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Analysis and Design of Reinforced Concrete Structure-I

CEN 323
Ultimate Strength Design (USD) of Beam:

The nominal strength of a proposed member is calculated based on the best current knowledge of
member and material behavior. That nominal strength is modified by a strength reduction factor, less
than unity, to obtain the design strength.

The required strength, should the hypothetical overload stage actually be realized, is found by
applying load factors, greater than unity.

Flexural Design

The distribution of concrete compressive stresses at or near ultimate load have no well-defined shape
–parabolic, trapezoidal, or other shape. For this and other reasons, wholly rational flexural theory for
reinforced concrete has not yet been developed. Present methods of analysis, therefore, are based in
part on known laws of mechanics and are supplemented, where needed, by extensive test
It has been mentioned before that an exact criterion for concrete compression failure is not yet
known, but that for rectangular beams, strains of 0.003 to 0.004 have been measured immediately
preceding failure. If one assumes, usually slightly conservatively, that the concrete is about to crush
when the maximum strain reaches = 0.003.

Figure 1: Stress distribution at ultimate load




For a given distance c to the neutral axis, the location of C can be defined as some fraction of the
distance. Thus, as indicated in Fig. 1 for a concrete of given strength it is necessary to know only and
to completely define the effect of the concrete compressive stresses.
Extensive direct measurements, as well as indirect evaluations of numerous beam tests, have shown
that the following values for and are satisfactorily accurate.

Figure 2: Variation of and with concrete strength

If this experimental information is accepted, the maximum moment can be calculated from
the laws of equilibrium and from the assumption that plane cross sections remain plane.
Equilibrium requires that

Also, the bending moment, being the couple of the forces C and T, can be written as either



For failure initiated by yielding of the tension steel, . Substituting this value in Eq. (3), one obtain the
distance to the neutral axis


Alternatively, using , the neutral axis distance is

giving the distance to the neutral axis when tension failure occurs. The nominal moment is then
obtained from Eq. (4), with the value for c just determined, and ; that is

With the specific, experimentally obtained values for and given previously, this becomes

The above equation is valid only for a steel ratio less than the balance steel ratio, (9)


Equivalent Rectangular Stress Distribution

A equivalent rectangular stress distribution of concrete stress was proposed by C. S. Whitney and
was subsequently elaborated and checked experimentally by others and accepted in many countries
are presented below

Figure 3: Actual and equivalent stress distribution at ultimate load


0.72 0.68 0.64 0.60 0.56

0.425 0.400 0.375 0.350 0.325
0.85 0.80 0.75 0.70 0.65
0.85 0.85 0.85 0.86 0.86

Figure 4: Concrete stress block parameter

The concrete compression force at failure in a rectangular beam of with b is


From of Eq. (10),

Overerreinforced Beams

A compression failure in flexure, should it occur, gives little if any warning of distress.

Why Underreinforced Beams desirable

 In Underreinforced beam failure initiated by yielding of the steel, typically is gradual.

 Distress is obvious from observing the large deflections and widening of concrete cracks
associated with yielding of the steel reinforcement, and measures can be taken to avoid total
 Strain-hardening of the reinforcing steel is not considered, which provide substantial strength
to the beam.

That is why to design a beam, which fail by yielding of steel, reinforcement ration, is chose less the
balance reinforcement ration.

ACI provision for Underreinforced beam

To ensure underreinforced behavior, ACI Code 10.3.4 establishes a minimum net tensile strain at the
nominal strength of 0.005 for members subjected to axial loads less than . By way of comparison, the
steel strain at the balanced condition, is 0.00207 for

Using in Eq. (12) provides the maximum reinforcement ratio allowed by ACI code for beam

The value of reduction factor depend upon the net tensile strain of steel of which can be
determined by following figure.

Figure 5: Net tensile strain

Minimum Steel Ratio

Minimum steel ratio according to ACI 10.5 is for flexural member.

Example 1

A rectangular beam has the dimensions and is reinforced with three No.
8 (No. 25) bars. The concrete cylinder strength and yield point of steel
is Compute the nominal and design strength of the section.


For this beam reinforcement ratio,

Max reinforcement ratio,

As the beam is Under reinforced beam

Nominal Moment,

Design Moment,

Example 2

A rectangular beam must carry a distributed live load of 680 plf and support the dead load of a wall
weighing 380 plf, in addition to its own weight, on a simple span of 24 ft. Design the beam for
flexure, using

Solution 1:

The total load acting on the beam includes its own weight, which must be estimated. As a trial a total
depth equal to 1 in. per ft of span and a width of one-half that amount are assumed; the beam weight
is estimated as ,

Dead load

Live load

Factored load

Factored Moment,

Figure: Assumed section

Now we have,

by solving this two degree equation,


Max reinforcement ratio,

Minimum steel ratio according to ACI 10.5 is

with this reinforce ration the beam would be underreinforced one.

This could be provided by two No. 6 (No.19) and two No.5 (No.16) bars in a row which provide a
steel area , which is sufficiently close to the required steel.

