assume,

This could be provided by three No. 6 (No.19) and three No.5 (No.16) bars in two row which provide

a steel area, which is sufficiently close to the required steel.

(2.25)

Overreinforced Beams

According to the ACI Code, all beams are to be designed for designed for yielding of the

tension steel with not less than 0.004 and, thus, . Occasionally, however, such as when

analyzing the capacity of existing construction, it may be necessary to calculate the flexural

strength of an overreinforced compression controlled member, for which is less than at

flexural failure.

Substituting the steel strain from in the last equation, and defining one obtains a quadratic equation

in as follows:

Neutral axis depth for the overreinforced beam, , after the stress-block depth . With steel stress the

nominal flexural strength is

The strength reduction factor will be equal 0.65 for beams in this range

To focus attention initially on the basic aspect of flexural design, the preceding examples

were carried out with only minimum regard for certain practical considerations that always

influence the actual design of beams. These relate to optimal concrete protection, rounding

of dimension, standardization of dimension and selection of bar combination.

ACI Code 7.7

Not exposed

Concrete is cast

directly to Exposed to weather or in contact

in direct contact

ground or with ground

with the ground

weather

Slab

and

( for No. 5 and smaller bar)

wall

Beam

and

( for No. 5 and smaller bar)

column

In general, the center of main flexural bars in beams should be placed from

the top or bottom surface to furnish at least of clear cover

In slabs, 1 in. to the center of the bar is ordinarily sufficient to give the

required

cover.

To simplify construction and there by to reduce costs, the over all dimension

of beams, b and h, are almost always rounded to the nearest inch, and often to

the next multiple of 2 in.

For slab, the total depth h, is generally rounded to the nearest in. up to 6 in.

a

n

d

t

o

t

h

e

n

e

a

rest in above that thickness.

Should be arranged symmetrically about the vertical centerline

Many designers limit the variation in diameter of bars in a single layer to two bar

sizes

According to ACI Code 7.6, the minimum clear distance between adjacent bars in

beam shall not be less than the nominal diameter of the bars, or 1 in.

When reinforcement are placed two or more layers, the clear distance between layers

must not be less than 1 in., and the bar in the upper layer should be placed directly

above those in the bottom layer.

happen that the concrete cannot develop the compression force required to resist the given

bending moment. In that case, reinforcement is added in the compression zone, resulting in a

so-called doubly reinforced beam.

a) Tension and Compression Steel Both at Yield Stress

or

With the definition and

Or

In accordance with the safety provision of the ACI Code, the net tensile strain is

checked, and if this nominal capacity is reduced by the factor to obtain the design

strength. For between 0.005 to 0.004, must be adjusted.

Minimum tensile reinforcement ratio that will ensure yielding of the compression

steel at failure

Where

Then

Nominal capacity of the section would be

DL: 1 k/ft

Example 3 LL: 5 k/ft

and live load as shown as figure

20”

and its self weight. For 7 ft.

Architectural reason the section is

fixed by 10 in. width and 20 in

10”

total depth. If , what steel must be

provided?

Solution:

Dead load

Live load

Factored load

Factored Moment,

Assuming the tensile steel centroid will be 4 in. below the top face of the beam and that

compression steel, if required, will be placed 2.5 in. above the beam’s bottom surface. Then

First, check the capacity of the section if singly reinforced with reinforcement ratio

Because corresponding design moment, , is less than the required capacity, 2779 ,

compression steel is needed as well as additional tension steel.

As d is less then the value required to develop the compression reinforcement yield stress

(Table 3.2, page 99, Nilson 13th edition), a reduced stress in the compression reinforcement

will be used.

ksi

“

Four No. 9 bars in two rows will be placed in the

“ tension zone and two No. 7 bar provide

slightly grater than the required steel. 10 “

4#9

20 “

14.75 “

2#7

“

A final check is made to ensure that the section has sufficient capacity

Then

= 2897.7

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