2#6 & 2#5


Figure: Design section

Solution 2:

The total load acting on the beam includes its own weight, which must be estimated. As a trial a total
depth equal to 1 in. per ft of span and a width of one-half that amount are assumed; the beam weight
is estimated as ,

Dead load

Live load

Factored load

Factored Moment,

Max reinforcement ratio,


Now we have,



Assume a total depth,

This could be provided by six No. 6 (No.19) bars in two rows which provide a steel area , which is
slightly greater to the required steel.

6#6 bars

Figure: Design section

An improved economy may be possible, refining the steel area based on the actual larger
effective depth and smaller concrete section.

Now self weight can be estimated =

Dead load

Live load

Factored load

Factored Moment,

Now we have,
solving this two degree equation


This could be provided by three No. 6 (No.19) and three No.5 (No.16) bars in two row which provide
a steel area, which is sufficiently close to the required steel.

3#6 bars & 3#5


Figure: Alternate Design section

Overreinforced Beams

According to the ACI Code, all beams are to be designed for designed for yielding of the
tension steel with not less than 0.004 and, thus, . Occasionally, however, such as when
analyzing the capacity of existing construction, it may be necessary to calculate the flexural
strength of an overreinforced compression controlled member, for which is less than at
flexural failure.

In this case, the steel strain,

From the equilibrium requirement that one can write

Substituting the steel strain from in the last equation, and defining one obtains a quadratic equation
in as follows:

Here, as usual and is a material parameter given by

Solving the quadratic equation for ,

Neutral axis depth for the overreinforced beam, , after the stress-block depth . With steel stress the
nominal flexural strength is

The strength reduction factor will be equal 0.65 for beams in this range

Practical Consideration in the design of beams

To focus attention initially on the basic aspect of flexural design, the preceding examples
were carried out with only minimum regard for certain practical considerations that always
influence the actual design of beams. These relate to optimal concrete protection, rounding
of dimension, standardization of dimension and selection of bar combination.

a) Concrete protection for reinforcement

ACI Code 7.7
Not exposed
Concrete is cast
directly to Exposed to weather or in contact
in direct contact
ground or with ground
with the ground
( for No. 5 and smaller bar)
( for No. 5 and smaller bar)

 In general, the center of main flexural bars in beams should be placed from
the top or bottom surface to furnish at least of clear cover
 In slabs, 1 in. to the center of the bar is ordinarily sufficient to give the
 To simplify construction and there by to reduce costs, the over all dimension
of beams, b and h, are almost always rounded to the nearest inch, and often to
the next multiple of 2 in.
 For slab, the total depth h, is generally rounded to the nearest in. up to 6 in.



rest in above that thickness.

Selection of Bars and Bar Spacing

 No. 14 and No. 18 bars are used mainly in column

 Should be arranged symmetrically about the vertical centerline
 Many designers limit the variation in diameter of bars in a single layer to two bar
 According to ACI Code 7.6, the minimum clear distance between adjacent bars in
beam shall not be less than the nominal diameter of the bars, or 1 in.
 When reinforcement are placed two or more layers, the clear distance between layers
must not be less than 1 in., and the bar in the upper layer should be placed directly
above those in the bottom layer.

Rectangular Beams with Tension and Compression Reinforcement

If a beam cross section is limited because of architectural or other consideration, it may

happen that the concrete cannot develop the compression force required to resist the given
bending moment. In that case, reinforcement is added in the compression zone, resulting in a
so-called doubly reinforced beam.
a) Tension and Compression Steel Both at Yield Stress

With the definition and

The total nominal resisting moment is then


In accordance with the safety provision of the ACI Code, the net tensile strain is
checked, and if this nominal capacity is reduced by the factor to obtain the design
strength. For between 0.005 to 0.004, must be adjusted.

In doubly reinforced beam, maximum reinforcement ratio should be limited by

b) Compression Steel below Yield Stress

Minimum tensile reinforcement ratio that will ensure yielding of the compression
steel at failure

To be underreinforced beam the reinforced ratio should be less than


Then value of c could be found out by solving

Nominal capacity of the section would be

DL: 1 k/ft
Example 3 LL: 5 k/ft

A rectangular must carry a dead

and live load as shown as figure
and its self weight. For 7 ft.
Architectural reason the section is
fixed by 10 in. width and 20 in
total depth. If , what steel must be


Self weight can be estimated =

Dead load

Live load

Factored load

Factored Moment,

Assuming the tensile steel centroid will be 4 in. below the top face of the beam and that
compression steel, if required, will be placed 2.5 in. above the beam’s bottom surface. Then

First, check the capacity of the section if singly reinforced with reinforcement ratio

The maximum nominal moment that the section can provide is

Because corresponding design moment, , is less than the required capacity, 2779 ,
compression steel is needed as well as additional tension steel.

The remaining moment to be carried by the compression steel couple is

As d is less then the value required to develop the compression reinforcement yield stress
(Table 3.2, page 99, Nilson 13th edition), a reduced stress in the compression reinforcement
will be used.


For the compression reinforcement to obtain the area of steel

The total area of tensile reinforcement at 60 ksi is

Four No. 9 bars in two rows will be placed in the
“ tension zone and two No. 7 bar provide
slightly grater than the required steel. 10 “


20 “

14.75 “


A final check is made to ensure that the section has sufficient capacity

Solving the equation

For which and


= 2897.7

This is greater than, so all right